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March/April 2014

www.esemag.com

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Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com E-mail: steve@esemag.com Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com E-mail: steve@esemag.com peter@esemag.com E-mail: steve@esemag.com E-mail: steve@esemag.com Founding Editor TOM DAVEY Assistant Assistant Editor EditorPETER PETER DAVEY DAVEY Founding Editor TOM DAVEY Editor Editor and and Publisher Publisher STEVE STEVE DAVEY DAVEY Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: peter@esemag.com peter@esemag.com Editor Editor and and Publisher Publisher STEVE STEVE DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: steve@esemag.com steve@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY peter@esemag.com E-mail: peter@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: steve@esemag.com steve@esemag.com SalesE-mail: Director PENNY DAVEY penny@esemag.com Founding Editor TOM DAVEY Founding Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail:Editor penny@esemag.com Assistant Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY DAVEY Founding Founding Editor EditorPETER TOM TOMDAVEY DAVEY Assistant Editor Editor PETER PETER DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: peter@esemag.com peter@esemag.com SalesAssistant Representative DENISE SIMPSON Sales Director PENNYDAVEY DAVEY Director PENNY E-mail: E-mail: peter@esemag.com peter@esemag.com SalesSales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: denise@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com E-mail: penny@esemag.com E-mail: denise@esemag.com Founding Founding Editor Editor TOM TOMDAVEY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com E-mail: penny@esemag.com Founding Founding Editor Editor TOM TOM DAVEY DAVEY Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Sales Sales Director Director PENNY PENNY DAVEY DAVEY Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Sales Sales Director Director PENNY PENNYDAVEY DAVEY E-mail: denise@esemag.com E-mail: sandra@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: penny@esemag.com penny@esemag.com E-mail: denise@esemag.com E-mail: denise@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: penny@esemag.com penny@esemag.com Circulation ManagerSANDRA DARLANN PASSFIELD Accounting Accounting SANDRADAVEY DAVEY Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Sales Sales Representative Representative DENISE DENISE SIMPSON SIMPSON Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: E-mail: sandra@esemag.com sandra@esemag.com Sales Sales Representative Representative DENISE DENISE SIMPSON SIMPSON E-mail: darlann@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: denise@esemag.com denise@esemag.com E-mail: sandra@esemag.com E-mail: sandra@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: denise@esemag.com denise@esemag.com Design and Production EINARPASSFIELD RICE Circulation Manager DARLANN Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Design and Production EINAR RICE Accounting Accounting SANDRA SANDRA DAVEY DAVEY Circulation Circulation Manager Manager DARLANN DARLANN PASSFIELD PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Accounting Accounting SANDRA SANDRA DAVEY DAVEY E-mail: darlann@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: sandra@esemag.com sandra@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: darlann@esemag.com darlann@esemag.com Technical Advisory Board E-mail: E-mail: sandra@esemag.com sandra@esemag.com Technical AdvisoryEINAR Board Design and Production EINAR RICE Design and Production RICE Circulation Circulation Manager Manager DARLANN DARLANN PASSFIELD PASSFIELD Design and Production EINAR RICE Design and Production EINAR RICE Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, PA Circulation Circulation Manager Manager DARLANN DARLANN PASSFIELD PASSFIELD ArchisE-mail: Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, PA E-mail: darlann@esemag.com darlann@esemag.com E-mail: E-mail: darlann@esemag.com darlann@esemag.com Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Gary Burrows, City of London Technical Advisory Board Technical Advisory Board Gary Burrows, City of London Design Design and and Production ProductionEINAR EINAR RICE RICE Design Design and and Production Production EINAR EINAR RICE RICE Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, PAPA Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, PAPA Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Gary Burrows, City London Gary Burrows, City of of London Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Technical Technical Advisory Advisory Board Board Gary Burrows, City Gary Burrows, City of of London Patrick Coleman, Black & London Veatch Archis Archis Ambulkar, Ambulkar, Brinjac Brinjac Engineering, Engineering, PAPA Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Archis Archis Ambulkar, Ambulkar, Brinjac Brinjac Engineering, Engineering, PAPA Jim Jim Bishop, Bishop, Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Ontario Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Gary Gary Burrows, Burrows, City City of of London London Patrick Coleman, Black &ofVeatch Patrick Coleman, Black & London Veatch William Fernandes, Region Peel Gary Gary Burrows, Burrows, City City of of London Patrick Coleman, Black &ofVeatch Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch William Fernandes, Region Peel Jim Jim Bishop, Bishop, Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Ontario Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Jim Jim Bishop, Bishop, Consulting Consulting Chemist, Chemist, Ontario Ontario Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Patrick Patrick Coleman, Coleman, Black Black & Veatch & Veatch William Fernandes, Region of Peel William Fernandes, Region of Peel Marie Meunier, John Meunier Québec Patrick Patrick Coleman, Coleman, Black Black &Inc., Veatch &ofVeatch William Fernandes, Region of Peel William Fernandes, Region Peel Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Bill Bill DeAngelis, DeAngelis, Associated Associated Engineering Engineering Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Bill Bill DeAngelis, DeAngelis, Associated Associated Engineering Engineering Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Eric MacDonald, Engineering Group Peter J. Paine, Cole Environment Canada William William Fernandes, Fernandes, Region Region of of Peel Peel Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL William William Fernandes, Fernandes, Region Region of of Peel Peel Marie Marie Meunier, Meunier, John John Meunier Meunier Inc., Inc., Québec Québec Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL Eric Eric MacDonald, MacDonald, Cole Cole Engineering Engineering Group Group Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Peter J.Samuels, Paine, Environment Canada Cordell Region of Durham Eric Eric MacDonald, MacDonald, Cole Cole Engineering Engineering Group Group Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Peter Paine, Environment Canada CordellJ.Samuels, Region of Durham Marie Marie Meunier, Meunier, John John Meunier Meunier Inc., Inc., Québec Québec Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL Marie Marie Meunier, Meunier, John John Meunier Meunier Inc., Inc., Québec Québec Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL Environmental Science & Engineering isCanada aCanada bi-monthly Peter Peter J.Samuels, J. Paine, Paine, Environment Environment Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly Cordell Samuels, Region of Durham Cordell Region of Durham Peter Peter J.Samuels, J. Paine, Paine, Environment Canada Canada businessCordell publication of Environment Environmental Science & Cordell Samuels, Region Durham Region of of Durham business ofInc.Environmental Science & Engineeringpublication Publications An all Canadian Tony Tony Petrucci, Petrucci, CH2M CH2M HILL HILLpublication, Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, Tony Tony Petrucci, Petrucci, CH2M CH2M HILL HILL ES&E providesScience authoritative editorialis iscoverage of Environmental & Engineering a Environmental Science & Engineering abi-monthly bi-monthly ES&E provides authoritative editorial of Environmental Science &industrial aDurham Environmental Science &Engineering Engineering iscoverage abi-monthly bi-monthly Cordell Cordell Samuels, Samuels, Region Region ofisof Durham Canada’s municipal and environmental control business publication of Environmental Science && business publication of Environmental Science Cordell Cordell Samuels, Samuels, Region Region of of Durham Durham Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control business publication of Environmental Science && business publication of Environmental Science systems andPublications drinking water treatment and distribution. Engineering Inc. An all Canadian publication, Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, systems andPublications drinking water treatment and distribution. Engineering Inc. An all Canadian publication, Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Environmental Environmental Science Science & &Engineering Engineering isindustrial iscoverage a coverage abi-monthly bi-monthly Readers include consulting engineers, plant ES&E provides authoritative editorial of of ES&E provides authoritative editorial Environmental Science &industrial Engineering isindustrial Environmental Science &industrial Engineering isa Science abi-monthly bi-monthly Canada’s municipal and environmental control Canada’s municipal and environmental control Readers include consulting engineers, plant business business publication publication of of Environmental Environmental Science && managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control business publication ofInc. Environmental Science && business publication of Environmental Science systems and drinking water treatment andand distribution. systems and drinking water treatment distribution. managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and Engineering Engineering Publications Publications Inc. An An all all Canadian Canadian publication, publication, federal environmental officials, water and wastewater systems andand drinking water treatment and distribution. systems drinking water treatment and distribution. Engineering Publications Inc.Inc. An all Canadian publication, Engineering Publications An all Canadian publication, federal environmental officials, water andcoverage wastewater ES&E ES&E provides provides authoritative authoritative editorial editorial coverage of of plant operators and contractors. Readers include engineers, industrial plant Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of of ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage plant operators andconsulting contractors. Canada’s Canada’s municipal municipal and and industrial industrial environmental environmental control control Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and key municipal, provincial and managers andengineers, engineers, key municipal, provincial and Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control Information contained in key ES&E hasandand been compiled systems systems and and drinking drinking water water treatment treatment distribution. distribution. managers and engineers, municipal, provincial andand managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial federal officials, water and wastewater federalenvironmental environmental water and wastewater Information contained inofficials, ES&E hasand been compiled systems and drinking water treatment distribution. systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be federal environmental officials, water and wastewater federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators andand contractors. plant operators contractors. from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be Readers Readers include include consulting consulting engineers, engineers, industrial industrial plant plant responsible for and theand accuracy of articles or other editorial plant operators contractors. plant operators contractors. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial managers managers and and engineers, engineers, key key municipal, municipal, provincial provincial and and matter. Articles in this magazine arehas intended tocompiled provide Information contained in ES&E been Information contained in ES&E has been compiled managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial andand managers and key municipal, provincial matter. Articles in engineers, this are towastewater provide federal federal environmental environmental officials, officials, water water and and wastewater Information contained in ES&E has been compiled Information contained inbe ES&E has been compiled information rather thanmagazine give legal orintended other professional from sources believed to correct. ES&E cannot be from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be federal environmental officials, water andandprofessional wastewater federal environmental officials, water wastewater information rather than give legal or review other plant plant operators operators and and contractors. contractors. from sources believed to correct. ES&E cannot bebe from sources believed tobeof be correct. cannot advice. Articles being submitted for should responsible forfor the accuracy articles orES&E other editorial responsible the accuracy of articles or other editorial plant operators and contractors. plant operators and contractors. advice. Articles being submitted for review should be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial e-mailed toArticles steve@esemag.com. matter. Articles in in thisthis magazine arehas intended tocompiled provide matter. are intended to provide Information Information contained contained inmagazine inES&E ES&E has been been compiled e-mailed toArticles steve@esemag.com. matter. 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Contents Contents Contents Contents Contents FEATURES FEATURES

ISSN-0835-605X ISSN-0835-605X •• Mar/Apr Mar/Apr 2014 2014 Vol. Vol. 27 27 No. No. 22 •• Issued Issued April April 2014 2014 ISSN-0835-605X Mar/Apr 2014 Vol. No. Issued April 2014 ISSN-0835-605X ISSN-0835-605X••••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr2014 2014Vol. Vol.27 27No. No.2222••••Issued IssuedApril April2014 2014 ISSN-0835-605X Mar/Apr 2014 Vol. 2727 No. Issued April 2014

ISSN-0835-605X ISSN-0835-605X••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr2014 2014Vol. Vol.2727No. No.22••Issued IssuedApril April2014 2014 FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES

ISSN-0835-605X ••Mar/Apr Mar/Apr2014 2014 Vol. Vol.2727No. No.22••Issued IssuedApril April2014 2014 66ISSN-0835-605X Reflecting Reflecting on on the the achievements achievements of of women women in in the the workplace workplace 88 Lifewater Lifewater Canada Canada has has brought brought clean clean water water to to thousands thousands -- Cover Cover Story Story Reflecting on the achievements women in the workplace 6 on the achievements of women in the workplace 661266 Reflecting Reflecting the achievements of women in the workplace How to economically treat seasonal establishment wastewater Reflecting on the achievements of women in the workplace Reflecting on the achievements of women in the workplace 12 How to economically treat seasonal establishment wastewater 8 Canada has brought cleansmoothly watertoto thousands- Cover – Cover Story 8 Lifewater Lifewater Canada has brought clean water thousands Story 814 has clean Brantford’s new plant running LifewaterCanada Canada hasbrought brought cleanwater waterto thousands-- Cover - CoverStory Story 8148 Lifewater Lifewater Canada has brought clean water totothousands thousands Cover Story Brantford’s new water water plant running smoothly 12 How to economically treat seasonal establishment wastewater 6616612 Reflecting Reflecting on the achievements of women women in the workplace workplace How to economically treat seasonal establishment wastewater 12 How to treat establishment wastewater Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields Reflecting Reflecting onon onthe the theachievements achievements achievements ofof of women women inin inthe the the workplace workplace How economically treatseasonal seasonal establishment wastewater 12 How totoeconomically economically treat seasonal establishment wastewater 16612 Brantford’s Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields 14 new water plant running smoothly 8826 8 Lifewater Lifewater Canada Canada has has brought brought clean clean water water to to thousands thousands -- Cover -- Cover Story 14 Brantford’s new water plant running smoothly 14 Brantford’s new water plant running smoothly Important considerations when choosing a magmeter 8 Lifewater Lifewater Canada Canada has has brought brought clean clean water water to to thousands thousands Cover CoverStory Story Story 14 Brantford’s new water plant running smoothly 14 Brantford’s new water plant running smoothly 26 Important considerations when choosing a magmeter 16 Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields 12 12 How How to to economically economically treat treat seasonal seasonal establishment establishment wastewater wastewater 16 Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields 16 Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields 28 Soil analysis -- What lab certificate doesn’t tell you 12 How How totoeconomically economically treat treat seasonal seasonal establishment establishment wastewater wastewater 16 Important Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields 16 Effective phosphorus removal for septic system leach fields 2812 Soil analysis What the the labwhen certificate doesn’t tell you 26 considerations choosing a magmeter 14 14 Brantford’s Brantford’s new new water water plant plant running running smoothly smoothly 26 Important considerations when choosing a magmeter 26 Important considerations when choosing a magmeter 34 BC introduces new combustible dust safety regulations 14 14 Brantford’s Brantford’s new new water water plant plant running running smoothly smoothly Important considerations when choosing magmeter 26 Important considerations choosing a amagmeter 28 analysis – new What the when lab certificate doesn’t tell you 3426 Soil BC introduces combustible dust safety regulations 16 16 Effective Effective phosphorus phosphorus removal removal for for septic septic system system leach leach fields fields 28 Soil analysis --remediating What the lab certificate doesn’t tell you 28 Soil analysis -- What the lab certificate doesn’t tell you 36 Innovations in Alberta’s oil sands tailings ponds 16 16 Effective Effective phosphorus phosphorus removal removal for for septic septic system system leach leach fields fields 28 Soil analysis What the lab certificate doesn’t tell you 34 BC introduces new combustible dust safety regulations 28 Soil analysis What the lab certificate doesn’t tell you 36 Innovations in remediating Alberta’s oil sands tailings ponds 26 26 Important Important considerations considerations when when choosing choosing a a magmeter magmeter 34 BC introduces new combustible dust safety regulations 34 BC introduces new combustible dust safety regulations 40 Waterless toilet harnesses the sun to sanitize waste 26 26 Important Important considerations considerations when when choosing choosing a a magmeter magmeter 36 in new remediating oil sands tailings ponds BCintroduces introduces newcombustible combustible dust safety regulations 34 BC safety regulations 4034 Innovations Waterless toilet harnesses theAlberta’s sundust to sanitize waste 28 28 Soil Soil analysis analysis --flotation What --remediating What the the lab lab certificate certificate doesn’t doesn’t tell tell you you 36 Innovations in remediating Alberta’s oil sands tailings ponds 36 Innovations in Alberta’s oil sands tailings 42 Dissolved air is a tried and tested clarification technology 40 Waterless toilet harnesses the sun to sanitize waste 28 28 Soil Soil analysis analysis What What the the lab lab certificate certificate doesn’t doesn’t tell tell you youponds 36 Innovations in remediating Alberta’s oil sands tailings ponds 36 Innovations in remediating Alberta’s oil sands tailings ponds 42 Dissolved air flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology 34 34 BC BC introduces introduces new new combustible combustible dust dust safety safety regulations regulations 40 Waterless toilet harnesses the sun to sanitize waste 40 Waterless toilet harnesses the sun to sanitize waste 42 Dissolved air flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology 45 The advantages of using wet gas thermal flow meters for 34 34 BC BC introduces introduces new new combustible combustible dust dust safety safety regulations regulations Waterless toiletharnesses the sun sanitize waste 40 toilet the sun totosanitize 4540 Waterless The advantages ofharnesses using wet gas thermal flowwaste meters for biogas biogas systems systems 36 36 Innovations Innovations in in remediating remediating Alberta’s Alberta’s oil oil sands sands tailings tailings ponds ponds 42 Dissolved air flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology 45 The advantages of using wet gas thermal flow meters for biogas systems 42 Dissolved air flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology 48 How to effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 36 36 Innovations Innovations in in remediating remediating Alberta’s Alberta’s oil oil sands sands tailings tailings ponds ponds 42 Dissolved air flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology 42 Dissolved air flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology 48 How to effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 40 40 Waterless Waterless toilet toilet harnesses the the sun sun to to sanitize waste waste 48 How toadvantages effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 45 The of using wet gas thermal flow meters for biogas systems 45 The of wet gas thermal flow meters biogas 50 Energy optimization for high lift water pumping 40 Waterless toilet toiletharnesses harnesses the the sun sun to tosanitize sanitize sanitize waste waste 45 Waterless Theadvantages advantages ofusing using wet gas thermal flow metersfor forstations biogassystems systems 45 The advantages ofharnesses using wet gas thermal flow meters for biogas systems 5040 Energy optimization for existing existing high lift water pumping stations 50 Energy optimization for existing high lift water pumping stations 42 42 Dissolved Dissolved air air flotation flotation is is a a tried tried and and tested tested clarification clarification technology technology 48 How to effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 48 How to effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 53 effective is the Tier 2 MGRA option for gas station sites? 42 42 Dissolved Dissolved air air flotation flotation is is a a tried tried and and tested tested clarification clarification technology technology 48 How to effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 48 How to effectively analyze wastewater pumping stations 53 How effective effective is the Tier 22MGRA option forfor gasgas station sites? 53 isof the Tier MGRA option station sites? 45 45 The The advantages of using wet wet gas gas thermal thermal flow flow meters meters for for biogas biogas systems systems 50 Energy optimization for existing high lift water pumping stations 50 Energy optimization for existing lift water pumping 56 Study identifies significant benefits from biogas development in Canada 45 45 The Theadvantages advantages advantages of ofusing using using wet wet gas gashigh thermal thermal flow flow meters meters for forstations biogas biogas systems 50 Energy optimization for existing high lift water pumping stations 50 Energy optimization for existing high lift water pumping stations 56 Study identifies significant benefits from biogas development in systems Canada 56 Study identifies significant benefits from biogas development in Canada 48 48 How How to to effectively effectively analyze analyze wastewater wastewater pumping pumping stations stations 53 effective is the Tier 2 MGRA option for gas station sites? 53 How effective is the Tier 2 MGRA option for gas station sites? 5853 Forensic chemistry helps oil site owner considerable cleanup costs 48 48 How Howto to effectively effectively analyze analyze wastewater wastewater pumping pumping stations stations effective the Tier2save 2MGRA MGRA option for gas station sites? 53 How effective isisthe Tier option for gas station sites? Forensic chemistry helps save oiloilspill spill site owner considerable cleanup costscosts 58 Forensic chemistry helps save spill site owner considerable cleanup 50 50 Energy Energy optimization optimization for for existing existing high high lift lift water water pumping pumping stations stations 56 Study identifies significant benefits from biogas development in Canada 56 Study identifies significant benefits from biogas development in Canada 61 Mobile servers and their importance in uniting design teams with “thin clients” 50 50 Energy Energy optimization optimization for for existing existing high high lift lift water water pumping pumping stations stations Studyidentifies identifies significant benefitsfrom biogas development Canada 5656 Study significant benefits biogas development ininwith Canada Mobile servers and their infrom uniting design teams with “thin clients” 61 Mobile servers and theirimportance importance in uniting design teams 53 53 How How effective effective is the Tier Tier 22save MGRA MGRA option option for for gas gas station station sites? sites? 58 Forensic chemistry helps oil spill site owner considerable cleanup costs Forensic chemistry helps oil site owner considerable cleanup costs 64 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use 53 53 “thin How Howclients” effective effective isis isthe the the Tier Tier22save MGRA MGRA option option for for gas gas station station sites? sites? Forensic chemistry helps save spill site owner considerable cleanup costs 58 Forensic chemistry helps save oiloilspill spill site owner considerable cleanup costs 58 6458 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use 56 56 Study Study identifies identifies significant significant benefits benefits from from biogas biogas development development in in Canada Canada 61 Mobile servers and their importance in uniting design teams with “thin clients” 61 Mobile servers and their importance in uniting design teams with “thin clients” 66 Keeping cooling towers clean and operating efficiently 56 56 Study Study identifies identifies significant significant benefits benefits from from biogas biogas development development in in Canada Canada 64 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use Mobile serversand and their importance uniting designteams teams with“thin “thinclients” clients” 61 Mobile servers their importance ininuniting design with 6661 Keeping cooling towers clean and operating efficiently 58 58 Forensic Forensic chemistry chemistry helps helps save save oil oil spill spill site site owner owner considerable considerable cleanup cleanup costs costs 64 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use 64 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use 68 Understanding the difference between “Listed” and “Tested” products 66 Keeping cooling towers clean and operating efficiently 58 58 Forensic Forensic chemistry chemistry helps helps save save oil oil spill spill site site owner owner considerable considerable cleanup cleanup costs costs 64 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use 64 New aerator/mixer improves wastewater treatment and lowers energy use 68 Understanding the difference between “Listed” and “Tested” products 61 61 Mobile Mobile servers servers and and their their importance importance in uniting design design teams with “thin “thin clients” 66 Keeping cooling towers clean and operating efficiently 66 Keeping cooling towers clean and efficiently 68 Understanding the difference between “Listed” andteams “Tested” products 61 Mobile Mobile servers servers and and their their importance importance inin inuniting uniting uniting design design teams teamswith with with “thin “thinclients” clients” clients” 66 Keeping cooling towers clean andoperating operating efficiently 6661 Keeping cooling towers clean and operating efficiently 64 64 New New aerator/mixer aerator/mixer improves improves wastewater wastewater treatment treatment and and lowers lowers energy energy use use 68 Understanding the difference between “Listed” and “Tested” products 68 Understanding the difference between “Listed” and “Tested” products 73 Using spectrophotometry for real-time monitoring of BOD, COD and 6468 64 Understanding New Newaerator/mixer aerator/mixer improves improveswastewater wastewater treatment treatment and and lowers lowers energy energyuse useTOC Understanding thedifference difference between“Listed” “Listed” and “Tested” products 68 the between and “Tested” products 66 66 Keeping Keeping cooling cooling towers towers clean clean and and operating operating efficiently efficiently 76 Fast-curing coating and lining technologies streamline WWTP maintenance 6666 Keeping Keepingcooling coolingtowers towersclean cleanand andoperating operatingefficiently efficiently 78 Orillia evaluates cloth filtration for WWTC phosphorus reduction 68 68 Understanding Understanding the the difference difference between between “Listed” “Listed” and “Tested” products 6868 Understanding Understandingthe thedifference differencebetween between“Listed” “Listed”and and and“Tested” “Tested” “Tested”products products products

DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS Environmental News DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS Environmental News .. 86-90 86-90 Product Showcase . . . 81-85

Product Showcase . . .. . 81-85 DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS Environmental News 86-90 Environmental News 86-90 DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENTS Environmental News 86-90 Environmental News Professional Cards Professional Cards .. .. .. . 86-90 86-90

Page Page 42 42 Page Page 40 40 Page Page Page 4040 Page40 40 Page Page Page 4040 Page40 40

2014 2014 2014 2014 2014

Page Page Page Page42 4242 42 Page Page Page Page42 4242 42

Product Product Showcase Product Showcase 81-85 Product Showcase 81-85 Ad Index .. Showcase .. .. .. .. News .. ..News .. ... ... ... ... 81-85 .. 81-85 .. 90 Environmental Environmental 86-90 86-90 Ad Index 90 Environmental Environmental News News . . 86-90 86-90 Professional Cards Professional Cards . . Professional Cards . 86-90 Professional Cards . . . 86-90 Product Product Showcase Product Product Showcase Showcase 81-85 81-85 Ad Index Ad Index .. Showcase .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... ... 81-85 .. 81-85 .. ..90 Ad Index 90 Ad Index 9090 Professional Professional Cards Cards . . . . 86-90 86-90 Professional Professional Cards Cards . . . . 86-90 86-90 Page 72 PageAdAd 72 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9090 AdAdIndex Index Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9090 Page 72 Page 72 Page Page7272 Page Page Page 7272 Page72 72

CANECT CANECT PAGES Showguide PAGES 72-80 72-80 Showguide CANECT CANECT CANECT CANECT Workshop .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73 Workshop Information Information 73 PAGES Showguide Showguide PAGES 72-80 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . .. PAGES .. .. .. .. .. .. 72-80 .. 72-80 .. .. 74 72-80 Showguide Showguide CANECT Floor Plan . . .CANECT .CANECT .CANECT . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. PAGES 74 Exhibitors Listings .. .. .. .. CANECT .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..76 Workshop Information 73 Workshop Information 73 Exhibitors Listings 76 Workshop Information 73 Workshop Information 73 PAGES PAGES 72-80 72-80 Showguide Showguide CANECT Floor Plan CANECT .. Showguide .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. PAGES .. PAGES .. .. .. .. .. .. 72-80 .. 72-80 .. .. ..74 Showguide CANECTFloor FloorPlan Plan.. .. ..Exhibitors 74 CANECT Floor Plan 7474 Exhibitors Listings 76 Exhibitors .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..76 Workshop Workshop Information Information 73 73 ExhibitorsListings Listings 76 Exhibitors Listings 76 Workshop Workshop Information Information 73 73 CANECT CANECT Floor Floor Plan Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 74 CANECT CANECTFloor FloorPlan Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7474 Exhibitors Exhibitors Listings Exhibitors ExhibitorsListings Listings Listings.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..76 7676 76


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Editorial Comment by Peter Davey

Reflecting on the achievements of women in the workplace shows there is still much to be done

$

trending topic circulating in social media and news sites on the days surrounding Women’s Day this year, was attention on women in science, technology, engineering and math careers, also Nnown as STEM. International Women’s Day, held on March 8, celebrates the accomplishments of women, dating bacN to 1908 when 15,000 women marched in New <orN City, demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights. In late March, I watched my brother participate in the 5itual of the Calling of an Engineer at Western University in /ondon, Ontario. While I was e[cited at seeing my younger sibling move towards becoming a professional engineer, I was intrigued by the demographics of his classmates, speci¿cally the paucity of female students. While women aged 5- maNe up 66 per cent of university graduates in non-STEM programs, they only account for 23 per cent of engineering graduates. Furthermore, according to Statistics Canada, that group of women engineers maNes appro[imately 5000 less annually than their male peers. Obviously there is worN to be done. Yet efforts towards gender equality, which ramped up in the 1990s are showing their results. Nearly 40 years ago, when my grandmother, Sandra Davey was secretary-treasurer of the Water Environment $ssociation of Ontario, there was only one female member in the association. Now, not only do women maNe up roughly 20 per cent of WE$O’s membership, but many serve on the association’s board. I spoNe with WE$O 3resident Christine Hill, 3.Eng. who is a senior e[ecutive with XCG Consultants. She said that, upon graduating university in 1989, only three per cent of Professional Engineers Ontario members were women, a shortfall which was targeted by government and the industry. Currently, out of PEO’s 77,460 licence holders, 7,736 are female, which is a large increase yet

6 | March/April 2014

Peters Comment_MarApr.14.indd 6

still far from balanced. able said 5ose. “In the early 1990s “The speaNers are usuthere was a real push to ally reÀecting bacN on their get women studying enown careers and lives and gineering and non-tradithese stories are often quite tional ¿elds and I thinN inspiring,” said 5ose. that helped a lot,” said Despite improvements Hill. The environmental and progress in attitudes industry seems to have towards women, they still more women worNing as can come up against barrioperators, technicians, or ers and insults. engineers, which Hill atI spoNe with Michelle Peter Davey, Assistant Editor tributes, in part, to com/yle who is in her ¿nal panies dealing a lot with government year of mechanical engineering at Westclients. ern University. She stressed the open“Government has been very open to ness towards women in school and in her promotion and looNing at companies internship placement, but she had once and services with blinders on,” said Hill. been told by an older man²she quicNly “>They are@ not looNing at gender or race noted that he was not an engineer—that when they select services and people.” it was her looNs, rather than her e[perIndicators of that push in the 1990s tise, which had granted a placement. are evident when looNing at the com$s a whole however, far more opporposition of female politicians. Of the 11 tunities and outreach programs e[ist now women who have served as ¿rst minis- than 30 years ago, or even ¿ve years ago. ters (premiers and prime minister), over “There are a lot of opportunities out half tooN of¿ce in the past si[ years, with there for women,” said Lyle. “Even the ¿rst, 5ita -ohnston, premier of %rit- since high school, you see more adverish &olumbia, taNing of¿ce in 1991. tisements and e[posure of programs.” This snowball effect of women gainEngineers Canada has a “Women in ing leadership roles can be seen in the Engineering” webpage, and states that associations which represent and bring their organization is “dedicated to intogether STEM professionals and sales- creasing the participation of women in persons. the engineering profession.” -ennifer 5ose, manager, special proMProfessional Engineers Ontario also ects, engineering and public worNs with has a Women In Engineering Group, who the City of Vaughan organized this year’s are active in going to high schools and enInternational Women’s Day event for the couraging young women to thinN about a Ontario 3ublic WorNs $ssociation. She career in science and technology. noted that Must within O3W$, women For industries and professions which are serving as president of the associa- are worried over a looming labour shorttion, with increasing freTuency. %etty age, educated and sNilled women are an Matthews-Malone with 1iagara 5egion, immense resource. While there is a genis the current president. der wage gap, STEM careers, especially “This shows that women are valued, engineering, carry higher relative salanot only in the worNplace, but in a public ries, ample opportunities and low unemworNs association,” said 5ose. “Events ployment ¿gures. liNe the Women’s Day couldn’t be held LiNe many social Mustice issues, strides without full board support.” in equality deliver economic bene¿ts. )or women worNing in a still male dominated industry liNe public worNs, Peter Davey is the Assistant Editor getting together with peers to share of ES&E Magazine. challenges and e[periences are invaluEmail: peter@esemag.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:51 AM


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March/April 2014 | 7

3/27/14 12:51 AM


Cover Story

Lifewater Canada has brought clean water to thousands using low cost drilling technology

I

t’s anything but black and white. Some, while seeing the world in 20/20, only see themselves. Others may look to the world with a clear vision oI how they can bene¿t those around them – even when they themselves are losing sight. Such is the case for Jim Gehrels, founder of Lifewater &anada, a nonSro¿t humanitarian organization that helps people in developing countries. Gehrels has never let an obstacle get him down. He is legally blind, having only ¿ve degrees of sight due to an incurable genetic disease. In 1993, he used his experience as a hydrogeologist and made a trip to Kenya with Lifewater International. It was during this trip that Gehrels discovered Lone Star Drills, and made the decision to start his own non-pro¿t. Founded in 1995, Lifewater Canada is run by professional well drillers, hydrogeologists, environmental specialists and nurses who volunteer their time and energy to equip the rural poor in Africa and Haiti with portable Lone Star drill rigs and other simple equipment. Lifewater Canada also trains workers to build wells and washrooms at orphanages, clinics, schools and villages where people have been drinking from stagnant swamps without access to indoor toilet facilities. To run a successful operation, Lifewater Canada focuses on keeping costs down. In addition to being run completely by volunteers, it uses simple technologies and donor funding to make projects affordable. Lifewater Canada also trains local workers and encourages community participation in construction projects. A shared vision Gehrel’s ¿rst well-drilling journey was to Liberia, a country in West Africa, where despite an ongoing civil war, he joined a group of volunteers and helped drill wells to provide clean drinking water and save lives.

