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Zero-Waste at the Big House: Minimizing Waste at Michigan Stadium

Feasibility Study & Recommendations April 6, 2012

Student Sustainability Initiative Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise University of Michigan

Jenna Agins, Catherine Dyson, Raphael Meyer & Leah Zimmerman


Author’s Note This report was prepared by four University of Michigan MBA/MS graduate students from the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise in conjunction with the University’s Student Sustainability Initiative. Its primary purpose is to serve as a feasibility assessment for a zero-waste initiative during one or more football seasons at Michigan Stadium. Although the report was prepared for and with the permission of the University of Michigan Athletics Department, it does not represent the opinions of the Athletics Department. If you have specific questions regarding the report’s contents or general questions about zero-waste initiatives, please contact the report’s authors directly at zwfootball2012@umich.edu.

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Executive Summary As the largest sports stadium in the United States—and third largest internationally—Michigan Stadium is a beloved icon and destination for fans and alumni from around the world. Devotees flock to the Big House each fall to watch the Wolverines play against some of the best college teams in the country. Year after year, these fans arrive in Ann Arbor expecting to experience a gameday marked by excellence both on and off the field. Thanks to these values, Michigan Stadium became an early adopter of environmental sustainability efforts, implementing a successful stadium-wide recycling program in 1996. In recent years, however, sustainability has advanced far beyond improved recycling and energy management. Leading organizations have begun embarking on more ambitious sustainability efforts and in September 2010, University of Michigan President Mary Sue Coleman announced a new set of sustainability goals for the University, including a commitment to reduce waste tonnage sent to landfill by 40% below 2006 levels by 2025.1 UM Athletics balances many priorities, including developing strategies for differentiating itself from other schools, continuing strong traditions and effectively engaging its fans. Amidst these competing priorities, the department must also consider how best to contribute to the University’s broader goals. One key area that UM Athletics can address is waste. In 2011, Michigan Stadium’s average waste diversion rate was 25%.2 Other leading programs have surpassed Michigan, including Ohio State, which diverted almost 83% of its football gameday waste after converting its gameday operations to zero-waste in 2011.3 With a zero-waste program at Michigan Stadium, UM Athletics could step into a position of leadership in sustainability by diverting up to 90% of the waste generated on gamedays to commercial recycling and composting facilities. This study explores the feasibility of such an endeavor and is based on primary and secondary research, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis and a comprehensive cost analysis. Based on our research, we have come to the following conclusions: 1. A zero-waste program can be implemented at Michigan Stadium without compromising the fan experience; 2. Existing operations at Michigan Stadium can be adapted to allow for implementation of a successful zero-waste program; 3. There are clear marketing and PR opportunities related to a zero-waste program, including potential corporate sponsorships and the cultivation of individual donor relationships; and 4. A zero-waste program aligns with future athletic industry trends and will position UM Athletics as the leader and best on the national “green sports” playing field.

Given these feasibility findings, we recommend converting football games at Michigan Stadium, including the concourse, press, club and box/suite areas, to a zero-waste for a five-year pilot program beginning during the 2013 season. To this end, we recommend that UM Athletics take the following measures to implement a “Zero-Waste at the Big House” program:  Identify and adopt a product mix that maximizes the use of compostable and recyclable materials.  Modify the stadium’s operations and physical layout to facilitate effective collection of recycling and compost.  Modify waste collection plans to ensure that compost can be effectively managed, hauled and delivered with minimal contamination. Page | 3


     

Hire or designate a part-time coordinator to manage the operational and staffing details of the program. Hire attendants to monitor waste stations on gameday and volunteers to help sort compost after gameday. Adjust the responsibilities of the existing stadium operations staff and contracted vendors to account for the modified stadium layout and operations plan. Train staff and educate fans about zero-waste practices. Seek and secure funding for the program through corporate sponsorships, marketing opportunities, individual donors and student groups. Join the Green Sports Alliance, a national nonprofit organization focused on enabling sustainability changes within athletics programs, to gain access to valuable resources during the transition to a zero-waste program.

Zero-Waste at the Big House would cost approximately $150,000 in its first year and costs would minimally decrease over the first five years. While the program would initially be a cost center, we believe there is significant potential to identify and secure funding from internal and external sources. An innovative zero-waste program would bring significant marketing and PR opportunities and attract new sponsors and Stadium partners with interest in sustainability issues. Furthermore, other sustainability-related projects at the Big House may result in cost savings that could be used to offset the cost of the program. Based on the above recommendations, Zero-Waste at the Big House is entirely feasible. Converting Michigan Stadium would be a significant undertaking, but one that aligns closely with the University’s priorities, contributes meaningfully to the broader community and has tremendous potential to attract new levels of support from fans, alumni, current students and potential sponsors. In short, Zero-Waste at the Big House is worth the effort.

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Table of Contents Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1.

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1.1.

Project Baseline........................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.2.

Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

2.

Market Landscape .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

2.1.

SWOT Analysis............................................................................................................................................................. 9

2.2.

Community Support .................................................................................................................................................. 11

3.

Zero-Waste Strategy Recommendations ................................................................................................................. 13

3.1.

Operations and Waste Management........................................................................................................................ 13

3.2.

Staffing and Training ................................................................................................................................................. 18

4.

Costs Analysis and Funding Opportunities .................................................................................................................. 23

4.1

Program Costs ........................................................................................................................................................... 23

4.1

Program Funding ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

5.

Implementation Timeline............................................................................................................................................. 26

6.

Long-Term Strategic Goals ........................................................................................................................................... 29

7.

Feasibility Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 30

8.

Appendices ................................................................................................................................................................... 31

Appendix A ............................................................................................................................................................................ 31 Appendix B ............................................................................................................................................................................ 32 Appendix C ............................................................................................................................................................................ 36 Appendix D ............................................................................................................................................................................ 38 Appendix E ............................................................................................................................................................................ 41 Appendix F ............................................................................................................................................................................ 42 Appendix G ............................................................................................................................................................................ 44 Appendix H ............................................................................................................................................................................ 46 References ............................................................................................................................................................................ 53

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“I want the message to be clear: Sustainability defines the University of Michigan. Combine maize and blue, and you get green.” -Mary Sue Coleman, University President

1. Introduction Michigan Stadium—the Big House—is the third largest stadium in the world and home to the winningest program in college football history. This world-class facility has played host to over 100,000 fans for a record 238 consecutive games. The Big House symbolizes the pride, tradition and excellence that are the hallmarks of the University of Michigan. These values are a big reason why Michigan Stadium was an early adopter of environmental sustainability efforts, implementing a successful stadium-wide recycling program in 1996. During the 2011 season, Michigan Stadium generated 131.85 tons of waste; of this, an average of 25.63% was recycled and the rest ended up in a landfill—a number which is on par with national averages. Unfortunately, the significant waste footprint of the stadium now falls short of the high standards set forth by UM Football and UM Athletics. In recent years, sustainability has advanced far beyond improved recycling, and leading organizations have begun embarking on more ambitious sustainability efforts. In September 2010, University of Michigan President Mary Sue Coleman announced a new set of sustainability goals for the University, including a commitment to reduce waste tonnage sent to landfill by 40% below 2006 levels by 2025.4 As a leader in the national athletics space, UM Football continues to strive for ways to differentiate itself and bring a unique sports experience to its loyal fans. Dave Brandon, the University of Michigan Athletic Director who has ushered in a new era of innovation and leadership, put it best in a speech at the Ross School of Business: “We’ll always be Michigan, but we are going to challenge ourselves to be different and be better.”5 These aspirations lead to several key questions: 1. 2. 3. 4.

How does Michigan Football differentiate itself in the market? How does Michigan Football continue to engage meaningfully with its fans? How does Michigan Football strategically position itself in the future athletics landscape? How can Michigan Football contribute to larger University of Michigan sustainability goals?

All of these questions raise another: What is the next step to bring Michigan Football into the future? We believe that one key component is pursuing a zero-waste initiative at Michigan Stadium.i The quest for sustainability is not a fad, but instead a strategic imperative that defines the future of business. Sports programs and venues that pursue sustainability goals can save money in the long run, reduce their environmental footprint and gain important new sponsors, community partners and fans. i

Zero-waste initiatives maximize the amount of waste diverted from landfills to recycling centers and commercial composting facilities. Successful zero-waste programs, accounting for infrastructure limitations, aim for a 90% total diversion rate. Diversion decreases the overall cost of waste disposal and reduces the greenhouse gas emissions associated with landfilling organic materials. It would ensure that a vast majority of products coming into the stadium would exit in a useful form for nature or the marketplace.

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Preparing and executing a zero-waste football season at Michigan Stadium would require significant investments of time, resources and creativity, but such an initiative would also bring with it the potential for a multitude of operational, marketing and fan experience benefits. As a leader in academics, athletics and sustainability, the University of Michigan is uniquely positioned to set an example in the growing movement among university athletic programs and professional sports teams to reduce the amount of waste produced on gamedays. Our team of four University of Michigan MBA/MS students set out to examine the feasibility of pursuing zero-waste football games at Michigan Stadium. Through our research, we have determined that not only are zero-waste gameday operations feasible, but more importantly that the time is ripe for UM Athletics to establish the Big House as the leader in football gameday waste management. This report presents the rationale for pursuing a zero-waste program—referred to as “Zero-Waste at the Big House”—to be implemented in time for the 2013 football season, including operational details, a cost analysis and specific recommendations on how UM Athletics can institute a successful, long-term program.

1.1. Project Baseline UM Athletics ensures that its programs are successful by operating under a key set of standards and expectations. In order for ZeroWaste at the Big House to be successful, we understand that the following three baseline requirements must be met.

Fan Experience UM Athletics places high importance on an outstanding fan experience at every football game. Many of the changes over the past year have focused solely on making each gameday at Michigan Stadium memorable. If executed right, we are confident that a zero-waste program would only enhance that fan experience. Corey Hawkey, Sustainability Coordinator at The Ohio State University, said, “We developed our [zero-waste football] program with Fan Experience at the table. Our fans fully support the program and we’ve received rave reviews in conversations and in media. By the end of the season, fans were catching on to the program and we anticipate that it will get better and better each year.”6 We recognize that all recommendations must maintain the current outstanding fan experience. Changes to food and materials within the Stadium need to continue to meet the quality and functionality standards demanded by fans, vendors and UM Stadium Operations. We must ensure that any zero-waste

Composting 101 What is composting? Composting is nature’s way of recycling decomposed organic materials back into a rich soil called humus. The billions of living organisms in healthy soil transform dead plants into vital nutrients for new plant growth. Finished compost looks like soil–dark brown, crumbly and smells like a forest floor. So, what is commercial composting? Commercial composting is largescale composting designed to handle a very high volume of organic waste, as opposed to home composting. The commercial process is designed to speed up natural decomposition by creating an environment where the necessary oxygen, water, carbon and nitrogen are actively managed and balanced by the facility’s experts over a 1-2 year period. The nutrient-rich compost produced by a commercial composting facility is sold to farms, nurseries and municipal landscapers. A typical commercial composting operation collects waste from commercial facilities that handle food and compostable tableware. It may also collect yard waste from nurseries and landscaping companies.

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initiative would be both visible and easy-to-understand for fans and that any change to Stadium appearance would need to maintain and enhance the cleanliness and simplicity of the waste bins.

Program Durability UM Athletics must ensure that any project it pursues can be financially self-sustaining in the long run. Given that the cost of implementing Zero-Waste at the Big House is substantial, we recognize that all recommendations must factor in the need to establish consistent program funding through fundraising, revenue increases and/or cost savings.

Operational Excellence UM Athletics prides itself on its extremely effective, innovative and highly efficient operations. On the one hand, this means that UM Stadium Operations is uniquely capable of carrying out changes to its current operations; on the other, we recognize the need to specifically address recommendations to meet challenges as they relate to the following: 1) coordination and training of stadium workers 2) determination of the spacing, abundance and appearance of waste stations 3) management of waste during and after the game and 4) accommodation of the significant differences between the concourse, press, club, box/suite areas and locker rooms.

