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Epilogue because there is more to know


Editor in Chief Zafar Choudhary


2 3

Consulting Editor D. Suba Chandran

News & Analysis Party & Politics


Politics Roots Of Conflict & Separatist Politics


Letters to the editor

Associate Editor Irm Amin Baig Photo Division J.P. Bandral



Designs & Layout Keshav Sharma

Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2008

Executive Director Mohammad Yasmeen


IN FOCUS Food Security

Mailing Address PO Box 50, HO Gandhi Nagar, Jammu Phones & email Editorial: +91 94191-80762 Administration:+91 9419631610 +91 9419000123 Edited, Printed and Published by Zafar Choudhary for CMRD Publications and Communications Published from ‘Ibadat’, Madrasa Lane, Bhatindi Top, Jammu, J&K

Neighbours Bhutan

Review Book Movie


Towards A Food Secure Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh


No Food Insecurity Beyond 2010


Meeting Challenges in Jammu Province


Scenario in Kashmir, Ladakh


Availability, Accessibility And Affordability

Columns Tareekh

Price : Rs 40

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Epilogue From the Consulting Editor


For more News, Views & Analysis Log on to Epilogue Ø 1× April 2008

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Mail your letters to

Need some research on bureaucracy

on Naxalites is slowly developing a II

counter culture as well, which may

The column on bureaucracy is a welcome step and apart from being made a regular

Democracy in neighbourhood (Pakistan

event it should also be diversified to

Elections; Epilogue, March 2008) will

include issues and challenges faced by

certainly have visible impacts on the

the bureaucracy, research into reasons of

Indo-Pak peace process and the various

regular drain of All-India Service Officers

issues have been presented in Epilogue in

from State to Centre; and service

a balanced way. It will be great if the

condition prevailing there.

after-affects of the process are also

appear as a backlash. Some social aspects of Salwa Judum are missing in your



Judam: A

Purification Hunt). The tribal culture is bearing the brunt of this cross-fire between Naxalism and Salva Judam.

presented in subsequent issues SHUCHISMITA SAXENA Institute of Police Planning Mumbai

SAMEER NARAYAN Karba, Chhatisgarh

especially viz-a-viz J&K.

ARVIND SHARMA University of Jammu Epilogue is certainly emerging as a

Democracy in Pakistan

statement of serious journalism and We are usually always interested in






watching the political developments in

Conundrum; Epilogue March 2008) has

research on Jammu and Kashmir but the magazine





Pakistan but do not have much idea of

seen light to the day but J&K State still

representative character. The Editor

how exactly things take shape there. The

seems to lag far behind in practice.

must understand that all readers are

recent elections were most keenly

Effective governance needs more

not very serious who would like such

watched activity. However, after

transparency for which RTI should be

heavy stuff. Undertake some efforts to

strengthened in letter and spirit.

make, it least some section of it,

watching news channels and going through press reports an idea could not be obtained about the exercise. Epilogue's March issue really lived up to your signature statement “because there is more to know”. It was an indepth

Political authority should not over-ride

lighter. Also, there is need to add some

the right to information on pretext of

more pictures and graphics as often it is

democracy or so, RTI is not to undermine

too heavy on eye. The section on books

but strengthen democracy.

appraisal of Pakistan's political structure. I believe, the magazine will continue to serve as a source of

and movies is a welcome step some more sections can be added on


personalities, places, art and culture.

reference for years to come.

MIR MANZOOR AHMED University of Kashmir

Salva Judam, despite a counter attack

Epilogue Ø 2× April 2008

SHAFIQ AHMED Bhaderwah, Doda (J&K)


No Complacency Please

Zafar Choudhary Securing food essentially makes the bottom-line of every body's daily struggle. Whatever ambitions and aspiration in life there may be, food security is perhaps the most indispensable basis of carrying them on. Jammu and Kashmir has long been mired in conflict but the question of food has never been a serious problem here as it has been noticed in may other parts of country like Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. Our farmers have never been found in distress like many other parts of the country –a phenomenon which has been described by many a men of wisdom as national shame. The roots of this positive situation can be traced in the pioneering land reforms initiatives of the most towering leader of this state Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah way back in 1950s which allowed almost everyone to have the proverbial two square meals. Unfortunately, the pathbreaking agrarian policies of the 1950s seem to have made the successive regimes complacent and the state has not been able to catch up with the desired growth rate to meet the future challenges. While with the given topography, geographical advantage and climatic conditions, Jammu and Kashmir should have been a major agriculture produce exporting state but the fact of the matter is that the state still needs to import the food grains to meet the local requirements. If the latest official statistics are any guide to go by, there is an urgent need for policy shift and scientific initiatives to boost the production and make the agriculture an inclusive and democratic movement with grassroots participation. According to the official statistics, against a requirement of 10.35 lakh tones of grains and 6 lakh tones of vegetables the corresponding production is 6.7 lakh and 4.6 lakh tones, respectively. This means

there is a 40 per cent food grain deficit. This calls for an urgent action as the stunning growth in population and the fast growing bad patterns of land use may further worsen the situation. Our state essentially has an agrarian economy. There are not big industries or other drivers of economic growth; therefore, agriculture sector needs an all pervasive attention. This becomes all more important particularly when majority of state's population depends on agriculture in terms of livelihood and employment. While more than 80 per cent of the state's total population depends on agriculture as a basic source of livelihood, this sector engages 70 per cent of the work force. Aptly planned to coincide the crop harvesting season and festival of Baisakhi, our present issue examines the food scenario in Jammu and Kashmir. It is a rare honour not only for this magazine but also for our state, the globally acclaimed father of green revolution Dr MS Swaminathan has contributed the lead essay on food security. Readers will agree with me that there is hardly a better opinion on the subject than that of Dr Swaminathan. The state Agriculture Minister Abdul Aziz Zargar, who has been a part of six decade long democratic history of state from being member of the Constituent Assembly to Minister in the present government, has laid down in this issue the broad contours of policy. Vi c e C h a n c e l l o r s o f J & K ' s t w o Agriculture Universities, Prof Anwar Alam and Prof Nagendra Sharma enlist the activities and research at institutional and farm level. Essentially a tribute to the farming community, this issue throws the question of vision and policy for ensuring 100 per cent food security in Jammu and Kashmir. Feedback :