8 | March/April 2014

6- Lifewater Canada.indd 8

Jim Gehrels, founder of Lifewater Canada, trains new workers in Liberia how to safely drill water wells. A strong component of Lifewater’s program is local involvement at every level.

³During our ¿rst visit to Liberia, we saw people drinking out of gutters, salty swamps and shallow holes in their back

“During our first visit to Liberia, we saw people drinking out of gutters, salty swamps and shallow holes in their back yards,” yards,” he said. “All the piped water had been cut off due to the civil war.” Due to this devastation, Gehrels began his initial water program in Liberia’s capital Monrovia. Equipped with the Lone Star LS100 drill, Gehrels began drilling wells at major street intersections and common market locations to give residents access to safe water. It was this drilling success that sparked Lifewater Canada and would lead to 25 trips to Kenya, Nigeria, Haiti and Liberia and more than 700 wells. “I remember calling Lone Star re-

garding the drill during that ¿rst trip,” Gehrels said. “While on the phone, Lone Star mentioned they shared the story of my journey in Liberia with a foundation. The foundation was so impressed that it paid for the drill rig. It was an incredibly moving moment and reaf¿rmed the work I was doing.” Gehrels emphasizes that it’s the kind of bond the two companies have shared from the very start and maintained to this day. Designated leaders in Liberia, Haiti, Kenya or Nigeria can contact Lone Star at any time, and the company will ship whatever is needed for them to repair a drilling rig and invoice Lifewater Canada. It’s a connection based on trust and common vision. The right tools Throughout the years, Lifewater Canada has made a signi¿cant investment in its partnership with Lone Star Drills. The company currently owns a drill in Kenya, one in Nigeria, two in Haiti and four in Liberia. The drills

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:52 AM


www.esemag.com

6- Lifewater Canada.indd 9

March/April 2014 | 9

3/27/14 12:52 AM


Cover Story range from the LS100 to the LS350, anG haYe Eeen a Eene¿t to Eoth LLfeZater &anaGa anG the FoXntrLeV the\ VerYe 7he Lone Star GrLOOV are LGeaO for the ZorN that LLfeZater GoeV aV the\ are eaV\ to tranVSort Ln rXraO areaV 7he\ are FomSaFt anG OLghtZeLght enoXgh to Ee FarrLeG oYer roSe ErLGgeV, \et VtLOO SroYLGe enoXgh SoZer for the roXgheVt terraLn 7he LS350 Fan GrLOO ZeOOV GoZn to 0 metreV Ln Vome harG roFN formatLon, ZhLFh haV Eeen LGeaO for the OoFatLonV that neeG ZeOOV GeeSer than 30 metreV Lone Star GoeVn¶t VtoS at MXVt SroYLGLng GrLOOV 7he FomSan\ SroYLGeV eTXLSment for aOO reOateG aVSeFtV of VXSSO\Lng SeoSOe ZLth Zater Lone Star eTXLSV LLfeZater teamV ZLth mXG SXmSV, h\GraXOLF SoZer XnLtV anG other GrLOOLng aFFeVVorLeV, LnFOXGLng GrLOO ELtV anG GrLOO SLSe ,n faFt, Lone Star haV SroYLGeG eYer\ SoVVLEOe tooO that ZorNerV ma\ neeG ZhLOe GrLOOLng, eYen Lf the FomSan\ GoeVn¶t manXfaFtXre the LtemV LLfeZater &anaGa LVn¶t onO\ foFXVeG on GrLOOLng neZ ZeOOV, hoZeYer ,t¶V aOVo LmSortant to enVXre oOG ZeOOV are not

faOOLng oXt of VerYLFe eYen aV neZ ZeOOV are EeLng FreateG 'XrLng thLV SroFeVV, the team taNeV oOG, non-SroGXFLng ZeOOV anG ZorNV to get them Ã&#x20AC;oZLng agaLn

Joe Qua Qua, head driller, has nine years of experience operating the LS100 by Lone Star Drills. He and the team are drilling a well for a village near the Bensonville Highway in Liberia.

It takes a village %XLOGLng the FaSaFLt\ of OoFaO SeoSOe LV another Sart of LLfeZater¶V VXFFeVV ,t enFoXrageV the eVtaEOLVhment of OoFaO organL]atLonV, EoarGV of GLreFtorV, management anG YoOXnteerV, to ZorN GLreFtO\ ZLth the FommXnLtLeV Ln neeG ³)or oXr SroMeFtV to haYe Oong-term VXFFeVV, FommXnLt\ memEerV mXVt Ee ZLOOLng to Fome together,´ *ehreOV VaLG ³9LOOagerV Serform maLntenanFe, raLVe reSaLr fXnGV anG eVtaEOLVh rXOeV VXFh aV Zho ZLOO Ee the FaretaNer Ln Fharge, Zhen the SXmS VhoXOG Ee OoFNeG, Zhen Zater Fan Ee GraZn, anG hoZ XVerV mXVt FontrLEXte toZarG reTXLreG SXmS reSaLr ZorN´ 7raLnLng aOVo LV a Ne\ eOement of LLfeZater &anaGa¶V ZorN anG SrogramV 3erLoGLFaOO\, VNLOOeG SrofeVVLonaOV from 1orth $merLFa traYeO oYerVeaV to traLn OoFaO ZorNerV, on theLr oZn tLme anG e[SenVe

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10 | March/April 2014

6- Lifewater Canada.indd 10

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:52 AM


Cover Story brought clear water to thousands of grateful people. “On behalf of the elders and people of 6arNin 1oma village, there are hardly enough words to express our gratitude for the gift of life that was given to us by your group,” read a letter from the SarNin 1oma Well Committee to Lifewater. “Every time clean water starts to come out of our wells for the ¿rst time is liNe a miracle,” Gehrels said. “<ou Jim Gehrels, founder of Lifewater Canada, with children at the 19th Street Beach in Monrovia. At the time Gehrels founded the non-profit, 25 per cent of children in developing countries were dying from diseases related to unsanitary water.

Training includes classroom and theory on topics such as hydrogeology, business planning, disease transmission and equipment maintenance. Much time is spent one-on-one, providing practical, hands-on experience in the ¿eld, including hand pump repair drill training, such as when to stop drilling, how to handle unexpected problems, drill bit selection and how to properly manage drilling Àuid water quality testing caretaNer and pump repair technician training and community health and hygiene. In each community that Lifewater &anada visits, the company also worNs with local leaders to develop a water supply agreement. This agreement sets forth a program that addresses local needs and capacity, and designates a well or washroom caretaNer and a repair technician. For each well project, Lifewater also leaves the required tools with the local village chief. Helping hands Along with Lifewater’s volunteers and the local people trained through the water program agreement, sponsors are a huge part of the success and affordability of Lifewater &anada’s worN. “Without a project sponsor, a well that could cost $3,500 to drill may as well cost millions in grass hut villages where the people are only maNing a dollar a day,” Gehrels said. Despite Gehrels’ fading vision, his clarity for Lifewater Canada has www.esemag.com

6- Lifewater Canada.indd 11

see this water turn from murNy brown to crystal clear, and then you see the joy on the people’s faces. People begin dancing and celebrating, and their joy is contagious and a reaf¿rmation of all the worN that we’re doing.” For more information on Lifewater Canada, visit: www.lifewater.ca. For more information on Lone Star drills, visit: www.lonestardrills.com

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is a self contained water level datalogger, using infra-red data transfer powered by a 10 year lithium battery, offering the flexibility of installing by use of a Direct Read Cable, wireline or Kevlar cord. The Levelogger Edge has a memory capacity of 40,000 temperature and water level data points, or up to 120,000 using the compression algorithm in linear sampling mode. Levelogger Software Version 4.0 has been designed to support the Levelogger Edge, Levelogger Junior Edge, LTC Levelogger Junior, Rainlogger Edge, Leveloader and is backwards compatible to support the Levelogger Gold series. Version 4.0 offers many features, including the ability to barometrically compensate multiple Levelogger data files simultaneously.

www.solinst.com High Quality Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Instrumentation Solinst Canada Ltd., 35 Todd Road, Georgetown, ON L7G 4R8 Fax: +1 (905) 873-1992; (800) 516-9081 Tel: +1 (905) 873-2255; (800) 661-2023 instruments@solinst.com

March/April 2014 | 11

3/27/14 12:52 AM


Wastewater Treatment

Treating seasonal establishment WW economically By Roger Lacasse

O

pened for a few months each year, seasonal establishments typically experience maMor ÀXctXations in nXmbers of visitors, meaning energy consXmption and operating expenses mXst be continXally analy]ed and optimi]ed ,mplementation of ef¿cient energy management practices and integration of innovative wastewater treatment solXtions can improve cost-ef¿ciency ratios and prodXce maMor savings 7he 0ont-6aint-0athieX 6Ni and Convention Resort has seen attendance rates TXadrXple in the last few years, thanNs to maMor efforts in moderni]ing its infrastrXctXre 7he resort has also been planning the constrXction of a residential development and cottages, at the bottom of the sNi hills Across the street, the Camping KOA %as-6aint-/aXrent is bXsy mainly in the sXmmer time ,ts owners have also been planning an expansion project which will triple the nXmber of camp sites offered to visitors Unable to connect to the existing mXnicipal wastewater networN, an onsite treatment solXtion woXld have to treat both sites’ wastewaters and manage peaN Àows at opposite periods of the year Challenges The existing septic installations and conventional disposal ¿elds coXld not sXpport this type of growth, and were Xnable to treat the phosphorXs levels in the ¿nal discharge into nearby 6aint0athieX /aNe 6trXggling with recXrrent blXe-green algae blooms, phosphorXs releases into the laNe woXld have to be avoided The treatment station site was provided by the sNi resort however, this meant the bXilding hoXsing the system woXld be very visible Any solXtion needed to be very compact and the bXilding had to blend well with the sXrroXnding environment 'Xe to permeable soils, moXntainoXs and rocNy topography, and the proximity of both sites to a sensitive ecological area, there coXld be no soil in¿ltration

12 | March/April 2014

26-Premier Tech Aqua Seasonal.indd 12

Service building housing the membrane bioreactors and all control units.

Solution The owners assXmed  of the constrXction costs related to any elements of the treatment station they Xse exclXsively and  of the elements they share Operational expenses were then allocated according to each partner’s Xse The agreement offered both important savings and the possibility to move forward with their respective development plans An Ecoprocess™ MBR was chosen for this project ,t is a simple, compact Raw Waters Characteristics. CBOD5

257 mg/L

TSS

160 mg/L

Fecal coliforms

~ 106 CFU/100 mL

Ptot

10 mg/L

Environmental Discharge Objectives (EDO) . CBOD5

≤ 15 mg/L

TSS

≤ 15 mg/L

Fecal coliform

≤ 200 CFU/100 mL

Ptot

≤ 0,5 mg/L

Treatment Performance. CBOD5

≤ 5 mg/L

TSS

≤ 10 mg/L

Fecal coliform

≤ 200 CFU/100 mL

Ptot

≤ 0,1 mg/L

and ef¿cient technology, prodXcing efÀXent which meets strict discharge reTXirements Each one is delivered in preassembled and robXst modXles, with a minimal ¿nal footprint The accessible system also allows for simpli¿ed operator interventions :ith a footprint  per cent smaller than a conventional disposal ¿eld, the area reTXired for the entire 3remier Tech ATXa 3TA treatment station ± inclXding the pXmping station, slXdge holding and eTXali]ation tanNs and membrane bioreactor ± covers a total of  m The bXilding hoXsing the membranes, control panel and any eTXipment sensitive to harsh weather, covers approximately  m To meet the fXtXre development plans at both sites, the treatment station was designed to treat Xp to  m per day and a third water inlet was installed 3TA process engineers and technical advisors sXpported the owners before, dXring and after the project start-Xp Wastewater services technicians from 3TA have sXbseTXently provided comprehensive environmental sampling and preventive follow-Xp services These have been speci¿cally adapted to the needs of both the Mont-6aint-MathieX 6Ni Resort and the Camping KOA Roger Lacasse is with Premier Tech Aqua. For more information, E-mail: lapa2@premiertech.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:52 AM


(IIHFWLYH/LTXLG$QDO\VLV

$FRPSOHWHGLJLWDORÌ&#x;HULQJLQRQHVLPSOH H[SDQGDEOHDQGXQLÃ&#x20AC;HGSODWIRUP â&#x20AC;¢6LPSOLI\\RXUDQDO\WLFDOPHDVXUHPHQWVZLWKDXQLÃ&#x20AC;HGGLJLWDOSODWIRUPDFURVVWKH entire plant. â&#x20AC;¢ 6enVRrV XVinJ 0ePR6enV teFKnRlRJ\ anG prRtRFRl JiYe \RX trXe plXJ¶npla\ ViPpliFit\ IRr lRnJterP reGXFtiRnV in FRPPiVViRninJ anG PaintenanFe FRVtV. â&#x20AC;¢ 2Xr FRPpletel\ GiJital platIRrP inteJrateV VeaPleVVl\ intR \RXr FRntrRl V\VtePV. â&#x20AC;¢ &aliErate PeaVXre anG GRFXPent. :itK 0ePREaVe 3lXV \RX VaYe tiPe anG PRne\ ZitK trXe VenVRr liIeF\Fle PanaJePent FRPplete FaliEratiRn reFRrGV VtanGarGV PanaJePent anG VerYiFe KiVtRr\. ZZZ.Fa.enGreVV.FRPanal\ViV

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26-Premier Tech Aqua Seasonal.indd 13

Tel: 905 681 9292 1 800 668 3199 Fax: 905 681 9444 info@ca.endress.com

March/April 2014 | 13

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Water Treatment

Brantford’s new water plant running smoothly By Selvi Kongara, Yonatan Yohannes and Zoran Filinov

B

rantford, Ontario Holmedale water treatment plant (WTP) is located between the Holmedale Canal and the Grand River and supplies water to a population of 90,000. The original plant dates back to the early 1900s. Several upgrades took place over the past century, but none of the components of the old WTP are currently in operation. The City is now operating a completely new water treatment facility, as a result of the following signi¿cant upgrades: 1999: Phase 1 - addition of a new low-lift pumping station and preliminary treatment facility, featuring the $ctiÀo high-rate clari¿cation process. 2004: Phase 2 - addition of a new residue management facility, featuring thickening, dewatering and residue disposal processes, as well as upgrades to an existing 17 ML reservoir. 2012: Phase  - new ¿ltration facility, chemical systems building, chlorine contact tank, administrative building and high-lift pumping station. Commissioning of the new 100 M/d WTP in May 2012 was the culmination of the City’s decade-long upgrade of the water treatment plant. This brought it up-to-date with current water quality regulations and prepared it for future, stricter regulations. R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. was commissioned by the City and completed both Phase 2 and Phase 3 upgrades. Higher water quality goals The Grand River is a challenging source of raw water, particularly since Brantford is located in its lower watershed and downstream of many other communities and installations. Historically, the WTP experienced seasonally high ammonia levels, and taste and odour (T&O) complaints. Also, there is a potential for source water contamination from upstream agricultural run-off, wastewater discharges and chemical spills. Brantford was faced with the dual

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The City is now operating a completely new water treatment facility.

challenge of unpredictable raw water quality, and providing safe, aesthetically pleasant drinking water to the population. In addition, the City was experiencing signi¿cant operational expenditures to deal with emergency situations resulting from spills and other events. To help achieve current and future treated water quality goals, a multi-barrier approach was selected, including: • Ozone system: a two-unit ozone generator system, with hydrogen peroxide quenching system and two ozone contact tanks with a total capacity of 2,200 m3. The Peroxone system is designed to assist with the biological filtration process, and provide T&O treatment through advanced oxidation. • Deep-bed biological filters: eight cells (with surface area of 6 m x 13 m) designed for a filtration rate of 8 m/h, with one cell out of service. • Chlorine contact tank (two cells) with total capacity of 5,200 m3, for primary disinfection. • UV light disinfection reactors (two on duty plus one stand-by) for secondary

disinfection at a dose of 20 mJ/cm2. The design allows for a fourth unit to be installed in the future, as well as the UV units to be replaced with larger ones for future advanced oxidation treatment process implementation, without superstructure or piping modifications. • Chemical systems (new and upgraded existing), such as hydrogen peroxide, fluoride, activated silica, ammonia. Brantford wanted to achieve the best water quality, while optimizing the use of automated control and staff operations and maintenance. A SCADA system provides full information and access system to the WTP operators. A pilot plant was constructed to help with ¿nal design, and currently remains in operation to help staff optimize the treatment process. The Peroxone system is not intended

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 7:52 PM


Water Treatment Regulatory requirements

Physical removal

Primary disinfection

Total

Cryptosporidium

2-log

2-log

-

2-log

Giardia

3-log

2.5-log

3-log

5.5-log

Viruses

4-log

2-log

4.5-log

6.5-log

to provide the WTP with disinfection credits. Instead, it was sized to be able to treat most operating conditions (not the worst case) with two duty ozone generators. There is ample room to add up to two more units in the future, if needed. Ozone assists with the biological ¿ltration, T O reduction, reduces the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, keeps the bromate formation below 10 mg/L, enhances disinfection (although no disinfection credit is given) and reduces coagulant use. The ¿lter design allows for slow ¿ltration to assist biological activity. +owever, the ¿lters and the entire plant could produce up to 154 ML/d if they were operated at a ¿ltration rate of appro[imately 1 m/h, with one ¿lter out

Operational target

of service. Hence, the WTP has spare capacity, if required. 6igni¿cant contact time for disinfection is provided by the ¿[ed volume (5,200 m3) two-cell chlorine contact tank (CCT). Conversion to chloramines is done at the end of the CCT, by addition of ammonia. The supplemental UV disinfection system would automatically switch on under speci¿c conditions (generally winter) when low water temperature and pH level reduce the disinfection ability of chlorine. It can be used during events when higher ammonia levels are present in the source water. The plant is designed to operate at any range of Àow between 35 and 154 ML/d, with no superstructure changes or modi¿cations. $ll emergency and

safety features related to the ozone system and associated ventilation are 6C$'$-controlled. The new administrative and operations building provides operations staff with a central location for their storage, workshop and other maintenance needs, of¿ce space, control room and 6C$'$ centre. The new Holmedale water treatment plant runs smoothly and provides the City of Brantford with long-awaited safety against the unpredictability of the source water quality. Selvi Kongara and Yonatan Yohannes are with the City of Brantford. Zoran Filinov is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. For further information, (PDLO]¿OLQRY#UYDQGHUVRQFRP

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9-Brantford-WTP.indd 15

March/April 2014 | 15

3/27/14 12:54 AM


Wastewater Treatment

Economical and effective phosphorus removal for septic systems By Craig Jowett, Yanqing Xu, Christopher James, Glenn Pembleton & Christopher Jowett

W

hen septic systems are near fresh water lakes and rivers, ocean reefs, and potable water source protection zones, attenuation of phosphorus (P) is required. Also, receiving soils must be iron-rich, preferably with high aluminum or calcium contents, to adsorb and mineralize phosphorus. Reactive dissolved phosphorus passing through ironrich ‘B-horizon’ soils binds chemically to iron oxides and ultimately forms iron-phosphate minerals. These reactions can be very quick. Because Fe-P minerals have very low solubility constants under both aerobic and anoxic conditions, dissolved phosphorus below septic system leach ¿elds is removed from the hydrologic cycle and kept out of groundwater and adjacent surface water bodies. Two comprehensive reviews of phosphate in groundwater are Robertson et al. 1998 (septic systems) and Domagalski & Johnson 2012 (agriculture). Where natural iron-rich soils are not available, methods to remove P include aluminum sulphate in the septic tank, or electrolysis of metallic aluminum to form a Àocculent sludge and physically separate P from the sewage. This will ultimately be treated elsewhere. Sewage can also be passed

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through iron-rich slag and other reactive materials to attach permanently as detailed in Hutchinson & Jowett (1997) and Heufelder & Mroczka (2006). However, these methods have not generally proven useful for residential-scale systems. This article details the results of a new technique, using the Waterloo EC-P ™ (patents pending), that mimics the P-removal ability of natural iron-rich soils. Iron is dissolved directly into the sewage to react with P and be removed as mineral precipitate in subsequent soil leach ¿elds, or other ¿ltration components. The advantage over natural iron-rich soil is that both P and Fe have already chemically bonded in ¿ne particulate form, before they enter the soil leach ¿eld. They migrate together to the ¿ltration component and all they need to do is precipitate onto soil or sand surfaces, or onto synthetic ¿ltration media like foam. The technology is abiotic, thus temperature independent, and is largely independent of water characteristics, with no adverse effect on pH. The volume of mineral precipitate accumulating in the upper 0.3 – 0.5 m of soil is small, It has been calculated at continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:54 AM


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Wastewater Treatment 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2 % and 0.2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.4% of pore space for Ontario systems in sandy loam and clay soils respectively, over 20 years of operation at peaN desiJn Ă&#x20AC;oZ. )or 1.0 m deptK of syntKetic Âżltration media, less tKan % of availaEle porosity Zill Ee used in a 20-year period. 3Kysical-cKemical tKeory and researcK Kas Eeen carried out since 2010 at Âżeld sites, ZKere tKe EC-P units Zere retroÂżtted into e[istinJ systems otKerZise not conÂżJured for 3 removal. 3erformance results are compared to tKe same or similar Âżltration units ZitKout an EC-P. 7Kis adaptaEility sKoZs potential for Eroad use in e[istinJ leacK Âżelds in 3-sensitive areas. ,t can also Ee installed in neZ systems, or replace cKemical dosinJ metKods in e[istinJ systems. 7Ke folloZinJ Âżeld studies and results aritKmetic averaJes , includinJ estimates ZitKout EC-P, are documented: 1. Generic Single-Pass Sand Filters without EC-P Unit; â&#x20AC;˘ 73 !. mJ/ EeloZ 00 mm & sand 20 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2% removal

0$

â&#x20AC;˘ 73 4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 11 mJ/ EeloZ 0 mm of various sands 1%

O1

2. Generic Recirculating Sand Filter (RSF); â&#x20AC;˘ :itKout (&-3, 73 . â&#x20AC;&#x201C; .2 mJ/ %

â&#x20AC;˘ 73 1.1 mJ/ at lesser iron dissolution rate 2% and â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0.1 mJ/ at Jreater iron dissolution 2% in tKe first study, and â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0. mJ/ 1% in a second study . Residential :aterloo %ioÂżlter; â&#x20AC;˘ :itKout (&-3, 73 § 1 mJ/ %

â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0.1 mJ/ %

. PuElic School :aterloo %ioÂżlter (on-going); â&#x20AC;˘ :itKout (&-3, 73 § . mJ/ a20%

â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0. mJ/ 2% , tKen ZasKouts, noZ EacN at 0. mg/L 5. Conventional Soil Leach Field (on-going); â&#x20AC;˘ :itKout (&-3 to Ee determined after (&-3 is removed

â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0.11 mg/L EeloZ 00 mm of sandy loam soil % , â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0.0 mg/L EeloZ 00 mm % , and â&#x20AC;˘ 73 0.0 mg/L EeloZ 00 mm !% . Predicting P Removal by Theory 'uring initial researcK at a trucN stop, 3 Zas removed from a feZ cuEic metres of :aterloo %ioÂżlter efĂ&#x20AC;uent eacK day. 7Ke )e-3 ricK efĂ&#x20AC;uent Zas discKarged to tKe septic tanN to Ee re-delivered to tKe %ioÂżlter. $s )e-3 minerals precipitated in it, efĂ&#x20AC;uent Eecame ZeaNer in 3 ZitK time, from tKe initial 73 § 1 mg/L to 73 § 12 mg/L near tKe end of tKe testing )igure 1 . 7Kis occurred, even tKougK only a small percentage of tKe total Ă&#x20AC;oZ Zas Eeing treated. .noZing tKe details of tKe ZKole seZage treatment system at tKis facility provided an opportunity to test anotKer tKeory: tKat of predicting 3 removal using standard laZs of pKysics and cKemistry. ,f tKe test analytical data conform to calculation using NnoZn pKysics and cKemistry tKeory, tKe tecKnology gains greater approval. 7Ke simulation uses actual Kydraulic Ă&#x20AC;oZ rates of tKe inĂ&#x20AC;uent seZage, tKe re-used Zater tKis facility uses %ioÂżlter efĂ&#x20AC;uent for toilets and urinals , and tKe Zater passing tKrougK tKe e[perimental systems. 7Kese data are comEined

ZitK concentrations of 3 in tKe tKree Zater types. 7Ken, Ey using pKysical relationsKips of )e-3 cKemical Eonding, tKe 3 concentration in tKe efĂ&#x20AC;uent is calculated and compared to actual laEoratory analyses. ,n )igure 1, tKe energy input solid red line increases from tKe starting date of 6eptemEer 2, 2010 to 'ay 112, and tKe 3 in %ioÂżlter efĂ&#x20AC;uent ElacN dots is depleted at a rate conforming to tKat predicted Ey tKeory solid purple line . 7Kis conformity conÂżrms tKat NnoZn pKysical-cKemical tKeory does apply, and tKat tKe tecKnology is designed and operated appropriately. $lso, tKat tKe mass of 3 removed can Ee predicted to a large degree. $fter 'ay 112, tKe energy input solid red line is decreased. 7Ke predicted concentration of 3 solid purple line increases as e[pected ZitK tKe actual concentration ElacN dots until tKe end at 0arcK , 2011. )luctuations seen in tKe solid purple line around 'ay 112 are due to anomalously loZ Ă&#x20AC;oZs, folloZed Ey a -fold increase in volume from tKe facility. $fter tKe e[periments Zere discontinued and energy to tKe system sKut off on 0arcK , 2011, tKe 3 in tKe %ioÂżlter efĂ&#x20AC;uent returned to normal values of 73 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 20 mg/L Ey -uly â&#x20AC;&#x201C; $ugust 2011. 7Ke simulated tKeory purple line

predicted tKese concentrations as Zell, Eased on Ă&#x20AC;oZ rates and ]ero energy input to tKe 3 removal system.

Figure 1. Theory of predictability of P removal applied in bench-scale testing.