1.2. Methodology We designed a two-pronged research methodology: primary research from interviews with key UM stakeholders, sustainability-focused campus groups and departments, UM Athletics, Stadium vendors and peer institutions engaged in zero-waste efforts; and secondary research on zero-waste programs, stadium operations, composting trends and sports industry trends. We used data collected to benchmark the industry and current Michigan Stadium operations, understand best practices and develop conclusions about the feasibility of a zero-waste program at Michigan Stadium while developing practical implementation recommendations. For a complete list of stakeholders interviewed from September 2011 through March 2012, please see Appendix A.

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2. Market Landscape 2.1. SWOT Analysis Strengths Michigan Football provides an influential platform to engage with not only the fans and university community, but also Michigan alumni and Southeast Michigan residents. Perhaps the most exciting impacts of Zero-Waste at the Big House would be the ripple effect amongst the public via Michigan football fans. One of the greatest benefits of living in Southeast Michigan is the exposure to forward-thinking ideas, resources and innovative programs that comes with having a world-class university nearby. Promoting environmental sustainability is more important now than ever, but people need encouragement, ideas and guidance in order to do so. Every part of the university needs to leverage its strengths to contribute to long-term sustainable solutions. With this in mind, the visibility and prominence of the Big House is one of UM Athletics’ greatest assets. With the growth of the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute, the Office of Campus Sustainability, the Student Sustainability Initiative, Ross Net Impact, the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise and dozens of other departments, academic programs and extracurricular groups across campus, it is clear that Michigan students, faculty and administration are passionate about environmental sustainability and willing to act on that passion. To take one example, the UM Alumni Association has successfully implemented zero-waste operations for its Go Blue Homecoming tailgate, eliciting positive feedback from those who attend.

“At Michigan, we strive to be the Leaders and Best in everything, so shouldn’t the athletics community also aim to be the Leaders and Best in environmental sustainability?” -Courtney Mercier, Founder of M-SAS

Another growing strength for UM Athletics is the increasing engagement of student athletes in sustainability initiatives through Michigan Student Athletes for Sustainability (M-SAS), the student group founded in 2011 for student athletes interested in sustainability-related issues. Increasing interest and membership in M-SAS over the 2011-2012 school year has reinforced the message that UM student-athletes value sustainability and are willing to work with UM Athletics on shared sustainability goals. Courtney Mercier, the founder of M-SAS, summarized the potential strength of this movement in a 2011 opinion piece in the Michigan Daily: “When fans come to our games, we want them to know that as a university, we care about sustainability. At Michigan, we strive to be the Leaders and Best in everything, so shouldn’t the athletics community also aim to be the Leaders and Best in environmental sustainability?”7

Although there are many places on campus that could benefit from this type of program, Michigan Stadium is the best-suited facility to institute a zero● ● ● waste program. As a closed loop system—one with no outside contaminants and whose waste stream is completely controlled by stadium operations—the Big House provides an optimal venue for zero-waste efforts. Furthermore, because the stadium hosts discrete events, it gives operations the time between events needed to process the waste efficiently and make system improvements without performance pressure. The stadium’s well-respected, established and effective recycling program is older than those at most comparable stadiums, even some of the peer programs that are now pursuing zero-waste initiatives. Adding a composting element to this program would be much easier than simply starting from scratch. Importantly, Page | 9


Michigan Stadium is run by a high-performing operations team that is already capable of optimizing its resources to deliver a terrific fan experience.

Weaknesses One of the challenges UM Football faces in the marketplace is also one of the program’s greatest strengths: its high visibility and long, storied history of success. The high-visibility of the program means that new efforts undertaken by UM Football are subject to scrutiny from a variety of stakeholders and therefore are held to the same standards expected of all UM Athletics programs. While there would be room for modification and fine-tuning, a zero-waste program at Michigan Stadium would need to be executed with care to make it successful from the outset. Similarly, the program’s long history brings with it a list of vibrant traditions, but with tradition comes reluctance on the part of fans and staff to change. The impetus for any highly visible operational modification would not only need to be explained to fans and alumni, but also would need to ultimately be run with the same values and stringent performance expectations of any other Athletics endeavor. The City of Ann Arbor does not provide commercial composting capable of handling the types of materials that would be generated on gamedays with the recommended product mix. Additionally, the University has stated that it does not intend to build its own composting facility. Furthermore, the future of composting statewide is at risk with a yard waste ban currently being proposed in the Michigan House of Representatives.8 Although a viable composting option exists nearby, UM Athletics is at a disadvantage in comparison to other programs that have easier access to commercial composting facilities.

Threats Despite its effective recycling program, Michigan Stadium has fallen behind other schools in terms of waste management. The Ohio State University (OSU), the University of Colorado Boulder (CU Boulder) and the University of California Davis (UC Davis) have already implemented their own zero-waste programs to much acclaim (see Appendix B). OSU’s inaugural zero-waste season in fall 2011 led to a diversion rate of 75.2% through composting and recycling. According to Don Patko, OSU Athletics’ Associate Director of Facilities, this program “is just one way the Department of Athletics is doing its part to meet the sustainability goals of the University.”9 The University of California Berkeley (UC Berkeley) has incorporated zero-waste plans into its stadium renovation project; the state-of-the-art facility, as well as its functional zero-waste attributes, will be complete in time for the 2012 football season.10 Professional sports teams are picking up on this as well. The Green Sports Alliance, a coalition of professional and collegiate sports teams, leagues, venues and partner organizations dedicated to enhancing environmental performance, has continued to grow in 2012; it now consists of over 40 teams and nearly 90 venues, representing 13 different sports leagues.11

Opportunities In September 2010, University President Mary Sue Coleman announced a new set of Sustainability Goals for the University, including a commitment to reduce waste tonnage sent to landfill by 40% below 2006 levels by 2025. ZeroWaste at the Big House would fall directly in line with these stated goals and would reinforce the message that the University is committed to reaching its goals. The University’s commitment would not be complete without the involvement of UM Athletics, which, as UM Athletic Director Dave Brandon among others has stated, is the “front porch” of the University. UM Athletics’ goals should complement the University’s goals, creating a seamless culture of sustainability across campus. Page | 10


We are well aware that, in coordination with the Office of Campus Sustainability, UM Athletics has already begun to explore and implement additional sustainability-focused initiatives including energy efficiency measures and expansion of the current single-stream recycling program to the full range of Athletic buildings. Zero-Waste at the Big House would complement these efforts and could be used as a springboard and testing ground for similar changes throughout UM Athletics and the greater campus.

“We’ll always be Michigan, but we are going to challenge ourselves to be different and be better”

-Dave Brandon, Director, One key element of this switch would be for UM Athletics to join the Green UM Athletics Sports Alliance (GSA), which helps its member organizations “enhance their environmental performance” by providing them with resources and expertise ● ● ● to develop better practices, strategies and goals.12 A key component of this process is the network that GSA provides to its members, which include not only other teams, but also “professional sports leagues, environmental organizations, corporate and governmental partners [and the media].”13 GSA would provide the platform to insert UM Athletics into the national conversation around sustainability in sports and put the organization on par with other forward-thinking programs. It would open communication channels in the form of open conversations with Directors at peer institutions. In sum, it would help UM Athletics advance its environmental initiatives, potentially putting it in a position to save significant money and time while engaging UM’s students and fans in the process. Zero-Waste at the Big House would be the most visible piece of the University’s sustainability agenda and presents the best opportunity to gain positive publicity for UM Athletics. According to the Green Sports Alliance, very few venues are pursuing zero-waste yet and they see this as a real opportunity for Michigan to fill this open space. If marketed correctly, this effort would also provide Michigan Football with a powerful, unique and long-term marketing tool while potentially attracting sustainability-minded sponsors and positive public relations attention as interest in sustainability and waste reduction continues to grow across the country. Similar programs at CU Boulder have brought in exciting new sponsors such as Horizon Organic, International Delight and Silk (see Appendix C). UM Athletics, through IMG, would have an opportunity to pursue not just traditional corporate sponsorships, but also to explore more cutting-edge ideas, such as marketing "Big House Compost" or negotiating sponsorships with companies such as Adidas that have demonstrated an interest in supplying sports equipment and uniforms made from recycled and recyclable materials. As a stated leader in environmental sustainability, the University of Michigan must continue to strive to be the leaders and best in all areas. Zero-Waste at the Big House would set the standard that other university stadiums across the country would strive to emulate. In fact, we were recently contacted by representatives from the University of Oregon, whose athletic department is assessing the potential of a zero-waste football program.

2.2. Community Support Since October 2010, we have spoken with dozens of campus organizations and just as many Michigan alumni to gauge interest in and support for pursing a zero-waste initiative at Michigan Stadium. We have received enthusiastic support and positive feedback across the board. Based on these conversations and our primary research, it is clear that there is a significant contingent of the broader UM Community interested in championing Zero-Waste at the Big House and willing

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to express public support for such an initiative. As of completion of this report, 52 campus organizations have signed a formal letter of support for a zero-waste program (see Appendix D).

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3. Zero-Waste Strategy Recommendations Given the complexity of Zero-Waste at the Big House, we recommend that UM Athletics spend the remainder of 2012 and the first half of 2013 planning the initiative in order to roll it out beginning with the 2013 football season. The following recommendations sections contain the detailed requirements necessary for a successful zero-waste initiative at Michigan Stadium. For a complete recommended timeline, please see the Implementation Timeline section.

3.1. Operations and Waste Management Recommendation: Switch all products and containers consumed by fans in stadium to compostable or recyclable materials. An initial step in pursuing Zero-Waste at the Big House would be working with Sodexo to change the product packaging and containers used by concessions on gameday. To make the disposal of recyclable and compostable products as simple and easy as possible for fans, we recommend minimizing recyclable materials to beverage bottles (mixed containers) while shifting all other materials to compostable wares (e.g. nacho containers, silverware, etc.). Currently, fans have two options for disposing of their waste: trash or recycle. With a zero-waste initiative, fans would still primarily have two easy choices on the concourse: compost or recycle. Our analysis revealed a small number of current products sold at the stadium that are neither compostable nor recyclable. Of those products needing conversion, we recommend converting to compostable or recyclable packaging when possible. This would mean replacing hotdog foil sleeves, which are unrecyclable, with recyclable aluminum foil wrappers and replacing coffee cups with appropriately-branded compostable or recyclable cups. Unfortunately, certain products which currently come in unrecyclable packaging–such as Cracker Jack’s–cannot be procured in any other type of packaging. Furthermore, certain packaging and wrapping resulting from food preparation in the concession areas cannot be recycled. We recommend that these items be disposed of in the recycling waste stream (which has a contamination allowance of 9%) and that UM Athletics continue to monitor the development of packaging in future years to determine if/when proper alternatives become available.ii Although there are benefits to the alternative system—a three-stream system with recycling, composting, and trash bins on the concourse—the two-stream system is operationally preferable because it would provide fans the benefit of only having to decide between two options. Recycling “purists” may be unhappy with the idea of tossing items they know are not recyclable into a recycling bin; however, our team believes that the ease of waste disposal for fans and the benefits of educating a very large number of patrons about recycling and composting outweigh the negative reactions of such purists. Furthermore, the comprehensive staff training and fan education programs discussed in the Staffing and Training section would help UM Athletics mitigate any potential issues by clearly articulating the need for such operations. The greatest challenge to converting to recyclable and compostable materials is the additional cost of these materials as compared to the standard packaging used in the stadium today. See Appendix for the estimated summed cost of switching based on benchmarking conversations with the OSU zero-waste team.14 To streamline the process of switching ii

One of the primary next steps we recommend in the Implementation Timeline section is to perform a complete analysis of existing operations at Michigan Stadium during the 2012 football season. This would include a thorough waste sort to determine what % of the waste stream is currently made up of materials that have no recyclable or compostable alternatives. This would also include an analysis of how consumption patterns for these products change over the course of the season from September to November.

