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Contents ISSN-0835-605X â€˘ Jan/Feb 2013 Vol. 26 No. 1 â€˘ Issued February 2013 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Founding Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: email@example.com Production Manager C Mac DESIGNS E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com
Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Pennsylvania Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., QuĂŠbec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.
FEATURES 6 20 22 26 28 30 36 42 46 48 50 53 54 56 58 62 64 67 98
The Ten Specifications â€“ Comment by Tom Davey Gold mine cover structure improves environmental protection â€“ Cover Story Using â€œlayers of protection analysisâ€? in water safety assessments Ontario engineers must deal with the repeal of the Industrial Exception Microtunneling used for railway portion of Haltonâ€™s newest watermain Biological desulphurization of landfill biogas Rethinking the risks and benefits of drinking water fluoridation Mixed-oxidants show disinfection benefits for municipalities Unique wastewater solution for remote mining camps New device provides wastewater aeration in collection systems Canadian company develops â€œin-fieldâ€? odour measurement technology Geotubes prevent shoreline erosion from Hurricane Sandy Automated determination of fecal coliforms studied How to tap the energy savings in greywater Zeolites help remove thallium from ground water Measuring pH in Canadian water treatment plants challenging Dissolved air flotation process harvests algae for biodiesel research Precautionary principles and environmental protection When and how should you clean, calibrate or check your pH sensors? PAGE 28
Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors.
DEPARTMENTS Environmental News . . . . 8-18 Product Showcase . . . . . 69-73 Professional Cards . . . . . 75-80 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
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Comment by Tom Davey
The Ten Specifications n celebration of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s 25th year of publication, we are pleased to reprint some of Founding Editor, Tom Davey’s editorial comments, many of which are as relevant now as when they were originally published…. The tall Stranger walked north along Toronto's University Avenue carrying a large staff. His flowing robes aroused little interest as he passed a group of students and faculty at the edge of the campus. Quaint dress is not unusual at the campus; in any event, the group was deep in discussion over the metaphysical aspects of the molecular structure of a gnat's kneecap. Vital issues such as this had kept some students at school until middle age. The Stranger strode on, away from the campus, until he came to a marble palace rising into the sky, the home of Environment Ontario's Design Approvals Branch. As he entered, a knot of equipment suppliers staggered out, obviously broken men, crushed by forces beyond their control. Grimly, the Stranger pressed on to the chamber where Design Approvals audiences were held. A dignified usher beckoned him forward imperiously. "Which manufacturer do you represent?" he demanded. But the Stranger was not to be intimidated. "I have come on behalf of the Maker. He has heard the screams of anguish and torment from manufacturers and suppliers across the land. From their clubrooms in Ottawa, Toronto and, yea, even in Hamilton, they have cried out and now their pleas have been heard. I now bring you The Ten Specifications." With that he cast down a stone print-out. The first specification read: Equipment shall be innovative, based on sound engineering fundamentals. The other specifications went on in the same vein, stressing ingenuity and progress. The atmosphere was electric. Some of the female scribes were so startled, they actually began scribing.
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Even the consulting engineers present lost their composure momentarily and fingered their gold medallions nervously. But the Man from the Ministry was a formidable figure also. He fingered the Ten Specifications thoughtfully, then a look of triumph flickered across his face. "These are made in the Middle East. How do we know they will work in a cold climate? Moreover, we usually require at least 12 examples in Ontario. There are only 10 here. All Ontario treatment plants work well. Indeed, we often set the pace for the rest of the country. Many people criticize but all say our plants are reliable." "Maybe so," countered the Stranger, "but this reliability is too often achieved at the expense of innovation. Defensive engineering can maintain a proud tradition, but it will never permit the creation of new ones. It is true that your plants are re-
liable — but at what cost? Ardern, Lockett and Fowler discovered activated sludge at approximately the same time as the Wright Brothers first flew at Kitty Hawk. Where are the environmental equivalents of the space age?" So went the classic confrontation. The irresistible force against the immovable object. Gradually, the Stranger could see that even he was getting nowhere. He left the building, parted the traffic on University Avenue with a wave of his staff, and walked on. And all over the Province, ledgers began filling with red ink as the true cost of this ministerial obduracy became apparent.