Benchmark Single-Pass Sand Filters 7esting of tKe standard 0assacKusetts sand Âżlter Kad Eeen carried out from 1 to 2001 at tKe 0assacKusetts $lternative 6eptic 6ystem 7est &enter 0$667& in tKe 24-montK (nvironmental 7ecKnology 9eriÂżcation program. 7Kis provided a EencKmarN for comparison. 7Kis (79 sand Âżlter used coarser & sand, and no 3-removal system Kad Eeen installed. 3an lysimeter samples at 00 mm deptK under tKe leacK Âżeld revealed tKat 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2% 3 Zas removed, a value possiEly typical for conventional residential leacK Âżelds ZitKout 3-removal tecKnology. 7Ke Ontario 0inistry of (nvironment tested si[ types of sand Âżlters in 1 to 1, of ZKicK Âżve are in tKe Ontario Euilding code. 8sing tKe results of all test periods, efĂ&#x20AC;uent continued overleaf...

18 | March/April 2014

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:55 AM


www.esemag.com

27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 19

March/April 2014 | 19

3/27/14 12:55 AM


Wastewater Treatment PHGLDQ YDOXHV DUH  ±  PJ/ 73 2YHUDOO HIÃ&#x20AC;XHQW DYHUDJHVDUHPJ/73GRZQIURPPJ/LQWKHVHSWLF WDQN HIÃ&#x20AC;XHQW IRU DQ RYHUDOO UHPRYDO UDWH RI  7KLV SURYLGHVDQRWKHUFRPSDUDWLYHEHQFKPDUN

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Fi Figure 2. P removall St 2 Study d 1 on ETI RSF RSF, MASSTC; MASSTC â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;INâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; values are from raw sewage.

Figure 4. Removal of P from high-strength residential sewage; arrow indicates disruption caused by higher energy input on Days 220 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 252.

Figure 3. Iron oxide coating on pipes and pea gravel in the ETI RSF.

$IWHU D SUREOHP ZLWK IDXOW\ ZLULQJ LQ 6WXG\  6WXG\  HIÃ&#x20AC;XHQWDYHUDJHG73 PJ/ZLWKLQZHHNVRIVWDUWXS UHPRYDO 7RWDOLURQFRQWHQWDYHUDJHG)H PJ/ OHVV WKDQ WKH VHZDJH YDOXH RI )H   PJ/:LWK D FOHDQ PHGLXP OLNH SHD JUDYHO RU FRDUVH VDQG 73 DQG GLVVROYHG PO4PYDOXHVDUHVLPLODU+RZHYHUFDUHPXVWEHWDNHQZLWK SDQ O\VLPHWHU VDPSOHV EHFDXVH VRLO SDUWLFOHV FRQWULEXWH P 20 | March/April 2014

27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 20

School with Waterloo + Fine Sand Dispersal $WDQOQWDULRVFKRROZLWKFRQFHQWUDWLRQVQRUPDOO\LQWKH 7P  4 ±  PJ/ UDQJH7P DQG PO4P DUH EHLQJ ORZHUHG WR  ±  PJ/ LQ WKH:DWHUORR %LR¿OWHU HIÃ&#x20AC;XHQW DV )HP PLQHUDOV SUHFLSLWDWH LQ WKH IRDP ¿OWUDWLRQ PHGLXP )LJXUH D VKRZLQJ PO4P LQ HIÃ&#x20AC;XHQW  7KH PUHPRYDO XQLW ZDV UHWUR¿WWHG RQ 'D\  DQG UHPRYDO ZDV HIIHFWLYH ZLWKLQ D ZHHNRUVR 7KHDYHUDJH¿OWUDWLRQHIÃ&#x20AC;XHQWXSWRWKHLQ¿OWUDWLRQÃ&#x20AC;RRGLQJ LV7P PJ/RUUHPRYDOIURPUDZVHZDJH7RWDOLURQ DYHUDJHV4PJ/LQWKHHIÃ&#x20AC;XHQWFRPSDUHGWR4PJ/LQ WKHVHZDJH7KHS+DYHUDJHVXQFKDQJHGIURPWKHVHZDJH DYHUDJHRI7KHVFKRROZDVFORVHGRQ'D\V±DQG WKXVWKHUHZHUHQRVDPSOHV7KLVFRPPHUFLDOEC-PKDVORZ PDLQWHQDQFHZLWKWZRFOHDQLQJVLQVHYHQPRQWKV$QRSWLRQDO Ã&#x20AC;XVKSXPSVKRXOGLPSURYHWKLVIXUWKHU continued overleaf... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:55 AM


27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 21

3/28/14 7:57 PM


Wastewater Treatment Unusually heavy rains in 2013 caused an existing septic WDQNWROHDNDQGKLJKLQ¿OWUDWLRQDIIHFWHG73DQG3243YDOXHV LQWKHWUHDWPHQW¿OWHUV )LJXUHD DQGWRDOHVVHUGHJUHHLQ WKHGLVSHUVDOEHG )LJXUHE +\GUDXOLFUHVLGHQFHWLPHLQWKH %LR¿OWHUZDVVRORZWKDWSKRVSKRUXVZDVQRWUHPRYHGXQWLO WKH WDQN ZDV UHSDLUHG RQ 'D\ $IWHU WKLV LW UHWXUQHG WR SUHYLRXVOHYHOVRIPJ/ 7KHVH¿QGLQJVHPSKDVL]HWKHQHHGIRUUREXVWOHDNSURRI WDQNDJH WR LVRODWH JURXQGZDWHUVWRUPZDWHU HIIHFWV IURP WUHDWPHQWSURFHVVHV7KLVÀRRGLQJHYHQWGRHVKDYHDSRVLWLYH VLGHLQWKDWLWVKRZHGWKDWSKRVSKRUXVDOUHDG\FRQWDLQHGLQ WKH¿OWHULVQRWOHDFKHGRXW

Figure 5a. Total dissolved P values in filtration effluent with iron supply starting Day 372; very high infiltration flows throughout Days 520 – 665.

Figure 5b. Total dissolved P values in pan lysimeter below 250 mm fine sand in dispersal bed.

7KH VXEVXUIDFH OHDFK ¿HOG KDV  PP RI ¿QH VDQG IRU HYHQGLVSHUVDOLQWRXQGHUO\LQJVRLODQGSDQO\VLPHWHUYDOXHV EHORZWKHVDQGDUHGHSLFWHGLQ)LJXUHE)ORRGLQJDIIHFWHG WKHGLVSHUVDOVDQGEHGEXWWRDOHVVHUGHJUHHWKDQLQWKH¿OWHU =HUR SKRVSKRUXV JHQHUDWHG LQ WKH VFKRRO ZDV UHPRYHG LQ WKH WUHDWPHQW V\VWHP EHIRUH WKH EC-P V\VWHP ZDV LQVWDOOHG 'D\V  ±   ZKHUHDV a 3 ZDV UHPRYHG DIWHU WKDW 22 | March/April 2014

27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 22

7KLVGLIIHUHQFHVKRZVWKDWHYHQFOHDQIRDP¿OWHUPHGLXPDQG FOHDQVDQGFDQEHPDGHWRUHPRYH3E\PLPLFNLQJLURQULFK %KRUL]RQVRLOV ,W LV VXJJHVWHG WKDW VRPH 3 DFFXPXODWHG LQ WKH VDQG EHG EHWZHHQVWDUWXSLQDQGZKHQWKHEC-PZDVLQVWDOOHGRQ 'D\6RPHRIWKDW3WKHQOHDFKHGRXWRIWKHVDQGXQWLO'D\ $IWHUWKHÀRRGLQJDQGIROORZLQJ'D\DSSDUHQWO\QR SKRVSKRUXVLVOHIWWROHDFKRXW(IÀXHQWHQWHULQJJURXQGZDWHU KDVGLPLQLVKHGE\DQRUGHURIPDJQLWXGHWRPJ/3243 7KLVUHVHDUFKLVRQJRLQJ Study of Particulate Sizing ,WLVXVHIXOWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHVL]HRISDUWLFXODWHVFRQWDLQLQJ UHPQDQW3DQGWKHSURSRUWLRQRISDUWLFXODWHWRGLVVROYHG3)LQDO :DWHUORR 3ROLVKHU HIÀXHQWV ZHUH ¿OWHUHG WKURXJK PHPEUDQHV RISRUHVL]HVȝPȝPȝPȝPDQGȝP7KH SHUPHDWHVZHUHDQDO\]HGIRU73DQGWRWDO)H )LJXUHVDE  7KH µ ȝP¶ YDOXH LV D QRPLQDO RQH IRU XQ¿OWHUHG %LR¿OWHU HIÀXHQW7KHDQDO\VHVSURYLGHDQHVWLPDWHRIWKHQRQSDUWLFXODWH SRUWLRQRI3WKDWSDVVHVWKURXJKWKHPHPEUDQHV )RUWKH:DWHUORR%LR¿OWHUHIÀXHQWV LHµȝP¶ FOXVWHUHG DURXQGPJ/73 )LJXUHD WKHSHUPHDWHYDOXHVGHFUHDVH TXLFNO\WRaPJ/737KLVVXEVWDQWLDOGHFUHDVHLQGLFDWHV WKDW  ±  RI WKH SKRVSKRUXV LV LQ SDUWLFXODWHV VL]HG ! ȝPVLQFHWKHUHLVRQO\aPJ/73LQWKHQRQSDUWLFXODWH SHUPHDWH7KHLQÀXHQWIRUHDFKPHPEUDQHLV%LR¿OWHUHIÀXHQW DQGQRWWKHHIÀXHQWIURPODUJHUPHPEUDQHV7KHVOLJKWULVHLQ FRQFHQWUDWLRQZLWKVPDOOHUPHPEUDQHSRUHVL]HLVFRQVLGHUHG WREHVWDQGDUGHUURURIVDPSOLQJDQGDQDO\VLV 7KH-DQXDU\¿QDOHIÀXHQWLQ7DEOHDKDVDORZHU PJ/73LQLWLDOYDOXHDQGGRHVQRWFKDQJHVXEVWDQWLDOO\LQWKH ¿OWHUHGSHUPHDWH2QO\±RIWKH3LVDVSDUWLFXODWHV VL]HG ! ȝP ZLWK WKH UHPDLQGHU LQ VROXWLRQ RU DV QRQ SDUWLFXODWHV

Figure 6a. Membrane permeate analyses for particle size distribution of phosphorus.

7RWDO LURQ LQ WKH PHPEUDQH SHUPHDWHV VKRZV D PRUH UHJXODU SDWWHUQ ZLWK PRVW LURQ LQ SDUWLFXODWHV VL]HG ! ȝP )LJXUHE 7KUHHRIWKHVDPSOHVDW±RIWKHWRWDOLURQ DUHLQSDUWLFXODWHIRUP!ȝPZKHUHDVWKH)HEUXDU\VDPSOH continued overleaf... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:55 AM


Flush lifting handle Slam lock with SFNPWBCMFPQFOFS )PMEPQFOBSNIBOEMF Stainless hinges with UBNQFSQSPPGIBSEXBSF

4UBJOMFTTMJGUJOHTQSJOHGPS TNPPUIFBTZPQFSBUJPO

%SJQQSPPGHBTLFUFEESBJO DIBOOFMQSFWFOUTJOèMUSBUJPO

t"MMTUBJOMFTTTUFFMIBSEXBSF t8FMEFEUP$4"8 assures weld integrity

'BMMUISVQSPUFDUJPOHSBUJOH hinged, safety orange with lifting handle

t'MVTIEFTJHOFMJNJOBUFTUSJQQJOH t4USPOHXJUITUBOETQFEFTUSJBO & occasional traffic loads

3FDFTTFEQBEMPDLIBTQ

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27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 23

3/27/14 12:55 AM


Wastewater Treatment KDVWKHKLJKHVWYDOXHVDQGĂ&#x20AC;DWWHVWFXUYHZLWKRQO\RILWV 7KHVHDUHFRPPRQYHUWLFDOVHSDUDWLRQVIRUDGHTXDWHUHPRYDO LURQLQSDUWLFXODWHVVL]HG!Č?P RISDWKRJHQLFRUJDQLVPV

Figure 6b. Membrane permeate analyses for particle size distribution of iron.

Soil Leach Field with Septic Tank 7R XQGHUVWDQG KRZ D VWDQGDUG VRLO OHDFK ÂżHOG ZRXOG EHKDYH ZLWK WKH EC-P WHFKQRORJ\ D XQLW ZDV UHWURÂżWWHG DW 0$667&LQWRDQH[LVWLQJVHSWLFWDQNWULFNOLQJWRDQ2QWDULR VW\OHVRLOOHDFKÂżHOG7KHVRLOZDVVWDQGDUGL]HGZLWK& VDQGDQGVDQG\VLOWORDP3DQO\VLPHWHUVZHUHLQVWDOOHG ZLWKLQWKHVDQG\ORDPVRLODWDQGPPGHSWKV

Figure 7. On-going EC-P Study C3-1 for P removal in septic tank + soil leach field. High percentages of P removal are attained and generally improve with time.

)LJXUHVKRZVWKHUHVXOWVRIWKHRQJRLQJVWXG\$IWHUD IHZZHHNV73RIÂąPJ/LQWKHVHZDJHLVORZHUHGWR ÂąPJ/DWPPGHSWKLQWKHVRLOOHDFKÂżHOGWR ÂąPJ/DWPPDQGWRÂąPJ/DW PP 7KH VRLO ÂżOWHUV RXW DQG SUHFLSLWDWHV )H3 SDUWLFXODWHV 7KH VHSWLF ZDWHU SDVVLQJ WKURXJK DYHUDJHV  PJ/ 73  PJ/ 73 DQG  PJ/ 73 ZLWK LQFUHDVLQJ GHSWK RI VRLO IRU YHU\ KLJK SHUFHQWDJH UHPRYDOV RI   DQG !UHVSHFWLYHO\ 0$667& VWDII PHDVXUHG SRZHU FRQVXPSWLRQ WR EH  N:KUSHUGD\IRUWKLVVFDOHOHDFKÂżHOGRUDERXWÂą FHQWVDGD\IRUDWKUHHWRIRXUEHGURRPKRXVHDWSHDNĂ&#x20AC;RZ 7KLVZDVFRQVLVWHQWZLWKZDWWDJHPHDVXUHPHQWVDWRWKHUVLWHV ,W GRHV QRW LQFOXGH WKH UHFRPPHQGHG Ă&#x20AC;XVK SXPS WKDW XVHV DERXWN:KURUFHQWVDGD\ Conclusions The Waterloo EC-P â&#x201E;˘ WeFhQRORJ\ UePRYeV 3 IURP VeZDJe E\ PLPLFNLQJ Whe IRUPDWLRQ DQG IXQFWLRQ RI LURQULFh %hRUL]RQ VRLO ,W hDV EeeQ VXFFeVVIXOO\ WeVWeG DW D YDULeW\ RI ÂżeOG VLWeV DQG FRQGLWLRQV ,W LV WhRXJhW WhDW LQVROXEOe )e3 PLQeUDOV SUeFLSLWDWe LQ D ÂżOWUDWLRQ FRPSRQeQW IROORZLQJ SUeWUeDWPeQW OLNe D VeSWLF WDQN The ÂżOWUDWLRQ FRPSRQeQW FDQ Ee FOeDQ IRDP RU VDQGVRLO WhDW LV RWheUZLVe SRRU LQ 3UePRYDO FDSDFLW\ The IROORZLQJ FhDUDFWeULVWLFV DUe GePRQVWUDWeG ORZ eQeUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ WePSeUDWXUe LQGeSeQGeQFe QR eIIeFW RQ S+ DQG QR GLVSRVDO LVVXeV DV ZLWh FRQFeQWUDWeG VOXGJe RU VODJ 5eWURÂżWWLQJ Whe XQLW LQWR e[LVWLQJ FRQYeQWLRQDO VeSWLF V\VWePV PeDQV WhDW UeVLGeQFeV FORVe WR 3VeQVLWLYe ZDWeU ERGLeV FDQ LPSURYe Whe 3 UePRYDO IURP WheLU VeZDJe LQ D FRVW eIIeFWLYe PDQQeU Craig Jowett Ph.D., P.Eng., Yanqing Xu, Ph.D., Christopher James, Glenn Pembleton, and Christopher -RZHWW(,7DUHZLWK:DWHUORR%LRÂżOWHU6\VWHPV E-mail: craig.jowett@gmail.com (References are available from the authors.)

24 | March/April 2014

27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 24

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:56 AM


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Tom Chessman (back), Bill Docherty (centre), Stuart Leitch (front)

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27-Phosphorus Removal.indd 25

3/28/14 7:58 PM


Flow Measurement

Important considerations for choosing a mag meter

T

considerations that yoX PXst PaNe in order to Xse an electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter â&#x20AC;˘ ,s the flXid Eeing PeasXred condXctive" ,f the flXid is not condXctive an electroPagnetic floZ Peter Zill not ZorN â&#x20AC;˘ :hat is yoXr line si]e" This Zill deterPine the cost of the Peter â&#x20AC;˘ 'o yoX have sXfficient rooP to install this Peter" Typically an electroPagnetic floZ Peter has PiniPXP XpstreaP and doZnstreaP straight rXn reTXirePents in order to PeasXre flXid floZ accXrately )loZ distXrEers PXst Ee considered as Zell These inclXde PodXlating valves chePical inMection points and anything that ZoXld coPproPise the flXid floZ Eefore it is PeasXred Ey the electroPagnetic floZ Peter â&#x20AC;˘ :hat is the flXid Eeing PeasXred" ,s the PeasXred flXid corrosive" ,s it clean Zater or ZasteZater" These are relevant details Zhen evalXating the type of lining in the electroPagnetic floZ Peter &oPPon liners that are availaEle are hard rXEEer neoprene Teflon Tef]el and ceraPic +oZever these types of liners do coPe Zith a risN of delaPination $n electroPagnetic Peter Zith a fXsion-Eonded liner is recoPPended to avoid the possiEility of delaPination issXes altogether

he ideal starting point for Fhoosing a Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter is not Zith a PanXfaFtXrerÂśs speFiÂżFations EXt Zith the details of \oXr XniTXe appliFation (leFtroPagnetiF Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peters are often the Peter of FhoiFe Zhen Fonsidering Fost aFFXraF\ and longeYit\ There are seYeral steps to ensXre the right FhoiFe is Pade

What is your budget? +oZ PXFh haYe \oX Eeen alloFated in \oXr organi]ationÂśs EXdget" T\piFall\ Zhen Fhoosing a Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter the higher the aFFXraF\ the higher the Fost The eleFtroPagnetiF Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter has proven that it can provide a very high accXracy rate at a very reasonaEle cost <oXr retXrn on investPent 52, is typically less than si[ Ponths and the accXracy achieved can Ee as high as  to  of Ă&#x20AC;oZ rate (lectroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peters can Ee applied in a Zide range of indXstrial and PXnicipal applications Their priPary advantage is that they have no Poving parts $s a resXlt Paintenance is typically PiniPal 'epending on yoXr Ă&#x20AC;Xid Pedia andor Zater TXality the electrodes Pay need to Ee periodically cleaned according to the PanXfactXrerÂśs recoPPendations ([pected service life is  years :hen coPparing different electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peters Ee sXre to calcXlate the cost of installation and Paintenance The ne[t step is to aPorti]e the cost over its lifespan Review your application requirements 'ocXPenting and revieZing yoXr application reTXirePents inclXdes identifying the Ă&#x20AC;Xid Pedia Pedia tePperatXre Ă&#x20AC;oZ range and pressXre 3lease note that all electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peters only ZorN Zith condXctive liTXids )loZ of coPpressiEle Ă&#x20AC;Xids gases cannot Ee PeasXred Zith electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peters The type of electroPagnetic Peter that ZoXld ZorN Eest for yoXr application varies depending on Zhether yoXr Ă&#x20AC;Xid Pedia is drinNing or ZasteZater ,t also depends on the electrode Paterial 26 | March/April 2014

34-How to Mag Meter.indd 26

Electromagnetic flow meters can be applied in a wide range of industrial and municipal applications.

andor the liner or coating of the sensor that coPes in contact Zith the Pedia .noZing the Pedia Eeing PeasXred is only one part of Xnderstanding the overall application 6oPe electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peters are affected Ey Ă&#x20AC;Xid tePperatXre and operating pressXre The saPe electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter Xsed for a -psi application Pay not ZorN for a -psi application 0ost electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter speciÂżcation sheets indicate the speciÂżc pressXre and tePperatXre rating of the Peter in TXestion %e sXre the Peter yoX select has speciÂżcations that Zill Peet yoXr application needs :hat are the characteristics of the Ă&#x20AC;Xid are yoX PeasXring" There are several

Calculate your accuracy and range +oZ accXrate does yoXr Ă&#x20AC;oZ PeasXrePent need to Ee" (lectroPagnetic Peters in general are highly accXrate 0ost of theP offer - accXracy Zith no head loss :hether Xsing a fXllEore Pag Peter or a fXll-proÂżle insertion Pag Peter Ee sXre the Peter yoX choose offers precisely the accXracy needed $ccXracy for an electroPagnetic Ă&#x20AC;oZ Peter is Eased on the percent of reading accXracy This is the degree of precision Zith Zhich the Peter can PeasXre the indicated Ă&#x20AC;oZ rate at that Ă&#x20AC;oZ rate )or e[aPple if the PeterÂśs percent of reading accXracy is descriEed as  at  *30 this Peans that Zhile the Peter is reporting the Ă&#x20AC;oZ rate Eeing  *30 it coXld actXally Ee anyZhere froP  *30 - to  *30  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:56 AM


Flow Measurement

FPI Mag in use at industrial site

netic Ă&#x20AC;ow meter depends greatly on the line size, type of meter chosen, and the location in your application For smaller line sizes ´ and under , a full-bore electromagnetic Ă&#x20AC;ow meter may be the best choice For larger line sizes, the heavier weight of fullbore meters typically requires the use of a crane, along with the necessary extra personnel, working space, and installation time $ full-proÂżle insertion meter, on the

other hand, can provide an economical exception to costly installation on larger line sizes :ith some meters the line must be shut down to install Ă&#x20AC;anges to accept a traditional full-bore type Ă&#x20AC;ow meter $ full-proÂżle insertion meter, however, can be installed via hot tap while under pressure, thus avoiding taking the line out of service For more information, visit www.mccrometer.com

Turndown must be considered in the selection process for an electromagnetic Ă&#x20AC;ow meter Turndown is the Ă&#x20AC;ow range of the meter, from the highest rate of Ă&#x20AC;ow to the lowest rate of Ă&#x20AC;ow it can measure accurately, within the meterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s percent of reading accuracy speciÂżcation The typical turndown ratio for an electromagnetic Ă&#x20AC;ow meter is  to  )or e[ample, if the ma[imum Ă&#x20AC;ow rate is  *30, this electromagnetic Ă&#x20AC;ow meter can read down to  *30 and maintain a spec accuracy of - of Ă&#x20AC;ow rate Upstream/downstream piping ,f you place Ă&#x20AC;ow meters too close to pumps, valve elbows, and other obstructions, unstable or irregular Ă&#x20AC;ows can impact performance (lectromagnetic Ă&#x20AC;ow meters typically require minimal upstream and downstream straight run pipe This can depend on whether the meter is part of a new piping proMect, a retroÂżt, or a line e[pansion Installation requirements also vary, depending on whether a full-bore mag meter or a full-proÂżle insertion meter is chosen 1early all maMor electromagnetic Ă&#x20AC;ow meter technologies require a manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speciÂżed pipe diameter straight run upstream and downstream from the meter to ensure a stable Ă&#x20AC;ow proÂżle Failure to comply with the manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s installation requirements often leads to either poor accuracy or inconsistent performance $lways checN the mag meter speciÂżcation sheets to verify the upstream and downstream straight run requirements %e sure the meter you select will Âżt in the spot for which it is intended Ease of installation The ease of installing an electromagwww.esemag.com

34-How to Mag Meter.indd 27

March/April 2014 | 27

3/27/14 12:57 AM


Guest Comment

Soil analysisâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;what the lab certificate doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t tell you By Dr. George Duncan

T

here is almost universal acceptance in the site assessment industry that the certiÂżcate oI analysis Irom an accredited laboratory gives an accurate estimation oI the concentrations oI each parameter in the samples submitted. There are good reasons Ior this. $ll accredited labs are regularly checked by an outside agency, which sends out perIormance testing samples twice yearly. It also conducts quality audits on a regular basis to ensure the labâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quality control system is both written down and being adhered to. The certiÂżcate oI analysis issued by the lab lists the concentration oI each parameter, the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s acceptable limit Ior that parameter, the Âł5eporting 'etection /imit´ 5'/ Ior the lab method used, and the labâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in-house quality control results. It also lists the date samples were taken and received, and the date the certiÂżcate was issued. It ÂłĂ&#x20AC;ags´ against any anomalies or departures Irom accepted protocols and provides a host oI other inIormation. Even a single sample sent to the lab produces a si[-to-eight page certiÂżcate oI analysis. 6o what could be wrong with that" 8nIortunately, lots Does the sample sent to the lab have the same concentration oI contaminants as the area oI the site it was taken Irom" 2ne thing is Ior sure, contaminants in soil are never evenly distributed and every site is diIIerent. The consultantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mob is to Âżnd out where they are and then to remove them. It is how this is currently being done that desperately needs attention. There are two problems that must be addressed beIore the results received Irom the lab can be accepted as reliable estimates oI the levels in the Âżeld. The sample sent to the lab should be a representative sample oI the area being sampled; and the lab should get a representative sample out oI the bottle to run the analyses. $ctually, there is an even more Iundamental problem that

28 | March/April 2014

18- Soil Analysis.indd 28

A typical picture of a 30 m3 soil pile. How can a 150 g sample be representative?

needs to be addressed. Is it possible Ior lab-sized samples weighing ~100 grams to be representative oI many tonnes oI soil? These questions are essentially being ignored and the reason seems tied to the Iact that either the legislators Iorgot to address the problem or it was an Âłinconvenient truthâ&#x20AC;? that had no easy answer. 2ntarioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s %rownÂżelds 5egulation 10 says that the consultant Âłshall gather representative samples...â&#x20AC;? but gives no indication how this should be done. $dditionally, it says the consultant shall set Data Quality Objectives, which Âłoutline the overall level oI uncertainty that a QualiÂżed 3erson will accept in collecting Âżeld data in order to develop a &onceptual 6ite 0odel.â&#x20AC;? $gain it gives no instruction as to what is acceptable. Worse than that, regulations instruct consultants to sample soil piles by taking at least one sample every 50m3 or, iI importing Âżll to a site, at least one sample every 150 m3. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one lab sample every 0-100 tonnes oI soil Ior piles and one lab sample Ior every 50 tonnes oI

imported Âżll. Even iI sample numbers are quadrupled, results are still not even in the statistical ballpark. $ recent court-case in Ontario illustrates the problems with this approach. $ dig-and-dump site cleanup was underway, when the 3rovincial Environmental OIÂżcer drove by and noticed a lump oI black goo Ialling into a dump truck Irom an e[cavator bucket. The inspector called in, climbed up the truck and grabbed a sample oI the goo. 3resto $nalysis oI the goo showed it to be unÂżt Ior dumping with the rest oI the hundreds oI tonnes oI soil in the local landÂżll to which it was being hauled. The company was charged and Âżned 15,000 The appeals court reIused an appeal because the %rownÂżelds 5egulation does not speciIy the size oI sample to be taken. This decision should make every consultant, contractor and site owner very nervous indeed It is also very unIair. Contaminant levels in soil can vary wildly, even in samples taken within a Iew Ieet oI each other. Contaminants enter the soil as solid particulates or as

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:57 AM


Guest Comment liquids, which can be adsorbed and absorbed by the soil. Common examples of solid particulates are from sand-blasting operations, where lead paint is removed from steel equipment and falls onto the soil. Sand-blasting material itself can be a major source of contaminants, since older material was produced from nickel-re¿ning slag. The most common example of liquid contaminants would be from gas stations, where fuel spillage around pump islands or leakage from storage tanks and delivery lines, contaminate the soil. In no case does the contaminant uniformly distribute itself throughout the soil. Rather, it follows a variety of pathways of least resistance, depending on the soil types. It is up to the consultant – usually with very limited historical information – to estimate, or guess, how the contaminants are spread across the site, both horizontally and vertically. There is a gaping chasm in sampling requirements between what is necessary for contaminant distribution and what legislation deems necessary. Sending a

Table 1: Duplicate soil samples for PAH analysis taken from the same location on a site.

100-150 gram sample l ffrom a bborehole h l to the lab for contaminant analysis and

expecting i the h answer to bbe an accurate description of what’s in the many tonnes

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18- Soil Analysis.indd 29



(USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366

March/April 2014 | 29

3/27/14 12:57 AM


Guest Comment Table 3 shows results of 12 composite samples.

Table 2 showing duplicate soil samples.