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products and to ensure that all packaging fits the requirements of recycling and composting facilities in and near Ann Arbor, we recommend consulting with the University’s office of Waste Reduction and Recycling to determine the best mixture of products. Concessions at Michigan Stadium are currently managed by Sodexo, which oversees products sold and trains volunteer concessions staff. Sodexo representatives for UM Athletics have indicated their willingness to introduce composting at Michigan Stadium. Part of this would include Sodexo working with the local vendors it brings in on gameday (e.g. kettle corn station) to ensure that they use only recyclable and compostable containers and packaging for their products. It is worth noting that Sodexo acquired significant expertise in converting its product list to sustainable containers and packaging on a large scale while working with OSU on its zero-waste initiative.

Recommendation: Modify contracts with JNS and Gabriel Richard to include composting collection responsibilities To ensure the success of Zero-Waste at the Big House, we recommend updating the contracts that UM Athletics holds with organizations contributing to stadium clean-up activities to incorporate compost collection into the duties and responsibilities of these organizations. Today, JNS ensures the cleanliness of the concourse, press, club and box/suite levels during games by regularly monitoring trash bins in these areas and moving full bags to the overspill areas in a timely manner. This also helps to avoid congestion on the concourse. JNS also clears the trash bins and does general trash clean-up of the concourse level immediately following games. Since JNS would have less trash to handle and remove with the implementation of a zero-waste program, UM Athletics would need to modify its contract with JNS to shift the organization’s activities and responsibilities to the emptying of compost bins. Additionally, the contract with JNS must ensure that JNS continues to be responsible for collecting trash resulting from food preparation. This modification of responsibilities may result in cost increases for services provided by JNS. Sodexo would also need to modify its contract with Gabriel Richard High School, the organization responsible for cleaning the bowl area the day after the game (now referred to as the bowl pick). Gabriel Richard volunteers would need to expand their responsibilities to include separating out compostable materials, in addition to the recycling and trash pick-up that its volunteers already do during the bowl pick. The bowl pick would include three waste streams, as it is likely that trash will continue to be prevalent in the stadium due to the giveaways and souvenirs given to fans on gamedays (e.g. pompoms, towels, etc.). Based on estimates from peer programs, we anticipate the bowl pick to take an average of 90 minutes extra per week and have adjusted project costs accordingly.

Recommendation: Modify stadium layout to include composting receptacles and facilitate management of all waste produced on gamedays To support a zero-waste program, we recommend modifying the stadium layout as follows: CONCOURSE LEVEL Waste Stations We recommend modifying all waste stations located throughout the concourse level to include both recycling and compost bins at each waste collection location. Trash bins would no longer be included at waste stations accessible to fans. When disposing of any products still sold in the stadium that cannot be composted or recycled, fans would be directed to discard these materials in the recycling bins to preserve the quality of the compost collected in the compost bins. This step is paramount; the composting facility we recommend engaging maintains a 0% contamination-level requirement (with a fine for any non-compostables found in compost piles) while, as noted above, the recycling stream can have up to 9% contamination and still be processed with no fines. Page | 14


Additionally, to ensure recycling and composting is successful at Michigan Stadium (i.e. 0% contamination requirement of composting is met), we recommend reducing the number of waste stations on the concourse level to 100 total. This would ensure that they could be properly monitored by a manageable number of waste station attendants (See Staffing and Training section for more information). While the number of waste stations would decrease, the number of bins at each waste station would increase; there would now be two compost and two recycling bins per waste station instead of the current one trash and one recycling bin per waste station setup. Overspill Areas We recommend modifying the overspill areas located in the four corners of the stadium to support compost collection. We recommend that each overspill area include one dumpster dedicated to composting, one dumpster dedicated to mixed container and one dumpster dedicated to cardboard recycling. The type of dumpsters used for compost would be dictated by the space available, the average amount of compost produced on gamedays and the type of vehicle used for compost transport (see Operations and Waste Management section for more details). This setup would enable the University’s Office of Waste Reduction and Recycling (WRR) to continue to empty mixed container recycling collected from waste stations and cardboard recycling from concession areas into overspill areas. It would also enable JNS to move compost from waste station areas to the overspill areas.

Ohio Stadium waste station

PRESS, CLUB AND BOX/SUITE LEVEL Given the significant differences between operations on the concourse and in the press, club and box/suite areas, we believe that further analysis is required to develop an effective, customized plan for supporting a zero-waste program in the press, club and box/suite levels. It is important that a zero-waste plan be implemented in a way that keeps the facility state of the art and supports the current fan experience. To this end, we can learn from best practices established at peer institutions such as at Ohio State, where compost bins in the boxes and suites are special, highquality bins and zero-waste program staff members personally visit each suite to provide information, answer questions and help with waste collection. These practices and others could easily be adapted to the needs of Michigan Stadium in order to insure fans have the experience they expect. The Building Services–Cleaning team, the group responsible for cleaning the press, club and box/suite areas following games, has expressed willingness to include compost collection and separation as part of its services at no additional charge. Other relevant stakeholders, including groups within Building Services, would need to be brought on board as well. RESTROOMS (ON CONCOURSE , PRESS, CLUB AND BOX/SUITE LEVELS) At this time, there is no feasible solution for collecting compostables and recyclables separately in the restrooms on the concourse, press, club and box/suite levels. The restrooms present a unique challenge given the variety of materials that may end up in the waste bins and the challenges associated with staffing those waste bins for the duration of a football game. Therefore, we recommend treating the waste generated in the restrooms as trash. This includes collecting bags of waste from the restrooms and disposing of them in the available trash dumpsters. Based on conversations with peer Page | 15


zero-waste programs, the amount of waste generated in restrooms would not significantly impact the overall waste diversion rates for the stadium.iii In the future, UM Athletics could reduce the amount of waste generated in the restrooms by replacing paper towel dispensers with electric hand dryers. However, this could potentially be a large expense that may not be required if the amount of waste generated in the restrooms is small enough. Therefore, we recommend conducting further analysis of the restroom areas before incorporating these areas into the plan for Zero-Waste at the Big House.

Recommendation: Implement a strategy to handle unavoidable tras h produced by vendors and concessions Our initial analysis indicates that there will be some items used by concessions staff—namely, bulk foods packaging and cleaning supplies—that are not easily convertible to compostable or recyclable materials. In addition, the patron restrooms as well as the locker rooms and player areas would be considered out of the scope of Zero-Waste at the Big House given the complexity of the items used in those areas and the need for high-performance and operational efficiencies there at all cost. For this reason, there would be three waste streams (trash, compost, recycling) available to concessions and stadium staff, while fans have only two options (compost, recycling). Specifically, to handle the trash produced, we recommend implementing the following measures:   

Trash bins or gondolas should be included in the concession areas and next to vendor stands As part of its responsibilities, JNS staff should monitor and empty these trash bins as needed One smaller trash dumpster should be stationed in the overspill areas on the southeast and northwest corners of Michigan Stadium. The location and size of these dumpsters should be sufficient to handle the limited amount of trash produced in a way that reduces the distance that trash must be carted by JNS staff around the stadium.

Larger dumpsters for trash should be placed in the alley between Michigan Stadium and Crisler Center to manage trash produced throughout the weeks between gamedays. If UM Athletics were to pursue a zero-waste football initiative, we anticipate that the volumes of trash and recycling would change significantly from where they are today with trash decreasing and recycling increasing in volume. We have provided estimates based on benchmarking comparable programs in the 4.1 Program Costs, but we believe that additional analysis is necessary to project the respective amounts produced on gamedays.

Recommendation: Maintain status quo for handling recyclable materials UM Stadium Operations and Waste Reduction and Recycling (WRR) currently operate and manage stadium recycling using effective, tested management practices. We do not recommend any changes to the way recyclables are managed.

Recommendation: Send compostable materials to Tuthill Farms using WRR services There is currently no commercial-scale composting option for post-consumer waste available in Ann Arboriv. Unless and until a large-scale post-consumer composting facility is constructed in the greater Ann Arbor area, we recommend that compost be transported by truck to Tuthill Farms (www.tuthillfarms.com) in South Lyon, Michigan. Although alternatives exist for hauling, we recommend that WRR’s services be used for transporting compost gathered on gamedays. Tuthill Farms has confirmed that it can accept any of the compost that would be sent to it—food waste, compostable iii

We recommend that the full waste analysis conducted during the 2012 season include an assessment of the volume of waste generated in restrooms throughout the stadium, in addition to an analysis of the components present in that waste stream. iv The City of Ann Arbor’s composting program allows residents and businesses to dispose of yard waste (such as branches and weeds) and uncooked fruit and vegetable scraps. It does not allow for cooked food waste, meats, processed foods or commerciallycompostable packaging – all items that Tuthill Farms accepts.

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packaging, etc.—provided that no contaminants are present. Tuthill demands 0% contamination from all of its compost suppliers, most notably the Stephen M. Ross School of Business and University of Michigan Law School, which have been transporting their compost to Tuthill for several years. Any initiative involving composting must meet several key requirements. First, the contents of compost bags must be sorted and inspected prior to being dropped off at Tuthill to ensure minimal contamination from non-compostable materials. Second, the amount of time the compostable materials spend on campus before being deposited at Tuthill Farms should be minimized for aesthetic and health reasons. Like bags of trash, bags/piles of compostable materials can become offensive in little time. We recommend two days after gameday as the maximum length of time that the University should hold compost before it is sent to Tuthill. Assuming that there is a cold, dry place to store the compost between gameday and delivery to Tuthill, this timeframe could be extended; however, we strongly recommend a solution that does not exceed a two-day maximum.v Furthermore, we recommend that all compost bins be lined with recyclable trash bags, the same bags that Stadium Operations currently uses for waste collection. The team handling compost would need to take these bags to a facility capable of recycling them. We would ideally prefer to collect compost in compostable bags, but as of today, the compostable bags on the market are neither sturdy nor cost effective enough to suit the needs of an operation the size of Michigan Stadium. However, compostable bag quality continues to improve, and bag prices are likely to drop with increased demand. Therefore, we recommend revisiting this point prior to the implementation of ZeroWaste at the Big House to determine if using compostable bags—which would eliminate the logistical challenges associated with hauling plastic bags to the appropriate location to be recycled—is a viable alternative.

Composting at Tuthill Farms

Family operated farm in Livingston County since 1833 Over 15 years of experience running large-scale composting facility Two-year composting process from intake to finished compost and topsoil for farming and landscaping Average of 20,000 cubic yards of compostable materials received per year Compostable waste received from Google, University of Michigan and Zingerman’s

To this end, we recommend that WRR transport the compost to the University’s North Campus waste management facility for initial sorting. On gameday, compost collected during the game would be stored overnight in locked dumpsters in the overspill areas. On Sunday morning, the Gabriel Richard team would add compost bags to the dumpsters from the bowl pick. One or more WRR vehicles would then transport the compost to the waste management facility on North Campus, and the student volunteer team (see Staffing and Training) would complete the compost sort. They would do this by first cutting open the plastic bags containing the compost; once the contents of the bag are on the

v

The University of Michigan Law School has a student-run composting program in which bags of compost are stored for up to two weeks at a time in the colder months.

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ground, the volunteers would then sift through the pile of compost to remove non-compostable materials.vi The bags would then be sent to the appropriate recycling facility after the compost has been sorted. A better alternative would be to devise a way to sort the compost at the stadium itself without compromising fan experience or other operational needs. This would eliminate the need to transport both the bags and the student volunteers to a different location before doing the sort, which would in turn reduce the amount of time required and costs associated with handling the compost. However, given our understanding of the stadium layout and its space constraints, sorting the compost at the stadium is not a feasible option. Tuthill Farms does not accept compost on weekends due to the odor disturbances that such an operation causes to its neighbors. Given current logistical considerations, we therefore recommend storing the sorted compost at the waste management facility on North Campus until Monday morning, when a WRR truck would then deliver it to Tuthill Farms at 7am. However, WRR trucks may be unavailable at this time given other activities on campus. If no trucks are available at that time, we recommend pursuing a contract with an alternative provider. As mentioned previously, Tuthill Farms does not currently accept compost on weekends. However, if a zero-waste football initiative hinged on this factor alone, there may be the opportunity to arrange to have the compost delivered to the compost facility on Sundays during the first 2-4 football games of the season to avoid storing bags of compost for more than 24 hours during the hot months.