This editorial was published in Tom Davey’s book “For Whom the Polls Tell”.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Largest park in eastern North America established The Québec government is establishing the Parc national Tursujuq, which will become not only the largest national park in Québec, but also the largest in eastern continental North America. The Parc national Tursujuq has an area of over 26 000 km2, equivalent to 54 times the area of Montréal Island. It is the biggest protected area dedicated to the conservation of sensitive species in northern biodiversity and the natural landscapes of great beauty on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay. Moreover, the addition of most of the drainage basin of the Rivière Nastapoka to the territory of the park enables Québec to achieve the goal of ensuring that protected areas cover the equivalent of 9% of the province. Maggie Emudluk, Chairperson of the Kativik Regional Council, says that “the new park will protect not only the environment but also areas that are essential to the traditional ways of life of the Inuit and the Cree. A determined, united pressure group headed by our communities and regional organizations working with conservation
groups has fulfilled its mission, which will strengthen our confidence in the efficacy of the environmental protection regime established under the James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement.” www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca
Environmental benefits to be achieved with closing Holyrood A report by the Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Benefits of Closing the Holyrood Thermal Generating Station concludes that the replacement of the Holyrood facility with clean, renewable electricity addresses an environmental challenge for Newfoundland and Labrador. “From 2000 to 2010, the Holyrood plant emitted an annual average of approximately 1.1 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions and an annual average of 11,610 tonnes of sulphur dioxide,” said the Honourable Jerome Kennedy, Minister of Natural Resources. “Retiring this facility will address the environmental and health concerns expressed by residents of Conception Bay
who are impacted by Holyrood generation.” Retiring the Holyrood plant helps meet Energy Plan and Climate Change Action Plan commitments and would help Newfoundland and Labrador and Canada meet their respective greenhouse gas reduction targets. Developing Muskrat Falls and delivering clean and renewable hydroelectric power to both Labrador and the Island is the least-cost solution to meet growing electricity consumption. www.powerinourhands.ca
Windsorʼs tap water is going fluoride-free. After six hours of debate Tuesday night, city councillors voted 8-3 to stop adding the chemical to the water supply — a practice Windsor began more than half a century ago. Fluoride opponents argued the practice is outdated, while supporters said it’s an effective way to fight tooth decay. The money saved by cutting out fluoride will go to oral health and nutrition education programs for the next five years.
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BCʼs environment minister says Enbridgeʼs answers leave more questions BC Environment Minister Terry Lake has stated that Enbridge/Northern Gateway's answers at hearings into the proposed Northern Gateway Pipeline in Prince George are not providing enough detail to judge whether the company is living up to the promise to implement worldleading land-based spill prevention, response and mitigation practices. "The responses that Enbridge/Northern Gateway representatives are giving our legal counsel are long on promises, but short on solid evidence and action to date," said Lake. "The company needs to show British Columbians that they have practical solutions to the environmental risks and concerns that have been raised. So far, they have not done that." During cross-examination by the Province, Enbridge/Northern Gateway representatives acknowledged that they are not able to say at this time how much of the pipeline, or areas where a spill might end up, would be within two kilo-
metres of a road and therefore accessible. The company conceded that they have not yet determined the details of pipeline access, especially in remote regions, including high terrain areas. The Province's cross-examination also revealed that Enbridge/Northern Gateway will not have a spill response plan finalized until six months before pipeline operations begin. The government of BC has produced a video with Google Earth depictions of portions of the pipeline route in the province. The video shows an example, the Clore River, of the exceptionally challenging location and terrain involved with respect to mounting a timely and effective oil spill response. The video can be found at: ftp://ftp.for.gov.bc.ca/RNI/external/outgoing/NGP/.
AWWA helping water industry achieve environmental compliance The American Water Works Association has released a new publication, designed to help water and wastewater utility per-
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sonnel understand and comply with complex environmental regulations pertaining to hazardous materials and other wastes. Environmental Compliance Guidebook: Beyond US Water Quality Regulation clarifies these laws and regulations while making them easier to understand. Each chapter covers the laws, regulations, and compliance issues for one family of environmental pollutants. The chapters also include the purpose of applicable regulations, the appropriate regulatory authorities, key program elements required for compliance, activities and substances for which the regulation applies, and overcoming common compliance issues and findings. The guidebook is available from AWWA’s online store. www.awwa.org
American Public University announces latest partnership American Public University (APU) has announced a new partnership with The Academy of Board Certified Environmental Professionals (ABCEP). Eligible applicants will receive six semester hours of omnibus credit towards a Master of Science in Environmental Policy and Management at APU from any of ABCEP’s five Certified Environmental Professional (CEP) functional areas. If a student does not pursue this specific degree, the hours may be credited towards other APU graduate degrees if there are available electives. www.apu.apus.edu
Canada and US sign amended Great Lakes agreement
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In September, United States Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Lisa P. Jackson and Canada’s Minister of the Environment Peter Kent signed the newly amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement at a formal ceremony in Washington, D.C. It was first signed in 1972 and last amended in 1987. New provisions address aquatic invasive species, habitat degradation and the effects of climate change, and support continued work on existing threats to people’s health and the environment in continued overleaf... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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the Great Lakes Basin such as harmful algae, toxic chemicals, and discharges from vessels. The overall purpose of the Agreement is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes and the portion of the St. Lawrence River that includes the Canada-United States border. Both governments sought extensive input from stakeholders before and throughout the negotiations to amend the Agreement.