Parameter

Initial Result

Duplicate Result

%RPD

Benzene

6.02

1.61

116

Toluene

16.8

2.19

154

Ethylbenzene

10.5

0.75

173

Total Xylenes

60.7

10.8

140

Fraction F1

754

17

191

Fraction F2

301

229

27

Fraction F3

314

266

17

Fraction F4

95

65

38

of soil around the borehole is not just faulty, it is insane. For example, 5-10 grams from sample bottles are taken for metal analysis, but only 1-1.5 grams of this are actually analyzed after pulverizing. Three-tofour grams are sent in a separate bottle for VOC analysis or for BTEX/F1 analysis, and ~10 grams are taken for PAHs. These sampling and analysis rules follow the Regulation’s recommended protocols. However, they are a clear indication of what happens when you choose to ignore the most fundamental rule of soil sampling: “make sure your sample is representative of the whole.” If the sample sent to the lab is not representative of the area from which it was taken, no amount of careful analysis at the lab will produce a meaningful result. Real-life scenarios Before being redeveloped as a warehouse, a former metal fabrication site used sand-blasting and paint-spraying for many years, and is to undergo a Phase 2 environmental site assessment. It is unknown where the blasting sand was dumped, so the consultant drills a number of boreholes and collects samples into laboratory-provided bottles. Screen analysis indicates that the site soil is coarse sand with an average particle size of 1 mm3. Samples are collected into 100 mL soil jars and submitted for 30 | March/April 2014

18- Soil Analysis.indd 30

Sample #

analysis. The lab screens the soil through a 2 mm sieve, discards the +2 mm fraction, then withdraws 5 - 10 grams from the bottle, pulverizing this to pass through a 300 μm (0.3 mm) sieve. Yet, how many soil particles were taken from the sample bottle for pulverizing? If all the soil particles, including the lead paint particles, are perfect 1 mm cubes, then 1 cm3 of soil, approximately 1.5 grams, contains a maximum of 1000 particles. In reality, due to airspace, there are about half this number or 500 particles. So, if the lab withdraws a 7 gram sub-sample from the bottle for pulverizing to minus 300 μm before withdrawing a cut for analysis, there are 3,500 particles in the sample. Here’s where it gets interesting. Assume the true lead concentration in this area of the site is 600 mg/Kg (Five times the allowable Ontario limit of 120 mg/Kg). If just one of the 3,500 particles is lead paint, the lab certi cate will report the lead concentration as 1620 mg/Kg. This is more than 13 times the true value. One cubic-millimeter of lead, one “soil” particle, weighs 11.34 mg. Therefore, 11.34 mg of lead in a 7 gram sample represents a concentration of 1620 mg/Kg of lead. If two particles of lead are present, the lab will report 3240 mg/ Kg and if no lead particles are present,

Arsenic (O. Reg 153 Limit = 18ug/g)

1

4

2

5

3

34

4

86

5

20

6

140

7

72

8

55

9

6

10

16

11

13

12

32

the lab will report a “non-detect.” However the true value for the area is 600 mg/Kg! A 7 gram sub-sample can be pulverized to the consistency of ne our, but it won’t correct seriously wrong results. Furthermore, it is impossible for any 7 gram sample to give you a correct result because the sample is too small to be able to produce the correct answer! In order to have a hope of getting the correct answer, the sample size analyzed would have to be at least 18.9 grams, with only one lead particle in the sample (11.34 mg lead in 18.9 g of sample = 600 mg/Kg). For the lab analysis to indicate something close to a correct result, the sample size should be 50 - 100 grams and all of it should be analyzed for lead. The problem is, of course, that labs cannot handle anywhere close to these sample sizes. So many consultants are left scratching their heads when duplicate samples from the same location produce widely different results. What needs to be done? The lead limit in soil is 120 mg/Kg. For cadmium in a potable groundwater site it is 1.9 mg/Kg and for benzene it is 0.32 mg/Kg. Trying to get meaningful results at these levels from small soil samples is futile. The analysis results often disagree by well over 100 per cent as shown in the examples of site cleanups, where duplicate soil samples were taken for analysis. Table 1 shows PAH results

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March/April 2014 | 31

3/27/14 12:58 AM


Guest Comment Table 4: O. Reg 153/04 Sampling Protocol for Sampling Soil Piles. Pile Volume

Field Screening Samples

Samples for Laboratory Analysis

< 50 m3

A minimum of five samples

A minimum of one sample

>50 m3 to 150 m3

A minimum of 15 samples

A minimum of three samples

>150 m3 to 500 m3

A minimum of 30 samples

A minimum of five samples

>500 m3 to 1500 m3

A minimum of 50 samples

A minimum of 10 samples

>1500 m3

A minimum of 75 samples

A minimum of 15 samples

for a medium fine sandy soil. Duplicate soil samples for PAH analysis taken from the same location on a site. Note the 5-fold difference in anthracene, the 2-fold difference in benzo(b)fluoranthene and the 2-fold difference in benzo(a)pyrene. Table 2 shows duplicate clay soil samples for BTEX/F1-F4 analysis taken from the Ă&#x20AC;oor of an e[caYation There are other factors in play, helping to make it impossible to get the â&#x20AC;&#x153;rightâ&#x20AC;? answer with such small samples For BTEX components, the total sample analyzed is only  -  grams 1ote the number of 53's that are well oYer 1 per cent and remember that any e[ceedance of a regulatory limit by any amount needs to be cleaned up or risk-assessed What does this say about the current practice of digging out contaminated soil until the lab conÂżrmation samples

show less than the allowable limits? Table 3 shows the results of 12 composite soil samples taken from the same soil pile and analyzed for arsenic Where would you dispose of this soil? Based on the current rules under 2 5eg 13/4, you would haYe to analyze at least one sample ,f that sample was 1 or 2 or 9 to 11, you would put it back in the pit and may end up getting sued for failure to perform ,f it was 3 to , you would leach-test it and send it, at high cost, to the landÂżll 2ntario 5eg 13/4 mandates the minimum number of lab samples to be taken from soil piles as shown in Table 4 For the pile in the picture, that number is one sample for up to  m3 (3 truck loads  ,f you are bringing soil on to a site, it gets eYen worse, since your only need one lab sample for up to 1 m3 (1 truck loads 

These e[amples may seem to be e[treme, but they are not uncommon EYery consultant has had the frustrating e[perience of getting lab results that Must donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seem to make sense when the duplicates are Yarying widely &urrent protocols are based on Ă&#x20AC;awed reasoning Efforts to increase accuracy and quality control at the laboratory are quite misplaced when the submitted samples cannot produce a meaningful result 1ot eYery site inYestigation is deeply Ă&#x20AC;awed, because many sites are quite â&#x20AC;&#x153;cleanâ&#x20AC;? to begin with +oweYer, the coarser the soil and the lower the allowable limit, the greater the risk of declaring dirtysites clean and clean-sites dirty Dr. George Duncan, M.Sc., Ph.D., P.Geo., C. Chem., Q.P., is with A & A Environmental Consultants Inc. E-mail: gduncan@aaenvironmental.ca

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3/28/14 8:13 PM


Health & Safety

BC increases enforcement of its dust regs

By Powell B. Maxfield

C

ombustible dust explosions in two British Columbia sawmills in the winter of 2012 led to WorkSafeBC, the B.C. Safety Authority, and Fire Marshall requiring and enforcing compliance with regulatory requirements. Owners, engineers, contractors, and suppliers associated with facilities that have combustible dust hazards will need to follow the WorkSafeBC directives. While there are many wood dust and wood working facilities in British Columbia, WorkSafeBC requirements are for “combustible dusts.” This includes agriculture products, chemical dusts, metal dusts, plastic dusts and carbonaceous (coal, peat and cellulose) dust. This article outlines requirements as they relate to heating, ventilation and dust collection systems. Combustible dusts are de¿ned by the 1ational Fire 3revention Association (1F3A) as, “a ¿nely divided combustible particulate solid that presents a Àash ¿re hazard or explosion hazard

A dust collection system’s duct work needs to meet criteria such as minimum transport velocity and acceptable surface temperatures.

when suspended in air.” A deÀagration (a subsonic explosion) hazard exists when there is an approximately 3 mm layer of dust on horizontal surfaces, or suspended in air at a concen-

tration in excess of 40g/m3. In most industrial facilities with combustible dusts, mechanical dust collection systems are installed to capture and reduce the accumulation of dust to avoid

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3/27/14 12:59 AM


Industrial Wastewater

3 Fs approach helps solve Albertaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tailings pond problems By Jack Schneider, Sr.

A

lbertaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oil sands producers have become a major driver of Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy. However with Âżnancial rewards have come environmental costs associated with production. These can generally be divided into two categories: air pollution, and water or tailings ponds contamination. It currently takes over three barrels of water to produce one barrel of crude oil. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, current oil sands fresh water usage is approximately 170 million cubic meters per year. This is just over 43 per cent of the City of Torontoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consumption in 2010. Since our water resources are limited and shrinking, recycling is necessary. This is precisely what tailings ponds are designed for â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to act as recycling deposits for water reuse in the primary stages of bitumen separation. The oil sands process is simple in concept. Bitumen is washed from the sand using hot water and solvents. It then Ă&#x20AC;oats to the surface, where it is skimmed off for further reÂżning. This process produces tailings water that contains residual oil, heavy metals, sand, solvents and very Âżne particles of clays called Âżnes. Tailings water is sent to a pond where it is reused in the primary extraction phase, thus reducing the volume of fresh water needed. However in the tailings ponds, water is contaminated with residual oil, and remaining toxic solvents accumulate through continuous recycling. Heavy metals also accumulate during recycling, and the low suspended gravity of Âżnes keep them suspended in water, sometimes for years. Federal and provincial governments, as well as oil sands producers, recognize the environmental repercussions. The Alberta Government, through the Energy Resources Conservation Board or Alberta Energy Regulator, issued Directive 074 in 2009, which set out emission compliance regulations for oil sands producers. In 2013, it reported that, â&#x20AC;&#x153;com-

36 | March/April 2014

41-Innovation tailings ponds.indd 36

Aerial view of the Athabasca Oil Sands in July 2009. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon using EO-1 ALI data courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team.

panies failed to comply with pre-existing agreements to limit the amount of water used in tar sands extraction and processing, as well as the amount of polluted water that ends up in the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growing toxic tailings ponds.â&#x20AC;?

Heavy metals also accumulate during recycling, and the low suspended gravity of fines keep them suspended in water, sometimes for years. That is not to say that the companies have not been working towards solving the emissions problems. In fact, Suncor has spent over $1.3 billion on its TROâ&#x201E;˘ tailing management process. This process captures Âżnes and many of the other contaminants through Ă&#x20AC;occulation. Floc cake is then dried and used as landÂżll in

the mined areas, which are then fertilized, seeded, treed and returned to forest. In 2012, fourteen oil sands producers formed the Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, in order to collaboratively explore and implement innovative concepts to solve the tailings pond problem. The alliance has identiÂżed tailings ponds as their environmental priority area. In Northern Alberta alone, there are over 176 km2 of tailings ponds, containing an estimated 187 billion gallons of liquid. The Pembina Institute estimates the cost of cleaning them, at $8 to $10 billon. Everyday, producers increase the contents of these ponds by 52,630,000 gallons and expect production to increase over 40 per cent in the next 20 years. This massive problem is being addressed by the producers and they formed the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to supply information to the public. In November 2013, CAPP published the 2013 Responsible Cana-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 12:59 AM


Industrial Wastewater

Hydro’s Froth Cap produced by a SAR Aerator and natural bacteria in the water.

dian Energy Report. The report details industry performance in key areas such as the environmental priority area and is intended to promote and enable industry performance over time.

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41-Innovation tailings ponds.indd 37

Hydro Processing‘s technologies have applications in a variety of industries, but the most compelling area is tailings pond remediation. The “3 Fs” approach to the problem Zill be a signi¿cant fac-

tor in cleaning up existing ponds and “clean as you go” methodologies going forward. Patented technologies for Flotation, Flocculation and the building of a Froth Cap, require low cost energy inputs, have no moving parts, are easily retro¿tted, and cost-effective. Hydro Processing’s Flotation reactor has proven capabilities in separating extremely low amounts of oil from water. These reactors can be installed to capture residual oil in water destined for tailings ponds. The nano and micro-size bubble reactor is able to capture ¿nely dispersed oils and Àoat them in a tank for skimming, or into a boomed pond area for further collection. This will reduce the oil in the pond and increase the plant’s primary recovery. Similar reactors will be used to distribute Flocculant in order to capture and retain ¿nes and sand. Hydro Processing’s reactors have proven extremely ef¿cient in the distribution of Àocculants, due to the nature of the centrifugal forces residing within the chamber. As a result, distribution becomes almost in-

March/April 2014 | 37

3/27/14 1:00 AM


Industrial Wastewater

Case 5040

Perpetrator: Fuel Oil Product in Sump Pit Fuel oil product in a sump pit is a unique situation. The remediation approach that will be needed to restore the environment back to normal will also have to be unique. Finding the source of the contamination and completing the remediation of impacted soil and water will require the combined knowledge of an experienced team of environmental professionals with knowledge of the most up-to-date regulatory requirements. Rochon Environmental determines the source of the environmental contamination so that the best remediation approach can be implemented without recourse. Getting the environmental remediation done right the ďŹ rst time minimizes liability, helps restore the environment and gets our clientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lives back to normal. Emergency response: Available 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

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41-Innovation tailings ponds.indd 38

VWDQWDQGHYHQZLWKOHVVĂ&#x20AC;RFFXODQWEHLQJFRQVXPHG The Froth Cap FDQ WheQ Ee XVeG RQ Whe SRQGV WR IXUWheU UePeGLDWe WheP ZLWh D FRPELQDWLRQ RI R[\JeQDWeG IURWh DQG EDFWeULD 1DQR DQG PLFUR EXEEOeV SURGXFeG E\ +\GURÂśV UeDFWRU R[\JeQDWe Whe ZDWeU SDVVLQJ WhURXJh LW XS WR  SeU FeQW LQ D VLQJOe SDVV ThLV R[\JeQDWeG ZDWeU SURYLGeV D SeUIeFW eQYLURQPeQW IRU DeURELF EDFWeULD WR WhULYe DQG JURZ 6LPLODUO\ WR Whe GLVWULEXWLRQ RI Ă&#x20AC;RFFXODQWV EDFWeULD DQG QXWULeQWV IRU Whe EDFWeULD DUe LQWURGXFeG LQWR Whe UeDFWRU DQG DUe GLVWULEXWeG LQ Whe IURWh ZhLFh VSUeDGV RYeU Whe SRQG TheUe DUe e[LVWLQJ ÂłeQJLQeeUeG´ DQG QDWXUDOO\ RFFXUULQJ VSeFLDOW\ EDFWeULD WhDW ÂłeDW´ RLO DQG RWheU FRQWDPLQDQWV IRXQG LQ WDLOLQJV SRQGV 0DQ\ EDFWeULD QDWXUDOO\ VeFUeWe VXUIDFWDQWV WhDW DOWeU Whe VXUIDFe WeQVLRQ RI ZDWeU OLNe VRDS GeWeUJeQW ThLV DOORZV VWDEOe EXEEOe GeYeORSPeQW RQ Whe VXUIDFe RI Whe ZDWeU The QDQR DQG PLFUR EXEEOeV SURGXFeG E\ Whe UeDFWRU FUeDWe D YeU\ VWDEOe ORQJ-ODVWLQJ IURWh ZhLFh LV R[\JeQ DQG QXWULeQW eQULFheG DQG ORDGeG ZLWh EDFWeULD WhDW ZLOO FRQVXPe SROOXWDQWV LQ Whe SRQG

Once the pollutant is consumed, the bacteria die, as there is no more food for them to subsist on. The pond is then able to find its own natural environmental balance. ,Q QDWXUe WheVe EDFWeULD ZRXOG UePeGLDWe Whe SRQG RYeU WLPe %\ UeOeDVLQJ PDVVLYe QXPEeUV RI EDFWeULD DQG VXSSO\LQJ WheP ZLWh QXWULeQWV DQG R[\JeQ QDWXUDO UePeGLDWLRQ FDQ Ee UeGXFeG IURP \eDUV WR PRQWhV RU ZeeNV 2QFe Whe SROOXWDQW LV FRQVXPeG Whe EDFWeULD GLe DV WheUe LV QR PRUe IRRG IRU WheP WR VXEVLVW RQ The SRQG LV WheQ DEOe WR ¿QG LWV RZQ QDWXUDO eQYLURQPeQWDO EDODQFe 5eVeDUFheUV ZRUNLQJ ZLWh +\GUR 3URFeVVLQJ DUe JURZLQJ QDWXUDO EDFWeULD WhDW ZLOO Ee DEOe WR FRQVXPe GLI¿FXOW WR hDQGOe SROOXWDQWV VXFh DV heDY\ PeWDOV DQG RWheU FRQWDPLQDQWV LQ LQGLYLGXDO SRQGV %\ hDUYeVWLQJ EDFWeULD LQ D VSeFL¿F SRQG JURZLQJ PDVVLYe QXPEeUV RI WheP DQG UeLQWURGXFLQJ WheP LQWR Whe SRQG WhURXJh Whe )URWh &DS eDFh SRQG ZLOO Ee ³QDWXUDOO\´ UePeGLDWeG XVLQJ LWV RZQ EDFWeULD $QRWheU EeQe¿W RI Whe )URWh &DS LV WhDW ZhLOe EeLQJ UePeGLDWeG Whe SRQGV GR QRW ORRN OLNe ODNeV IURP Whe DLU 2IWeQ PLJUDWRU\ ELUGV FRQIXVe Whe WDLOLQJV SRQGV IRU ZDWeU ERGLeV DQG ODQG ZLWh WUDJLF UeVXOWV )RU e[DPSOe LQ $SULO  RYeU  ELUGV DQG ZDWeUIRZO ZeUe NLOOeG DIWeU ODQGLQJ LQ D WDLOLQJV SRQG QeDU )RUW 0F0XUUD\ $OEeUWD +\GUR 3URFeVVLQJ FRQWLQXeV WR ZRUN ZLWh Whe 8QLYeUVLW\ RI &DOJDU\œV %LRORJ\ 'eSDUWPeQW 6RXWheUQ $OEeUWD ,QVWLWXWe RI TeFhQRORJ\ ,QQRYDWe &DOJDU\ $OEeUWD ,QQRYDWeV $OEeUWD &eQWeU IRU $GYDQFeG 01T PLFUR DQG QDQR WeFhQRORJLeV

3URGXFWV DQG &26,$ WRZDUGV Whe VXFFeVVIXO LQVWDOODWLRQ RI WheVe WeFhQRORJLeV LQ $OEeUWDÂśV RLO VDQGV For further information, E-mail: info@hpmltd.ca Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 1:00 AM


41-Innovation tailings ponds.indd 39

3/28/14 8:31 PM


Innovations

Waterless toilet harnesses the sun to sanitize waste

A

toilet fueled by the sun is being developed to help some of the 2.5 billion people around the world lacking safe and sustainable sanitation. It was unveiled in India recently. The self-contained, waterless toilet, designed and built using a $777,000 grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, has the capability of heating human waste to a high enough temperature to sterilize it and create biochar, a highly porous charcoal. According to project principal investigator, Karl Linden of the University of Colorado Boulder, the biochar can be used to both increase crop yields and sequester carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The project is part of the Gates Foundation’s “Reinvent the Toilet Challenge,” an effort to develop a next-generation toilet that can be used to disinfect liquid and solid waste, while generating useful end products, both in developing and developed nations.

CU-Boulder postdoctoral researcher Tesfayohanes Yakob, left, and research engineer Dana Haushulz are shown here with the solar-thermal toilet.

The awards recognize researchers who are developing ways to manage

human waste that will help improve the health and lives of people around the

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40 | March/April 2014

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Innovations world. Unsafe methods to capture and treat human waste result in serious health problems and death. Food and water tainted with pathogens from fecal matter cause the deaths of roughly 700,000 children each year. Linden’s team is one of 16 around the world funded by the “Reinvent the Toilet Challenge” since 2011. All shipped their inventions to Delhi, where they were on display for scientists, engineers and dignitaries. The CU-Boulder invention consists of eight parabolic mirrors that focus concentrated sunlight to a spot no larger than a postage stamp on a quartz-glass rod connected to eight bundles of ¿ber-optic cables. Each of these consists of thousands of intertwined, fused ¿bers. Energy generated by the sun and transferred to the ¿ber-optic cable system can heat the reaction chamber to over 315 degrees Celsius, to treat the waste material, disinfect pathogens in both feces and urine and produce biochar. Biochar can be used in agricultural areas to hold in nutrients and bring more stability to the soils. According to

Linden, a soil mixture containing 10 per cent biochar can hold up to 50 per cent more water and increase the availability of plant nutrients. It can also be used as fuel, providing energy comparable to that of commercial charcoal. Linden says that, while the idea of concentrating solar energy is not new, transmitting it Àexibly to a customiz-

Concentrating solar energy is not new, transmitting it flexibly to a customizable location via fiber-optic cables is the really unique aspect of this project. able location via ¿ber-optic cables is the really unique aspect of this project. Tests have shown that each of the eight ¿ber-optic cables can produce between 80 and 90 watts of energy, meaning the whole system can deliver up to 700 watts of energy into the reaction chamber. In late December, tests at CU-Boulder showed the solar energy directed into the

reaction chamber could easily boil water and effectively carbonize solid waste. The current toilet has been created to serve four to six people a day. However, a larger facility that could serve several households simultaneously is under design, with the target of meeting a cost level of ¿ve cents a day per user set by the Gates Foundation. The CU-Boulder team is now applying for phase two of the Gates Foundation grant to develop a ¿eld-worthy system to deploy in a developing country based on their current design. They will also assess other technologies that may enhance the toilet system, including the use of high-temperature Àuids that can collect, retain and deliver heat. Other institutional winners of the grants range from Caltech to Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands and the National University of Singapore. Article and photo courtesy of the University of Colorado Boulder. For more information visit: www.colorado.edu/news

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Tel. +1 800 465 6171 or +1 450 652 0665 info.canada@kemira.com www.kemira.com

March/April 2014 | 41

3/27/14 1:01 AM


Clarification

Dissolved Air Flotation is a tried and tested clarification technology By Michael Albanese

D

issolved Air Flotation (DAF), a teFKnoloJ\ ¿rst introdXFed in tKe SetroFKePiFal indXstr\, Kas Eeen aroXnd Ior over Iort\ \ears in tKe Zater and ZasteZater ParNet ,t Kas Iallen oXt oI IavoXr in PXniFiSal ZasteZater aSSliFations, ZKere it Zas Postl\ Xsed Ior slXdJe tKiFNeninJ in PediXP to larJe PXniFiSalities +oZever, tKis Flari¿Fation technology is still alive and doing very Zell in other areas DAF is still Xsed e[tensively Ior ZasteZater treatPent in Iood Slants, oil and gas, Pining, SXlS and SaSer, and Pany tySes oI indXstries ,t is also a very good ¿t Ior clari¿cation in drinNing Zater treatPent, esSecially Ior diI¿cXlt to ÀoccXlate, loZ tePSeratXre, and coloXred Zaters, and Zaters sXEMect to algae blooms. 6o, Zhy has this technology lost groXnd in mXniciSal ZasteZater aSSlications" ,t is becaXse oI where it Zas Xsed, i.e., Srimarily Ior slXdge thicNening oI Zaste activated slXdge. ,nIeed going to a DAF Xnit Irom a clari¿er ZoXld be betZeen . to  dry solids, Zith the obMective being to thicNen these solids to -, XsXally beIore digestion. Many other technologies have taNen over this IXnction, namely rotary drXm thicNeners, gravity belt thicNeners and centriIXges. 7hese are considered to be someZhat more modern devices. %Xt, Ior indXstrial aSSlications and mXniciSal drinNing Zater, other technologies have not displaced DAF, becaXse they cannot replicate its bene¿ts. DAF ZorNs e[tremely Zell Ior Zaters that have Iats, oils, grease, or very ¿ne particles. 6o, it has a mXch Zider range oI Xse than MXst Zaste activated slXdge thicNening. DAF can be Xsed by itselI as a clari¿er. :hen Xsed Zith chemistry, sXch as a coagXlant and a ÀoccXlent, it becomes a physicalchemical process. A properly IXnctioning DAF Xnit Zill remove - oI 7otal 6Xspended 6olids (766), - oI Fats, 2ils *rease (F2*) and -

42 | March/April 2014

33-DAF tried tested tech.indd 42

DAF unit installed at a cookie factory.

Large DAF units at a meat packing operation.

oI insolXble %iochemical 2[ygen Demand (BOD). 7he technology oI DAF has not changed a lot over the years. 7he main body consists oI a steel (or concrete) tanN, Zith a sNimmer blade arrangement to remove Àoating slXdge. 7he tanN can be rectangXlar or roXnd. :here the technology has evolved is in the pXmp recircXlation and satXration tanN. 6ome later model DAF Xnits also oIIer internal inclined plates, Zhich are ideal in loZ solids applications. /et¶s ¿rst Xnderstand hoZ Dissolved Air Flotation actXally ZorNs. A DAF Xnit ZoXld MXst be a gravity separator (essentially a sinNÀoat tanN) iI it Zere not Ior the air being introdXced. ,n DAF,

micro-si]ed air bXbbles are added to the Zater, providing bXoyancy to the impXrities to be separated. 7hese Zill Àoat to the sXrIace, and Zill Iorm a slXdge layer, ready Ior separation. 5emoval perIormance is largely dependent on chemical pre-treatment oI the Zater. 7his process mXst be optimi]ed, thXs creating Àoc particles to Zhich the micro bXbbles can easily attach and Àoat to the sXrIace. 7his slXdge layer is sNimmed oII Zith a top sNimmer system and collected in the slXdge compartment Ior discharge. 7he type oI chemicals and dosing rates are an important Iactor in the design oI DAF treatment systems and can XsXally be obtained by Mar testing.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 1:01 AM


Clarification

DAF pilot unit on trailer.

DAF schematic

+HDY\ VROLGV ZKLFK ZLOO QRW Ã&#x20AC;RDW ZLOO VLQN WR WKH ERWWRP RI WKH Ã&#x20AC;RWDWLRQ unit and will be discharged with outlet YalYes :hile the solids Ã&#x20AC;ocs are being separated and skimmed off, cleaned, treated water is leaving the unit through the efÃ&#x20AC;uent compartment The most common way to introduce the air to the DAF unit is via a recycle pump system. A fraction of the treated water leaving the unit is recirculated to the inlet. Within this loop air is intro-

duced to create micro-sized air bubbles. Older DAF systems had a big saturation tank, where pressurized air was introduced and mixed with the recycle pump Ã&#x20AC;ow. 0odern systems use multistage centrifugal pumps, that are able to tolerate a certain amount of air Ã&#x20AC;owing right through their impellers and chambers. This eliminates the need for a big, pressure-rated saturation tank. Air is usually injected right at the pump, and it does most of the air/water mixing.

The recirculation pump pressurises water to approximately 6 bar and saturates it with a controlled amount of air. Saturated recirculation water is collected in a recirculation tank and distributed at points underneath the DAF unit. Small air bubbles are formed by means of sudden depressurisation of the recirculation water with ball valves. The small size of the air bubbles (300 micron is essential for the ef¿ciency of the Ã&#x20AC;otation unit. This air is what

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33-DAF tried tested tech.indd 43

March/April 2014 | 43

3/27/14 1:01 AM


Clarification DWWDFKHV WR VROLGV SDUWLFOHV DQG Ă&#x20AC;RDWV them to the surface. $t the surface of the Ă&#x20AC;otatLoQ uQLt a sludge thickener is installed to dewater the sludge. 7he skimmer skims off Ă&#x20AC;oating sludge into a sludge compartment. ,ts speed can Ee Yaried to inĂ&#x20AC;uence dr\ solids content of the sludge. The per cent of dr\ solids can also Ee inĂ&#x20AC;uenced E\ the water leYel in the unit. ,n general dr\ solids Eeing remoYed E\ the skimmer unit are between 4-12 per cent. DAF units tend to do the work of graYit\ clariÂżers in a much smaller footprint. It is common to Âżnd these units in industrial facilities not onl\ as primar\ clariÂżers but also as secondar\ clariÂżers following biological treatment. In the last few \ears 0oYing %ed %ioÂżlm 5eactor 0%%5 treatment s\stems have become popular in industrial applications because of their robustness and abilit\ to resist the Ă&#x20AC;uctuating loads t\pical of such facilities. +owever 0%-

%5s produce a ver\ light Ă&#x20AC;uff\ secondar\ sludge which is difÂżcult to settle with conventional clariÂżers but great for a DAF unit. This makes it a perfect application. Important considerations when designing a DAF s\stem are compressed air suppl\ inĂ&#x20AC;uent Ă&#x20AC;ow eTuali]ation

Ă&#x20AC;ows Ă&#x20AC;uctuate throughout an\ given da\ depending on production and shifts determining timing of Ă&#x20AC;ows is also ver\ important as design criteria. DAF treatment technolog\ is easil\ piloted on site to conÂżrm treatment results. 3iloting is highl\ recommended for unusual applications to determine treatabilit\ of the water. 5esults from these tests can be utili]ed to effectivel\ design a full-scale s\stem. <ou will still Âżnd a lot of Dissolved Air Flotation s\stems being used in industrial facilities including oil and gas plants automotive industr\ paint Âżnishing operations food processors chemical plants pulp and paper mills mining operations chemical plants beef pork and chicken processing facilities. And letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not forget drinking water treatment plants as wellâ&#x20AC;Ś.