3.2. Staffing and Training Recommendation: Hire or designate a part -time employee to oversee the zero-waste football program A zero-waste football initiative is a very large undertaking that would require several months of preparation in addition to a coordinated effort during the football season itself. Therefore, we recommend that UM Athletics hire one resource, preferably working within UM Athletics, that would commit 50% of his/her time to the program during the football season and 20% throughout the remainder of the year. For a full sample job description, please see Appendix E. Outside of football season, this employee would be responsible for the following: 1. Setting up all plans for the season, including vendor, new volunteer and employee contracts 2. Finalizing stadium layout and compost-hauling logistics 3. Tracking all materials required (additional storage for waste, bags, signage, marketing material, etc.) 4. Managing relationships with and coordinating the activities of employees and volunteers 5. Interacting with the marketing team to ensure that the program is well-communicated to all stakeholders (fans, vendors, the media, students, administration, etc.) 6. Performing all other project management tasks, including creating timelines for all actions, holding people responsible for their duties, etc. 7. Interacting with other schools/facilities/teams pursuing similar initiatives to share best practices, benchmark, design friendly competitions, etc.

vi

Due to OSEH regulations, any sorting done on campus must take place indoors. During the cold months of the football season, UM Operations must keep its trucks indoors when not in use, causing a potential conflict for space. Therefore, we recommend further analysis be conducted to determine the possibility of temporarily moving trucks outdoors to create space during the time period required for compost sorting.

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During the football season, this employee would be responsible for the following: 1. Managing and/or communicating with all involved staff and volunteers 2. Overseeing operations prior to the game and on gamedays 3. Coordinating with the compost haulers 4. Analyzing data from gamedays and seeking operational improvements from game to game 5. Serving as the point person for media inquiries and enhanced branding 6. Ensuring that all staff directly involved with zero-waste activities on gameday are well-supported This person’s roles and responsibilities would fit logically within those of a full-time sustainability coordinator for UM Athletics. For the purposes of this report, which is focused on Zero-Waste at the Big House, we have not analyzed the cost/benefit implications of hiring a full-time sustainability coordinator. However, we recommend analyzing the feasibility of hiring such a coordinator whose job description would include the responsibilities listed above in addition to other sustainability-related functions. Zero-Waste at the Big House could be the impetus for a wide range of additional sustainability projects within UM Athletics that may result in cost-savings, such as water and energy efficiency projects or improved waste management at other UM Athletics facilities. Any of these projects would require additional project management for which this individual could be responsible.

Recommendation: Hire a group of waste station attendants to staff the waste stations For the program to be successful, all material discarded at the stadium would have to be thrown into the correct bin. The public at large is not familiar with the full definitions, possibilities and implications associated with composting, recycling, and landfilling. Experience at other stadiums throughout the country and on the University of Michigan campus (during a zero-waste basketball game at Crisler Center in December 2010, at the Ross School of Business, during the Alumni Association’s annual Go Blue Tailgate and at various other zero-waste events throughout the campus) shows that the most effective solution for this issue would be to have attendants at waste stations help fans dispose of their waste correctly. Therefore, we recommend hiring a group of waste station attendants, one for each waste station on the stadium concourse.vii This would ensure that a majority of contamination is eliminated upfront, facilitating the work of those managing the waste downstream. Their responsibilities would include: 1. Ensuring that fans throw compostables in the compost bins, recyclables in the recycling bins, and any trash in the recycling bins 2. Engaging with fans to explain the concept of zero-waste, help them understand why this is happening, and help explain how this is different Our benchmark for this estimate is OSU, which outsourced staffing to a workforce management company and training to Sodexo. Please see the case study below.

vii

We do not recommend placing waste station attendants in the press and box/suite areas as this could negatively affect the fan experience there. However, we recommend properly educating fans in those areas and ensuring that any waste collected from those areas is thoroughly inspected before being discarded.

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Case Study: Waste Station Attendants at Ohio Stadium OSU devised a creative solution for ensuring the cleanliness of waste collected at its zero-waste football games. Knowing that volunteers have short attention spans, it opted instead to hire attendants to work at waste stations, partnering with ProTeam Solutions, Inc. (PSI), a Columbus-based workforce management and staffing solutions provider. PSI had worked on sustainability efforts with OSU previously, most notably on recycling efforts near the stadium. Zerowaste, however, was new to both organizations, and in spite of its challenges it has proven to be a success. PSI works with non-profit organizations to hire local high school students, often from underprivileged neighborhoods, who are paid to spend gamedays manning each waste station. The youth ensure that fans are throwing the right items in the right bins, answer any questions fans have and provide any other support needed around the waste stations. Not only is this initiative a great opportunity for the high school students to earn some extra money; it also teaches them basic customer service skills and the importance of a consistent work ethic. Fans enjoy it as well. Naturally, the process does not run itself. The youth must be trained on the principles of sustainability and how to differentiate between compostables, recyclables and trash. Student volunteers and stadium operations staff check in regularly on the waste station attendants to answer any questions and ensure that waste is being correctly sorted. The teenagers are tempted to use cell phones, iPods, etc. during work, so they have to be reminded to stay focused and disciplined accordingly. As a result of standing around for hours, the attendants get hungry and tired; in turn, volunteers or managers take over for them for breaks and PSI and Sodexo arrange complimentary meals for them from vendors.15

Recommendation: Enlist the help of the Stadium Operations team to ensure that waste stations remain orderly and clean Currently, the Michigan Stadium Operations team monitors waste stations to ensure that the waste stations remain clean. The implementation of a zero-waste initiative would result in a different waste bin layout and new people monitoring those bins (see Operations and Waste Management for more details), but ultimately the job of maintaining cleanliness, promptly removing full bags, and immediately responding to customer complaints at these stations would remain the same. Stadium Operations is well-trained and has good experience performing these tasks; with the right training, we believe that they could incorporate any additional activities associated with the inclusion of a compost stream at Michigan Stadium into their current operations.

Recommendation: Enlist the help of student volunteers to assist with post-gameday compost sorting As mentioned in the Operations and Waste Management section, all bags of compost collected on gamedays and during the bowl pick would be placed in dumpsters and held for delivery either to a holding facility and then to Tuthill Farms, or directly to Tuthill Farms from Michigan Stadium. At this time, labor would be needed for a final sorting activity after the bowl pick but prior to delivery of the compost to the composting facility to ensure that no major contaminants are present. We recommend enlisting the help of student volunteers for this activity. Based on our benchmarking, we estimate that 10-12 volunteers would be required to work a total of 5-6 hours sorting the compost (including transportation time). Given the enthusiastic response we have received from the wide range of students we have spoken with during this study, we believe it would be feasible to attract enough volunteers for this activity to be successful. In addition, Page | 20


volunteers would not be required to do this work during the actual football games, which will likely result in improved results and less delinquency. Even though these students would not be paid, we recommend incentivizing the students through other means, such as tickets to football games, t-shirts, or credit-hours. Furthermore, this could eventually turn into a program that functions like one of the other successful volunteer programs that UM Athletics already has in place, most notably its contract with Gabriel Richard High School.

Recommendation: Enable Sodexo to train staff working in the concession areas As discussed further in the Operations and Waste Management section above, concessions at Michigan Stadium are managed by Sodexo, which oversees products sold and trains volunteer concessions staff. According to Sodexo, there can be up to 1800 people (representing more than 60 organizations) working the concession stands on the concourse on any gameday. The people working behind the counter are not always the same from game to game. We recommend enabling Sodexo to train the vendor staff working behind the counters on gameday. This could be done by partnering with existing groups at Sodexo who have experience with zero-waste initiatives—including the Sodexo team at OSU, which provided similar training to its vendors during the 2011 OSU football season—to develop an effective training campaign for vendors at Michigan Stadium. Sodexo could then deliver this training in addition to that which it already provides its vendors. The Sodexo team mentioned that it would be most effective to focus all training on the team/organization leaders, managers and hourly supervisors, in addition to any other employees that are available. The leaders would then be expected to disseminate information both before and during the game to their team members. We expect that any problems associated with the addition of composting at Michigan Stadium would become less and less impactful as zero-waste becomes better understood throughout the community.

Recommendation: Train the team from Gabriel Richard High School responsible for the Sunday stadium bowl pick Students and their families from Gabriel Richard High School currently perform the Sunday bowl-pick, which consists of cleaning the bowl area on the Sunday after football gamedays. We recommend modifying the student/family training to include instructions for what to do with compost found.

Recommendation: Develop a thorough education/marketing plan for the fans One of the main determinants of the success of the program will be how fans react to and support it through their actions. First, it is not reasonable to expect that fans would easily be able to distinguish which bin every item they purchase should go in without first thinking about it. Therefore, any education and marketing plan geared towards fans would need to clearly outline how they should dispose of their waste, why a zero-waste initiative is important and why they should be excited to be part of such an innovative, groundbreaking program. Given that the City of Ann Arbor has been pursuing environmentally focused initiatives for many years, we expect fans to embrace zero-waste changes more readily here than they may elsewhere. To address the issue of fan education and behavior change, we recommend investing in clear signage to be posted throughout the stadium so that fans understand why this initiative is being pursued, what is expected of them and how they can contribute to the program’s success.

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Signage would include: 1. Signs to be posted at each of the waste stations on the concourse clearly delineating what should be thrown in each type of bin 2. Signs to be placed in the box/suite areas clearly delineating what should be thrown in each bin 3. Signs to be posted elsewhere throughout the stadium explaining the initiative and promoting its benefits 4. Signs to be posted right outside the stadium, at or near the entrances, greeting fans as they enter the stadium so that they are immediately introduced to what is happening inside the stadium Please see Appendix C for a sampling of marketing done at peer programs.

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4. Costs Analysis and Funding Opportunities A majority of the recommendations detailed above for pursuing Zero-Waste at the Big House would result in significant cost increases for UM Athletics in the foreseeable future. However, we believe that the potential fundraising opportunities for a zero-waste initiative could either fully cover the costs of the program or, if marketed effectively, result in a net gain for UM Athletics.

4.1 Program Costs We calculated program costs by connecting with key stakeholders and making cost estimates based on the information provided. Where information was not readily available, we made worst-case assumptions and estimates by benchmarking other programs, primarily the OSU initiative. We broke the costs into three main categories: 1. Staffing: The costs associated with hiring new employees or expanding the roles of existing employees to assist with the multitude of new tasks required for the initiative to be successful. 2. Operational Modifications: The costs associated with (a) additional equipment that would need to be purchased and (b) switching to different containers/products that meet zero-waste goals. 3. Marketing: The costs associated with creating additional signage for the stadium as well as communication of the initiative. Figure 1 shows our estimated costs for a zero-waste football season from years one through five. For the full details behind the cost calculations, please see Appendix F. Figure 1

We were not able to reasonably predict program costs beyond year five. Several of the major cost components, including waste station attendants and product transition, may change significantly by then if the fan base has a better understanding of composting requirements or if the price of compostable/recyclable containers fluctuates. Furthermore, given that access to composting facilities in Ann Arbor and Southeast Michigan may improve in the future, it is impossible to predict the price of composting, recycling and landfill beyond five to six years from now. Page | 23