Epilogue Ă˜ 3Ă— April 2008

Epilogue because there is more to know

EPILOGUE aims at providing a platform where a meaningful exchange of ideas, opinion and thoughts can take place among the people and about the people of Jammu & Kashmir. The attempt is to research, investigate, communicate and disseminate information, ideas and alternatives for the resolution of common problems facing the state and society of Jammu & Kashmir and in the context of their significance to South Asia as a whole. We welcome contributions from academics, journalists, researches, economists and strategic thinkers. We would also like to encourage first-time writers with the only requirements being a concern for and the desire to understand the prevailing issues and themes of life in Jammu & Kashmir Contributions may be investigate, descriptive, analytical or theorectical. They may be in the form of original articles or in the form of a comment on current events. All contributions have to be neatly types in double space and may be sent to the address given alongside or e-mailed to the editor. While the editor accepts responsibility for the selection of the material published, individual authors are responsible for the facts, figures and viess ithe tier articles.




WHO SAID WHAT “During my interactions with diplomats of various countries, prominent persons and the media in America, I apprised them of the ground situation in the valley but at the same time felt the urgent need for working on the diplomatic front to reach the world community," Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, Chairman APHC(M)

“We suffered losses because of the Indus Treaty otherwise we would be well placed financially to take care of all our fiscal problems”

‘'I heard for a long time that Kashmir sapphire is the best in the world, so I just wanted to come to see”

Tariq Hameed Karra, Minister of Finance, J&K

Thanain, a Resident of Bankok, at Sapphire auction in Jammu

“I tried a lot to make reforms within the party, but did not succeed…”

"Put up united front and do not count ego clashes you have with your party colleagues. It will harm you and the party"

Former Minister Ghulam Hassan Mir, who was expelled from the PDP PDP Patron Mufti Mohammad Sayeed to his party workers

“HM Commander Mueen-ul- Islam express grief and sympathy with the family of a civilian killed in the blast" A statement issued by Hizbul Mujahideen after Srinagar City blast

All the Chief Minister today asked ministers, legislators and other leaders of the Congress party in the State are advised not to issue statements or speak in public about the subject of electoral alliance of the Congress with any political party. CM Ghulam Nabi Azad

"I have a purpose in attending this function…I want to send a message to all the divisive forces that our strength lies not in isolating the people or creating divisions but embracing each other. For, secularism alone can save this state and our great nation"

"We cannot bring our families and children every time state government blocks our salaries. We want solution but state government is simply buying time and wasting previous time”

Dr Farooq Abdullah at a Shiv Sena function

Shakeel Ahmad Kuchay, Chairman JKSRTC Workers Union

Epilogue Ø 4× April 2008

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Delhi Bashing Doctrine Back In Business


ormer Chief Minister Dr Farooq Abdullah is on an extended New Delhi bashing spree to make the right kind of noises ahead of assembly elections due later this year. Farooq's new political posturing is apparently based on the doctrine that hurling invectives on Delhi pays in Kashmir with electoral gains. His National Conference was a part of the BJP led NDA regime in Delhi with son Omar as Minister of State for External Affairs. Now Farooq says that the BJP government inflicted worst miseries on the Kashmiris. At a function in Jammu to honour the Padma awardees of J&K, Farooq made the audience quite emotional for a while when he went on to explain that how New Delhi always indulged in a policy of divide and rule. “In a careful design Jammu was pitted against Kashmir and Ladakh against both”, said Farooq. “We were deliberately put into a state of poverty…despite being rich in resources, we were made to beg for every penny which was rightfully due to us”, he said while holding Delhi responsible for all ills of J&K. Had the audience taken Farooq's words as final, there would have been a sudden uprising against Delhi. However, this did not happen. Guess why? .............. Omar Abdullah, the NC president, is on an extended mass contact program. Unlike the decade old precedence of kicking off campaigns from Sher-e-Kashmir park of Srinagar, Omar has made beginning from a different end. For almost a quarter of March, he remained in Kathua district addressing series of public meetings. Kathua district is significant for being gateway to Jammu and Kashmir. The political observer, however, believe that Omar is wasting time in a place where National Conference has hardly anything to take home. Kathua district has five assembly constituencies –presently all held by the Congress. In 1996, the NC could secure only one seat which it lost in 2002.



Sweeping the State?