Piloting is highly recommended for unusual applications to determine treatability of the water. adeTuate screening to protect the rec\cle pump feed pumps chemical reaction ahead of the DAF either b\ mi[ tanks or in-line Ă&#x20AC;occulation sludge pumping sludge storage and a central control panel to run it. :hen considering DAF it is ver\ important to characteri]e contaminants in the water with a proper sampling program prior to designing a full scale treatment s\stem. As industrial plant

Michael Albanese, P.Eng., is with H2Flow Equipment Inc. (PDLOPLFKDHO#KĂ&#x20AC;RZFRP

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44 | March/April 2014

33-DAF tried tested tech.indd 44

BACHELORâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S

2014

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 1:02 AM


Wastewater

Biogas systems can benefit from cost-effective and accurate wet gas thermal flow meters By Tom Morjig

A

typical anaerobic digester in a municipal wastewater facility processes human waste, FOG (fat, oil, and grease), and other organic material, and heats this sludge to about 38°C. The heated sludge creates biogas, a methane gas mixture (CH4-CO2) containing a signi¿cant amount of water Yapor. 'aily and seasonal temperature Yariations can affect the density of the water Yapor. :arm temperatures cause Yery small water particles, while cool temperatures create large ones with increased water entrainment in the pipe. 5eliable Àow measurement is the leading indicator of digester operation and health. Historically, wastewater facilities haYe ignored digester data, because the information was unreliable. 1ow that Àow meter manufacturers are focusing on the unique requirements of the wet gas enYironment, plant operators can learn to trust Àow meter data. They can then use digester production information to aYoid upsets and taNe pre-emptiYe correctiYe action. Measuring biogas in digesters and other wet gas applications Typically, wet gas measuring applications remoYe water and then use any Àow meter that can measure a dry Àow or Yelocity. Two common methods haYe been employed to alleYiate the issue of condensation affecting Àow meter performance: 1. Mechanical refrigeration systems/ desiccant dehumidi¿er systems, worN by remoYing moisture through absorption or adsorption. They typically haYe a high initial cost, a moderate-to-high maintenance cost and operational energy costs. 2. The heat tracing method raises the process Àow temperature by warming biogas pipes. This Neeps the water Yapor in smaller particles, while lowering the CH4-CO2 concentration. :hen installed in a Class , 'iYision  or 2 area, these systems haYe an oYerall high cost, eYen though the initial cost and maintenance/opera-

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29-Advantages for Biogas Enviro.indd 45

Figure 1. Annual wet gas measured at three digesters (blue) using conventional thermal flow meters compared to the local ambient temperature (orange).

tion costs can appear moderate. For example, a modest three digester system would consume oYer 2, annually in energy costs. Based on ./N:h for a  cm pipe with  cm of insulation coYering 4 m, raising the pipe temperature ° would require : of heat. :hen considering any Àow metering technology, additional requirements beyond the initial deYice should be included as part of the oYerall cost of the deYice. Biogas applications typically inYolYe low Yelocities, which is one of the maMor criteria in selecting a Àow monitoring technology. Ultrasonic meters are an option, but their typically high purchase price has essentially blocNed them from the marNet. ,n addition, they require bypass plumbing and periodic tear-downs for cleaning. :hile ultrasonic deYices intrinsically measure actual Àow or Yelocity, they must be pressure and temperature corrected for mass Àow, which is the required measurement to meet regulations. Thermal Àow meters are frequently used because of their ease-of-installation and low Àow capabilities. HoweYer,

they are sensitiYe to moisture in the Àow stream, and additional processes must be used to control condensation. ,n considering product life cycle and functionality issues, insertion thermal meters are generally the technology of choice. The Nature of Biogas ,n consistently warm temperatures, water particle si]e is less than 2 microns. :ater-saturated biogas has a  mbar partial pressure that represents . per cent water in the methane mix at sea leYel air pressure ( mbar). :ater Yapor fogging density, or liquid water content (LWC) in g/m3, is proportional to the cooling rate in a pipe. The heat used in a thermal sensor is typically enough to Yapori]e the particle. When the biogas pipe coming from the digester cools to less than 21°C, saturated water partial pressure drops to 2 mbar, or 2. per cent water Yapor. As the pipe cools, particles conYerge and get larger (with many of these contacting the thermal sensors). (Yen more particles contribute to the liquid Àow along the bottom of the pipe. The increased fog that forms in cooling biogas piping is the root cause for false high Àow measurements with March/April 2014 | 45

3/27/14 1:02 AM


Wastewater SHUFHQWRYHU-UHSRUWLQJRIWKHJDVÃ&#x20AC;RZ UDWHIRUDÂ&#x192;WKHUPDOVHQVRU:HWÃ&#x20AC;RZ PHDVXUHPHQWV DYHUDJHG DERXW  SHU FHQWPRUHWKDQWKHDFWXDOPHDVXUHPHQWV RIFRPELQHGGU\DQGÃ&#x20AC;DUHJDV1RWHKRZ KLJKWKHUHDGLQJVDUHZKHQWKHDPELHQW WHPSHUDWXUHLVORZ 'LJHVWHUV\VWHPVFDQEHGHVLJQHGWR UHPRYH ZDWHU DQG FRPSRXQGV VXFK DV VXOIXUDQGVLOR[DQHVRWKHUHVXOWLQJGU\ JDVFDQEHXVHGLQDJHQHUDWRUERLOHURU IXHOFHOO7KLVWUHDWPHQWSURFHVVLVSHUIRUPHGRQWKHWRWDOFROOHFWHGELRJDVQRW HDFKLQGLYLGXDOGLJHVWHU %RWK WKHUPDO DQG XOWUDVRQLF PHWHUV DUHDIIHFWHGE\FKDQJLQJ&+4-&2 concHnWUDWLonV 7KLV LV D VPDOO LVVXH Ln GLJHVWHU DSSOLcDWLonV EXW ODnG¿OO onHV VHH KLJKHU coPSoVLWLon cKDnJHV 7KH GULIW Ln D WKHUPDO PHWHU UHDGLnJ UHVSonGV Wo WKH JDV EXON WKHUPDO conGXcWLYLFigure 2. Daily flow measurement of wet digester gas using three different W\ YLVcoVLW\ DnG GHnVLW\ cKDnJHV ZLWK thermal meters. cKDnJLnJ coPSoVLWLon $n XncoUUHcWHG WKHUPDO PHWHU nHDU WKH 4 PoODU UDFRQYHQWLRQDOWKHUPDOÃ&#x20AC;RZPHWHUV JDVÃ&#x20AC;RZ EOXH IRUWKUHHGLJHVWHUVLQDQ WLo cKDnJHV LWV Ã&#x20AC;oZ UHDGLnJ onO\ WKUHH,Q D ELRJDV HQYLURQPHQW D FRQYHQ-  0*' WUHDWPHQW SODQW 7KH KLJKHVW ¿IWKV WKH UDWH oI WKH SHUcHnWDJH PHWKDnH WLRQDO WKHUPDO PHWHU ZLOO RYHU-UHSRUW GDLO\/:&OHYHOVREVHUYHGIRUXQLQVX- concHnWUDWLon cKDnJH JDV Ã&#x20AC;RZ UDWH )LJXUH  VKRZV WKH ZHW ODWHG GLJHVWHU GXFWV VKRZHG DERXW  8OWUDVonLc PHWHUV KDYH D VLPLODU XncoUUHcWHG coHI¿cLHnW 0HWHU GULIW LV UHODWHG Wo WKH VSHHG oI VoXnG cKDnJLnJ ZLWK WKH JDV PL[ $W Â&#x192;& WKH VSHHG oI VoXnG Ln &+4 LV 44 PV DnG Ln &2 it iV  PV ZitK Pi[tXUHV SUoSoUtion to tKH PoODU UDtio )oU DGGitionDO coVtV EotK tHcKnoOoJiHV cDn coPSHnVDtH IoU JDV coPSoVition cKDnJHV Products for wet gas environments 7KH tZo Ã&#x20AC;oZ PHtHU tHcKnoOoJiHV tKDt ZoUN EHVt in D ZHt JDV HnYiUonPHnt DUH DOVo tKH tZo tKDt SUoYiGH KiJKHU DccXUDc\ DnG UHSHDtDEiOit\ 6oPH XOtUDVonic PDnXIDctXUHUV DUH intUoGXcinJ OoZHU coVt GHYicHV EHtZHHn  DnG  to PDNH tKH tHcKnoOoJ\ PoUH DIIoUGDEOH +oZHYHU inVtDOODtion DnG cDOiEUDtion coVtV DUH VtiOO KiJK DnG ¿HOG tHVt GDtD iV not \Ht DYDiODEOH .XU] ,nVtUXPHntV KDV intUoGXcHG D Ã&#x20AC;oZ PHtHU VSHci¿cDOO\ GHViJnHG IoU ZHt JDV HnYiUonPHntV 7KH 44)7%-:*) inVHUtion tKHUPDO Ã&#x20AC;oZ PHtHU KDV PoGHUDtH inVtDOODtion coVtV DnG GoHV not UHTXiUH Dn\ DGGitionDO SUocHVVHV to UHGXcH conGHnVDtion OHYHOV 2SHUDtion coVtV IoU tKH tZo tHcKnoOoJiHV DUH ViPiODU 7KH .XU] :*) iV DEOH to UHViVt cKDnJinJ conGHnVDtion OHYHOV E\ oSHUDtinJ tKH KHDtHG VHnVoU Dt Â&#x192;& DEoYH 46 | March/April 2014

29-Advantages for Biogas Enviro.indd 46

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 1:02 AM


Wastewater the ambient gas stream temperature. This is four-times higher than a standard 75°C Kurz meter and much higher than other thermal meters at approximately 10°C to 50°C. It is important to note that the heated sensor is well below the 537°C auto-ignition point for methane gas. Liquid impacting the hot sensor is immediately vaporized to steam. The power required to vaporize the water at a given Àow rate is de¿ned by the LWC, gas velocity, and sensor effective area. Figure 2 compares three different thermal meters installed on a digester, where red is the biogas temperature, blacN is the dry Àow, blue is the Kurz WGF, purple is the Kurz standard meter, and orange is a popular thermal competitor. During the warmest part of the day, all the wet gas meters converge and are reading about six per cent high compared to the treated dry Àow meter. During cooler periods, the readings separate out and start over-reporting at various levels. Separation is related to the LWC condensation density in the pipe, which is highest at lower temperatures.

FOG dosing to achieve more consistent gas production, alter biogas production to maximize electrical savings based on daily utility rates change, and minimize gas Àaring. With cost-effective, reliable wet gas Àow measurements, they can be ready to accurately report biogas sourc-

Conclusion 5eliable and accurate Àow meters offer many bene¿ts. %y comparing the output from each digester against total biogas production on the fuel/destructor side of the facility, digester and facility issues, such as imbalances and leaks can be detected. Plant operators can adjust sludge and

NETZSCH Pumps & Systems - Solutions you can trust

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29-Advantages for Biogas Enviro.indd 47

es as laws limiting greenhouse gases are introduced and enforced. Tom Morjig is with Kurtz Instruments. The company is represented in Canada by SPD Sales. For more information E-mail: sales@spdsales.com

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March/April 2014 | 47

3/27/14 1:02 AM


Wastewater Pumping

How to effectively analyze wastewater pump station operations By Benoit Beaudoin

E

very day, one third of lift stations have intermittent and abnormal occurrences. These include bouncing starters, faulty check valves, low pumping capacity at a critical time, unreliable level sensors or badly programmed PLCs. Would you prefer to know when a problem is intermittent, or when the station isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t operating anymore? This article will explain how easy it can be to analyze every aspect of the most popular type of lift station. The USEPA wrote in their Collection Systems Technology Fact Sheet â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sewer Lift Stations that â&#x20AC;&#x153;power costs account for 85% to 95% of total operational and maintenance costâ&#x20AC;?. Very few municipalities use this valuable information to evaluate the pumps at their lift stations. With the right tool, getting the appropriate data is simple, inexpensive and can be done in-house. Analyzing the data is where you should spend your money, if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t understand how a lift station is supposed to run. Most of what is wrong within a pump station affects the pumps! Since the most expensive element is the cost of the electricity running them, it makes sense to use the current used by the pumps as the primary way to monitor them. If the current from each leg is not properly balanced, then the pump will wear faster, and use more electricity at a higher temperature to deliver less capacity. If the current is substantially lower or higher on the same leg for all the pumps, then the voltage supplied to all the pumps is probably the cause. Current tells when the pumps start and stop, and, therefore, their run times and number of starts. The volume between the start and stop level allows calculaWLRQRIĂ&#x20AC;RZLQDQGRXWRIWKHOLIWVWDWLRQ If the remote terminal unit (RTU) isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t properly programmed, if the pumps do not alternate properly, or if starters are chattering, the pumps will be affected, and this will be recorded through the current sensors. Power consumption per pump can be

48 | March/April 2014

40-WW pump station analysis.indd 48

ity of the electricity supplied. It is fairly inexpensive to install current sensors permanently at each lift station. 2. Measure the well. The information required is the volume between the operation levels (high and low) of the pumps. If the station uses floats, they should be clean. Volumetric formulas are used to calFXODWHĂ&#x20AC;RZ)RUWKLVWRZRUNWKHYROXPH between the high and low levels must be entered as a constant. The average pump run time per cycle is directly affected by the distance between the levels. Measuring high and low levels in the wet well takes more time than installing or removing the rest of the hardware. It is critical to the analysis and must be done SURSHUO\ ÂżUVW WLPH ,I D SXPS VWDWLRQ LV analyzed periodically, then measuring The author measuring high and low the levels should only be done if the relevels. sults are different than expected. A concalculated using a voltage sensor or en- VWDQWVSHHGSXPSDYHUDJHĂ&#x20AC;RZFDSDFLW\ WHUHGLQWKHVRIWZDUH:LWKWKHĂ&#x20AC;RZUDWH should stay relatively constant. If you see of the pumps and duration of operation, a variation on all the pumps by the same the volume pumped can be determined. percentage occurring at the same time, it When you divide this by the power con- is a sign that the levels have to be meaVXPHG\RXJHWWKHHIÂżFLHQF\OHYHO7KLV sured again and proper data re-entered in is the number of liters pumped per watt the calculation software. of electricity. 3. Recording. After three cycles, you Four main elements are needed to already have enough data to generate a properly analyze a lift station: electrical report, but this is not enough to know current recorder and sensors, smart soft- if the lift station is operating properly. ware, a means to calculate the volume of A minimum of two days or more is rethe wet well, and some basic knowledge quired to make a decent analysis. A week and experience with lift stations. is even better, especially if you can capThe electrical recorder must be small ture a rain event. HQRXJKWRÂżWLQ\RXUOLIWVWDWLRQFRQWURO 4. Download the data. Downloading panel. Battery operation is required, via cellular modem is simple and fast and where AC is not available. Memory ca- allows remote monitoring of the lift stapacity of the recorder should be for a tion. If you have a SCADA system, it is minimum of one week, but preferably very useful to see the time difference beone month, with a sampling rate of one tween what is reported by the recorder in second. real time, and what the SCADA system The sequence of operation of the is displaying. pumps is one of the most useful pieces 5. Data analysis. This is where of information for lift station diagnostics. knowledge and experience become priceSetting up the monitoring system in- less. If you use Excel to analyze the data, volves the following steps: use one line per event. This format is the 1. Install the recording hardware. easiest to understand. Measuring phase current is best. Voltage Many diagnostics can be done with only provides information about the qual- these tables, but it is your knowledge and Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 1:03 AM


Wastewater Pumping Table 1.

Pump

1 2 3

Run Time (hours) 83.84 242.24 74.46

Starts

Average Run Time

Suspicious Events

1902 1905 1968

00:02:29 00:07:13 00:02:03

23 9 13

experience regarding lift stations that Zill help \oX ¿gXre oXt Zhat is Zrong When you see that two pumps are always starting and stopping at the roughly the same time (within a few seconds), it often indicates a problem with level switches When you see the capacity of a pump and its phase current dropping, it can be related to the impeller, an obstruction at the pump inlet or the check valve of the other pump 7he tables should show the Àow in and out, and be able to generate a graph ,n this, the hori]ontal line is the Àow coming into the station 7he height of the colored bars represents capacity of the pumps and the thickness, their run times

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40-WW pump station analysis.indd 49

Pump Capacity (l/s) 85.53 52.42 92.14

Power Consumption (kWh) 2205 5454 1757

This is the easiest and fastest way to assess the operation of a pump station and the safety margin of the pumps’ capacity during normal Àow in the station When the height of the bars is not stable, then the station is probably pumping into a force main ,t is especially important to look at the pump capacity during rain events because their capacity is usually lower, while the inÀow is higher Therefore, the safety margin is smaller then expected Ultimately, the pump station analysis system that you will use should provide you with a summary report similar to Table 1 and calculate the annual energy savings that would be obtained by using

Volume Pumped (M3) 24240 43197 21511

Efficiency (l/Wh) 10.99 7.92 12.24

the pumps at their maximum ef¿ciency (ef¿ciency of the best pump) Tuning pump station performance is not only about measuring Àow $ccurate operational data can provide key information for I & I studies, and hydraulic modeling, as well as lift-station ef¿ciencies Maid Labs Technology offers advanced motor and pump performance analysis, volumetric Àow meters with real time analog output, and data loggers to monitor level, pressure, and &62662 applications Benoit Beaudoin is with Maid Labs Technology Inc. For more information, visit www.AvensysSolutions.com

March/April 2014 | 49

3/27/14 1:03 AM


Water System Pumping

Energy optimization designs evaluated for high lift pumping stations By Jahangir Chowdhury

A

high lift pump station at one water supply plant has four constant speed pumps. Two pumps have a rated capacity of 900L/s @ 85m total dynamic head (TDH) and two a rated capacity of 350L/s @ 82m total dynamic head. In order to maintain serviceability, the distribution system must maintain an operating pressure of 70m TDH. At present, both the large and small high lift pumps are operating with a higher pumping capacity to match the system head curve as well as the required operating pressure. In order to maintain the required system pressure and satisfy the required Àow condition, the e[isting pumps need to be controlled by throttling the discharge valves. This results in wasted energy consumption. Throttling the valve at the pump discharge introduces additional head loss to the system. This elevates the system head curve above the required operating pressure and at the point of intersection of the pump curve and demand line. The distribution system is thus supplied with increased head or pressure, but the pump is operated at a lower ef¿ciency rate. )rom an energy ef¿ciency standpoint, additional head loss reduces the amount of water being pumped but increases total energy consumption and costs.

6ystem head-Àow curve and proMected design years demand are shown in )igure . The system head curve is represented by the total dynamic head versus Àow for all Àow rates within the proMected design year. Total dynamic head is made up of two components; static head and dynamic head losses. The high lift pumps draw water from the clearwell, discharge to the distribution system and ¿ll the elevated reservoir. Static head is equal to the vertical lift between the clearwell and reservoir. Dynamic head losses are the friction losses through the watermains from the plant to the elevated reservoir and high lift pump discharge piping and ¿ttings. Dynam50 | March/April 2014

35-Energy Effic Pump Design.indd 50

ic losses can be determined for the proMected year Àows using distribution model analysis. Design Alternatives )our alternative scenarios were evaluated, in order to determine feasible electricity optimization solutions for the proMected design years. The methodology employed in the evaluation of the alternatives included: • Generate the combination of pump curves that will meet the demands of the system head curves, minimum operating pressure for each alternative, and for each proMected demand design year scenario. • Demonstrate the hydraulic performance for each operation and determine the alternative that would minimize energy use. • Perform present value of power cost analysis and maintenance of variable frequency drives for proMected design years and capital cost estimate for each of the alternatives.

Alternative one Incorporate two small or mid-range pumps operating in parallel to meet 5yr. demand, one large pump to meet 0yr. demand, one small pump and one large pump operating in parallel to meet 5yr. demand and two small pumps and one large pump operating in parallel to meet 25yr. demand. The system operating curves simulated with proMected design years are shown in )igure 2. The calculated cost of e[cess power consumption with Alternative , due to throttling for different proMected demand years, is shown in Table .

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/27/14 1:03 AM


Water System Pumping discharge valve is required and, therefore, there is no excess power cost. The system operating curves simulated with projected design years are shown in Figure 5.

Alternative Alt ti two t o Incorporate one large pump to meet 5yr. demand, one large pump to meet 10yr. demand, two large pumps operating in parallel to meet 15yr. demand and two large pumps operating in parallel to meet 25yr. demand. The system operating curves simulated with projected design years are shown in Figure 3. The calculated cost of excess power consumption with Alternative 2, due to throttling for different projected demand years, is shown in Table 2.

Present value costs The calculation of present value cost of each of the alternatives depends on the assumptions made regarding the cost of additional power, as well as those costs not common to all alternatives. Life cycle costs common to all alternatives are not presented in this analysis. In determining power costs over the projected life cycle period, it assumed an increase for power at 5% per year and an annual interest rate of 4% per year. continued overleaf...

Alternative three This alternative incorporates the same number of pumps in operation for different demand years as in Alternative 1, with additional VFD units to each pump. No throttling to the discharge valve is required and, therefore, there is no excess power cost. The system operating curves simulated with projected design years are shown in Figure 4.

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Alternative four This alternative incorporates the same number of pumps in operation for different demand years as in Alternative 2, with additional VFD units to each pump. No throttling to the www.esemag.com

35-Energy Effic Pump Design.indd 51

Design with community in mind

stantec.com/water

March/April 2014 | 51

3/27/14 1:04 AM


Water System Pumping

Table 3 summarizes the present value of power cost analysis and maintenance of VFD units for 5 yr. projected demand. It also summarizes capital cost estimates for pumps and VFD units for each of the alternatives. Similar analysis was carried out for 10yr., 15 yr., and 25yr. projected demand and the results are presented in Figure 6. Conclusion Alternative 1, which consists of a combination of small or mid-range and large pumps is a less expensive alternative up to the 15 year design period. However, it becomes a more expensive alternative by the end of the 25 year design period. Alternative 2, which uses large pumps, requires the least initial investment, but becomes the most costly alternative over the entire design period. Alternative 3, which adds VFD units to the pumps used in Alternative 1, is an expensive alternative over the entire

52 | March/April 2014

35-Energy Effic Pump Design.indd 52

design period and an unacceptable alternative. Alternative 4 which adds VFD units to the pumps used in Alternative 2 is more expensive up to the 10 year design period but is the least expensive in the long run. Therefore, Alternative 4 can be seen to be the most desirable alternative in terms of cost and energy optimization. For more information, E-mail: chowdhuryjahangir@hotmail.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 7:50 PM


Site Remediation

How effective is the Tier 2 MGRA option for gas station sites? By Jason Hudson

T

he applicability of the Tier 2 0oGi¿eG *eQeric 5iVN $VVeVVPeQt 0*5$ PoGel for forPer JaVoliQe VerYice VtatioQ ViteV haV beeQ reYieZeG by e[p (QerJy 6erYiceV /tG The coPpaQy coPpleteG a VeQVitiYity aQalyViV oQ the leYel of chaQJe achieYeG ZheQ XViQJ Vite Vpecific iQpXt YalXeV froP the 6ite &oQGitioQ 6taQGarGV to 3roperty 6peci¿c 6taQGarGV for the typical petroleXP relateG paraPeterV TheVe iQclXGe beQ]eQe tolXeQe ethylbeQ]eQe [yleQeV %T(;  petroleXP hyGrocarboQ 3+& fractioQV ) to ) aQG leaG 3b  'XriQJ 2 the 2Qtario 0iQiVtry of the (QYiroQPeQt 02( releaVeG the Tier 2 0*5$ PoGel to coPplePeQt chaQJeV iQ the 5ecorG of 6ite &oQGitioQ 5eJXlatioQ  aQG XpGateV to the JeQeric Voil JroXQG Zater aQG VeGiPeQt VtaQGarGV effectiYe -Xly  2 The of¿cial YerVioQ of the PoGel ZaV releaVeG $pril  2 The 0*5$ ZaV offereG aV a VtreaPliQeG alterQatiYe to PeetiQJ JeQeric VtaQGarGV aQG to pXrVXiQJ the Tier  5iVN $VVeVVPeQt proceVV The 0*5$ alloZV GeYelopPeQt of Vite Vpeci¿c VtaQGarGV XViQJ Vite Vpecific Gata rather thaQ JeQeric aVVXPptioQV XVeG for the 6ite &oQGitioQ 6taQGarGV 6&6  The 3roperty 6peci¿c 6taQGarGV 366  createG by the 0*5$ Zill be approYeG by the 02( aQG Vtill protect pXblic health aQG the eQYiroQPeQt The Tier 2 0*5$ PoGel haV 2 Vite Vpeci¿c paraPeterV that caQ be iQpXt to GeYelop 366 for the pXrpoVeV of obtaiQiQJ a 5ecorG of 6ite &oQGitioQ 56&  ,QpXt YalXeV iQclXGe GiVtaQce froP VoXrce ceQtre to GoZQ JraGieQt Zater boGy fractioQ of orJaQic carboQ YalXeV Zater table Gepth Voil type QXPber of fro]eQ GayV per year Gepth of Voil YapoXr probe beloZ JroXQG VXrface aTXifer hyGraXlic coQGXctiYity hyGraXlic JraGieQt aQG bXlN GeQVity YalXeV The 2 iQpXt YalXeV aQG their acceptable Xpper aQG loZer liPitV are proYiGeG iQ Table  ,Q aGGitioQ the 0*5$ haV 5iVN 0aQaJePeQt 0eaVXreV 500 aQG

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36-Tier 2 MGRA.indd 53

Input Parameter

Minimum

Maximum

Distance from source centre to down gradient water body metres (m)

36.5

5000

Fraction of Organic Carbon - water table to soil surface (g/g)

0.0001

0.02

Fraction of Organic Carbon - in upper 0.5 metres (g/g)

0.0001

0.57

Minimum depths below soil surface to highest annual water table (cm)

0.1

2000

Soil Type â&#x20AC;&#x201C; vadose zone

From SCS table

Â

Soil Type â&#x20AC;&#x201C; capillary fringe

From SCS table

Â

Number of frozen days per year

50

170

Aquifer Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity (m/s)

1.00E-06

1.00E-03

Aquifer Hydraulic gradient (m/m)

0.0001

0.05

Aquifer bulk density (g/cm )

1.4

2

Aquifer fraction organic carbon (g/g)

0.0002

0.01

Depth below soil surface to soil vapour (cm)

150

2000

3

Table 1. Tier 2 MGRA site specific parameters.