4.1 Program Funding Throughout the project, we consulted with University development staff in addition to representatives from the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute, UM Athletics Marketing, Central Student Government (CSG) and the UM alumni base to brainstorm potential program funding options. As a result, we recommend that UM Athletics seek sponsorships from one or more of the sources listed below to help fund the program. We also recommend that UM Athletics consider matching funds in certain cases, especially with student groups, individual donors or foundations, who may be more likely to participate if they know their funds are being matched. Furthermore, the costs of this program could be partially offset by cost savings that result from sustainability-driven operational modifications throughout UM Athletics. The primary groups we recommend UM Athletics to engage for potential sponsorship are: 1. Corporate funding and/or marketing opportunities: There is the potential to find a local, regional or national company interested in sustainability, waste, or energy to act as a sponsor for Zero-Waste at the Big House. Several well-known companies—such as Coca-Cola, BASF, Waste Management and DTE—have all been mentioned as potential sources of sponsorship and have a history of funding sustainability projects aimed at increasing recycling and composting. Furthermore, large corporations often seek to increase their presence on university campuses as a means for improving their name recognition among students; this puts them in a better position to recruit top talent graduating from the university system. Given that the program would involve signage and products found on the concourse level rather than in the bowl itself where advertisements are not permitted, we believe there would be significant opportunities to sell marketing space to an interested company. There would also be ample advertising opportunities on a Zero-Waste at the Big House web portal. 2. Individual alumni donations: UM Athletics would likely be able to generate interest in Zero-Waste at the Big House among individual donors given that it would be a new, highly visible program. Individual donors enjoy funding projects they know to be impactful and driven by students. In addition, these donors value the longterm sustainability of a given program; for this reason, they would likely be attracted to a 5-year pilot/testing model. Although it would be unlikely to expect one individual donor to fully fund a zero-waste program, there might be an opportunity to pursue a matching program with a small group of individual donors pledging sponsorships for a certain number of years. The same would apply for small family foundations. 3. Student groups: UM’s Central Student Government (CSG) passed a resolution in April 2012 to transfer $10,000 from its 2011-2012 budget to fund Zero-Waste at the Big House. CSG stipulated that these funds could be used either to support a more comprehensive transition plan to be developed during the 2012 football season in preparation for a 2013 pilot, or as an initial investment commitment to offset the operational costs of implementing zero-waste.viii This generous gift is representative of the eagerness of students and alumni to contribute now and in the future to Zero-Waste at the Big House. After a cursory review of the major foundations that fund programs regionally, we only recommend approaching foundations as a last-resort option for funding of Zero-Waste at the Big House. Typically, large foundations engage in funding activities that are a part of long-term strategies, which have been determined years in advance. Furthermore, they prefer to fund programs specifically focused on social issues, such as programs intended to further the revitalization of Detroit. For these reasons, we recommend focusing first on the top three options, but considering foundation funding in the future if necessary.

viii

In the case of the latter use, UM Athletics is not obligated to launch Zero-Waste at the Big House in 2013, but is obligated to seriously consider the option.

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Case Study: How Other Zero-Waste Programs Are Being Funded Existing zero-waste football initiatives were funded through the following methods: OSU: The 2011 program was supported with an internal University grant, Athletics Department funds and Sustainability Office funds. The 2012 program will also include funding from new corporate sponsorships.16 CU Boulder: The program has been supported through sponsorships from companies Centerplate and WhiteWave Foods.17 UC Berkeley: The program will be supported through sponsorship from a local waste management company, Recology.18

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5. Implementation Timeline As mentioned previously, launching Zero-Waste at the Big House in the 2013 football season would allow for over a year of planning. A 2013 program launch would also position UM Athletics as an early adopter and leader in the zero-waste sporting events space, enabling it to reap the benefits that come with that distinction: sponsorships, marketing opportunities, positive PR and the ability to shape the direction in which these programs will go. In order for a 2013 launch of Zero-Waste at the Big House to be feasible, however, UM Athletics must take several steps in the next 18 months. Figure 2 provides a high-level timeline of these activities for UM Athletics to use as a reference should it decide to pursue Zero-Waste at the Big House. Figure 2

Finalize Staffing During the summer and fall of 2012, the following would need to happen:  Allocate current staff to work part-time on preparing all zero-waste related efforts: UM Athletics would need to designate a staff member to be responsible part-time for overseeing a general analysis of 2012 gameday operations with the goal of creating a final plan for the 2013 Zero-Waste at the Big House program.  Search for and hire a Zero-Waste at the Big House program manager: UM Athletics would need to identify a candidate to manage Zero-Waste at the Big House as part of his/her work portfolio per the recommendations in the Staffing and Training section. We recommend that UM Athletics consider working with the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute and the Office of Campus Sustainability to identify the best candidate and coordination responsibilities for this position.

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Secure Funding From June 2012 through January 2013, the following would need to happen:  Engage IMG to identify sponsorship opportunities: UM Athletics Marketing would need to work with IMG to identify potential corporate sponsors that espouse similar values to the Zero-Waste at the Big House program. This would be an opportunity to find partners that are also pursuing complementary sustainability goals.  Engage UM Office of Development and UM Athletics Development to identify external program funding sources: The Zero-Waste at the Big House Program Manager (PM) would need to coordinate with the UM Office of Development, UM Athletics Development and the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute to identify potential donor sources to support the five-year zero-waste pilot program. Starting in February 2013 and ending no later than July 2013, the following would need to happen:  Secure all sources of funding, including internal, external and sponsorships: UM Athletics would need to work with sponsors and donors to secure and finalize all necessary funding agreements described above before the 2013 season begins.

Assess Current State From August 2012 through the 2012 football season, the following would need to happen:  Evaluate gameday operations to finalize plans and establish a baseline: The PM and others affiliated with the program would need to observe the current waste management process at the stadium before, during and after football games. This study would enable the PM to confirm challenges and opportunities, design creative solutions to address these obstacles and determine how to capitalize on these opportunities. Additionally, it would enable the PM to establish relationships will all parties involved in waste management at Michigan Stadium including Michigan Stadium Operations staff, WRR staff and contracted vendors.  Perform further benchmarking of peer programs and examine new waste management methods: The PM would need to work with his/her peers at other universities to learn best practices and assess any challenges these other initiatives have experienced. In addition, he/she would need to interact with members from organizations such as the Green Sports Alliance to understand best practices in other sports leagues and venues.

Develop Final Plan From November 2012 through July 2013, the following would need to happen:  Create final zero-waste plan based on Feasibility Assessment and 2012 season analysis: The PM would need to work with Michigan Stadium Operations and WRR to tweak the operational details outlined in this feasibility assessment. He/she would then need to complete all tasks required to successfully launch the program in 2013, including identifying equipment and supplies needed and confirming the new stadium layout (including overspill areas, waste station configurations and the location of trash receptacles). From February 2013 through August 2013, the following would need to happen:  Adjust vendor and human resource contracts per zero-waste plan: The PM would need to work with UM Athletics, Sodexo and JNS to modify contracts and negotiate costs associated with the adjustment of vendor responsibilities in a zero-waste environment (e.g. training, collecting of compost, etc.).

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Prepare and Execute During the summer of 2013, the following would need to happen:  Prepare physical changes to the stadium and purchase all materials for the season: The PM would need to work with Michigan Stadium Operations, WRR and others to prepare for Zero-Waste at the Big house including adjusting stadium layouts, ensuring the correct products are stocked in concession, confirming that all signage is correct and displayed and verifying that staff are well trained/prepared for the season. During the fall of 2013, the following would need to happen:  Execute a zero-waste season (tracking metrics and identifying improvements for 2014): The PM would need to oversee all the details of the program and track its progress throughout the season according to established metrics agreed upon by all parties involved.

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6. Long-Term Strategic Goals The benefits of Zero-Waste at the Big House have the potential to extend beyond the first five years of the program. We anticipate new opportunities to reduce costs and extend the use of effective and sustainable waste management strategies to become available over time.

Cost reduction opportunities 

Changing the culture related to waste: Over the course of the five-year pilot program, one goal is to decrease the number of waste station attendants needed by helping fans grow accustomed to composting and recycling through a sound marketing and education plan. Although it will likely not be possible to eliminate all waste station attendants from gameday operations in the near future, there may be opportunities to leave certain lesser-used waste stations unattended and thereby reduce the costs associated with waste station attendants. Composting in Ann Arbor: As Zero-Waste at the Big House continues to generate a significant amount of compost from season to season, another key goal is to encourage the development of an industrial-scale postconsumer waste compost facility in the greater Ann Arbor area, either in the form of a municipal or a private facility. Having a local facility nearby would likely enable UM Athletics to pay less in compost tipping and hauling fees. Using only compostable and recyclable materials: Another key goal is to transition any last waste-only packaging to recyclable or compostable products. By establishing a long-term zero waste program, UM Athletics would have the opportunity to work with Sodexo to negotiate contracts with its providers to reduce the cost of compostable and recyclable wares and require Sodexo to deliver all products UM Athletics uses in high volume in compostable and recyclable packaging.

Extension of zero-waste 

Transition all other areas of the stadium and grounds to zero waste: Following the successful launch of ZeroWaste at the Big House, Michigan Stadium Operations and WRR would be able to use best practices learned to implement zero-waste in the locker rooms, restrooms and surrounding tailgate areas. This addition would all but eliminate the waste-only stream from Michigan Stadium. Transition other athletic facilities to zero-waste: With the establishment of Zero-Waste at the Big House, UM Athletics would be well-equipped to advise the operations teams at Crisler Center, Yost Ice Rink, and other university athletic facilities on how to convert these facilities to zero-waste. Establish zero-waste competition between Big Ten schools: To help educate and train fans and to raise the visibility of the program, another goal is to establish a competition between schools specifically around zerowaste. Such a competition, which could be modeled after the UM-OSU Blood Battle or the USEPA’s Game Day Challenge, would help improve results while also generating additional excitement and engagement opportunities.

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7. Feasibility Conclusions The recommendations made above suggest that Zero-Waste at the Big House would be feasible if thoroughly planned and implemented with sufficient resources. This would be a large undertaking, but one with significant upside. Based on our research, we have come to the following conclusions: 1. A zero-waste program can be implemented at Michigan Stadium without compromising the fan experience; 2. Existing operations at Michigan Stadium can be adapted to allow for implementation of a successful zerowaste program; 3. There are clear marketing and PR opportunities related to a zero-waste program, including potential corporate sponsorships and the cultivation of individual donor relationships; and 4. A zero-waste program aligns with future athletic industry trends and will position UM Athletics as the leader and best on the national “green sports” playing field. Converting Michigan Stadium to a zero-waste facility would be a significant endeavor requiring careful management and planning. Based on our research, we are confident that all outstanding questions and risks regarding operations and funding can be fully addressed. The potential direct and indirect benefits of a zero-waste program—including new corporate partnerships, increased alumni and fan engagement and heightened visibility for Michigan as a cutting-edge institution—make Zero-Waste at the Big House a compelling goal to pursue. A successful initiative would showcase the best of UM Athletics and UM Football to the world. By pairing clear, visionary leadership with operational excellence, UM Athletics would be wellpositioned to emerge as a leader in solving large-scale sustainability issues in the athletics space. With Zero-Waste at the Big House, UM Athletics has an opportunity to put Michigan Stadium in the headlines for more than just wins on the field. We can prove once again that Michigan Stadium is the best football facility in the country and, in the process, offer a meaningful and significant contribution to sustainability efforts locally, nationally and around the world. In the words of University President Mary Sue Coleman, “Sustainability defines the University of Michigan. Combine maize and blue, and you get green. A great university such as ours does not blink when presented with difficult challenges.”19

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8. Appendices Appendix A Organizations Contacted In order to inform the information in this report, the project team connected with stakeholders from the following departments, programs and institutions for guidance and feedback:                    

Aaron James, Finance and Business Strategy Consultant, Erb Institute MS/MBA ‘10 Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute Green Sports Alliance Lectures and presentations by Dave Brandon at the Ross School of Business Office of Campus Sustainability Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling PepsiCo Proteam Solutions Sodexo Stephen M. Ross School of Business The Ohio State University Tuthill Farms University of California Berkeley University of Colorado – Boulder University of Michigan Athletics Marketing University of Michigan Building Services University of Michigan Stadium Operations University of Michigan Student Sustainability Initiative University of Michigan students and alumni within the project team members’ networks

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Appendix B Zero-Waste Football Case Studies The Ohio State University Basic Program Details Launch of program Stadium size Number of games per year Who is leading the effort Other organizations involved Estimated upfront program costs Program funding # of waste stations in stadium Average # of staff per game

Internal or external management Program website

Fall 2011 102,389 (average 735,00 visitors per year) 7 Department of Athletics and Office of Energy Services and Sustainability University – Communications Office, stadium vendor (Sodexo), ProTeam Solutions, waste hauling vendor $100,000 Internal grant and Athletics operating budget 75 10-12 student volunteer leaders 75 zero-waste station attendants 10 supervisors External http://go.osu.edu/zerowaste

Program Waste-Reduction History    

Since 2007, Ohio State has recycled more than 253 tons of trash from football games, with an average recycling rate of 53.6% For the 2010 season, Ohio State diverted 46.4% (51.7 tons) of the stadium waste, 58.3% (77.2 tons) of tailgate waste from landfills for an overall rate of 52.8% Placed 1st in EPA Game Day Challenge for diverting 68.5% of waste from the landfill at the Ohio State-Purdue game on October 23, 2010 The Office of Energy Services and Sustainability proposed a plan for a 2011 zero-waste football season in May of 2011, and successfully executed and completed this plan during the 2011 season at Ohio Stadium.