Wait and Watch!



he rise of Panthers Party from one seat in the state assembly in 1996 to four in 2002 is still seen by many political observers as an accident. However, the party chairman Bhim Singh is not ready to buy this idea as he believes that Panthers Party is a 'largely acceptable political alternative' to National Conference, Peoples Democratic Party and the Congress. The Panthers Party is these days celebrating its Silver Jubilee and interestingly the celebration campaign took off from Srinagar. Except north Kashmir districts of Baramulla and Kupwara, the Silver Jubilee caravan touched almost all district headquarters of Kashmir Valley before descending down to the rugged terrains of Jammu Division. “We are getting an overwhelming support in entire state and the public mood is on our favour…we are well saddled in a position to form the next government”, says Bhim Singh. Amidst celebrations, there is an FIR against a Panthers Party MLA for beating up his security guard.

mong the three lead players, the Peoples Democratic Party and the National Conference have virtually launched their poll campaign. Surprisingly, the Congress is still maintaining a stoic silence. No big public meetings and no loud political statements. Go slow and watch the situation –appears to be the mantra. Chief Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad addressed three major public meetings this month but there was no party politics of the sorts. At one place (Sopore) he took along the PDP's Muzaffar Hussain Baig while at other two places he spoke about the achievements of government and not the party. Leaders and workers too have been asked to keep a low profile. Since keeping a low profile in the election year is difficult in politics, the Chief Minister had to come up with a harsh public statement asking his partymen not to speak in the possibilities of electoral arrangements to contest the next elections. Instead of issuing a circular among the party leaders, the Chief Minister placed a statement in media which reflected external pressures. Sources say that PDP patron Mufti Mohammad Sayeed expressed his displeasure over the public statements of the Congress leaders against alliance with his party forcing the Chief Minister to issue a public statement.

Epilogue Ø 7× April 2008






Clear mandate: the new ploy


n a full blown poll campaign, the PDP chief Mehbooba Mufti is asking people for a clear mandate for the party finish its promised Kashmir agenda. When Mufti Mohammad Sayeed handed over power to Ghulam Nabi Azad in 2005 under the power sharing arrangement with Congress, the PDP had left many promises halfway. Since then the coalition government had a walk on the razor's edge with PDP threatening day in and day out to pull out of the coalition. Had the PDP pulled out of the government in November 2005 and asked the people for a clear mandate that would have made some sense. It is tough for the people to understand why clear mandate is being sought now.



he cat is out of bag. Representing a north Kashmir constituency, the former Minister and an acclaimed co-founder of PDP, Ghulam Hassan Mir traveled southwards in the home district of Muftis for a cable television interview. He said that Mufti were promoting dynastic rule and the democratic space was shrinking in the party. All said and done. In next 24 hours, Mir was handed over the letter of expulsion from the basic membership of the party. Even though this proved the allegation of shrinking democratic space, but Mir's expulsion has finally come as long over due and good riddance for both –the party and all the persons. That Mir is a co-founder of PDP is far from facts. He joined the party nearly two years after it was formed. In 2002, he slipped away from hands of Muftis and closeted in the NC camp for a party ticket from Tangmarg constituency which was claimed by Sheikh Scion Dr Mustafa Kamal. Mir returned to PDP only when NC denied him ticket. Eventually he won and became a Minister. Then he was a Mufti loyalist for next three years till dropped from cabinet in 2005. Again declared revolt against leadership and went on publicly accuse Muftis of

conspiring to assassinate party leader and Minister Dr Ghulam Nabi Lone. Before his expulsion, Mir had lone been threatening of the emergence of a 'Third Front' in association with CPI(M) and Hakeem Mohammad Yaseen of the PDF. However, the 'Third Front' noises are loosing strength ever since he is out of PDP. The state unit of CPI(M) led by Mohammad Yusuf Tarigami is not seen in a position to enter into any political arrangement at its own; it has to be approved by the Politburo. As far as Hakeem Mohammad Yaseen is concerned, he is always into a scheme of balancing act.

Epilogue Ø 9× April 2008







Mirwaiz wants to internationalise Kashmir

Managing votes without votes



s election fever slowly grips J&K, the BJP is busy strengthening its polling booth committees to avoid the chances of rigging. Party's state president Ashok Khajuriya claims that BJP is fairly well in a position to play a decisive role in formation of next government if elections are free and fair, therefore, “it is important to have well trained cadres to keep an eye on the polling booths”. True, but where are voters? Khajuriya did not explain this. In 1996, the BJP returned to the state assembly with seven seats –all three from Jammu city and four from other areas. In 2002, when party was in power at the Center, it lost all of them though a young rustic returned to the House defeating a scion of Dogra dynasty. Since then the BJP has undergone further vivisection but good that it still hopes to play a role.

n the eve of Eid-Milad-un-Nabi, the chairman of moderate faction of Hurriyat Conference, Mirwaiz Umar Farooq touched the Srinagar ground after two months of foreign sojourn. Few hours later he rushed to the historic Jamia Masjid to deliver his Friday sermons. The Mirwaiz appeared to have returned home with fresh ideas. He said that his party will launch a diplomatic initiative to highlight the Kashmir issue at the international level. "During my interactions with diplomats of various countries, prominent persons and the media in America, I apprised them of the ground situation in the valley but at the same time felt the urgent need for working on the diplomatic front to reach the world community," he said. Mirwaiz has recently attended the 11th Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) meet.