Petroleum Hydrocarbon Subfraction

Solubility in water (μg/L)

F1 Components (ex BTEX)

MOE ½ Solubility Limits (μg/L) 1900

Aliphatic >C6 - C8

5400

Aliphatic >C6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; C10

430

Aromatic >C8 - C10

65000

F2 Components

150

Aliphatic >C10 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; C12

34

Aliphatic >C12 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; C16

0.76

Aromatic >C10 - C12

25000

Aromatic >C12 - C16

5800

Table 2. US total petroleum hydrocarbon criteria working group per MOE rationale document.

or pathZay blocNiQJ PeaVXreV that iQclXGe â&#x20AC;¢ 0oGifieG ecoloJical protectioQ â&#x20AC;¢ 6halloZ Voil cap â&#x20AC;¢ )ill cap or harG cap â&#x20AC;¢ 6toraJe JaraJe or Qo eQcloVeG bXilGiQJV â&#x20AC;¢ *roXQG leYel QoQ reViGeQtial XVe â&#x20AC;¢ $ppropriate Voil YapoXr VcreeQiQJ leYel iV Pet for Voil VoXrce

â&#x20AC;¢ $ppropriate Voil YapoXr VcreeQiQJ leYel iV Pet for JroXQGZater VoXrce :heQ JeQeratiQJ 366 for Voil GXriQJ the VeQVitiYity aQalyViV Qo chaQJe ZaV obVerYeG froP the 6&6 for %T(; 3+& ) to ) or 3b ZheQ aGMXVtiQJ the Gepth of the Zater table  cP to 2 cP aQG hyGraXlic coQGXctiYity iQpXt YalXeV - PV to -6 PV  )or GiVcontinued overleaf... March/April 2014 | 53

3/28/14 1:00 AM


Site Remediation tance from water body (36.5m to 5000 m), change was observed for toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and PHC F1 only. All other petroleum related parameters did not change from the applicable SCS. When generating PSS for ground

water, change was observed for BTEX, PHC F1 and Pb, when adjusting the depth of the water table. With respect to hydraulic conductivity values, only toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and PHC F1 changed. For distance from water body, only toluene, ethylbenzene,

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xylenes, PHC F1 and Pb changed. The parameters PHC F2 to F4 remained unchanged from the SCS throughout the sensitivity study. In addition, the sensitivity analysis looked at changing fraction of organic carbon (FOC) values at the water table to soil source and upper 0.5 m. During the analysis, no change was observed in ground water PSS for all petroleum related parameters from the SCS. There were changes observed in soil PSS when changing FOC values. In some instances, more stringent PSS compared to SCS were generated. Implementation of RMM can provide PSS greater than the SCS values. The Modi¿ed Ecological Protection (MEP) measure changes the component values for mammals and birds by 1000 and plant and soil invertebrates by 1.9. SCS are derived from component values, with the lowest component value driving the standard set for each parameter. The MEP option does not require a Certi¿cate of Property 8se (CP8) to be ¿led following approval of the M*RA. It is not an engineered solution. Of all the RMM, this is the most straightforward to implement. Other engineered RMM are required to be constructed following speci¿cations provided by the MOE. For example, a shallow soil cap should consist of 0.5 metre on un-impacted soil over a geotextile liner. All cap solutions will require semi-annual inspections for the

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Sustainable Solutions

> Water and Wastewater Systems > Stormwater Treatment and Management > Modeling > Hydrologic and Hydraulic Analysis > Environmental Planning > Distribution, Collection, Treatment > Hydrogeology 54 | March/April 2014

36-Tier 2 MGRA.indd 54

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Site Remediation OLIHWLPHRIWKHFDSWRFRQ¿UPWKHLUFRQWLQXLQJ LQWHJULW\ &DS RSWLRQV SURYLGH SURWHFWLRQWRKXPDQKHDOWKYLDWKHZRUNHU GLJJLQJ LQ VRLO FRPSRQHQW SDWKZD\ 6 7KH\DOVRLQFUHDVHFRPSRQHQWYDOXHVIRUPDPPDOVDQGELUGVE\DQG SODQWDQGVRLOLQYHUWHEUDWHVE\ KDUG FDSE\ %RWKWKHVKDOORZVRLODQG KDUGFDSRSWLRQVJHQHUDWHGJUHDWHU366 YDOXHVDERYHWKH6&6IRU3+&)3+& )DQG3ELQVRLO1RFKDQJHZDVVHHQ ZLWKUHVSHFWWRJURXQGZDWHUVWDQGDUGV 2WKHU HQJLQHHUHG 500 VROXWLRQV VWRUDJH JDUDJH QR JURXQG Ã&#x20AC;RRU QRQ-UHVLGHQWLDOXVH FKDQJHFRPSRQHQW YDOXHVIRUVRLOWRLQGRRUDLUDQGJURXQG ZDWHUWRLQGRRUDLU)RUSHWUROHXPUHODWHGSDUDPHWHUVWKH500VWRUDJHJDUDJH RSWLRQ JHQHUDWHG JUHDWHU 366 YDOXHV DERYH WKH 6&6 IRU EHQ]HQH LQ VRLO DQG JURXQG ZDWHU 7KH 500 JURXQG Ã&#x20AC;RRU QRQ-UHVLGHQWLDO XVH RSWLRQ JHQHUDWHG JUHDWHU 366 YDOXHV DERYH WKH 6&6 IRU EHQ]HQHRQO\LQJURXQGZDWHU 7KH ¿QDO RSWLRQ LV WR FRPSOHWH VRLO YDSRXU VFUHHQLQJ DW WKH VRLO RUDQG JURXQG ZDWHU VRXUFH ,I FRQFHQWUDWLRQV FROOHFWHG IURP VRLO SUREHV PHHW DSSOLFDEOHVRLOYDSRXUVFUHHQOHYHOV 696/  WKHQ WKLV ZLOO LQFUHDVH WKH FRPSRQHQW YDOXHVIRUVRLOWRLQGRRUDLUDQGJURXQG ZDWHU WR LQGRRU E\  )RU SHWUROHXP UHODWHG SDUDPHWHUV WKH 500 VRLO YDSRXUDWVRLORUJURXQGZDWHUVRXUFHRQO\ LQFUHDVHWKHVWDQGDUGYDOXHIRUEHQ]HQH LQVRLORUJURXQGZDWHUUHVSHFWLYHO\ 7KH02(KDVEDVHGLWV6&6RQWKH ò VROXELOLW\ RI SHWUROHXP K\GURFDUERQ IUDFWLRQVEHFDXVHRILWVFRQFHUQIRUWKH SRWHQWLDO SUHVHQFH RI IUHH SKDVH OLTXLG SHWUROHXP 7KH VROXELOLW\ LQ ZDWHU Â&#x2014;J/ RI3+&IUDFWLRQVLVJLYHQLQ7DEOH 7KHUHIRUHGHSHQGLQJRQWKHFRPELQDWLRQ RI SHWUROHXP FRPSRQHQWVVXEIUDFWLRQVRIWKHFRQWDPLQDQWEHLQJULVN DVVHVVHGWKHòVROXELOLW\OLPLWPD\QRW QHFHVVDULO\UHÃ&#x20AC;HFWVLWHFRQGLWLRQV $FFRUGLQJ WR H[S¶V VHQVLWLYLW\ DQDO\VLVRIWKH7LHU0*5$PRGHOIRUSHWUROHXPUHODWHGSDUDPHWHUV366YDOXHV JUHDWHU WKDQ WKH 6&6 FDQ EH DFKLHYHG WKURXJK WKH XVH RI VLWH VSHFL¿F LQSXW GDWD DQG 500$OO SDUDPHWHUV FDQ EH FKDQJHG XVLQJ RQH RU PRUH RI WKH LQSXW SDUDPHWHUV500 H[FHSW 3+& ) IRU VRLO DQG JURXQG ZDWHU 7KH ODFN RI FKDQJHRIWKH3+&)SDUDPHWHUZLWKLQ www.esemag.com

36-Tier 2 MGRA.indd 55

WKH7LHU0*5$PRGHOLVSDUWLFXODUO\ SUREOHPDWLFIRUJDVROLQHUHODWHGVLWHVDV WKLVLVXVXDOO\DVLJQL¿FDQWFRQWDPLQDQW RIFRQFHUQIRUWKHP )XUWKHU ZRUN LV UHTXLUHG WR HQVXUH WKH0*5$7LHULVDSSOLFDEOHIRUVLWHV ZKHUHJDVROLQHEDVHGFRQWDPLQDQWVDUH SUHVHQW ,Q RUGHU WR RYHUFRPH WKLV WKH 02( LV FXUUHQWO\ UHYLHZLQJ D QXPEHU RIRSWLRQVDVSDUWRIDVWUHDPOLQHGULVN DVVHVVPHQWSURFHVV7KHVHLQFOXGHFRQ-

GXFWLQJVXE-IUDFWLRQDQDO\VLVORZÃ&#x20AC;RZ VDPSOLQJ DQG XQGHUWDNLQJ WKH ³6KHHQ /RRN*ULG0HWKRG´7KLVLQYROYHVGULOOLQJPRQLWRULQJZHOOVHYHU\WKUHHPHWUHV GRZQJUDGLHQWRIDQDUHDRISRWHQWLDOHQYLURQPHQWDOFRQFHUQWRHVWDEOLVKRUGLVFRXQWWKHSUHVHQFHRIOLTXLGSHWUROHXP Jason Hudson is with exp Energy Services. E-mail: jason.hudson@exp.com

March/April 2014 | 55

3/28/14 1:00 AM


Energy from Waste

Study identifies significant benefits to biogas development in Canada By Maria Kelleher

B

iogas is a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;good newsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sustainability story for farmers, municipalities, food processors and for quality of life and the environment. Biogas is a renewable energy technology that is on the verge of major growth in North America. It can be a source of technology transfer, job creation and rural economic development. 7he reliability, Ă&#x20AC;e[ibility, economic and environmental attributes of biogas should be recognized and supported through a suite of strong policies in all Canadian provinces. Biogas creates reliable energy regardless of the weather in the form of heat, power, and pipeline quality gas that can be used for transportation (i.e., natural gas fueled vehicles), household heating, or industrial, commercial and institutional processes. Biogas is distinct from other non-hydro based renewable energy sources. It can reliably produce power during times of system peak demand, and can be stored during periods of e[cess power or surplus base load generation by electricity systems. In addition, biogas systems located on rural electricity distribution systems utilizing synchronous generators have demonstrated positive impacts. They provide stable voltage support in areas of voltage lag, thus improving power quality. 2ther beneÂżts of biogas generated electricity include controlled power factor, reduced line losses, improved voltage control on rural feeders, and increasing service stability of electrical

Electricity Production (MW)

  

  

"$'$  

      

   

"&$$

"%&$

  

  

"%($



    

"$&$

Figure 2: Direct capital investment for biogas projects ($ billion).

Figure 1: Contribution of biogas sources to energy production (Mm3/year of RNG and MW).

supply to local homes and businesses Destruction of harmful pathogens and methane, reduction of odours, rural grid support through voltage regulation, and the provision of reactive power, are e[amples of biogas beneÂżts. In addition, it can be used in a combined heat and power (C+3) conÂżguration, as well as injected into the natural gas distribution network to offset the use of fossil fuels. In May, 2013, the Biogas Association contracted with Kelleher Environmental to carry out a Canadian Biogas Study to identify e[isting, available metrics which support the beneÂżts of biogas energy. The potential for biogas production from agricultural digesters, landÂżll gas, digestion of source separated organics from residential and commercial sources, and from wastewater treatment plants across Canada, was estimated, as well as the energy, environmental, economic and socialcommunity beneÂżts of increasing biogas energy production. Biogas can be converted to biometh-

#%!

          

%!!

   

"$#!

  

%!!

   

"#!

Figure 3: Long-term operating jobs from biogas project development.

ane (also called renewable natural gas RNG), a growing commodity in Europe, the US and Canada. It has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation, and provides a range of additional beneÂżts. The energy potential of the Âżve sources of biogas energy evaluated in the Biogas Study is estimated at 810MW or 2,420 Mm3/year of RNG for all of Canada. The relative contribution of biogas to the total estimated energy generation potential value from the Âżve

Agriculture

Landfill gas (LFG)

SSO Residential

SSO Commercial

Wastewater

Total

550

95

48

54

60

810

Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Production (million m3/year)

1,650

290

140

160

180

2,420

Contribution to Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Electricity Demand

0.9%

0.2%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

1.3%

Contribution to Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Natural Gas Demand

2.1%

0.4%

0.2%

0.2%

0.2%

3.0%

Table 1: Energy potential from biogas sources in Canada. 56 | March/April 2014

38-Cdn biogas study.indd 56

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 12:58 AM


Energy from Waste Agriculture

Landfill gas (LFG)

SSO Residential

SSO Commercial

Wastewater

Total

Construction jobs (for one year)

10,200

2,000

1,800

1,800

1,000

16,800

On-going operating jobs

1,320

120

500

500

250

2,700

Direct capital investment ($billion Can)

$3

$0.3

$1.7

$1.3

$0.6

$7.0

Indirect economic spinoff ($billion Can)

$9.3

$1.0

$5.1

$4.0

$1.7

$21.0

Table 2: Economic benefit potential from development of biogas projects.

major sources addressed in the study is presented in Table 1 and Figure 1. Realizing the full potential of biogas development would lead to development of up to 1,800 separate construction projects, with an estimated capital investment of $7 billion and an estimated economic spin-off of up to $21 billion to the Canadian economy. These construction projects could create 16,800 construction jobs for a period of one year and up to 2,700 on-going long-term operational jobs. In addition, over 100 new and expanded companies, including biogas system designers and developers, equipment suppliers, laboratories, etc., could be supported through an expanded biogas sector. This Âżgure does not include the many construction companies, building supply companies, mechanical and electrical contractors and suppliers who would beneÂżt from biogas project development. The number of estimated jobs and investment involved with development of biogas projects in each of the Âżve sectors included in the Canadian Biogas Study are summarized in Table 2. Barriers to biogas project development in Canada There are a number of barriers to realizing the full potential of biogas energy. Some are common to all biogas projects and some are unique to speciÂżc waste streams. Financing of projects is challenging due to a reported lack of familiarity with the technology by Âżnancial institutions. Many more full scale facilities need to be constructed in Canada to address this barrier. Financial institutions need to be able to â&#x20AC;&#x153;kick the tiresâ&#x20AC;? of existing facilities to have a comfort level that their investment is secure. Wastewater treatment plant biogas projects are sometimes not developed to their full potential as energy generation is not seen as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;core businessâ&#x20AC;? of plant operating staff. When budgets are set, other capital projects generally receive more attention than biogas recovery projects. Receiving approvals for interconnections with the electricity system are slow and expensive. Some plants simply waste energy rather than trying to sell it into the electricity grid. Except for Ontario, feed in tariffs or revenues available for electricity from biogas facilities are not at a level which makes most biogas projects related to electricity generation economically viable. Biogas projects related to processing of source separated organics need to compete with composting which is generally less expensive. However,the price gap between the two technologies narrows at capacities of more than 60,000 tonnes/ www.esemag.com

38-Cdn biogas study.indd 57

year. This is the amount typically produced by a Green Bin program in a city of 300,000 households, or a population of 1 million. Also, low prices of natural gas present challenges for the RNG industry. Finally, policies in provinces and municipalities across Canada are not sufÂżciently supportive of biogas projects. This could be changed through procurement speciÂżcations which require RNG fuelled trucks or other requirements to support production of more renewable natural gas. The study concluded that development of biogas projects in Canada has potential to create signiÂżcant beneÂżts, including GHG reduction, as well as creating a stable, reliable, dispatchable energy source which can be used locally. Maria Kelleher is Principal at Kelleher Environmental. E-mail: maria@kellenv.com

Ă&#x160; Ă&#x160; `Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;}Ă&#x160;Ă&#x153;>Ă&#x152;i Ă&#x20AC;Âś &O R   B I L L I O N P E O P L E I N T HE DE V E L O PI NG WOR L D

T H I S MIG HT BE A S GO OD A S I T GE T S 5NS A F E WA T E R K I L L S   P EO P L E EVE R Y S I N G L E D A Y 7E C A N  T GO O N L E T T I N G P E O P L E D I E T H I S WA Y & I ND O UT HOW Y O U C A N HE L P W W WWA TE RFORPE OPLEORG

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March/April 2014 | 57

3/28/14 12:59 AM


Chemistry

Forensic chemistry helps save oil spill site owner considerable cleanup costs By Broderick K. Mossman

D

uring site assessment and reclamation, chemical analysis is relied upon to quantify contaminant concentrations. This information is crucial for comparison with guideline values, establishing remedial action plans, assessing risk, and verifying that remedial targets have been met. When dealing with relatively un– complicated sites with known sources and clearly identi¿ed contaminants, this use of data can be suf¿cient. +owever, it shows its limitations on complicated sites involving multiple contaminants of unknown age and origin. Also it decreases in usefulness with every variable encountered. By using forensic chemistry, it is possible to simplify complicated sites by revealing the history, origin and nature of contamination. Some examples of the details which forensic chemistry can provide include, but are not limited to: • Characterization of unknown contaminants. • Identification of secondary sources. • Separation of contamination from multiple sources. • Delineation of plumes within plumes from multiple release events. • Establishing timelines of contaminant release and migration. • Age dating of weathered hydrocarbons. All of this data allows for a better understanding of a site, prior to determining a remediation or risk management strategy. Techniques of forensic chemistry The forensic process is an integration of site assessment, laboratory analysis and data interpretation, and is different for each scenario. A diverse toolkit is available, from modeling software to analytical methods. The key to the effective use of forensic techniques is the selection of the appropriate combination for each site and chemical of concern. The strength of forensic interpretation relies on the method established early on in the assessment process. These

58 | March/April 2014

-37 forensic chemistry.indd 58

include long-run GC-FID analysis to resolve hydrocarbon peaks, comparing biomarkers in fuel oil, comparing the ratios of chlorinated volatile chemicals, or contrasting chromatogram curves. Individually, data from each analysis does not provide enough information to make conclusions. Therefore, forensic methods must rely on multi-faceted approaches to evaluate speci¿c data. An example of a common use of forensic chemistry is to separate fuel oil losses of different ages. Analytical data for this type of process might include concentrations of biomarker chemicals, ratios of hydrocarbon fractions, presence or absence of volatile species and also reviewing the chromatograms for gross differences.

Site conditions, activities on and off the property, depth of contamination and groundwater Àow, all are very important. Differences in conditions throughout a property can lead to vast differences in the degrees of weathering of organic contaminants, or Àushing and mobilization of soluble chemicals. Therefore, details of the site conditions at each sampling point must be considered, during a forensic review of analytical results. First case study Water from a potable well was noted to have an odd chemical odour. Standard water quality analysis did not indicate any biological issues, and T3+ and VOC values were below reportable detection limits. +owever, a review of

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 12:56 AM


Chemistry the GC-FID chromatogram provided by the Oab ideQtiÂżed tZo VmaOO yet diVtiQct hydrocarboQ peaNV %y VeOectiQg a detaiOed aQaOyticaO method the peaNV Zere ideQtiÂżed aV decaQe aQd dimethyOpheQoO %aVed oQ the XVeV oI theVe chemicaOV the coQtamiQaQt iQ the ZeOO Zater coXOd be traced bacN to a OeaNiQg caQiVter oI reViQ iQ a garage oQ the Vite /iTXid reViQ had migrated aOoQg aQ abaQdoQed Zater OiQe OeadiQg to the ZeOO +aviQg ideQtiÂżed the chemicaO oI coQcerQ aQd Oocated the VoXrce the impactV coXOd be remediated %oXQdary VampOeV aQd IoOOoZ-Xp groXQdZater VampOeV Zere aQaOy]ed Ior the chemicaO oI coQcerQ veriIyiQg the eIÂżcacy oI the remediatioQ Second case study FXeO oiO Irom aQ iQterior abovegroXQd Vtorage taQN ZaV reOeaVed oQto a dirt Ă&#x20AC;oor iQ the baVemeQt oI a reVideQtiaO VtrXctXre $Q iQveVtigatioQ determiQed that hydrocarboQV had migrated throXgh the VXrÂżciaO tiOO to the XQderOyiQg bedrocN 5emediaO eIIortV Zere XQdertaNeQ Zith the bXON oI coQtamiQated VoiO removed at the VoXrce +oZever hydrocarboQ coQceQtratioQV Zere Qoted to be iQcreaViQg Zith diVtaQce Irom the taQN IQ additioQ evideQce oI a poVVibOe VecoQdary coQtamiQatioQ VoXrce ZaV Qoted iQcOXdiQg darN-VtaiQed VoiO Zith raQcid hydrocarboQ odoXrV 6ampOe reVXOtV iQdicated that the additioQaO coQtamiQatioQ ZaV Zeathered IXeO oiO %aVed VoOeOy oQ the Oaboratory iQterpretatioQ oQe coXOd Qot diVtiQgXiVh thiV

coQtamiQatioQ Irom the receQt OoVV :ith the poVVibiOity oI additioQaO coQtamiQatioQ oQ the VXbMect property the party reVpoQVibOe Ior the remediatioQ oI the receQt IXeO oiO VpiOO did Qot ZaQt to abVorb the coVt oI a IXOO property remediatioQ $ IoreQVic protocoO ZaV

deveOoped to deOiQeate the edgeV oI each hydrocarboQ pOXme thereby deÂżQiQg a Oimit to the moVt receQt OoVV It XVed a mXOti-Iaceted approach iQcluding: detailed chromatogram analyViV compariVon oI hydrocarbon chaincontinued overleaf...

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March/April 2014 | 59

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January 2013 D5_ES&E 13-01-31 9:45 PM Page 60

Chemistry Water Treatment

   

length ratios; mass fractions of BTEX each other. By separating the samples  1     into groups with similar ratios, it could components, and the identified species; the concentrations of       the biomarkers be seen that there were three different  pritstane and phytane in comparison iterations of weathered fuel oil located with  their uncomplicated analogues; throughout the property. To measure a degree of weathering, and a model of hydrocarbon concentra the ratios of C17/pristane and C18/phytions and elevations. The benefit of this method was that, tane were evaluated for select samples.  with the exception of the long-run test As these biomarkers are resilient to nat to quantify the biomarkers, all of the ne- ural attenuation, it was anticipated that cessary data had been provided with the samples with a low ratio would be older  standard GC-FID analyses conducted than those with a large ratio. A result  of the review indicated that the hydroduring remediation and delineation. In  coordination with the lab, the chro- carbons which appeared weathered had matogram for each hydrocarbon analy- extremely small ratios. Those near the  sis was provided. A review of these was source had ratios approaching 1. BTEX components were only encountered in conducted,  irrespective of the samplesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;                                location. The conclusion was that four less weathered samples. Finally, all of the analytical data, different types of hydrocarbons were along with sample elevations, were plotpresent throughout the site. in a three model. Each sample had to been re- ted â&#x20AC;˘ Effluent quality result monitoring ensure is expected to dimensional be approximately 16 It m3cal/hr. culated the anticipated hydrocarbons in ported as concentrations of each hydroproper operation and thallium removal The typical treatment flow rate will be 18 the space between the sampling points. carbon fraction. These fractions were prior to groundwater discharge. m3/hr, which will partially fluidize zeolites this model a diaconverted percentage of the TPH When â&#x20AC;˘ Placementtoofa water treatment residuals in the columns, butwas stilloverlain provide on adequate gram of the site, three fuel oil sources concentration for every sample. These (spent zeolites and suspended solids) in a contact time. If inflow rates do not provide clearly was attreatment the fuel ratios could then compared to liter- were high-capacity linedbepond. enough watervisible. to meet One minimum oil tank which leaked. Another one was ature values for fuel oils, as well as to Inflow rate to the storage ponds will system flows, treatment will be temporarvary seasonally. Total average annual flow

underneath the furnace. The third Initial influent water quality willone be originated from beneath the shared similar to the range of concentrationswall prewith anbyup-gradient dicted the mixing neighbour. model. Influent conAt the conclusion project, centrations will decreaseof overthe time due to the use of forensic chemistry, along improving mine water quality. withPilot conventional site assessment techtesting and previous full-scale opniques, provided sufficient detail to erations have shown that zeolites will adsplit the responsibility of the remedisorb more thallium when exposed to ation the different higheramongst concentrations, as isparties. typical This with saved the client money and permitted adsorbents. To maximize thallium loadclosure withinthe regulatory agency. ing, zeolite each column will be transferred backward (upstream) periodically, Conclusion with fresh material being loaded into ColWhen assessing sites, umn 5 (the effluent orcontaminated downstream end of forensic chemistry can be an invaluthe system), and material from Column 1 able tool. By approaching every project (the beginning or influent end of the syswith the anticipation of unforeseen contem) being discarded. taminants of concern, have been It is anticipated thatthere zeolite will be countless times where the use of these transferred by slurrying it with treated tools savings, reducwater,has andpermitted pumpingcost it from one column tion of liability or superior characterizto another. Influent concentrations may be ation of a by site. managed adjusting source flows to increase removal efficiency. Broderick Mossman, B.Sc., C.Chem., is a forensic chemist with MarkEP, Reinsel is with Apex Engineering. Rochon Environmental. E-mail: mark@apexengineering.us. E-mail: bmossman@rochons.ca Scott Mason is with Hydrometrics Inc.

ily suspended until water is available.

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Environmental Science &â&#x20AC;&#x2C6;Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 12:56 AM


Project Management

Mobile Servers and their importance in uniting design teams with “thin clients”

By Braden Taylor

E

ngineers, technicians, and designers have always had to travel to where their projects are located. Whether it is a major construction project, or a collaboration on a wastewater system, design engineers may spend anywhere from a few days to months at a time away from their normal of¿ces. 6ome consulting engineers spend virtually all of their time traveling from one project to the next. The computing power a mobile engineer needs has been dif¿cult to come by. Today, some high-end laptops can make acceptable engineering workstations. Many of these Mobile Workstations or Mobile 6upercomputers give users the requisite power and computational capabilities they need to complete their projects and assignments, gather data,

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these workstations is that they can be rather large, heavy and cumbersome.

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March/April 2014 | 61

3/28/14 8:19 PM


Project Management

Most professionals already carry a laptop with them that could serve as a low-to middle-end engineering workstation replacement.

There are several ways of supplementing a laptop for engineers who travel, but need more horsepower for their work. One is cloud computing, which allows the client to control processing that is done on a remote server or server cluster, accessible through the Web. A second option is to take advantage of local computing power, by joining the network at the current work location. Then, the engineer can connect to the

62 | March/April 2014

39-Mobile Servers-Thin Clients.indd 62

home of¿ce network via the ,nternet. However, connecting to the local network, if there is one available, opens the door to security issues on both sides of the connection. For the engineer, it is necessary to protect the intellectual property being developed. Joining a new network provides an entry point into the system. For the local network, whether a partner’s or a customer’s, letting a system not under its direct control

become part of the network may not be suitable for the organization’s security policies. A third option is beginning to emerge. ,t involves not only engineering laptops as client workstations, but “thin clients”, which are computers that depend heavily on other computers, and their server, to ful¿ll their computational roles. To bring this hardware together, engineers are utilizing a full-Àedged computer network and at least one server with enough scalability, capacity and performance to take on many different types of design requirements and projects, including analysis and simulation. The idea is to take your entire computing environment with you, including servers, workstations, thin clients and network infrastructure. This is not as dif¿cult as it may sound. Most professionals already carry a laptop with them that could serve as a low-to middle-end engineering workstation replacement. Routers need only be as large as the number of Ethernet ports they have, and cabling can be pur-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 12:53 AM


Project Management chased inexpensively at their destination, or shipped separately. The server might be a more challenging prospect. At the heart of the engineering-on-the-go or server-on-the-go concept is the Mobile Server. It is a capable engineering server that can provide the computational back end for design and low- to mid-range analysis and simulation tasks. While it might be odd to think of a laptop as a server, what really matters is the power of its components. Eurocom has begun coupling its EUROCOM Panther 5SE Mobile Server with teams utilizing thin clients. A Panther 5SE Mobile Server is an all-inone, 12lbs (5.5kg), easy to carry around system based on Intel Xeon E5-2600 v2 processor technology with integrated display, keyboard and built-in internal battery (UPS). The Panther 5SE is designed for world wide deployment and easy network set up. It is easy to transport, move around and relocate, as it can Âżt into a single carrying bag because of its all-inone, compact design.

www.esemag.com

39-Mobile Servers-Thin Clients.indd 63

The Intel Xeon 12-core processors include exceptional multi-tasking capability and additional L3 cache for speeding up data and instruction transfers. Being upgradeable, the system can also

Together with engineering laptops, these servers can form the backbone of a network that can serve many design engineering and lower-end analysis functions. incorporate up to two NVIDIA Quadro, GeForce or AMD Radeon graphics processing units. These can also be used to execute applications designed to make use of fast GPUs. While these systems often only offer 32 GB of memory and 6 TB of RAID 0/1/5/10 storage, thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enough for many types of functions. With a series of Thin or Zero clients

to provide the computational and graphics capabilities of a high-end workstation, project teams are combining up to 10 or even 20 thin clients, that are basically being powered by the Panther 5SE and its massive scalability, capability and robustness. Together with engineering laptops, these servers can form the backbone of a network that can serve many design engineering and lower-end analysis functions. In addition to computational resources, it can provide centralized and protected access to other networks and the Internet, enforce security policies, provide access to storage, and offer a number of other functions. Engineers can now take their own full network with them on project deployments. An individual can put a server and an engineering workstation laptop in a carry-on bag, and have the beginnings of a network set up on-site within a few minutes. Braden Taylor is with Eurocom. E-mail: bradentaylor@eurocom.com

March/April 2014 | 63

3/28/14 12:53 AM


Wastewater Treatment

New aerator/mixer improves treatment, while lowering energy and maintenance costs

A

small city in the U.S., with a population of about 8,000, began upgrading its wastewater treatment facility in 2003. The new mechanical treatment facility was constructed near a housing deYelopment and treats inÀuent primarily from residential customers. Less than 5 per cent is from commercial and industrial sources. The activated sludge, extended aeration system handles a Àow of 8,000 gallons per day. Average inÀuent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is 185 mg/L, with total suspended solids (TSS) of 1 mg/L. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) are kept at approximately 4,000 mg/L. Ferric chloride is added for phosphorus control. (fÀuent is then processed through clari¿ers for solids removal. Biosolids generated at the plant are aerobically digested and stored in a covered tank located at the plant. Two, 19 ft. deep earthen aeration basins were also designed to provide Àow equalization. An intermediate pump

With their mechanical problems continuing to worsen, operators were then instructed to change parts every three months. station releases a constant Àow and causes water levels to rise and fall inside the basins. Disinfection is achieved with ultraviolet (UV) light. In 2003, after considering several types of aerators, eight 15 HP highspeed Àoating aerators with stainless steel Àoats were purchased and installed. Unfortunately, the Àoat systems began corroding at the water line. In addition to Àoat problems, the aerators also suffered from constant mechanical failures. The sales/service agreement with the manufacturer required replac64 | March/April 2014

32-Process aeration.indd 64

Two, 19 ft. deep earthen aeration basins were also designed to provide flow equalization.

ing the above- and below-water seal packs every six months. With their mechanical problems continuing to worsen, operators were then instructed to change parts every three months. When that didn’t work, it became every month. Costs mounted. Replacing a shaft alone cost $2,500, plus bearing and seal costs. When it was suggested that all of the aerator parts be replaced at the factory every six months, at an additional $20,000 a year, the city ¿nally decided it was time for an upgrade. After a little research, the city chose Aeration Industries’Aire-O2 Triton® process aerator/mixers. They have few wearing parts and the water-lubricated bearing allows smooth operation without arti¿cial and manually-applied lubricants. The unit features an on-board regenerative blower that can be programmed to be cycled on and off, depending on dissolved oxygen levels and other optional process control requirements. Turning the blower off allows for mixing only and denitri¿cation, as well as additional energy savings.