Future Zero-Waste Goals   

Divert 90% of waste produced on gamedays from landfills by the 2012 Michigan v. Ohio State game Convert Ohio Stadium to a Zero-Waste stadium 365 days a year, including weddings and commencement Use Zero-Waste football effort to help achieve OSU Administration’s goal to divert 40% of waste produced University-wide from landfills through recycling and composting

Identified Challenges and Solutions Product Alternatives Challenge: Finding recyclable and compostable alternatives for products or containers used in stadium. Solution: 1) Performed an inventory of all the products given to fans in stadium to determine a suitable alternative, first considering compostable alternative, then recyclable alternative if compostable unavailable. Page | 32


2) Selected alternatives that are effective, efficient and economical as the current products. 3) Partnered with the Ohio BioProducts Innovation Center to encourage Ohio companies to develop products to solve waste issues at stadium. Education Challenge: Helping fans that may not understand composting and recycling to adjust to using the new recycling and composting bins Solution: Provided signage and trained volunteers to help direct fans to appropriate bins Compost Facility Challenge: Working with compost facility (Price Farm): 1) Price Farm venturing into new territory of managing stadium compost (e.g. volume of compostable waste produced) 2) Zero-Waste football program requirement to meet Price Farm’s standard of contaminant free materials Solution: Worked with Price Farm and OSU’s research centers to design solutions to support program. Liners for compostable waste bins Challenge: Compost facility (Price Farm) does not have the staff to rip open standard trash bags to dump compost and prefer to have compostable liners for compost waste. Unfortunately, compostable liners are thin and expensive. Solution: Use same clear liners for compost that stadium uses for recycling. Stadium and concession staff rip open bags to dump compost into compost dumpsters.

Identified Best Practices Inside the Stadium:  During the game displays recycling statistics for gameday and season total on scoreboard  Strong working relationship between Department of Athletics – Facilities and Office of Energy Services and Sustainability  Branding of Zero-Waste program o Program branding is clear and easy to identify. o Logo represents the waste stream of a typical academic building at Ohio State o Use logo to brand other zero-waste events on campus Tailgating:  Provide two waste disposal options for fans: 1) fans bring own recycling bags or 2) fans use recycling bags provided by the university  Designate areas for fans to place recycling bags  Strong relationship with external waste hauler, helpful making improvements to the program Waste Containers:  Purchased waste receptacles ($145) specifically for use in clubhouse, suites and press box areas; made from recycled plastics and manufactured in Ohio  Repainted and repurposed waste receptacles in main concourse for recycling and composting o No trash receptacles provided. Fans instructed to put items unsure of how to dispose of in recycling. o Meat goes in compost because techniques used by Price Farm support meat composting

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University of Colorado Boulder Basic Program Details Launch of program Stadium size Number of games per year Who is leading the effort Other organizations involved Estimated upfront program costs Program funding # of waste stations in stadium Average # of staff per game Internal or external management Program website

Fall 2008 (part of University Green Stampede Initiative) 56,000 (average 325,000 visitors per year) 6 Department of Athletics, CU Boulder Environmental Center, CU Boulder Recycling Services Container provider (EcoProducts, Inc.), food service contractor (Centerplate, Inc.), sponsors (White Wave Foods and Toyota) $50,000 External grant and internal budgeting 30 50-100 student volunteer leaders per game 50-100 zero waste station attendants per game Internal http://www.cubuffs.com/ViewArticle.dbml?&DB_OEM_ID=600& ATCLID=1549954

Program Waste Reduction Facts      

In 2008, collected more than 26 tons of recyclable and 14 tons of compostable waste from football games (199% more than 2007) Divert 80-90% of the waste from landfill on average Use compost produced from gamedays for landscaping on campus Over 300 gallons of fry oil from games used to fuel university buses per season Implemented expanded dual-stream system in recycling Launched valet bike parking service on gamedays to promote eco-friendly transport

Future Goals  

Zero-waste all gameday operations Help CU-Boulder achieve campus-wide carbon neutrality goal

Identified Challenges and Solutions Staff Training Challenge: Training temporary and high-turnover concession staff every Saturday Solution: Highlight handling of recyclable and compostable materials in relevant staff job descriptions and incorporate waste management information while training new employees and staff Monitoring Waste Produced Challenge: Decisions regarding products used in stadium were made outside the review/approval process by Green Stampede Zero Waste Initiative. This occurs sometimes when local food providers are contracted by stadium food service contractor. Solution: Continue working with stakeholders to develop and implement package approval and review process and incorporate requirements in stadium food service contract. Page | 34


Identified Best Practices Inside Stadium:  Lock dumpsters inside of the stadium to prevent incorrect disposal of waste by gameday attendees  Replaced all trash cans with recycling and composting containers only Tailgating:  Conduct outreach and educational efforts on zero waste initiative in gated lots next to the stadium Personnel:  Pair up volunteers to improve engagement in waste activities Concessions:  Maintain communication with concession provider to attain desired result  Promote concessions through various activities (e.g. logo space, press releases, etc.) to encourage provider cooperation with zero waste program  Amend concession contracts to include requirements for materials used and training  Implement 90+% recyclable and compostable packaging in stadium Funding:  Acquired funding for program from White Wave and Toyota  Allocated savings from waste reduction (e.g. reduced trash disposal costs) to fund other campus recycling programs Fan Feedback:  Created system for reporting wasteful practices and offering suggestions for program.

Efforts at Other Universities The following schools are in the process of launching or analyzing the feasibility zero-waste football programs:  Penn State University  University of California Berkeley  University of California Davis  University of Oregon  University of Virginia  Virginia Tech

Wake Forest University

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Appendix C Sample Marketing from Peer Institutions: Ohio State, CU Boulder & UC Davis

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Appendix D Coalition Letter of Support & Signatories

March 25, 2012 Dave Brandon, Director of Athletics Rob Rademacher, Associate Athletic Director Athletic Department University of Michigan 1000 South State Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2201 Dear Dave and Rob: We write to you to express clear support from the student body for converting the Michigan Stadium to a zerowaste facility. We are aware of the work being done by a team of MS/MBA students to prepare a feasibility study and business case for zero-waste football and we respectfully urge you to adopt their recommendations. Though our current recycling program is excellent, zero-waste is the way of the future and it is time for us to lead our peer institutions in waste management practices. Ohio State University implemented a zero-waste football program in fall 2011.ix We are unsatisfied with any situation where Ohio State beats Michigan and we trust you feel the same. Now is the optimal time for the University of Michigan to add composting to the Big House; we have a clear opportunity to learn from OSU’s trial-and-error approach and to implement a well-planned and effective zero-waste program. Other collegiate stadiums that have converted to zero-waste include the University of Colorado–Boulder and the University of California–Berkeley. In the professional sports world, the Green Sports Alliance is working with over 25 teams in different leagues to enhance the environmental standards in large sports venues.x The Big House symbolizes the pride, tradition, and excellence that are the hallmarks of the University of Michigan. Unfortunately, the significant waste footprint of the stadium falls short of the high standards set forth by the football program and Athletics Department. During the first six home games of the 2011 season alone, Michigan Stadium generated 94.89 tons of waste; of this, an average of 28.42% was recycled and the rest ended up in a landfill. Much of the waste sent to a landfill could easily be diverted to a composting facility and converted to compost and topsoil. This topsoil could then be used by local farmers or even by university grounds staff to maintain facilities on campus. Thanks in part to multi-year Student Sustainability Initiative efforts, which included a pilot zero-waste basketball game in 2010, we know that zero-waste can be done at Michigan Athletics events. We were pleased to learn from the current feasibility study that zero-waste football is 100% logistically possible at Michigan Stadium. We understand that such an initiative will not be without challenges and will mean additions to the stadium operations budget, but given interest from the administration and alumni on sustainability-related projects, we view these factors as surmountable obstacles. ix x

http://sustainability.osu.edu/zerowaste http://greensportsalliance.org/

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We deeply appreciate President Mary Sue Coleman’s commitment to sustainability and believe that the University of Michigan has an opportunity to lead the Big Ten—and academic institutions around the country— in improving environmental practices on our campus. The best place to start in improving waste management is the doorstep of the university, the Michigan Stadium. As a coalition of student organizations, we fully support zero-waste football and will contribute however we can to the implementation of a zero-waste program. Thank you in advance for your consideration and we will look forward to hearing of your decision. Sincerely, Central Student Government, DeAndree Watson, President Student Sustainability Initiative, Arielle Fleischer, Team Coordinator LSA Student Government, Caroline Canning, President Erb Institute Student Advisory Board, Rachel Smeak, Co-President Sports Law Society, Courtney Torres, Representative School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE) Student Government, Graham Brown, Co-President Ross Energy Club, Adam Byrnes, President Tau Beta Pi, Daniel Becker, President Beta Theta Pi -- Lambda Chapter, Dustyn J. Wright, President Chi Epsilon, Chris Bove, President AfricAid, Mia Kelly, Co-President AIESEC, Arthur Huerta, Committee President Angels on Call, Sophia Park, President Better Living Using Engineering Laboratory (BLUElab), Sonya Kavalam, Co-President Biophysics Club, Justin Blaty, President Blood Drives United, Kevin Weiss, Chair Chinese Student Association, Kimberley Wang, President Christian Science Organization, Emily Breneman, President Circle K, Vivian Yu, President College Democrats, Alexandra Brill, Chair EcoValuation Working Group, Sam Stevenson, Co-President Environmental Action (EnAct), Hayley Hanway, President Global Brigades, Rikav Chauhan, Chair Kill-A-Watt, Lexi Targan, Executive Director M-Entrepreneurship, Nung Yoo, President Maize Rage, Sam Sedlecky, President Michigan Milaap, Nishita Parmar, Founder Migrant and Immigrant Rights Advocacy, Jen Bizzotto, Representative Northwood Community Council, Lillian Madrigal, Advisor Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI), Philip Bonello, President Ross Finance Club, Aaron Powers, President Ross General Management Club, Orsolya Jojart, President Ross Golf Club, Andrew Chow, Co-President Ross Net Impact (BBA), Marcella Pearl, Vice President Ross Net Impact (MBA), Madhavi Rao, Co-President Ross Out for Business (MBA), Raelyn Jacobson, President Ross Responds, Honore Louie, President South Asian Awareness Network, Kanchan Swaroop, Co-Chair Page | 39


Spark Educational Success, Ashleigh Johnson, President Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS), Tiffany Simone Carey, President Student Advocates for Nutrition (SAN), Talyah Sands, Officer Sustainability Actions and Reactions, Becky Schwartz, Representative Sustainable & Alternative Energy Student Council, Jordan Muratsuchi, President Theta Delti Chi, Daniel Cady, President UM Chapter of Institute of Nuclear and Materials Management, Will Koehler, Representative US Green Building Chapter, Jimmy Ward, Management Team Women's Club Ultimate Frisbee, Adrienne Lemberger, Representative DoRAK, Rachael Crowe, Co-Director Black Arts Council, Evelyn Craft-Robinson, President Social Work and Sport Association, Nate Recknagel, Leader Students for Choice, Raina LaGrand, Board Member SAPAC, Raina LaGrand, Program Coordinator Salto, Lizzi Shea, Co-President International Law Society, Ariel Schepers, Academic Co-Chair