Out of hibernation, with tough conditions Shah has rarely been seen in the state politics except for his “proposed Intra-Kashmir peace conference”. For 15 years now, Shah has been releasing list of invitees –ranging from Prime Minister of India to President of Pakistan and all and sundry from each side of divide –every year but then the confab is put off for reasons known only to him.


n the political landscape of Kashmir, there is a sudden rising out of two-decade long unexplained hibernation. The Awami National Conference of former Chief Minister GM Shah is making noises. Shah, son-in-law of Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, had grabbed power in 1984 by toppling Dr Farooq Abdullah government under the patronage of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. After 18 months of accidental stint in power,

The conference idea, though, still remains live Shah has announced revival of his Awami National Conference and declared participation in forthcoming elections but subject to a slew of conditions. "ANC will contest the upcoming elections so as to restore confidence among people of the state….but our condition is that there should be a Vigilance Commission comprising of people like former Prime Ministers to oversee the elections”. His son Muzaffar Shah is taking lead, going places and mobilizing cadre –which ANC is not known to have –to become an active player in the assembly elections.

Epilogue Ø 8× April 2008

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Application Forms along with Information Bulletin and MAT Bulletin are available for sale through Demand Draft, drawn in favour of Registrar, BGSB University payable at Rajouri, from the office of Assistant Registrar (Admissions), 01962-262616, Camp Office : Jammu 0191-2466892, 2464402 / Srinagar 09419011449. University Application Form can also be downloaded from website : For More Details Contact : Dean Academic Affairs, 09419103563 and Assistant Registrar (Admissions), 09419171665 No. BGSBU/Acad/08/17870 Dated : 5 March, 2008

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Towards A Food Secure Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh M S Swaminathan

Exclusive TO



ustainable Food Security is physical, economic, social and ecological access to a balanced diet and safe drinking water so as to enable every child, woman and man to lead a healthy and productive life. In 2003, the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, did a detailed study on the prevailing situation in J&K and came out with a report on the Food Security Situation in the State and gave an indicative roadmap of what had to be done to become Food Secure. The report included a separate section on Ladakh and the special needs of the region also. The recommendations made then continue to be relevant even if recent statistics and reports on the different aspects of food security are taken into account.

“If Gandhi gave India freedom, Swaminathan gave the food”, this goes on to describe Dr. MS Swaminathan is an outstanding world statesman and visionary in the agricultural and natural resources arena. Trained as a plant breeder and cytogeneticist in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States, he is acclaimed as the "Father of the Green Revolution in Asia." He is the recipient of all three of India's civilian honors: high, higher, and highest. Dr. Swaminathan's achievements have led to dramatic increases in crop yields. He has provided international leadership in agriculture and resource conservation and is deeply concerned for the poor and disadvantaged. His continuing research and leadership ensure that they receive the opportunities they need to develop in ways that enhance the natural environment upon which they depend. His MSS Research Foundation is credited with drawing road map for a Foodsecure and Poverty-free State of Jammu & Kashmir.

Epilogue Ø 11 × April 2008




75 percent of the population of the State lives in rural areas and 62 percent of the rural population is dependent on agriculture. The gross cropped area is 10.85 lakh hectares as per the agricultural census of 2000-01 and the greater percentage of land is under foodgrains – rice, wheat and coarse cereals. 71 per cent of the land holdings are below two hectares in size and the aveage size of landholding is 0.76 ha. About 90 percent of the ground water still remains unutilized and offers scope for increasing the intensity of irrigation. The state offers good opportunities for value added horticultural products from fruits for meeting the expanding domestic market in this sector, as is being done in Himachal Pradesh. With an annual turnover of about Rs.1200 crores, it provides employment to about 23 lac people but less than 20 per cent of the gross cropped area is under horticulture. The state also has great potential for growing medicinal and aromatic plants, orchids and spices. The present level of productivity and value addition in the range of horticultural crops grown in the state is low. It is necessary to bridge this quality gap by adopting suitable harvest, post harvest and processing practices and thereby increase their profitability to the producers and consumer acceptability. Among the 3 regions of J&K, livestock population is highest in Ladakh, which has very less potential for cultivation of fodder crops. Fortification of crop residues and their conversion from high volume straw to low volume feed in the Kashmir valley and transport to the Ladakh region and community management of feed banks will provide food security to the livestock. The literacy level in the State is 54 per cent as per the 2001 census and the female literacy level is 42 per cent. The

percentage of population consuming less than 1890 Kilo calories per day (the bare minimum required to ward off malnourishment) is only 2.4 per cent compared to the national average of 13.2 per cent. As per NFHS III (2005-06), 53 per cent of rural women in the age group 1549 are anemic. This figure albeit lower than the national average of 59 per cent is nevertheless high and a cause for concern in terms of health status of the population. 26 per cent of the women in the same category suffer from chronic energy deficiency compared to the all India level of 39 per cent. 65 per cent of rural children in the 6-35 months category suffer from anemia, an unforgivably high figure even if it is lower than the national average of 81 per cent. 29 per cent of the children in the same category are stunted. This level has come down from 40 per cent during NFHS II (1998-99). While J&K is in a relatively better position compared to the country as a whole with respect to indicators of health and nutrition, much needs to be done to address the employment situation and the production scenario. The relatively better-off position also gives the State the advantage of covering the last mile faster and becoming a role model, given the right kind of policy support and direction. The thrust of the efforts has to be to ensure: Sustainable and profitable farming systems Happy rural and farming families Balanced diets and safe drinking water for all Policies for enhancing sustainable food production and availability