Also, the Àoat system is constructed of a molded low-density polyethylene with a UV inhibitor. This eliminated Àoat corrosion problems. With the amount of money saved on parts and energy every year, the city was able to purchase the ¿rst replacement

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 12:43 AM


Wastewater Treatment Triton. As the budget allowed, eventually all the aerators were replaced. Records kept by staff revealed that, before they upgraded their treatment plant with Aire-O2 Tritons, the wastewater treatment plant used about 37 kWh of electricity per day. After the upgrade, it only uses 17-19 kWh per day. This is a 50% savings! The aerator/mixers are designed to perform at a lower speed of 900 rpm, which allows for larger mixing propellers and more efÂżcient oxygen transfer. The project stretched out over nine years and two construction phases. However, the city now has a fully operational wastewater treatment facility, with an upgraded system that has slashed maintenance and electrical costs. There are a few options on the market for surface-mounted mechanical aerators. It is always recommended to examine options by reviewing websites, calling for references and checking up on plants that have the equipment in operation. It is also advisable to choose the appropriate aeration technology for your application. Not all aeration systems are ideal for all treatment plants. In some cases, very small volumes or extremely large and deep volumes of water may be served best by the use of submerged diffused aeration systems, as long as maintenance is kept up. Aeration Industries provides a process aerator with the ability to mechanically isolate aeration and mixing from mixing alone for nutrient removal. The typical engineered solution involves multiple aerators set up to work as a Ă&#x20AC;exible system. It can be automatically operated by a programmed PLC at the master control panel. For example, the linkage between the aerators and dissolved oxygen probes can provide signiÂżcant energy savings, by efÂżciently maintaining the appropriate oxygen levels according to the load entering the plant. In addition, the use of an automated oxygen reduction potential system allows for precise denitriÂżcation control. This is important in meeting strict nitrogen efĂ&#x20AC;uent levels For more information, please visit www.aireo2.com www.esemag.com

32-Process aeration.indd 65

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3/28/14 12:44 AM


Process Water Management

Automatic self cleaning filters help keep cooling towers clean and efficient By Dr. Marcus Allhands

C

hemicals can help control biological growth and mineral precipitation, but only mechanical ¿ltration can remove the tons of suspended solids that every cooling tower grabs from the atmosphere each year. A thin layer of mineral deposits, the thickness of only a few sheets of paper, can have dramatic negative effects on cooling ef¿ciency. 7o overcome inef¿ciencies, more water has to be pumped, which means higher utility costs and lower pro¿t. ,f spray nozzles plug, someone has to manually remove and replace or clean them. Automatic self-cleaning ¿lters can solve most of these issues. Capital costs will be higher than manual bag or cartridge ¿lters, but operational costs will be at a minimum, and human error is taken out of the equation. 7wo basic ¿ltration systems are most often utilized. 7he ¿rst is side stream ¿ltration. :hen protecting heat exchangers, chillers, compressors and cooling jackets, this method is the most economical, while still meeting performance expectations. 7ypically, - of the full Àow is pulled off the main line as a side stream and run through a ¿lter. 7ypically,  side stream ¿ltration will usually maintain the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) at a steady low level to protect heat exchange surfaces from deposition. The percent of full Àow used in side stream ¿ltration will be determined by cooling system volume, TSS loading, ¿ltration degree required, and type of suspended solids. Sometimes, it is desirable to pull the side stream off the main header after the supply pump, ¿lter the side stream and then re-introduce the ¿ltered water into the main header. A booster pump will be necessary to add energy back to the side stream Àow to overcome system losses in the ¿ltration process. (See )igure ).These losses show up as pressure losses due to valves, piping, ¿ttings, Àow-stream directional changes and velocity losses.

66 | March/April 2014

44-Auto self cleaning filters.indd 66

ORIVAL Five-Filter System

Figure 2. Simple side stream filtration.

Figure 1. Side stream filtration with booster pump.

,f the main supply pump has excess capacity, the side stream can be taken from the main header downstream of the pump, run through the ¿lter and discharged back to the cooling tower basin. This utilizes existing horse power and requires no booster pump. See )igure . A third side stream scenario, often called a kidney loop, uses a small dedicated pump to take water from the cooling tower basin, run it through the ¿lter and back to the tower basin. See )igure 3. This system is totally independent from the main cooling system and cannot negatively interfere with the cooling

process. An example of this type of side stream ¿lter is shown in )igure . The particular ¿lter skid shown will handle a cooling system of up  gpm ( gpm through the ¿lter).

Figure 3. Side Stream Filtration with Dedicated Pump.

:hen nozzles are involved in the downstream process, a single particle of the right size could plug them. To pre-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 12:33 AM


Process Water Management

Figure 4. Side stream filtration skid â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Orival Model ORG/A-020-LE-SM.

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E\SDss YDOYH ZDs LQFoUSoUDWHG LQWo WKH PDQLfoOG s\sWHP Wo oSHQ DuWoPDWLFDOO\ Lf WKH ÂżOWUDWLoQ s\sWHP FoQWUoOOHU sHQsHG D fDuOW LQ WKH ÂżOWUDWLoQ SUoFHss 7KH FoQ WUoOOHU DOso KDs D sHW of GU\ FoQWDFWs foU FoQQHFWLQJ DQ DODUP s\sWHP foU fDuOW sLWuDWLoQs $Q ´ PDQuDO EuWWHUĂ&#x20AC;\ YDOYH ZDs Oo FDWHG DW HDFK ÂżOWHU LQOHW DQG ouWOHW Wo DO OoZ WKH LsoODWLoQ of DQ\ LQGLYLGuDO ÂżOWHU foU PDLQWHQDQFH oU UHSDLUs )LOWHUs ZHUH SUHPouQWHG oQ WKH PDQLfoOG s\sWHP EHfoUH sKLSSLQJ Wo WKH sLWH foU HDsH of LQsWDOODWLoQ 3UuGHQW usH of DSSUoSULDWH FKHPLFDO DGGLWLYHs UouWLQH EOoZGoZQ DQG SUoS HU ÂżOWUDWLoQ KDs UHsuOWHG LQ sL[ \HDUs of H[HPSODU\ SHUfoUPDQFH ZLWK Qo PDLQ WHQDQFH LssuHs oU SUoFHss LQWHUUuSWLoQs Dr. Marcus Allhands, PE, is with Orival Inc. For more information, E-mail: ÂżOWHUV#RULYDOFRm, or visit www.orival.com

ANNOUNCEMENT Raymond J. Wilcock appointed Executive Director of the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute (CSPI)

Figure 5. Full flow filtration.

Orival Model OR-10-BE Filter with built-in bypass.

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44-Auto self cleaning filters.indd 67

The CSPI Board of Directors is pleased to announce the appointment of Raymond Wilcock as its Executive Director, effective April 1, 2014. Mr. Wilcock replaces David J. Penny, who will then assume the role of Director Emeritus. Over the past two decades, Mr. Wilcock has held progressive, senior executive positions at several corporations, including those of V.P., General Manager, V.P. Operations, and CFO at Armtec Limited, a diversified provider of materials and solutions to infrastructure markets. â&#x20AC;&#x153;From the experience garnered during his various executive roles in our industry, Ray brings to CSPI exceptional knowledge and a deep understanding of all aspects related to the strategic position of our products in the infrastructure, agricultural, forestry and mining markets,â&#x20AC;? says Kenzie MacPherson, President of Atlantic Industries Ltd. (AIL), a CSPI member company. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am extremely excited about tackling this new challenge and I look forward to renewing relationships as well as establishing new ones,â&#x20AC;? says Mr. Wilcock. â&#x20AC;&#x153;As an

industry veteran, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve worked closely over the years with CSPI and other industry bodies on a number of major projects, including serving on the MTO Gravity Pipe Design Guidelines Committee and on the Ontario Road Builders Association Board of Directors. One of my strengths is strategic planning and, as CSPI continues to evolve through technical innovation from R&D findings, I hope to channel those developments through aggressive marketing of new CSP products to educate the marketplace regarding their significant cost/ benefits to owners,â&#x20AC;? he concludes. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve known Ray for more than 30 years, and can assure you heâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s passionate about corrugated steel pipe and the heavy construction industry, and will bring vast knowledge and continued enthusiasm to CSPI,â&#x20AC;? says David Penny, â&#x20AC;&#x153;and I look forward to working closely with him during our transition period.â&#x20AC;? For more information about the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute, visit cspi.ca, call (519) 650-8080, or email info@cspi.ca March/April 2014 | 67

3/28/14 12:33 AM


Specifying

Understanding the difference between “Testing” vs. “Listing” By Mike Speziale

A

s industries recognize growing numbers of new products entering the Ontario marketplace, it is increasingly important to determine the consistency of product performance and quality. The 2006 Edition of the Ontario Building Code addresses numerous products and required Test Standards, which are designed to proYide speci¿c leYels of product quality and performance. In an effort to provide a monitoring mechanism that will assure the product quality we require, the Standards Council of Canada has approved a number of Testing Agencies that are deemed quali¿ed to perform the required testing procedures to satisfy the existing Test Standards. There is debate within Ontario municipalities, on the differences between products which are “Tested”, vs. products which are “Listed.” This article

68 | March/April 2014

45-Listing vs Testing.indd 68

highlights and clari¿es some of the misconceptions regarding what is required, why it is required and how to avoid potential liabilities.

Tested Products For a fee, manufacturers have the option of submitting product samples to a recognized testing agency to have them “Tested” or “Listed” to a speci¿ed standard. At the time of submission, the manufacturer may be required to indicate

their request for “Testing” or “Listing”. If a product is submitted for the purpose of “Test Only”, the testing agency has the liberty to perform the testing procedure in a manner required by the client (manufacturer). It is important to note that in the case of a “Test Only,” the testing agency would not be required to adhere to the speci¿c testing procedure identi¿ed by the actual standard. After completing a “Test”, the testing agency provides the client with documentation that identi¿es the results, stating that the results are based on a “Test” and do not imply that the product is Listed or Certi¿ed. When a product is submitted for “Test Only”, the results are based only on the products or materials that have been “Tested” for that report, and will not be subjected to any follow-up examinations to determine subsequent material quali-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 1:05 AM


Environment protection in Poland Poland’s territory is significantly divided into agricultural and woodland areas: 61% of the country territory belongs to the first, 31% to the latter. Most of the agricultural areas in Poland are ecological farms, whose area tripled over the ten-year period ending in 2012 reaching 35 thousand hectares. Polish farmers improve as well their ability to manage the wastelands, contributing to reclamation of significant part of the land. The challenge of limited water resources promoted and motivated a more reasonable and steadily decreasing use of water in Poland – between 2000 and 2012 water consumption in Poland fell by 2% both in industry and agriculture. The process is accompanied by improvements in the water supply network, wastewater treatment plants and sewage networks, constantly growing bigger and more efficient. Last but not least, 32.5% of Poland’s area is protected as national parks due to its value and biodiversity as national parks. All 23 national parks in Poland are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, 9 are considered by UNESCO as biosphere reserves and one belongs to World Heritage. Poland belongs as well to the Nature 2000 program which aims at protection of important lands. Environmental protection in Poland involves a great deal of innovative solutions and ideas. With implementation of GreenEvo – Green Technology Accelerator, a tool introduced by the Polish Ministry of Environment, young businesses in the field have better chances to obtain financial and promotional support and accomplish the most edge-cutting ideas. The new strategy of Ministry of Economy “Innovativeness and Efficiency of the Economy – Strategy for 2012-2020. Dynamic Poland” stresses the importance of green technologies, balanced energy production with green energy sources and the creation of green workplaces by 2020. Additionally, program GEKON – Environmental Concept Generator, is an important step: it provides financing on all stages of research, development and implementation of an innovation. Poland also participates in the Environmental Technologies Verification program of the European Union – a new initiative that helps eco-friendly technologies be tested by creating a network of developers and Verification Bodies or testing laboratories. Polish environment protection is divided into three main areas: public sector (incl. central government, provincial and municipal bodies); economic sector – enterprises, financial institutions, insurance institutions and non-commercial institution and households. The investment in environment protection in Poland is also co-financed through banks and grants from international assistance, e.g. European Union funds as well as the Polish state

45-Listing vs Testing.indd 69

budget through the National and Provincial (Voivodship) Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management. Poland’s expenditure on environmental policy are between 0.6% - 0.8% of GDP each year and 0.2% on water management. In 2009-2012 the amount was 66.2 billion PLN (24.0 billion CAD), while for 2013 -2016 it is 63.5 billion PLN (23.1 billion CAD). Polish experience proves that it is possible to effectively reduce the pollution while maintaining a high economic growth. Since 1988 Poland has reduced harmful emissions by more than 30 %, and is continuing this process in subsequent years. Poland has made a big step towards reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Total emission of CO2 was reduced by over 30 % compared to the value from 1988, NOx - over 40%, SO2 - 75 % and the PM - 80%. Also the emissions of heavy metals and exhaust fumes as well as the amount of wastewater have been reduced while the Polish industrial production in this period almost doubled. In Poland, the amount of energy produced from renewable energy sources is steadily growing. According to data from the Central Statistical Office in Poland (GUS) electricity generated from renewable energy in 2012 accounted for 10.6 % of the national gross electricity consumption. The energy produced from solid biofuels amounted to 56.4 % of the total electricity production from renewable energy sources in 2012. The amount of electricity generated from other renewable sources for 2012 were: 28.1% for wind power, 12% for solar energy and 3.3% from biogas.

3/28/14 8:13 PM


Specifying ty, performance or consistency. Since follow-up examination is not required for a “Tested” product, there is no way of determining any changes in material consistency or product performance, that may occur between the time of “Testing” and the time of production. On occasion, manufacturers have distributed excerpts of “Test” documents that are several years old. Unfortunately, some authorities have been led to believe that the “Tested” product was equal to that of a “Listed” product. It is well known that information taken out of context, or documents that are incomplete, can prove to be misleading. Listed Products When a product is submitted to a testing agency with the intent of receiving a &erti¿cation or “Listing”, the testing agency is required to be much more diligent in determining the material characteristics and performance capabilities. In order to “List” a product or material, it is necessary for the testing agency to follow the precise testing methods identi-

¿ed by the Test Standard. In doing so, the testing agency is required to monitor and record all pertinent data throughout the testing program, in order to determine the product’s compliance with the Standard. Once the testing process has been completed, the testing agency provides the manufacturer with documentation indicating the results. If the product receives a positive result, meaning that it satis¿es the requirements stipulated within the Standard, it is then eligible to be &erti¿edListed. Clients who undertake “Listed” examinations, are subject to ongoing follow-up production and performance examinations that will determine the consistency of compliance. By “Listing” a product, the manufacturing facility, material compound and product performance all face random “Testing” by the “Listing Agency.” If any changes are identi¿ed when the “Testing” takes place, Certi¿cation could be lost. The cost for “Listing” a product is substantially higher than the cost of “Testing.” Each time the Agency visits the man-

Engineering Consultants with a Passion for Solutions 905.940.6161 416.987.6161 www.ColeEngineering.ca

ufacturing facility to con¿rm product stability, there are associated costs charged to the manufacturer. When a third-party “Testing Agency” publishes a “Listing”, the documentation will indicate that there be speci¿c identi¿cation markings on the product, for example, the name of the “Listing Agency” accompanied by their logo and the required “Test Standard”. In addition, in most cases it will require that the product bear a summary of the test results, such as Àame-spread rating, smoke classi¿cation, etc. By examining the differences between products that are “Tested” vs. “Listed,” factors that may potentially compromise the objectives of the Ontario Building Code may be uncovered. There is no doubt that the issues within this article will require increased scrutiny on the part of inspectors, and increased costs incurred by manufacturers. +owever, the bene¿ts to public safety are signi¿cant. Mike Speziale is with IPEX. E-mail: Mike.Speziale@ipexna.com

Automatic Sludge Blanket Level Detector

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Markland’s Detector helps monitor interface levels in water & wastewater clarifiers and automate sludge removal. It allows users to program sludge removal pumps to operate only when necessary, preventing carryover, optimizing feed density for improved filter press/centrifuge/digester performance, bettering outflow for re-use. Its slim profile and use of highintensity infrared light make it well suited for obstructed/constricted areas. Contact: Scott Langstaff markland@sludgecontrols.com T: 905-873-7791 TF: 1-855-873-7791 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING | ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT | TRANSPORTATION | URBAN DEVELOPMENT

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/14 1:05 AM


4

UNITING THE WORLD of

Boston, Massachusetts | June 8–12, 2014

Register Today! $&(ZLOOR΍HUWKHEHVWVROXWLRQVWRPHHWWKHFKDQJLQJQHHGVIRUWKHJOREDO ZDWHUFRPPXQLW\ZLWKSURIHVVLRQDOWUDFNVDQGXQLTXHVHVVLRQVHLJKW 6XQGD\ZRUNVKRSVDQGOHDGLQJHGJHH[KLELWRUVSOXVH[SDQGHGQHWZRUNLQJ RSSRUWXQLWLHVRQWKHVKRZȵRRU Check out these vital sessions: MON10 2  FFXUUHQFH'HWHFWLRQDQG 7UHDWPHQWRI(PHUJLQJ &RQWDPLQDQWV

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3/28/14 8:13 PM


Canadian Environmental

The 22nd Annual

Conference & Tradeshow

April 28 - April 30, 2014

CANECT 2014

International Centre - 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga List of Exhibitors as of March 24, 2014 ACG/Envirocan.......................................................#1238 Acoustic Product Sales.........................................#1212 AGAT Laboratories.................................................#1429 Altech Technology Systems..................................#1337 Amyot & Co. Ltd......................................................#1532 BakerCorp...............................................................#1437 Bishop Water Technologies Inc............................#1428 BSI Group Canada..................................................#1228 Caduceon Environmental Laboratories...............#1216 CETCO Oilfield Services........................................#1434 Continental Carbon Group Inc..............................#1523 Co-operative Education & Career Action, University of Waterloo ...........................................#1336 Dragun Corporation (The)......................................#1322 Drain-All Ltd............................................................#1218 Enviro-access inc...................................................#1329 Environment Canada..............................................#1324 ERE Inc....................................................................#1423 Exova.......................................................................#1424 FERRO Canada Inc.................................................#1332 Fielding Chemical Technologies Inc.....................#1223 First Response Environmental 2012 Inc...............#1328 GENEQ inc...............................................................#1317 Ground Force Environmental................................#1417 H2FLOW Equipment Inc.........................................#1229 Hawkeye Bird and Animal Control........................#1313

72 | March/April 2014

Heron Instruments Inc...........................................#1522 HGC Engineering....................................................#1528 Hoskin Scientific.....................................................#1234 Itech Environmental Services................................#1236 KG Services.............................................................#1432 Lakes Environmental Software.............................#1440 Mindspace Inc........................................................#1230 Niagara College – Employment Support..............#1213 Nimonik...................................................................#1531 Osprey Scientific Inc..............................................#1536 Quantum Murray LP...............................................#1533 RWDI........................................................................#1422 SICK Ltd..................................................................#1318 Spill Management Inc............................................#1241 SPL Consultants Limited.......................................#1232 St. Lawrence County Industrial Development Agency.............................................#1435 TEAM-1 Academy Inc.............................................#1233 Testmark Laboratories Ltd....................................#1433 Totally Green...........................................................#1335 Trinity Consultants/Church & Trought.................#1225 Veolia North America.............................................#1334 V-Fold Inc................................................................#1222 Warren’s Waterless Printing Inc...........................#1341 WISE Environmental Solutions Inc.......................#1333

Environmental Science & Engineering & Engineering Magazine


Monitoring

Using spectrophotometry for real-time monitoring of BOD, COD and TOC By Drew Evans

There are several different types of matter, such as organics and nitrates that naturally absorb light in distinct regions of the UV-VIS wavelength spectrum.

S

pectrophotometry is a well-established analytical method, used for decades in chemistry, physics, biochemistry and chemical engineering for quantitative analyses. A light source and sensor are used to measure the intensity of light passing through a water sample in a known path length cell. Most commonly, ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) light sources are used. The principle is that substances in the water sample absorb or transmit light over a given wavelength range. According to Beerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law, the measured absorbance of substances in the water sample is directly proportional to their concentration. Over the past decade, significant advances in spectrophotometry have been made, allowing it to be performed reliably and accurately in a real-time fashion. One of the main benefits to performwww.esemag.com

ing spectrophotometric measurements continuously is the ability to relate real-time absorbance measurements to the concentration of the absorbing substances. Various types of natural and synthetic organic substances absorb light in the UV-VIS wavelength spectrum, as well as nitrate and nitrite. Additionally, suspended matter in water scatters and reflects light which can be compensated for in measurement. Many industries have adopted online technology to continuously measure water and wastewater quality parameters such as: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); chemical oxygen demand (COD); total organic carbon (TOC); dissolved organic carbon (DOC); nitrates (NO3-); and nitrites (NO2-). This real-time ability is extremely useful for applications that rely on pa-

rameters traditionally tested in a laboratory, such as BOD and COD, or which are costly to perform online, such as TOC. Spectrophotometric sensors allow for continuous monitoring of a process by analyzing a relatively large volume of the sample. This way, the data collected becomes more representative of the temporal and spatial changes occurring in the process. Also, the accuracy of sampling and the value of the information obtained are maximized. As more information on the process is obtained, events are revealed that would otherwise go unnoticed with grab sampling. Another major advantage of using real-time spectrophotometers for water and wastewater applications is its simplicity. The measurement process does not require sample preparation nor does continued overleaf... March/April 2014 | 73


Monitoring

Spectrophotometric sensors offer new opportunities for process control applications or cost-sensitive applications. it require reagents or changing the sample composition in any way. For this reason, operation is very straightforward and maintaining the instrument is both easy and low cost. Spectrophotometric sensors offer new opportunities for process control applications or cost-sensitive applications. How BOD is measured in real-time Spectrophotometric sensors measure the UV-VIS absorbance of the sample continuously flowing through the instrument. By taking absorbance data from a given time and matching it with BOD laboratory data for the same given time, a relationship between these two pieces of information can be established. Further collection of these matching data sets will provide the information needed to build a “calibration”. Calibration is what is used by the spectrophotometric sensor software to continuously convert the measured absorbance data into milligrams per litre (mg/L) value for BOD. The operator can then quickly interpret the current displayed BOD mg/L value for regulatory assurance, or transmit real-time BOD mg/L data to a SCADA system or PLC for process control and improvements. For the calibration process, involvement at the plant level is very simple. A series of approximately 15 grab samples are collected from the desired monitoring location and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The sensor manufacturer, Real Tech, receives the BOD (and often total suspended solids) laboratory data and begins to build a custom calibration using site-specific data. The custom calibration is then uploaded to the sensor’s controller, via a remote connection, and the controller starts to display a real-time BOD value of the currently measured sample. Custom calibrations account for the unique wastewater characteristics of the specific plant that may influence BOD, 74 | March/April 2014

Figure 1: Weekly COD sampling.

Real-time data is more representative of changes in the process, and captures events that would otherwise go unnoticed with grab sampling.

Figure 3: Real-time COD monitoring.

Figure 2: Hourly COD sampling.

COD or TOC composition. The calibration is audited regularly to prove validity of the real-time data. In addition, audit samples can be added to the custom calibration data set to continuously improve the robustness and accuracy of the calibration over time. Implementation of real-time spectrophotometric monitoring for BOD, COD or TOC can result in a variety of beneficial outcomes, including informed decision-making, optimization of system performance, greater process control, and optimization of chemical and nutrient dosing. This can reduce effluent

surcharge fines/fees and product lost to wastewater. Also, due to the wide detection capabilities of UV-VIS analysis monitoring, additional processes such as clean-in-place or dye (colour) concentration monitoring can also bring significant value. Real-time analysis is both a simple and cost-effective way for operators to gain a more complete understanding of their wastewater and processes. Drew Evans is with Real Tech Inc. For more information, E-mail: drew@realtechwater.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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3/28/14 12:39 AM


Water & Wastewater Plant Efficiency

Fast-curing coating and lining technologies streamline WWTP maintenance By Murray Heywood

T

he ideal method for managing wastewater facility assets is to implement a preventive maintenance plan. This includes scheduled downtime for repairs, such as rehabilitating coating and lining systems that protect concrete and steel surfaces from corrosion. In a perfect world, this approach should lessen the likelihood of a facility needing an emergency repair and experiencing unscheduled downtime. Unfortunately, many operating budgets have not kept pace with system demands, forcing operators to exceed the capacities of their facilities. This increases the likelihood of an emergency repair. Facilities operating at maximum capacity have little tolerance for shutdowns of any kind. They need to be back in service as soon as possible, to meet service demands and minimize costs. Both standard maintenance and emergency repairs are costly. Shutting down 76 | March/April 2014

a system often requires a facility to implement expensive bypass operations to divert the waste stream to other tanks or temporary holding areas until the primary system is up and running again. Bypass operations can cost more than $30,000 per day for a larger plant. Thus, every minute saved in getting the system returned to service means significant cost savings. Fortunately, wastewater facility managers can save time when performing maintenance on coating and lining systems. Newer “quick-return-to-service” coating technology options can enable a facility to rehabilitate and repair concrete and steel surfaces and return them to service in less than 24 hours. A growing need for repairs Over the past 50 years, many areas have experienced “urban sprawl” without adding new treatment facilities to manage the increased wastewater volume. They

have addressed sprawl simply by adding new sewers to their existing systems, to carry wastewater from new subdivisions and commercial and industrial sites to existing treatment plants. As wastewater must now travel greater distances to reach the treatment facility, this slows waste stream flows and increases dwell times in the lines. Additionally, industrial byproducts entering the waste stream have increased, creating a more diverse mix of organics and subsequently a more septic waste stream. All of these factors contribute to increased corrosion rates on wastewater infrastructure. Concrete accounts for approximately 85% of the surface areas that will require maintenance or repair in wastewater facilities. These assets include manholes (brick, pre-cast, or poured), wet wells, lift stations, grit chambers, influent channels, primary and secondary clarifiers, and digesters. The largest contributor to

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Water & Wastewater Plant Efficiency the corrosion and degradation of concrete is the increased level of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), organic wastes such as fats and grease, and industrial waste. Microbiologically induced corrosion is also a major contributor to the deterioration of concrete. Microbes, such as acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, essential in the breakdown of the waste, ingest the H2S and excrete sulfuric acid (H2SOď&#x2122;&#x2021;). This reaction lowers the pH of the concrete and causes the cement paste to deteriorate, leaving the aggregate exposed. Abrasion from debris and grit in the waste stream also contribute to the degradation of concrete by eroding the surface and exposing the larger aggregate within the cement matrix. Steel surfaces throughout a wastewater treatment facility face similar threats, as toxic waste streams and gases react with unprotected steel and accelerate corrosion. Fast-curing coatings Newer, fast-curing technologies have reduced return-to-service times. Facilities can perform surface preparation, apply repair mortar, apply a fast-curing coating material, and place a system back in service, all within a 24-hour period. Of course, this may not include the time to empty, clean and rinse a tank or vessel, as well as remove any existing coating or lining. However, a single-day return-to-service capability could reduce a facilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bypass operation costs by $180,000 to $270,000. Performing the maintenance To perform coating and lining maintenance on concrete and steel surfaces, a plant must first shut down or bypass the systems to be repaired or rehabilitated. A typical rehabilitation or repair of an existing concrete substrate will start with stopping any active leaks and all inflow and infiltration (I&I) issues. Contractors must properly address these, or the success of any coating system or repair will be questionable. There are many methodologies for stopping leaks and I&I, but contractors often use chemical grouting because it is both fast and permanent. Also, personnel can generally apply coatings to chemical grout products soon after application. www.esemag.com

Epoxies typically provide the most across-the-board versatility of the three technologies.

The next process is surface preparation, which typically involves a combination of methods. First, contractors must remove any existing coating and/ or clean the surface to remove any existing contamination. High-pressure hot water cleaning is the preferred method. Once the surface is clean, contractors can use newer methods for preparing the substrate, including wet abrasive or vapour blasting. Standard dry abrasive blasting is not preferred because it creates a larger amount of dust and spent abrasive that must be contained and removed by hand or vacuum truck. Vapour blasting combines small quantities of water along with an abrasive media, creating approximately 90% less dust and often requiring no containment. It can be used for both concrete and steel substrates. Following surface preparation, contractors can complete a concrete repair using some of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quick-return-toservice systems. They may use an epoxy-reinforced cementitious repair mortar that can be top coated in as little as eight hours. They may choose calcium aluminate repair mortars that can be top coated in as little as 12 hours, or microsilica mortars that require 18 to 24 hours to cure prior to top coating. All three options are much better than using Portland cement alone, which takes 28 days to cure fully before allowing top coating.