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Appendix E Zero-Waste at the Big House Program Manager – Job Description Position Summary: The University of Michigan Athletic Department is seeking a program manager (PM) for its newly-established zero-waste football initiative. The PM will play a vital role in planning, managing and leading the initiative from its beginning in the first year to its eventual establishment as one of the top zero-waste programs in the country. The PM will collaborate with multiple stakeholders across the athletics department, including representatives from operations, finance and marketing, in addition to other stakeholders throughout the University such as representatives from the Office of Campus Sustainability and the office of Waste Reduction and Recycling. The PM will also interact with external stakeholders such as sponsors, fans and contractors involved in the zero-waste initiative. The manager’s primary responsibility will be putting in place a detailed, actionable implementation plan for the zero-waste initiative in year one, overseeing the program and subsequently performing meticulous improvement and planning in the following football seasons. Key Responsibilities  Build and define a zero-waste football initiative for Michigan Stadium  Support stadium operations with gameday waste management activities impacted by the zero-waste football initiative  Manage vendor contracts and staffing contracts impacted by the zero-waste football initiative  Build staffing plans, define optimal operations layouts, and coordinate logistics of zero-waste football initiative  Coordinate development of stakeholder education  Contribute to program marketing and branding, and answer media inquiries  Research best practices from other universities, facilities, leagues and organizations working on similar issues  Identify additional opportunities for sponsorships, collaboration, and community involvement  Provide leadership on opportunities to expand the program to other facilities throughout Michigan Athletics  Support Stadium Operations team in the development of its sustainability strategies Requirements/Skills  Bachelor’s Degree in a related field required, graduate degree preferred  A minimum of x years of experience working on sustainability-related issues, preferably within an academic or athletics setting  Experience with and/or passion for working in athletics  Knowledge of basic principles of building operations  Demonstrated excellence in understanding brand building and integrating sustainability into the company’s strategy and implementation efforts  Excellent interpersonal, written and verbal communication skills and outstanding relationship building skills at all levels of the organization, including management. Strong ability to collaborate across drastically different roles/responsibilities within an operations organization and drive a shared agenda that recognizes and supports business needs.  Strong analytical skills with ability to track, measure and identify business improvement solutions. Resultsoriented with an ability to operate multiple projects  Demonstrated business analysis, financial analysis and administrative skills  Proven ability to work in a fast-paced, shifting environment and effectively manage multiple deadlines with minimum assistance

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Appendix F Cost Breakdown for Zero-Waste at the Big House

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Appendix G Suggested Resources The following are resources (both within and outside the University of Michigan) that could be utilized in the planning and implementation of Zero-Waste at the Big House. Green Sports Alliance The Green Sports Alliance (GSA) is a non-profit organization devoted to helping “sports teams, venues and leagues enhance their environmental performance.”20 GSA does this by providing its members with resources and expertise to develop better practices, strategies and goals. A key component of this process is the network that GSA provides to its members, which include not only other teams but also “professional sports leagues, environmental organizations, corporate and governmental partners [and the media].”21 GSA has received statements of support from the commissioners of each of the five major sports leagues in the U.S.: NFL, NBA, NHL, MLB and MLS. GSA offers two levels of membership—Basic and Premier. Premier membership, which costs the member organization $2,500 per year, requires member organizations to commit to reporting on the environmental impact of their operations and providing a supportive statement from leadership emphasizing the importance of environmental stewardship. Premier membership organizations gain access to resources such as:  Ability to network and share better practices with venue operators, team representatives, thought leaders and corporate and non-profit partners  Connections to companies looking to get involved with environmental initiatives in the athletics space  Workshops where professional facilitators support members’ development and evaluation of innovative environmental programs  Conference calls and webinars focusing on environmental impact reduction topics  Alliance publications  Recognition on the Green Sports Alliance website, which includes: o Organizational listing for team & venue as a Premier Member o Logo placement for team & venue o Ability to promote greening initiatives through the news and resources section The final benefit of joining GSA would be the potential for additional cost-savings that U-M Athletics may discover by being part of an active community of athletics programs. In addition to energy efficiency work that U-M Athletics has already begun, it stands to learn from peer institutions and organizations who have worked on other types of initiatives. Any cost savings gleaned from these connections could serve to pay in part for the cost of Zero-Waste at the Big House. Contact: info@greensportsalliance.org Web site: www.greensportsalliance.org

Environmental Defense Fund – Climate Corps EDF Climate Corps is a summer fellowship program that places top-tier MBA and MPA students in companies, cities and universities to build the business case for energy efficiency. Fellows work directly with staff in operations, finance and corporate sustainability to develop a customized energy plan that demonstrates the financial and environmental benefits of investing in energy efficiency. Fellows spend 10 weeks during the summer working across organization departments on tasks such as modeling the financial gains from energy efficiency upgrades and mapping out clear strategies for energy efficiency investments throughout the organization. Contact: http://edfclimatecorps.org/climatecorps-webform Web site: http://edfclimatecorps.org/ Page | 44


Stephen M. Ross School of Business: Multidisciplinary Action Project (MAP) Each spring, teams of 4-6 first-year MBA students from the Ross School of Business spend 7 weeks from early March to April addressing a business problem for a client (corporation, non-profit, government agency, etc.). The topics range from market entry, new product launch and operational challenge to financial feasibility of a new project. The Ross School of Business’ MAP Office works with interested companies/organizations to define projects in the summer and fall, ensuring not only that the projects are interesting and beneficial to students but also meaningful and helpful to client organizations. Projects are approved in late fall and posted online in late December. Students are then given the opportunity to rank their preferences, and matching is announced in mid-February. Projects then run from early March to late April. The University of Michigan’s athletic office could engage a MAP team to: 1. Define a marketing strategy not only for zero-waste football but for all of its sustainability-oriented initiatives. 2. Conduct an in-depth of analysis of operations both within and outside of the stadium to fill in any holes left in this report’s plan. 3. Perform an analysis of expansion opportunities for the zero-waste initiative to other facilities operated by Athletics. Contact: rossmapprogram@umich.edu Web site: http://www.bus.umich.edu/MAP/Dev/WhatisMAP.htm

School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE): Master’s Project Master’s projects are interdisciplinary problem-solving experiences conducted by interdisciplinary teams of 4-7 Master’s degree students as the capstone of their academic programs at the School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE). Master’s projects provide client organizations with the ability to explore innovative solutions to complex environmental issues based on the latest academic research and knowledge. Topics covered include not only the environmental or ecological implications of an issue but also financial, operational and organizational implications. Project ideas are developed by students, SNRE faculty or staff in conjunction with a sponsoring client organization. Projects are typically defined in the fall semester, finalized in January or February and completed over the subsequent 12-14 months. Each team works with at least one faculty advisor from SNRE as well as relevant advisors within SNRE and from other schools (such as the School of Public Health or School of Business). Contact: yeeha@umich.edu Web site: http://www.snre.umich.edu/current_students/masters_projects

Stephen M. Ross School of Business: Case Competitions Case competitions are a great way to pose a one-time challenging question to a group of driven MBA students. The following clubs have organized case competitions in the past: Ross Consulting Club, Ross Energy Club, Ross Net Impact and Ross Marketing Club. Contact: RossStudentLife@umich.edu Web site: http://www.bus.umich.edu/StudentLife/

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Appendix H Current Michigan Stadium Waste and Recycling Management Details This appendix provides a high-level overview of how waste and recycling collection is currently managed at Michigan Stadium on gamedays. The waste management process includes various phases and steps before, during and after each game. This appendix covers recycling and waste collection on the concourse level (including concession locations), in the press, club and box/suite areas of the stadium as well as in the tailgate areas surrounding the Big House. It excludes waste collection in the locker rooms and other areas used by athletes.

Teams Involved The Team Stadium Operations

Size / Number of staff -Overseen by Chris Ehman -4 full-time staff -6-8 students during football season (work study)

UM Operations Recycling

-Overseen by Alison Richardson

JNS (non-University contractor) Building Services – Cleaning

-Appx. 50 people

UM Operations – Waste Management Gabriel Richard High School Boys Scouts of America – local chapters Sodexo

Concession volunteers

-Managed by Anocha Cornell -Appx. 10-15 people -Managed by Sam Moran

-250-400 students and parents Appx. 25 boy scouts Appx. 1800 people (including full-time staff and volunteers)

Function -Manage setup and breakdown of trash and recycling stations -Oversee work performed by other organizations involved in waste collection -Oversee operations at Champion Center where football team meals are held -Monitor recycling bins on concourse level during game to avoid overfilled bins -Manage hauling of recyclables after game -Monitor trash bins on concourse level during game to avoid overfilled bins -Manage cleaning of boxes/suite level and press area after game -Haul trash produced on gamedays to landfill and recyclables to the City of Ann Arbor Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) -Manage bowl pick (collection of trash and recyclables) following game -Perform cleanup of tailgate areas and parking lots -Manage all concession products, train all concession volunteers (employees and volunteers) and hold contract with Gabriel Richard -Full-time Sodexo staff run concessions in club areas of stadium -Operate concessions during game (volunteers change from game to game)

Stadium Layout Concourse level – There are approximately 275-300 waste stations (trash and recycling bins) located throughout the concourse level at the porthole entrances (57 total), next to the concession areas, and next to the vendor stands. There Page | 46


are seven dumpsters for trash, four mix-container recycling dumpsters and five cardboard dumpsters where waste and recycling is placed once it is removed by staff from the waste stations. These dumpsters are located at the four corners of the stadium (referred to as overspill areas) and in the alley between Michigan Stadium and Crisler Arena. Press area – The press area is located on the 500 level in the west side of the stadium. There are 10 trash and 10 recycling bins located throughout the area. Trash and recycling bins are located together. Club area – The club areas are located on the 300 and 400 levels on the east side of the stadium. There is a built-in trash and recycling station at each end of all club levels and 30 standing trash and 30 standing recycling bins throughout the club area. Trash and recycling bins are located together. Boxes and suite areas – There are 83 boxes/suites areas are located on both the east (500 level) and west (400 and 500) sides of stadium. There is a 20-gallon receptacle, which includes a section for both trash and recycling, in each box/suite. Parking lot and golf course tailgate areas – The tailgate areas are located in the southern area of the golf course across from the stadium and in the parking lots surrounding the stadium (Sections SC 36, 5, 6, and 7). There are 400 trash bins located in the parking lots to provide easy access to fans, in addition to five sandwich boards containing recycling bags that fans are encouraged to take, place recyclables in and return to the sandwich boards. Trash in the golf course tailgate area is managed by golf course staff and does not include recycling.