Epilogue Ă˜ 12 Ă— April 2008

Conserving and enhancing the ecological foundations essential for sustainable advances in production and productivity are of utmost importance. Public policy package in this area will have to address two major areas, conserving prime farmland for agriculture and increasing production and productivity Revitalizing the State Land Use Board The State Land Use Board should be revitalised and reorganised in a manner that they can give proactive advice to farm families on land use based on the following factors: Farming systems (crops, livestock, fish and agro-forestry), which will be most efficient under given soil, water and climatic conditions. Short and medium range weather forecasts (the country has developed considerable capability in this area) Projected market demand (both home and external markets) Cost of production, risks involved and expected return. Potential for on-farm and non-farm livelihood generation, so as to maximize income and employment per units of land and water. If such advice is given at least a few weeks before the sowing season, a proper match can be achieved between production and potential market demand. Uneconomic market interventions can then be avoided. The agro-ecological potential of every village can be utilized in an ecologically and economically optimum manner. In the looming scenario of climate change and impending water scarcity, special steps will have to be taken to rehabilitate




hydrologic hot spots and water bodies like Dal and Wular lakes. Low Water Parks should be established to demonstrate, how to increase income per litre of water. There is scope for groundwater exploitation but since this is expensive, Low Water Parks involving both the cultivation of high value but low volume crops and the use of fertigation and micro irrigation techniques will help to foster water literacy. Low cost greenhouses using fertigation techniques must be popularised.

available to the farmers on time. The ambit of the Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme that offers the facility of a running credit account needs to be expanded. Crop Insurance schemes should also be popularised. Horticulture development

Institutional support Higher production can be sustained only if there are opportunities for assured and remunerative marketing. A major challenge relates to reducing the cost of production by improving productivity. Th i s w i l l c a l l f o r a p p r o p r i a te institutional structures which can help to provide key centralized services to small and marginal farm families and to provide them with the power of scale in eco-farming (i.e., integrated pest management, scientific water management, integrated nutrient supply, precision farming etc.,) as well as in marketing. The role of the Small Farmers Agri business Consortium (SFAC) that was established for this purpose should be reviewed and appropriate institutional structures, owned and controlled by farm families should be promoted. User controlled and demand driven institutional structures characterized by low transaction costs, are essential to provide the needed assistance in post-harvest technology, like drying, storage, processing and marketing. Kisan Credit cards As we shift to high value crops and value addition, credit needs of the farmers increase. Credit should me made

Horticulture : Apples in Kashmir Orchards

The horticulture sector contributes largely to sustain the economy of Jammu and Kashmir and earns much-needed foreign exchange for the country. Even during the turbulent periods in the nineties, when almost all other sectors in the State nose-dived, horticulture invariably registered a remarkable growth. This vital sector holds promise within domestic and foreign markets as also fruit processing ventures. With an annual turnover of over Rs. 1,500crore, over six lakh families are mainly associated with horticulture in the State. It generates employment for nearly 25 lakh people directly or indirectly. Fruit production in the State has increased to 11.05 lakh metric tons from a mere 16,000 metric tons in 1953-54. Of this, the fresh fruit production accounts for 10.22 lakh metric tons. But only 6.7 percent of the gross cropped area in the State is under horticulture. Diversifying into horticulture and enterprise development with the

Epilogue Ă˜ 13 Ă— April 2008

horticulture produce as a base can be a major thrust area for the State's development. A variety of pears, peaches, plums, apricots, strawberry and cherry grow in the State and there is good potential for development of the fruit canning industry. An amazing 85 varieties of apricot reportedly grow in the Ladakh valley. Kashmir almonds are also known for their superiority of taste and are very popular with the consumers. Considered as highly nourishing and of great medicinal value, its kernels are used in confectionery as well as dessert. Subtropical areas in Jammu have potential to grow strawberry under irrigated condition. Over 2000 varieties of garden strawberry are reportedly known with large fruit, weighing 30-70 grams. The Field Research Laboratory of DRDO has introduced the fruit in Ladakh and it is reported to grow well there also. The seabuckthorn or Leh-berry is a wonder fruit of Ladakh that grows wild. It has immense commercial value and needs to be cultivated on a large scale. Saffron cultivation is unique to Jammu and Kashmir State in India; the only other country producing the flower crop is Spain. Saffron is a condiment medicine, a natural dyestuff and an expensive spice in the world used in various functions by adding delicate aroma, pleasing flavor and magnificent yellow color to food. It has domestic demand and also has large export potential. The annual production of saffron is confined to Pampore in the Kashmir valley and to the Kishtwar valley of Jammu province. In Kashmir, the practice is to alternate with paddy




cultivation, which fertilises the soil with organic material and makes it rich and healthy again. Concentrated thrust to saffron cultivation and building a market through sale by Government emporia and tie-up for export through APEDA can give stable income and livelihoods to many. The Department of Horticulture should therefore see itself in a vantage position to utilize the available advantages for horticulture development and galvanize into action. High density orchards, greenhouse horticulture, and hybrid seed production will have to be promoted. Alleviating fodder scarcity through Community Feed and Fodder Banks Food scarcity for the people is not a severe problem in J&K. Furtherance of livelihood opportunities will ensure improvement in food security. But addressing the issue of food for livestock is very important. In areas of feed and f o d d e r s c a r c i t y, a s c h e m e o f decentralized community feed and fodder banks can be implemented in areas where the local community is primarily dependent on livestock for livelihood; a typical case is the nomadic community in the Changthang valley of Ladakh. Setting up a Community Fodder Bank is based on the premise of a decentralized institutional setup from which the people can borrow during periods of crises and repay at a later date with interest from the proceeds of their sale of sheep/goat/wool. The repayment can be in cash, which will then be utilised by the fodder bank management committee to procure fodder for the next cycle. Typically, the fodder bank would meet the needs of the nomadic community during

the severe winter when pasture availability is at a low and moving in search of grazing land is difficult.