Contractors also have options for straight 100% solids epoxy fillers that have a six to 10 hour minimum recoat requirement. Regardless of the coating system used, contractors must resurface the concrete as close as possible to its original plane, with all defects filled and protrusions removed. Once repairs have been made, the lining material can be applied. The three primary technologies are epoxies (typically amine-cured), highbuild aromatic polyurethanes, or polyurea linings. The fast-curing capabilities of these materials depend on being able to control environmental conditions using heat and/or dehumidification equipment. All three technologies provide a high-build capability, which is critical in wastewater applications. To decide which quick-return-to-service system is the most suitable for a given project, the facility will need to consider the substrate and the chemical-resistance and film-build characteristics of the technology. Epoxies typically provide the most across-the-board versatility of the three technologies, as they allow for application to surface saturated dry substrates. Polyurethanes and polyureas are more adverse to moisture during application. Murray Heywood is with SherwinWilliams Protective & Marine Coatings. E-mail: murray.c.heywood@sherwin.com March/April 2014 | 77


Wastewater Treatment

Orillia evaluates cloth filtration for WWTC phosphorus reduction By Valera Saknenko, James Des Cotes, Mark P. Hughes and Percival Thomas

T

he Orillia Wastewater Treatment Centre (WWTC), which discharges into Lake Simcoe, Ontario, is a conventional secondary treatment plant that has a rated average daily flow capacity of 27,300 m3/ day and a peak hourly flow rate of 89,000 m3/day. Due to the implementation of Ontario’s Lake Simcoe Protection Plan in 2009 and the Phosphorus Reduction Strategy for the Lake Simcoe Watershed in 2010, the Orillia WWTC was required to meet more stringent total phosphorus (TP) limits of 0.1 mg/L. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA) was retained to evaluate AquaDisk® cloth media disk filtration as a tertiary treatment option that would allow the City to meet these new requirements. The manufacturer, Aqua-Aerobic Sys­­tems, Inc., was provided with the influent and effluent design criteria for the WWTC and asked to provide capital and operating cost, details of performance in existing locations, and a preliminary layout for their tertiary treatment system. The system was evaluated using criteria such as footprint, head loss, capital cost, life-cycle cost, and ability to meet the 0.1 mg/L TP limit. Capital cost estimates were developed based on tank sizes and buildings required to house the equipment. Life-cycle cost estimates for various filter configurations accounted for projected maintenance works and chemical and power usage. Based on this evaluation, AquaDisk cloth media disk filtration was recommended as the most appropriate tertiary treatment system, mainly due to its capability, small footprint, and low capital and life-cycle costs. For this project, the manufacturer recommended the use of their 5-micron OptiFiber® cloth media, which is a relatively new cloth media specifically developed to achieve low TP limits. Disk filters use a cloth media placed over a disk submerged within a tank to capture and remove solids in the wa78 | March/April 2014

Figure 1: Cloth media filter system.

Figure 2: Correlation between influent and effluent total phosphorus.

ter, while allowing clean water to pass through. In normal operation, the selected disks are stationary within the tank.

Water flows by gravity from the tank through the cloth and into a central horizontal pipe, discharging to an effluent

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Wastewater Treatment channel. Solids are deposited on the outside surface of the disks. (See Figure 1) As the amount of solids builds up on the outside of the disks, the amount of head required to force water through the cloth media increases. When the accumulation of solids reaches a pre-set level, a backwash system is initiated to remove the solids. While in backwash mode, the mechanism cleans the cloth media by drawing a small amount of filtrate through shoe assemblies that are connected to backwash pumps. During this cycle, only two disks are being backwashed at a time. No downtime is required to accommodate backwashing, as the filters remain in service throughout this process. Additional solids that accumulate are pumped out through a manifold at the bottom of the tank by the same backwash pump. Pilot study The City decided to carry out a pilot study to test the suitability of 5-micron cloth media for treating the Orillia WWTC secondary effluent to below 0.1 mg/L of TP. The study was carried out from September 24 to November 6, 2014. A pilot trailer was provided by the manufacturer. It was equipped with a single, cloth media disk filter offering an effective filtration area of 1.1 m2. The completely submerged disk was divided into two equal segments, each fitted with 5-micron microfibre pile cloth media. For this study, secondary clarifier effluent from the WWTC was pumped to the pilot unit. Flow passed through a series of pipes where coagulant was injected and flash-mixed with the secondary effluent, using an in-line static mixer. The flow then transferred to a single-stage flocculation chamber before its introduction to the filter tank. The flow was filtered by gravity through the cloth media. Influent and effluent turbidity values were monitored continuously using two turbidimeters. Influent and effluent ortho­­­­ phosphorus concentrations were monitored by two in-line analyzers. The unit was PLC-controlled and was equipped with an electronic logging system for data acquisition. In parallel with the sampling and testing program carried out by the manufacturer, WWTC staff carried out their own sampling and testing program. This www.esemag.com

Figure 3: Total reactive phosphate removal rates at all flows.

No downtime is required to accommodate backwashing, as the filters remain in service throughout this process. included taking samples upstream and downstream of the pilot filter in the morning and afternoon. They also took overnight composite samples. All samples were tested for total suspended solids (TSS), phosphates (PO4-P), and TP at Caduceon Environmental Laboratories. Results The primary goal of the study was to assess whether fluctuations in the influent TP had a significant impact on the effluent filtered TP concentrations. As shown in Figure 2, influent TP concentrations ranged from approximately 0.1 mg/L to a simulated spike of 1.4 mg/L. With the exception of one data point, all effluent TP values were below 0.075 mg/L. On average, the 5-micron cloth media achieved 78% removal of TP on all samples collected and analyzed. The secondary goal of the study was to evaluate the filter’s performance at el-

evated solids concentrations. Peak loading conditions were simulated to a TP concentration of 1.4 mg/L by introducing mixed liquor suspended solids to the filter influent. The filter was operated across a range of flows from average daily flow to peak flow. Influent turbidity levels ranged from 2 NTU to 31 NTU, which correlated to a TSS loading of 5 mg/L to 80 mg/L. Effluent phosphate levels improved as the solids concentrations applied to the filter were increased. In all cases, the filter effluent reactive phosphorus was well below levels needed to support an effluent criterion of TP less than 0.1 mg/L. (See Figure 3) Based on the results of the pilot study, the following conclusions were made: • Filtration with 5-micron microfibre cloth media can effectively meet the stringent effluent TP target of 0.1 mg/L. • The filter offers stable and reliable performance, despite significant variations in hydraulic and solids loading rates. • The 5-micron cloth media filter achieved the TP target with and without the aid of coagulant. • When chemicals are added, the cloth medium is effective in filtering chemcontinued overleaf... March/April 2014 | 79


Wastewater Treatment ical solids created from the mixing and flocculation of primary coagulants, such as aluminum sulfate. • In addition to high-level phosphorus removal, the cloth media filter is able to produce a filtrate with an exceptionally low turbidity and TSS. Evaluation of disk filter configurations Once the process was confirmed, various configurations of disk filters were developed and evaluated to determine optimal layout for life-cycle cost and process redundancy. To meet design guidelines, all systems were evaluated with one set of standby filter(s). Based on this, quotations for the following configurations were obtained: • Two sets of 24-disk filters (one duty and one standby). • Three sets of 12-disk filters (two duty and one standby). • Four sets of 8-disk filters (three duty and one standby). The configuration of two sets of fil-

Complete systems responsibility Mission-critical downstream technology performs better

ters incorporated the highest number of filter disks (48 individual disks) since it required 100% redundancy. The configuration with four sets of filters had the lowest number of disks, since the standby filter only had to be sized to treat 33% of design flows. Life cycle cost for each configuration incorporated both the capital cost and the 20-year net present value of the operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. A capital cost estimate was prepared for each configuration, based on the tanks required to house the filters, the building and ancillary equipment. The set of four filters contained the fewest number of actual disks. However, the added costs for piping and equipment resulted in this configuration having the highest capital cost. The option with two filters resulted in the lowest capital cost, as it had the smallest footprint and the fewest pieces of equipment. Based on the preliminary layouts of each system, estimates were made for heating and ventilation, as well as area

lighting requirements. The power necessary to run these building systems was considered, along with the filters’ power and chemical use. Replacement part costs and labour rates were also considered while preparing final O&M estimates. The estimated 20-year life-cycle costs are as follows: • Two sets of 24-disk filters: $15.1M. • Three sets of 12-disk filters: $16.1M. • Four sets of 8-disk filters: $17.3M. The option with two filters was determined to be the most economical option from the point of view of capital, O&M and life-cycle costs. This system also featured the largest available filtration area, with 100% redundancy. Valera Saknenko, P.Eng., Ph.D., PMP, and James Des Cotes, P.Eng., CCCA, are with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. Mark P. Hughes, P.E., is with Aqua-Aerobic Systems Inc. Percival Thomas, P.Eng., Ph.D, is with the City of Orillia. For more information, E-mail: vsaknenko@rvanderson.com

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The legendary Muf¿n Monster sewage grinder has the power to tear through the toughest solids, including wipes, rags, plastics, leaves, branches, clothing and debris, to protect pumps from clogging. The Muf¿n Monster easily installs in gravity fed sewer channels or inline sewer lines. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Septage receiving automation The Honey Monster Septage Receiving system, Model SRS-XE, is an all-in-one unit that allows the cleaner handling of septage truck waste by reducing and separating unwanted trash such as rocks, wipes, rags, clothing, plastics and other debris. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

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Chemline’s Type 57 all-plastic elastomer seated butterÀy valve is now 1SF-61 certi¿ed for potable water services. It offers perfect corrosion resistance at low cost. Standard materials used are: PVC body, PP disc, EPDM seat. Others are available. Sizes range from 1-1/2” to 24”. Use with handlever, gear operators, pneumatic or electric actuators. Tel: 905-889-7890, Fax: 905-889-8553 E-mail: request@chemline.com Web: www.chemline.com

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Corrosion protection

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush or roller. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona-ca.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

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New portable sampler

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Move all your analytical calibrations into the lab for increased ef¿ciency and safety with Endress+Hauser’s new Memobase Plus CYZ71D calibration system. Simply plug into your USB port, start the software and plug in your Memosens sensors. Save money with the all-in-one tool for bench top measurements, calibrations and automatic electronic documentation. Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/CYZ71D

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Monitor chlorine gas

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The Chlor-Scale 150® provides a simple and reliable way to monitor the exact amount of chlorine used and the amount remaining in the cylinder. Available with the electronic Wizard 4000® or SOLO G2®, or the hydraulic SOLO XT® or Century® dial. Tel: 800-893-6723 E-mail: info@forceÀow.com Web: www.forceÀow.com

The new iSXBlue II GNSS is a palmsized receiver that delivers real-time, high submeter accuracy performance, using GPS/GLONASS satellites and free SBAS corrections for your iPad/ iPhone. It’s the ideal choice for a variety of mapping apps including GIS, forestry, mining, etc. Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: info@geneq.com Web: www.geneq.com

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The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

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For dif¿cult wastewater problems, dissolved air Àotation ('AF) may be the right choice. Try out the H2FLOW 'AF unit to see if the results make sense to clarify your water. The skid-mounted unit, complete with accessories, is designed to treat 80 Lpm. A Àatbed trailer is optional. Tel: 905-660-9775 Web: www.h2Àow.com H2Flow Equipment

Advanced MBR screen

Huber has introduced the Rotamat® perforated plate screen RPPS STAR. Utilizing a patented pleated perforated plate increases throughput by 25%. This allows a smaller footprint, which results in reduced capital cost for screen and structure. Tel: 704-990-2055, Fax: 704-949-1020 E-mail: solutions@hhusa.net Web: www.Huberforum.net/RPPS Huber Technology

Turbidity meter With its Industry-leading precision, sensitivity, and dependability, the Lamotte Turbidity Meter is one of the most innovative handheld meters available on the market. Waterproof to IP67, it is available in EPA and ISO versions, complying with USEPA 180.1 Standard. The display is backlit. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

Vertical screen technology Huber Technology invented the RoK4 vertical con¿ned space screen technology to physically screen out debris in con¿ned spaces such as pump stations, wet wells, etc. Three diameters are available with machine lengths as high as ~40’. Over 700 units have been installed worldwide. Tel: 704-990-2055 E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.Huberforum.net Huber Technology

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Odour control

Vortex Flow is a proven method for dealing with odour and corrosion in sewer drops. Simple, costeffective and reliable, Vortex Flow Inserts have been proven to deliver signi¿cant cost savings for municipalities. Using wastewater’s Àow energy to suppress turbulence, aerate the sewage and oxidize dissolved H2S, the patented spiral design sucks odorous gases down towards the bottom of the structure. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com

For more than 15 years, Guardian™’s state-of-the-art technology has been the industry benchmark in pressure and drainage double containment systems for use with a wide range of acids, alcohols, salts and halogens. Guardian™ systems are available in tough industrial grade Xirtec®140 PVC and even tougher Corzan® hightemperature CPVC. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com

CSO Technik’s Terminodour odour control system is now available in Canada exclusively through Kusters Water. Terminodour supplies ionized air into a building where it reacts and oxidizes odours while maintaining a healthy working environment and reducing corrosion. It is ideally suited for treatment of hydrogen sul¿de. It does not use water, chemicals or media. Tel: 864-576-0660 Web: www.kusterswater.com

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GPR technology

Interpreter register

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Master Meter’s Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog® 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

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Access hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches are the “open and shut case” for access hatches. They are manufactured to CSA standards right here in Canada by Canadian Welding %ureau certi¿ed welders. Web: www.msumississauga.com

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Octave® offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

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Rotary lobe pump NETZSCH’s technologically advanced TORNADO® T2 RLP Rotary Lobe Pump provides low pulsation, metal-on-rubber clearances, fewer parts, higher pressures, smaller footprint, full service-in-place with Àange-to-Àange access. There are no timing gears, lubrication, O-rings, gaskets, keyways, castle nuts or tools. Tel: 866-683-7867, Fax: 705-797-8427 E-mail: ntc@netzsch.com Web: www.netzsch.com NETZSCH Canada

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Test strips

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Osprey Scienti¿c carries a wide range of test strips for use in a variety of applications, including: ColorpHast pH Strips; EM Quant Ammonia and Cyanide; MQuant Chloride, Sulfate, Nitriate & Nitrate; Quantab Chloride Titrators; AQUACHEK Nitrate/Nitrite, Total/Free Chlorine; plus many more. Tel: 800-560-4402 E-mail: tmcgowan@ospreyscienti¿c.com Web: www.ospreyscienti¿c.com

ProMinent has introduced an ultrasonic Àow meter, called DulcoFlow, designed to measure pulsating Àow from metering pumps. This was previously impossible with any degree of accuracy. DulcoFlow accurately measures the volume of each pump stroke down to 0.03 ml. Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

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Backwash filtration systems

Multiparameter meter

An improved version of the Titan-90 Automatic Filtration Systems is now being produced. They use permanent media to provide solids/liquid separation for the metal ¿nishing and/or general industrial, chemical, pharmaceutical and processing industries, where their automatic backwashing capability ensures continuous high Àow, with minimal cost for media and labour. Tel: 800-565-5278, Fax: 905-820-4015 E-mail: sales@service-¿ltration.com Web: www.service-¿ltration.com

Hanna Instruments Canada Inc. has recently released a ‘kit version’ of their newest multiparameter instrument. HI 9829 is now available in a rugged carrying case which cleverly houses all the required sensor, accessories and solutions. HI 9829 can measure up to 16 parameters. Tel: 800-565-5278, Fax: 905-820-4015 E-mail: sales@service-¿ltration.com Web: www.service-¿ltration.com

Movigear® is an intelligent system with its own control concept. Its high-quality networking helps reduce startup time and supports monitoring and maintenance tasks. When combined with a fractional user software, drive tasks can be resolved as quickly and easily as possible. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca

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Grit removal system

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PISTA®Works™ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTA® Grit Concentrator, a PISTA® TURBO™ Grit Washer and a PISTA® 360™ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

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Solinst Bladder Pumps prevent air/ water contact during operation, and are excellent for low Àow and 9OC groundwater sampling. They are available in stainless steel or P9C and are ideal for applications to depths of 150 m (500 ft.). The bladders are quick and easy to change. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com

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Engineered metal doors

FRP products

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Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter

Groundwater sampling The HydraSleeve Discreet Interval No-Purge Sampler provides a formation quality sample with very little effort and cost. In independent studies, the HydraSleeve was found to be 50%-80% more cost-effective than other sampling methods. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

PVC or Polyethylene

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ES&E NEWS Canada to host 2014 CEC Council Acoustic Panels, Enclosures & Products WE WELCOME YOUR INQUIRIES

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Canada will host the 2014 Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) Council Session in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, on July 17, 2014. This is the ¿rst Council Session in Canada¶s North. Senior environment of¿cials and citizens from the United States and Mexico and members of the Joint Public Advisory Committee will participate in the Session that will celebrate trilateral achievements through the Commission¶s cooperative program, and foster discussion on the future of the CEC. The CEC was established in 1994 under the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC), the environmental side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The CEC announced today the recipients of the 2013-2015 North American Partnership for Environmental Community Action (NAPECA) grant program, which supports activities to address environmental challenges at the community level. In total, 18 projects from across the three countries were selected to participate in the program. The four Canadian projects selected will receive a total of $398,322 and will focus on issues of climate change, water quality management, and biodiversity conservation. The current budget for the NAPECA grant program is $1.2 million over two years. www.ec.gc.ca

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Thorough the month of March, over 500 events across the country educated young Canadians about careers in engineering. Hosted by provincial and territorial engineering regulatory bodies, events and educational campaigns aim to teach youths what it takes to become a professional engineer, understand career achievements and possibilities and pro¿le the accomplishments of Canadian engineers. “Professional engineers shape our world,” said Engineers Canada President W. James Beckett, FEC, P.Eng, in a press release. “National Engineering Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ES&E NEWS Month is an excellent opportunity for Canada’s youth to discover how fun, creative, and imaginative engineering can be, and get set on the path to becoming our future’s engineering leaders.” www.engineerscanada.ca

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First female ACEC Chair appointed In June 2014, senior geotechnical engineer Anne Poschmann will be the ¿rst female Chair of Consulting (ngineering Companies-Canada AC(C . Poschmann, who has been with Golder Associates for 32 years, has served on the AC(C board since 2010 and the Consulting (ngineers of 2ntario board between 1986 and 2007. She recognizes the importance of industry associations in giving voice to their membership. “As a collective, it is possible to effect changes on national and provincial issues through public and private-sector advocacy,” said Poschmann. “I am honored that my peers on the AC(C Board have entrusted me with this position and look forward to supporting the association’s mission and further developing their strategic priorities.” www.golder.ca

Environmental history goes online In celebration of the 20th anniversary of 2ntario’s (nvironmental Bill of 5ights, the (nvironmental Commissioner of 2ntario has launched the history proMect Beginnings, a Genesis of Environmental Protection in Ontario. According to the (nvironmental Commissioner’s webpage, “the (nvironmental Bill of 5ights recognizes that, while the provincial government has the primary responsibility for protecting, conserving and restoring the natural environment, the people of 2ntario have the right to participate in government decisions about the environment and the right to hold the government accountable for those decisions.” (nvironmentalbeginnings.com hosts audio recordings and archival documents relating to 2ntario’s environmental history. Articles and recordings continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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ES&E NEWS Now available in Canada! Tier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and Pressure Control Systems in both Bladder and Air over Water Solutions HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 Ph: 905-777-9494 Fax: 905-777-8678 info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca

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capture the stories and memories of the peopOe Zho Zere inYoOYed in the siJni¿cant environmental events and organizations. These include scientists Wolfgang Scheider, Norman Yan and Peter Dillon, whose research showed the drastic affects of acid rain on Ontario’s lakes. In addition to acid rain, stories on the implementation of the blue box, the Crown Forest Sustainability Act and the founding of the Environmental Bill of Rights, are available. www.environmentalbeginnings.ca

Support for Lake Winnipeg projects reaffirmed The Government of Canada has reaf¿rmed more than  million in previous funding for  communit\ stewardship projects that have helped to restore the health of Canada’s sixth-largest lake. /ast \ear, the Global Nature )und declared Lake Winnipeg the “Threatened Lake of the Year”, citing large amounts of blue-green algae. Phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural and sewage run-off have caused larger and more frequent algae blooms which imbalance the lake’s ecos\stem and can be toxic to humans. This funding is part of the Lake Winnipeg Basin Initiative (LWBI), which supports stewardship projects, scienti¿c research and monitoring, and trans-boundar\ management efforts to improve water qualit\ in Lake Winnipeg. The LWBI was launched in 2007, and has provided  million in funding for projects including wetland restoration, innovative wastewater treatment, new agricultural practices, and research. www.ec.gc.ca

Grants support transition from coal to biomass Twent\ farms and agribusinesses across Manitoba are receiving more than ,000 in grants to switch from coal to biomass heating s\stems, to reduce the province’s greenhouse-gas emissions. Successful projects received up to half the cost of capital or infrastructure upgrades to a maximum of 0,000 through the Manitoba Biomass Energ\ Support Program. These projects are estimated to re88 | March/April 2014

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ES&E NEWS duce the amount of coal used by more than 4,500 tonnes every year, reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by approximately 7,000 tonnes as a result. The amount of biomass available for use is expected to increase by 7,600 tonnes annually as a result of the funded projects. Sixteen grants will help farms convert from coal to renewable biomass energy. The other four recipients are processors who will use the funding to improve capacity and ef¿ciency in their businesses. Manitoba has committed to use coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) tax revenues to help coal users convert to biomass. The province implemented 1orth $merica¶s ¿rst coal heating ban on January 1, 2014. If an approved conversion plan is submitted by June 30, a grace period to comply will extend to July 1, 2017. These grants also support the province’s bio-products strategy, created in 2011 to encourage the development of value-added processing in rural and northern Manitoba’s agriculture and forestry sectors. Since 2000, Manitoba’s population has increased by 11 per cent, the economy has grown by 31 per cent but greenhouse-gas emissions are down by two per cent. This information is from the recently released 2012 provincial climate change report. news.gov.mb.ca

New water legislation introduced

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British Columbia Environment Minister Mary Polak has introduced legislation that will update and replace B.C.’s century-old Water Act with the new Water Sustainability Act. It will be brought into effect in spring 2015, once supporting regulations are developed and ¿nali]ed. Input from individual British Columbians, )irst 1ations organi]ations and stakeholder groups contributed to the Act. According to the provincial government, “the new Act will, most notably, bring groundwater into the licensing system, and will expand government’s ability to protect ¿sh and aTuatic environments.” It will make improvements continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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Advertiser INDEX

Company

Page

ACG Technology ................................... 91 American Public University ................. 44 American Water Works Association ... 71 Associated Engineering ........................ 5 AWI ....................................................... 21 C&M Environmental ............................. 19 Canadian Water Summit...................... 40 Can-Am Instruments ........................... 27 Cancoppas ........................................... 33 Chemline Plastics ................................ 34 CIMA Canada ....................................... 62 Cole Engineering .................................. 70 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute ........... 92 Delcan .................................................. 54 Denso .................................................. 59 Endress + Hauser ................................ 13 Engineered Pump Systems.................. 59 Envirocan ........................................... 91 Geneq ............................................... Flyer

ES&E NEWS in seven key areas, to: • Protect stream health and aquatic environments. • Consider water in land-use decisions. • Regulate and protect groundwater. • Regulate water use during times of scarcity. • ,mprove security, water-use ef¿ciency and conservation. • Measure and report large-scale water use. • Provide for a range of governance approaches. The B.C. government is also reviewing its approach to water pricing and has released a set of principles that will help inform a new fee and rental structure to support the new Act and sustainable water management. www.news.gov.bc.ca

Greatario .............................................. 65 H2Flow ................................................. 24 Hoskin Scientific ...................... 37, 63, 68 Huber Technology ............................ 9, 80 IPEX ...................................................... 17 Itech Environmental Services ............. 61 Kemira .................................................. 41 KG Services .......................................... 31 KGO Group ............................................ 16 KSB Pumps .......................................... 54 Kusters Water ...................................... 49 Landshark Drilling ............................... 32 Mark It Locates .................................... 55 Markland Specialty Engineering ......... 70 Master Meter ........................................ 3 MSU Mississauga ................................ 23

Hydro Ottawa to expand hydroelectric power Hydro Ottawa has been awarded a 40year contract to construct an additional 29 MW facility at Chaudière Falls. The Power Purchase Agreement is administered by the Ontario Power Authority. The new facility will increase Hydro Ottawa’s hydroelectric capacity to 58 MW. Its renewable energy facilities include six hydroelectric stations at Chaudière Falls and land¿ll gas-to-energy plants. Hydro Ottawa (under its subsidiary, Energy Ottawa) applied for the contract under the OPA’s Hydro Electric Stan-

dard Offer Program Municipal Stream in November 2013. It plans to start construction in 2015. According to Hydro Ottawa, the hydroelectric plant will reduce CO2 emissions by 115,000 metric tons per year and provide 150 high-quality jobs in the construction industry. www.hydroottawa.com/media/ news-releases

Reinvent the Toilet Challenge More than 45 exhibitors representing 15 nations met in New Delhi recently, showcasing innovative products and approaches that aim to bring safe, affordable and sustainable sanitation to the 2.5 billion who lack access to sanitation. Co-hosted by the Department of Biotechnology and the Gates Foundation, exhibitors featured projects to stimulate discussion among a diverse group of stakeholders working to improve global sanitation. Teams created and displayed toilets that are not connected to water, sewer or electricity; improve the collection, treatment and disposal of human waste; address behavior change; and raise awareness of this critical issue for governments, stakeholders and local communities. For a look at the solar power toilet developed for the challenge by the University of Colorado Boulder, see page 40. www.gatesfoundation.org

NETZSCH Canada ................................. 47 Ontario Power Authority ...................... 25 Orival Water Filters .............................. 47 Osprey Scientific.................................. 35 Polish Environmental Protection Industry ............................ 69 Pro Aqua............................................... 39 ProMinent............................................... 2 Rochon Environmental ........................ 38 SEW-Eurodrive ..................................... 35 Smith & Loveless ................................. 10 Solinst Canada ..................................... 11 Spill Management ................................ 75 Stantec ................................................. 51 URS Canada ......................................... 46 USF Fabrication.................................... 59 Waterra Pumps .................. 15, 29, 43, 60 XCG Consultants .................................. 34 Xylem ..................................................... 7

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Two Companies • Many Lines One Number To Call PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Selfcleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® frontraked fine screens • FlexRake® frontraked bar screens • FlexRake® low flow • Screenings washer/compactor • Auger conveyor • SelfCleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater • Channel Monster® grinder for pump staons and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving staon • Auger Monster® fine screen system • Monster® fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforaons • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotang drum screens down to 2mm perfs • Raptor screenings washer press

TANK COVERS & DOMES • Aluminum and FRP geodesic domes • Flat aluminum tank covers • Aluminum channel and launder covers • Aluminum hatch covers

SECONDARY TREATMENT • AquaJet® direct drive floang aerator • Aqua DDM mechanical floang mixer • Fine bubble aeraon systems using membrane or ceramic diffusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aeraon systems • Mul stage acvated biological process MSABP • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal mulstage blowers • Floang diversion curtains for aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems & clear wells • Subsurface jet aeraon/mixing systems for high rate & low rate treatment systems • Drop in jet aerators/mixers • Spiraflo & Spiravac peripheral feed clarifiers • Closed loop reactor oxidaon ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • High efficiency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Aeraon system controls & instrumentaon • Chain & flight clarifier systems & components plasc, cast iron or stainless steel • Half bridge, centre feed, circular clarifiers • Spiral blade clarifiers

BULK MATERIAL HANDLING • Shaftless & shafted screw conveyors • Screw pumps open & closed designs

TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk®  cloth media tertiary filter

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DISINFECTION • UV disinfecon systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live boom dischargers • GBT & RDT for sludge thickening • Belt filter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering ODOUR CONTROL • Biofilters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers

FLOWMETERS • Open channel flow metering portable and permanent; wireless data transmission • Inseron mag flow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission • Octave ultrasonic flow meter 2", 3", 4", 6" & 8" pipe sizes INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low profile, from 20 800 GPM • Pipe flocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems • Coalescing oil/water separators • Inclined plate clarifiers STORMWATER TREATMENT • Hydrodynamic oil/grit separators • Vortex flow controls • Filtraon WATER TREATMENT • Pressure filtraon systems removal of iron and manganese, arsenic, fluoride, radium, uranium

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CALL 905.856.1414 • 131 Whitmore Rd., Unit 13, Woodbridge, ON L4L 6E4

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and more…

Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association

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Join us In The Trenches and Make a Difference. We’re fortunate to live in Canada, one of the world’s great nations. Accordingly, it is incumbent upon all of us who work in water/soil management to protect our abundance of precious resources, for our children and for generations to come. We can all participate in this stewardship by improving the products, innovations and technologies used to manage our infrastructures and other resource related sectors to maintain our standard of living, while ensuring Canadian industry remains globally competitive. That underscores the importance of the jobs we all do, day in and day out. Which is why CSPI created In The Trenches – an online industry newsmagazine for sharing information and new ideas. For many of us, its title may be a metaphor; but, it also reÀects the reality that, regardless of whether we operate a backhoe, analyze water and soil, or sit at a computer creating things, we really are all in this together. That’s why CSPI and its members encourage everyone in the industry to openly share their news, knowledge, successes and insights of how to do things better for less. Sharing knowledge empowers us all to succeed in making a better Canada. We’re all members of this vital industry sector. And membership has its responsibilities.

For more news from In The Trenches visit us at cspi.ca

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Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine March-April 2014  

Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine's Official Canadian Environment Conference and Tradeshow (CANECT) Show Guide. Featuring arti...

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