BARR Plastics honoured by City of Abbotsford BARR Plastics Inc. has received its second water conservation award this year in support of water conservation efforts that assist in making the City of Abbotsford a sustainable and environmentally conscience community. The city and its dedicated staff have been very forward-thinking in their commitment to water conservation, using rainwater harvesting as a tool. BARR has
supplied numerous rainwater collection systems in and around BCâ€™s Fraser Valley. www.barrplastics.com
Report claims NS residents enjoying cleaner environment Nova Scotians are enjoying a cleaner, greener environment as the province continues to meet, and exceed, its targets in the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act, according to a recent progress report. Nova Scotia has achieved 14 of the 21 goals in the Act, and work continues to meet remaining targets. Highlights include: - Releasing a natural resources strategy in August 2011, that will guide the management of the province's biodiversity, forests, geological resources and provincial parks. - Putting a wetlands conservation policy in place in December 2011 to protect important ecosystems by preventing the net loss of wetlands. - Encouraging the cleanup and redevelopment of contaminated lands through new regulations announced in March. - Ensuring all sewage treatment facilities in the province complied with guidelines for handling and treating septage by last December, fulfilling another legislated goal. Work continues for solid waste, drinking water standards, wastewater management and renewable energy. The province also continues to work towards its economic prosperity targets through the Clean Technology Fund, communitybased feed-in tariff projects and signing agreements for the Lower Churchill Falls hydro project. www.gov.ns.ca
Canada Invests in Great Lakes nutrient initiative Peter Kent, Canadaâ€™s Environment Minister, has announced an important investment over four years to address the complex problems of recurrent toxic and nuisance algae, and near shore water quality and ecosystem health in the Great Lakes. The $16 million Initiative will focus efforts geographically on Lake Erie, the 12 | January 2013
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Great Lake most impacted by toxic and nuisance algae. The approaches and knowledge developed through the Initiative will be transferable to the other Great Lakes and other bodies of water in Canada. It will also help the Government of Canada to deliver on its commitments under the recently amended Canada– United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.
marked primarily for remediation activities at approximately 1,100 contaminated sites, as well as the assessment of about 1,650 sites. Canada’s National War Museum was cited as a prime example of what can be done when contaminated land is managed properly. Before construction, the land at the location of the museum was considered to be a contaminated site. Now it is the cherished home of Canada’s military history.
Phase II of contaminated sites clean-up plan launched The Government of Canada has launched Phase II of the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan. It is expected to create 7,300 jobs in waste management and remediation across Canada, an equivalent of about 1,500 full-time jobs per year. The Plan also supports skills development, training, and employment of Canadians, including Aboriginal communities and others who live in northern and rural areas. The $1 billion over three years (through to 2014) investment is ear-
Alberta to establish arm's-length environmental monitoring agency The government of Alberta says it will build the most comprehensive environmental monitoring program in Canada with the establishment of a new arm’slength environmental monitoring agency. The new science-based agency will begin work in the oil sands region and will focus on what is monitored, how it’s monitored and where it’s monitored. This will include integrated and coordinated monitoring of land, air, water and biodiversity.
The initial focus of the new agency will be on the Lower Athabasca area, with the ability to expand to the rest of the province. While the new agency is being established, environmental monitoring in the oil sands region will continue to be led through a joint federal-provincial program announced in February 2012. To date, that program has added new water quality sites on the Athabasca River and Muskeg River system; increased air monitoring by adding more sampling sites; and, improved bio-diversity monitoring to include all oil sands producing areas. Up to $50 million a year is being provided by industry in the region to support the joint federal-provincial environmental monitoring plan. www.environment.alberta.ca
Xerox recognized for its environmental efforts The Xerox Research Centre of Canada has received the Ontario Green Chemistry and Engineering Award for developcontinued overleaf...