Ideally, the initial fodder corpus and support for building a storage structure where a godown does not already exist should come from the Government. This corpus will revolve and grow from season to season. Such a decentralised system of storage and management of food for the livestock can be effective in addressing the problem of shortages and high mortality during severe winters. Its operation and sustainability crucially hinges on capacity building and training of the people to manage such a mechanism, which is wherever participatory management and a facilitator role to be played by the local Government or a local NGO are important. Side by side, adequate attention has to be paid to pasture development for instance through cultivation of fodder crops like alfa alfa on a large scale. Training in sustainable breeding of livestock and attention to animal health and nutrition is equally important. Animal Husbandry therefore emerges as another thrust area for focused attention in the State. The State is home to the changra goat from which the priceless pashmina wool is obtained. But unfortunately, the nomads who tend the goat do not get commensurate returns. Developing the pashmina industry in a manner that it benefits the herders, thrust on developing the woolen garment industry are crucial thrust areas. While the Community Fodder Bank will help alleviating food insecurity for the animals, and be a support for the livestock herders, developing the wool industry based on these animals will promote livelihood security.

Epilogue Ă˜ 14 Ă— April 2008

Advances in information technology also provide opportunities for farm graduates to establish computer-aided and Internet connected Rural Knowledge Centres. These centres should help to convert generic information into location specific information. Farmer owned and operated knowledge centres would be useful. A virtual college linking such Village Knowledge Centres to Agricultural Universities and Research Institutions can be established, so that farm-women and men are able to get up-to-date and authentic technical advice. Farm graduates (both men and women) can be involved in establishing and operating such Rural Knowledge Centers based on modern information and communication technology. Such Centers can also operate local community radio stations. Such a restructuring and retooling of extension services would help to provide demand driven environment and farming systems specific advice to farmers. They will trigger a knowledge revolution in agriculture and will lead to an efficient and eco-sensitive precision farming movement. This great opportunity for achieving a transition from unskilled to skilled work and for designing a new extension service for the new economy should not be ignored. Household entitlement cards Families / individuals identified as vulnerable to endemic hunger, can be given. Household Entitlement Cards which give information on all Government projects (both Central and State Government) relating to poverty and hunger elimination, to which they are entitled. The various government projects can be disaggregated by gender, age, class and caste and precise




information provided on methods of accessing the benefits to which they are entitled. Land ownership records should be periodically updated and made available to the people. Employment generation Employment generation schemes need to be combined with micro credit and marketing facilities. Schemes need to be taken up for promotion and production of inexpensive, simple and indigenous methods of drying or preserving fruits and vegetables. These can be small-scale enterprises with proper market support. Horticulture can be a major revenue earner and can also be a means of employment generation. N a t i o n a l l y a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y, promoting micro-enterprises supported by micro-finance has been identified as an economically efficient method of strengthening the livelihood security of the poor. Under such a system of job-led growth, transaction costs are low, repayment record is high and technological and market linkages are strong. Micro-enterprises succeed when the production of goods and commodities, or organization of services are related to assured and remunerative marketing opportunities. In the case of goods and services based on local natural resources, it is important that detailed micro-level planning is undertaken, so as to ensure that the natural resources, particularly land and water, are used in a sustainable manner. It is increasingly proved by experiences at the micro-level, that the mechanism most likely to succeed is a decentralized and participatory system that makes the beneficiaries responsible for making the system work.

delivering small loans, portfolio financing, flexible and frequent repayment schedules, scope for innovation and incentive are some of the mechanisms for overcoming the constraints that prevent effective functioning of rural transactions and therefore access. A participatory system can evolve such mechanisms. Handicrafts Woolen textiles of fleecy soft texture of matchless excellence in weaving, handwoven carpets of finest warp and weft, sericulture, exquisite designs worked on papier-mache, wood work, silverware, etc. are the products of craftsmanship unique to J&K. Namdas are made of wool of inferior quality and old woollen blankets are used for making gabbas. This cottage industry is concentrated in Anantnag, Rainawari and Baramula. Lois (woollen blankets) of Shopian and Bandipore are well known. Hand-woven blankets of Rainawari are also durable and warm. Woollen pattus, tweeds, and worsted are manufactured in many hand and power looms established in and around Srinagar. The Kangri making is a cottage industry concentrated in the

Sustainable Self Help Groups (SHGs), linking of savings and credit systems,

areas on the banks of Wullar lake near Watlab and at Tsrar and Botingo villages. All these products have a wide national and international market. More production for the market, publicity through media and visible marketing by State emporium showrooms across the country can create a base for more people developing this enterprise activity. Thrust on developing women's enterprise with support from the Women's Development Corporation, promotion of self help group activity and financial linkages with banks can create further impetus for growth of handicrafts. Ecotourism Tourism development has immense potential and the natural beauty and landscape with proper infrastructure support make it an automatic revenue earner in peaceful times. Militant activity in the State has been a setback for this industry. But with peace returning, renewed tourism promotion and developing eco-tourism sites infrastructure facilities for staying in natural ambience, trekking, rock climbing, rafting etc. making best use of the natural surroundings without causing

HANDICRAFTS : An artisan making Kashmir Kangri

Epilogue Ă˜ 15 Ă— April 2008




any ecological harm, promoting eco friendly products at such sites like use of paper bags instead of plastic, will attract more tourist and adventure minded travelers from both other parts of India and abroad. Ladakh has a good inflow of tourists from abroad, but needs more promotion among Indians. Strategies to improve food absorption Strategies must be guided by a better understanding of food insecurity. A whole life-cycle approach to nutrition security will help to ensure that the nutritional needs of everyone in the community and at every stage in an individual's life are satisfied. We should immediately provide a horizontal dimension to the numerous

vertically structured nutrition intervention programmes currently in operation by adopting a whole life-cycle approach to nutrition security (diagram 2). LIFE CYCLE APPROACH TO NUTRITION Pregnant mothers Overcoming maternal and foetal underand mal-nutrition is an urgent task, since nearly 30 per cent of the children born in India are characterised by low birth weight (LBW), with the consequent risk of impaired brain development. LBW is a proxy indicator of the low status of women in society, particularly of their health and nutrition status during their entire life cycle.