Phase 1: Pre-season When: Responsible party: Work Involved:

Details:

Current challenges:

Mid-August Stadium Operations -Stadium Operations staff set up trash and recycling bins at set waste and recycling stations around the concourse level of stadium (waste stations in press/suite/box levels are setup year-round) -Stadium Operations staff set up trash cans in parking lot tailgate areas, tying bins to light posts so they don’t fall over and remain in the same place for the entire season Concourse level: # of stations: 300 # of trash bins: 450 total, 2 per station # of recycling bins: 300 total, 1 per station Parking lot tailgate areas: # of trash bins: 400 total Space for waste receptacles in the concourse and press/suite/box levels is limited

Phase 2: Pre-game Step 1: Setting up the stadium When: Throughout the week before the game Responsible party: Stadium Operations Work Involved: Stadium Operations staff flip over and line trash and recycling bins on concourse level and press/suite/box level Current challenges: None identified Step 2: Unloading of concession and vendor products Page | 47


When: Responsible party: Work Involved:

Current challenges:

Throughout the week before and morning of the game Stadium Operations, Sodexo and contracted vendors (e.g. Coke, Absopure, etc.) - Stadium Operations staff coordinate with Sodexo and vendors to have products delivered and moved to appropriate concession and vendor stand areas -Stadium Operations staff work with Sodexo and vendors to break down cardboard boxes and other packaging and to have it placed in appropriate dumpsters in overspill areas (e.g. cardboard, mixed container or trash dumpsters) -The greatest amount of packaging waste produced occurs at the beginning of the season and before higher-profile games (e.g. Notre Dame, Ohio State)

Step 4: Emptying of dumpsters prior to game When: Throughout the week before (Tuesday and Friday) and morning of the game Responsible party: Stadium Operations and UM Operations – Waste Management Work Involved: - Stadium Operations staff coordinate with UM Operations- Waste Management to have dumpsters emptied before game to ensure there is space to store waste produced by fans during games -Dumpsters, particularly cardboard recycling dumpsters, get full before games as concessions and vendors unpack products Current challenges: -The greatest amount of packaging waste produced occurs at the beginning of the season and before higher-profile games (e.g. Notre Dame, Ohio State) Step 5: Setting up concessions before the game When: Beginning at 8 AM the morning of the game Responsible party: Sodexo and concession volunteer organizations Work Involved: -Concession volunteers are trained immediately before the game starts by Sodexo staff -Training includes food preparation, cash registers, and instructions on how to breakdown boxes Current challenges: -Volunteers vary from game to game so quality of service varies Step 6: Setting up recycling bins in the parking lot tailgate area When: The morning of the game Responsible party: UM Operations – Recycling Work Involved: - UM Operations – Recycling sets up recycling sandwich boards in parking lot tailgate areas outside of Stadium and near Crisler Center Current challenges: -Recycling collection has not yet been successfully implemented in golf course tailgate area

Phase 3: During game Step 1: Monitoring of trash and recycling bins on gameday on concourse level When: During the game Responsible party: Stadium Operations, JNS and UM Operations- Recycling Work Involved: -JNS makes constant rounds of the concourse level of the stadium. When trash bins become full, JNS staff clears trash from trash bins and moves it to trash dumpsters in overspill areas using gondolas -UM Operations - Recycling staff make rounds of the concourse level to empty Page | 48


Current challenges:

full recycling containers and move them to mixed container dumpsters in overspill areas using gondolas. Staff also empty cardboard collection carts from vendor areas into recycling dumpsters. -Stadium Operations staff circle concourse area to ensure waste stations are kept neat and waste is moved to overspill areas as needed -Significant amount of waste is generated on gamedays; Stadium Operations is challenged to monitor, collect, and store the waste before it is removed from the stadium the following day -Waste and recycling generated must be quickly dealt with in order to keep all facilities and waste stations clean and to avoid any negative impacts to the fan experience

Step 2: Operating concessions on concourse level during the game and collection of trash and cardboard recycling When: During the game Responsible party: Sodexo and concession volunteer organizations Work Involved: -Concession volunteers are trained immediately before the game starts by Sodexo staff -Concession volunteers prepare food and run cash registers -Concession volunteers work with JNS staff to dispose of trash produced in concession area and move trash to dumpsters in overspill areas -Concession volunteers fill gondolas with cardboard packaging throughout the game and UM WRR staff help move cardboard to cardboard dumpsters in overspill areas Current challenges: -Food packaging must keep all food fresh -Concessions must be able to respond to peak consumer demand during the game by preparing food ahead of time and serving it quickly so lines don’t build up -Level of assistance with moving of trash and cardboard recycling from concession area to overspill area varies by volunteer organization Step 3: Monitoring of trash and recycling bins on gameday in box/suite areas When: During the game Responsible party: Sodexo and JNS Work Involved: -Sodexo staff check recycling and trash in boxes and suites throughout game as they deliver food to areas -Sodexo notifies JNS if recycling and trash needs to be emptied -JNS staff empty recycling and trash in box/suite areas and move it to appropriate dumpsters in overspill areas Current challenges: -The current infrastructure and system have only been in place for two years so the teams are still working out glitches with this current approach Step 4: Monitoring of trash and recycling bins on gameday in press and club areas When: During the game Responsible party: Sodexo and JNS Work Involved: - JNS staff are staged in press and club levels. When trash and recycling bins become full, JNS staff clears trash and recycling from bins and move them to appropriate dumpsters in overspill areas using gondolas -Stadium Operations staff circle press and club areas to ensure waste stations are kept neat and waste is moved to overspill areas as needed Page | 49


Current challenges:

-Waste and recycling generated must be quickly dealt with in order to keep all facilities and waste stations clean and to avoid any negative impacts to the fan experience

Step 5: Operating concessions on club levels during the game and collection of trash and cardboard recycling When: During the game Responsible party: Sodexo and JNS Work Involved: -Sodexo staff prepare food and run cash registers in concession areas -JNS staff dispose of trash and cardboard recycling produced in concession area and move trash to dumpsters in overspill areas Current challenges: -Food packaging must keep the food fresh -Concessions must be able to respond to peak consumer demand during the game by preparing food ahead of time and serving it quickly so lines don’t build up

Phase 4: Post-game (on the day of the game) Step 1: Clean-up of box/suite, club and press areas When: Immediately after fans have left the press, club and box/suite areas Responsible party: Building Services – Cleaning Team Work involved: -Building Services – Cleaning Team cleans the club, press, box/suite level of the stadium (Levels 3 through 5 on the east side of stadium, Levels 4 and 5 and Regent Room on the west side of stadium) -Responsibilities include removing recyclables and trash from receptacles as well as excess food produced by Sodexo in concession areas. -Building Services – Cleaning Team moves trash and recycling to appropriate dumpsters in overspill area. Time required: 7-8 hours (Building Services - Cleaning Team must stay until clean-up is finished on gameday because the areas cannot be left dirty overnight.) Building Services-Cleaning returns later in week to do detailed clean (e.g. glass cleaning) Current challenges: Significant amount of waste produced from concession area due to prepared but uneaten food Step 2: Concourse clean-up When: Throughout the afternoon and/or evening immediately following the game Responsible party: JNS, UM WRR and Stadium Operations Work involved: -JNS staff empty trash from waste station bins and concession areas into trash dumpsters in overspill areas -UM WRR staff empty recycling bins from waste stations and concession areas into mixed container recycling dumpsters in overspill areas -Stadium Operations staff oversee JNS work to ensure all trash is cleared from bins in concourse area Time required: 1-2 hours Current challenges: None identified

Phase 5: Post-game (the Sunday after gameday) Step 1: Preparation for Bowl Pick When: 6:30AM Responsible party: Stadium Operations Page | 50


Work involved:

Time required: Current challenges: Step 2: Bowl Pick When: Responsible party: Work involved:

Time required: Current challenges:

-Stadium Operations staff set out materials Gabriel Richard volunteers will need to perform bowl pick (e.g. rakes, leaf blowers, brooms, garbage bags, carts, trucks) 1 hour None identified

8:00AM Gabriel Richard High School – student and parent volunteers and Stadium Operations -Students and their parents walk through the bowl area of the stadium and collect trash, recyclables, and water bottles -One group of volunteers leads and collects mixed containers for recycling following by another group of volunteers that picks up trash -Gabriel Richard volunteers move mixed container recyclables collected to a compacter truck in the drainage area (See Step 4 in Phase 5) -Stadium Operations staff drive carts around the bowl (circling 8 times) to pickup waste collected by Gabriel Richard volunteers and move waste to overspill areas 3-4 hours None identified

Step 3: Cleaning of non-hard spaces of stadium (e.g. grassy areas) When: 8:00AM Responsible party: Gabriel Richard High School – student and parent volunteers Work involved: Gabriel Richard volunteers comb the non-hard spaces throughout the concourse for stray waste (e.g. rake grassy areas for straw wrappers, etc.) Time required: 1-2 hours Current challenges: None identified Step 4: Parking lot tailgate area clean up When: 8AM Responsible party: Stadium Operations, UM Operations-Waste Management and Boy Scouts of America, local chapter Work involved: -Boy Scouts walk the parking lot area (including non-hard/grassy areas around the outside of the stadium) and collect lost trash, recyclables, and water bottles that have not been placed in bins -Boy Scouts separate recyclables and trash at the time of collection -Stadium Operations staff help the Boy Scouts move trash and recyclables collected to the dumpsters and the main recycling collection area -UM Operations-Waste Management staff run a street sweeper through the parking lot tailgate area Time required: 2-3 hours Current challenges: None identified Step 5: Pick-up of mixed container recyclables When: Between 10AM-1PM Responsible party: UM WRR Work involved: -UM Operations –Recycling staff collect mixed container recyclables from Page | 51


Time required: Current challenges:

dumpsters in the overspill areas of the stadium and load them into a rearloader truck designed for compacting and transporting recyclables -UM WRR staff drive the truck to the wastewater collection location in the stadium and use the truck’s compacting capability to compact mixed containers and drain liquids from collected recyclables in trucks before transport - UM WRR staff transport recycling to the MRF (Materials Recovery Facility) for processing 4 hours N/A

Step 6: Pick-up of cardboard recyclables When: Between 7AM-1PM Responsible party: UM WRR Work involved: -UM Operations –Recycling staff collect cardboard recyclables from dumpsters in overspill areas of stadium and loads them into trucks - UM WRR staff transports recycling to the MRF for processing Time required: 4 hours Current challenges: N/A Step 7: Pick up of trash When: Between 7AM-1PM Responsible party: UM Operations-Waste Management and Stadium Operations Work involved: -UM Operations-Waste Management and Stadium Operations staff dump trash from all trash dumpsters in overspill areas into trash compacter trucks -UM Operations-Waste Management staff haul the trash to the landfill (appx. 5 trucks/truck loads) Time required: 4 hours Current challenges: Trash must be taken from the stadium no later than the Sunday after the game because trucks are currently unavailable on Monday mornings and trash quickly becomes smelly and unpleasant Step 8: Collection of recycling bins from parking lot areas When: After tailgate areas have been cleaned up Responsible party: UM Operations –Recycling Work involved: - WRR staff remove recycling sandwich boards from parking lot tailgate areas Time required: 1 hour Current challenges: N/A

Phase 6: Post-game (Monday) Step 1: Collection of recycling bins from parking lot areas When: Monday after the game Responsible party: UM Operations –Recycling Work involved: -UM WRR staff run a street sweeper through the concourse level of the stadium Time required: 1 hour Current challenges: None identified

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References 1

Coleman, Mary Sue. “Going Green, Staying Blue: Sustainability at Michigan.” Public address, September 27, 2011. Accessed May “Recycle@UM.” Recycle.umich.edu. March 21, 2012. Web. Retrieved from <http://www.recycle.umich.edu/grounds/recycle/stadium_recycling.php> 3 Jewell, Stacey. “Zero Waste initiative comes close to goal.” The Lantern, November 27, 2011. Web. Retrieved from <http://www.thelantern.com/campus/zero-waste-initiative-comes-close-to-goal-1.2715693#.T2_pbo58tYR> 4 Coleman, Mary Sue. Public address, September 27, 2011. 5 Brandon, Dave. Speech, Ross School of Business, November 14, 2011. 6 Hawkey, Corey. Personal interview. January 30, 2012. 7 Mercier, Courtney. “Viewpoint: Student Athletes Go Green,” Michigan Daily. December 11, 2011. 8 Berg, Nicole. “City officials say proposed state landfill changes would waste resources, jobs, money.” Annarbor.com. March 21, 2012. Web. Retrieved from <http://www.annarbor.com/passions-pursuits/proposed-state-landfill-changes-would-waste-resourcesjobs-money/ 9 “Press Release: Ohio State Leads Big Ten in Stadium Recycling.” Ohio State University. January 23, 2012. Web. Retrieved from <http://sustainability.osu.edu/assets/files/zerowaste/2011%20USEPA%20Game%20Day%20Challenge%2020120123.pdf> 10 King, Lin. Personal Interview. December 9, 2011. 11 Members and Partners, Green Sports Alliance. Web. Retrieved from http://www.greensportsalliance.org/members-partners> 12 “Membership Overview”, Green Sports Alliance. November 2011. 13 Ibid. 14 Hawkey, Corey. Personal Interview. January 30, 2012. 15 Taylor, Wendy. Personal Interview. March 13, 2012. 16 Hawkey, Corey. Personal Interview. January 30, 2012. 17 Debell, Jack. Personal Interview. November 29, 2011. 18 King, Lin. Personal Interview. December 9, 2011. 19 Coleman, Mary Sue. Public address, September 27, 2011. 20 “Membership Overview.” Green Sports Alliance. November 2011 21 Ibid. 2

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Zero-Waste at the Big House