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ing environmentally-friendly products and processes. The company's innovations include developing a toner that uses 50 per cent less toner to print, and a solid ink printer that eliminates the need for traditional toner cartridges and reduces waste generation by 90 per cent. www.ene.gov.on.ca
Alberta creates single energy regulator Alberta’s Bill 2 - the Responsible Energy Development Act - will create a single provincial regulator for upstream energy resource activities involving oil, gas, oil sands and coal. The new regulator will be a unified one-window approach that makes it easier to navigate the system. It will also be responsible for energy resource developments from initial application to reclamation. Highlights of the Act include: • Higher fines for individuals and companies who break the law; • Voluntary registry for landowners to
register private surface agreements, which can then be enforced; • Increased flexibility for the regulator to receive and process applications in a way that supports effective and fair decision making. www.assembly.ab.ca
Troop Island, NS, to be protected Troop Island's natural wildlife habitats and important coastal lands will be protected for the benefit of Nova Scotians and future generations thanks to the combined effort of residents, community groups, Halifax Regional Municipality and the province. Troop Island is located on St. Margarets Bay, northeast of Peggys Cove. St. Margarets Bay Stewardship Association and Nova Scotia Nature Trust spearheaded the work to raise the $820,000 needed to purchase and take care of the island. The province provided $150,000 towards the purchase price. Troop Island's 28 acres will go towards the province's goal of protecting at
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least 12 per cent of Nova Scotia lands by 2015. More than nine per cent of Nova Scotia's lands, totaling more than 1.2 million acres, have been protected so far.
SK amends its EA Act Saskatchewan’s Environmental Assessment Amendment Act, 2010 was developed to ensure that economic development proceeds with adequate environmental safeguards to protect the environment and maintain public health. The amendments were made to align with the government's move to a results-based regulatory model, and to update and improve the environmental process. To enhance environmental protection, financial penalties for non-compliance have been substantially increased, and potential for incarceration has been included as a strong deterrent. The Act also clarifies the courts' power to order repair or restoration of environmental damage. www.environment.gov.sk.ca
Latest update on tsunami debris An update to the British Columbia government's Tsunami Debris Management Plan is now available at www.tsunamidebrisbc.ca. The updated joint federalprovincial plan provides additional information and management protocols, including monitoring and surveillance of debris, collection and disposal of debris, and volunteer engagement. The intent of the update is to engage communities in debris management and mitigate any impact that debris may have on B.C.'s shores in relation to public safety, the environment and the economy. Some of the early concerns centre around the costs associated with recycling and land filling tsunami debris and the possibility of aquatic invasive species washing ashore along the coast. Although there have been no reports to date, an update regarding potential for aquatic invasive species is also underway. As with any storm season, it is difficult to predict when, where, and how much debris will wash ashore in any given area. A recent report from the Government of Japan's Ministry of Environment suggests the majority of the continued overleaf...
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wind-blown floatable debris (styrofoam, empty plastic containers, buoys, etc.) has already hit the Pacific Coast. An increase in lumber-related debris may begin arriving now through June 2013. To date there has been less than 20 pieces of confirmed debris from the tsunami found on the B.C. coast.
PEI and fertilizer industry to improve agricultural sustainability The government of Prince Edward Island, the PEI Federation of Agriculture, the PEI Potato Board, and the Kensington North Watersheds Association signed a 4R Nutrient Stewardship Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Canadian Fertilizer Institute (CFI) to link the province’s objectives for environmental action and agricultural sustainability with improved fertilizer use. 4R Nutrient Stewardship was established in cooperation with government, researchers, farmers and the public. The 4R approach ensures that nutrients are applied using the Right Source @ Right
Rate, Right Time, Right Place® through the adoption of beneficial management practices by producers to achieve economic, social and environmental sustainability. PEI is the first Canadian province to sign a 4R Nutrient Stewardship MOU, but its potential does not end there. The 4R Nutrient Stewardship System was developed by the fertilizer industry to be flexible enough to be utilized anywhere in Canada and around the world to reduce emissions and provide an increasing profitability for farmers. The MOU sets out specific elements of an agreement between the Government of PEI and the fertilizer industry, including a commitment by CFI to provide financial support of $150,000 over three years.
Funding announced to clean up part of Hamilton Harbour The Government of Canada has confirmed funding to clean up contaminated sediment at Randle Reef in Hamilton
Harbour. The Randle Reef site contains sediment contaminated with persistent toxic chemicals and heavy metals, which were deposited from industrial operations that are no longer active. In 1985, Hamilton Harbour was identified as an Area of Concern under the Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement due to significant water quality impairments. While many improvements have been made to reduce pollution in the harbour, the contaminated sediment at Randle Reef remained a principal environmental challenge. The estimated cost of the Randle Reef sediment remediation project is $138.9 million. In addition to the $46.3 million in funding from the federal government, the Province of Ontario has committed to provide $46.3 million, and $14 million is being contributed by the City of Hamilton, $14 million by U. S. Steel Canada and $14 million by the Hamilton Port Authority, as well as $2.3 million from the City of Burlington and $2 million from Halton Region. As with any project, and in keeping with the requirements of the Canadian
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