Nursing mothers Appropriate schemes will be necessary to enable mothers to breast-feed their babies for at least six months, as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Policies at work places, including the provision of appropriate support services should be conducive to achieving this goal. Infants (0-2 years) Special efforts will have to be made to reach this age group through their mothers, since they are the most unreached at present. Eighty percent of brain development is completed before the age of 2. The first four months in a child's life is particularly critical, since the child is totally dependent on its mother for

Higher mortality rate Impaired mental development

Elderly Malnourished

Reduced capacity to care for baby

Increased risk of adult chronic disease Baby Low birth weight

Untimely/inadequate weaning Frequent infections Inadequate cath up growth

Inadequate foetal nutrition

Inadequate food, health & care

Inadequate food, health & care

Child Stunted Reduced mental capacity

Woman Malnourished Pregnancy Low weight gain

Higher maternal mortality

Inadequate food, health & care

Adolescent Stunted

Reduced mental capacity

Source: UN Commission on Nutrition

Epilogue Ă˜ 16 Ă— April 2008

Inadequate food, health & care




food and survival. Pre-school Children (2-6 years) The on-going integrated child development service, if implemented properly, will help to cater to the nutritional and health care needs of this age group. Youth (6 to 20 years) A nutrition-based noon meal programme in all schools (public and private, and rural and urban) will help to improve the nutritional status of this group. However, a significant percentage of children belonging to this age group are not able to go to school due to economic reasons. Such school 'push-outs' or child workers need special attention. Adults (20 to 60 years) Apart from the sale of subsidised grain, the major approach has been food-forwork programmes for this group. In designing nutrition compact for them, persons working in the organised and unorganised sectors will have to be dealt with separately. Also, the intervention programmes will have to be different for men and women, taking into account the multiple burdens on a woman's daily life. Old and infirm persons

health care. Both the health and ICDS infrastructure should be energized towards promoting this. Clean drinking water is necessary to ensure the efficient biological absorption and digestion of food. Meeting this basic need must receive overriding priority. In addition, to the extent possible, the consumption of boiled water should be encouraged and facilitated. This one step could help to bring down infant and child mortality rates significantly. Environmental hygiene can be improved through cooperation among local communities. Every village and town should have a policy for the treatment and recycling of solid and liquid wastes. In towns and cities, the treatment and disposal of hospital wastes should receive particular attention. Waste recycling could also become a remunerative enterprise and self-help groups can be trained to take to such environment enhancing enterprises. Eliminating hidden hunger caused micronutrient deficiencies


A two-pronged strategy consisting of direct interventions like the administration of oral dose of Vitamin A, iron and iodine fortified salt, as well the promoting the cultivation of vegetables and trees like amla in the small area surrounding the huts/homes (home garden), can be introduced in every village. In Ladakh, the magical seabuckthorn that has higher vitamin C content than amla as well as medicinal properties should be promoted. The highest priority should go to the elimination of hidden hunger as soon as possible.

Repeated infections contribute to malnutrition. Priority needs to be given to environmental sanitation, safe drinking water and ready access to

With the right kind of effort on all the three fronts of production, access and absorption, Jammu & Kashmir has all the potential to become a Food and Nutrition Secure State in the near future.

This group will have to be provided with appropriate nutritional support, as part of the ethical obligations of society. Nutrition throughout the Lifecycle Safe drinking water environmental hygiene

Epilogue Ă˜ 17 Ă— April 2008

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No Food Insecurity Beyond 2010 Abdul Aziz Zargar Agriculture with its allied Sectors like Horticulture, Sheep, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and Cooperatives are the core sectors of State Economy the major contributors to the states Gross Domestic Production (GDP). About 85% of our population depends on Agriculture Sector by providing basic food for human consumption, fodder for animal population and other items like Milk, Curd, Fish and Vegetables in addition to cereals. The stunning growth in the population has put enourmous burden on the resource base of the Agriculture which needs to be modernized by adopting the new technological traits, supplementation of balanced dozes of fertilizers traits, supplementation of balanced dozes of fertilizers and resorting to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies.

government has kept this objective in view in devising comprehensive strategical approach visualized to be sustainable and conductive for an overall growth. Ours being an Agrarian society, the agriculture has to play a dynamic and vibrant role in improving the economy of the State. It has to produce sufficient food to cater the needs of growing population. The Coalition Government initially under the dynamic leadership of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed as Chief Minister from 2002 to 2005, took major steps to strengthen the relationship between the “Land and Man”. A sort of

Despite some impressive achievements made in Agriculture and allied sectors in the country, the economic Agriculture development before 2001 in J&K has been slow and not concurrent with the rapidly increasing demographic changes. Thus it is the need of the hour to meet the food needs of the growing population and also the demand of the National and International Markets. It is therefore, imperative to put the Natural resources like, land & water, etc; to optimum use. Our coalition

Epilogue Ø 18 × April 2008

dynamic approach was adopted for sustainable agricultural development. To ensure sustainable agriculture problem we require a policy of vision for conservation of the land resources coupled with intensive agronomical practices and extension strategies. We shall have to extensively train the farmer as he has a central role in implementing a policy on food security in the State. Keeping the above facts in view, an Agricultural Policy Paper was adopted in July 2002 wherein a road map was prepared for making agriculture




competitive and profitable in the State. The State resources of Agriculture have high potential for having a higher rate of growth per hector. Endowed with the advantage of environmental resources agriculture in Jammu and Kashmir State faced many-fold challenges. Being crore sector of the economy 37% of the net state domestic product is contributed by this sector. Nearly 2/3rd of our work force is employed in the agriculture and about 80% of the population of the state is directly or indirectly dependent on this sector. The efforts made in agriculture particularly during last six years have been impressive as both Govt. machinery in agriculture and the two Agriculture Universities with their combined efforts have put this sector in harmony with potential and accelerated extension. Although there is wide variations in yield of different crops across the various Agro climatic zones and sub zones in the state, a sustainable availability of the food items shall require a Vision Policy for conservation and exploitation of available resources.

mets. Only which creates a deficit of about over 6½ lac mts., in terms of rice, maize and wheat. The Jammu and Kashmir State at present has gross cropped area, just around 12.50 lac hectors out of which 7.30 lac hectors is the net cropped area and only 4.36 lac hectors of land has assured irrigation facilities ! It is a matter of concern with the present Coalition Government that the food grain production in the State has not significantly increased during last two decades. The area under different food crops has also not increased, but decreased to some extent due to the diversification that has taken place, in converting, some area of land under vegetable and fruit cultivation. The impact of this diversification has been very positive as the vegetables worth 200

crores are being exported that too during the period (summer), when in rest of the country the season of vegetable cultivation is off ! At the same time we are also producing 15 lac mts of fruit offering us a business of Rs. 2000 crores of which Rs. 1.50 crores as the export component. The areas under fruit cultivation spreads over to 2.68 lac hectors. Similarly, our government is making all out efforts to increase productivity in the area of vegetable production, fruits, milk, meat, eggs and fisheries. The J&K State is self sufficient in the milk production. The average prescribed consumption of milk per capita per day is 230 mg but our state is producing 300 mg per capita per day higher than national average. The fish catch went up from 14.22 lac tones in 2005-06 to 19.00 lac tones during 2007-08. The fish catch and the sale of trout fish has fetched Rs. 2 crores during 2006-07 as revenue income to the department. Apart from Private Sector, our Cooperatives are also playing their role in the economic development of the State and are important players in sustaining agrarian based Rural Economy. The S ta te G ove r n m e n t h a s decided to encourage formation of cooperatives in the poultry and dairy sectors with the twin objective to meet the demand of white meat and dairy products within the State, besides generating the employment. After winding up the old and ailing milk federations of Kashmir/Jammu, a new State Level Federation under the name Jammu and Kashmir Milk Producers Cooperative has been

Globalization has opened new opportunities of converting small and local Agrarian b u s i n e s s i n t o National/International Commercial Enterprise through intercontinental business channels. Agriculture offers an opportunity to transform our farm produce from scarcity to plenty after taking full advantage of the present opportunities and fast changing global economic scenario. The projected demand for the food grains of the state at present is estimated around 26 lac mts. Per year but the present quantum of food production comes to 20 lac

Epilogue Ă˜ 19 Ă— April 2008




established in collaboration with the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing F e d e r a t i o n . T h e Pr i m a r y M i l k Cooperative Societies are functional under the new arrangement. The Milk Plants at Satwari Jammu and Cheshmashahi Srinagar are processing 20000 ltrs of milk per day. The brand name “Snow Cap” is becoming a house hold name in the State. Apart from the raw milk, the Federation has also introduced flavoured milk, cured, butter and other diary products in the market. The Milk Producers are not more resorting to distress sale of milk as remunerative prices are being offered to them at their door steps. The Cooperative institutions have also played a key role in other areas of Agrarian Economy by increasing the productivity through the timely availability of farm credit and other inputs required for carrying out the agricultural operations. It is rightly said that Agriculture is the backbone of the economy and cooperatives are the backbone of the agriculture. The cooperative institutions alone in the state have been the major stake holders in financing the agriculture related activities. The Cooperative Banks alone have issued more than 65000 Kissan Credit Cards and are pioneers in launching the crop insurance scheme. In the distribution of Agricultural inputs like fertilizers, the State Government during the past six years has adopted a liberalized policy whereby all Cooperative Institutions with sound financial position have been allowed to go for the direct purchase of fertilizers. The liberalized policy has substantially increased the off take of fertilizers from 60000 mts in 2001 to 1.20 lac mts in 200607. It was a great pleasure for me to attend the Resource Management Seminar at Chandigarh from 29th to 31st October 2007

along with scientists of my state. This seminar was specially attended by the Director General Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR) Dr. Mangla Rai along with Vice Chancellors of Agriculture Universities of Jammu/Srinagar, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh the Agriculture Scientists of our country. This seminar was also attended by great National Level Scientists like Sh. V. N. Sharda, Director, CSWCR & TI Dehradun and A.K. Tiwari, Dy. Director General ICAR and Organizing Secretary Central Soil and Water Conservation Chandigarh. I had also made some suggestions with regard to major gaps in the current Research and training efforts in the field of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries. The discussion was focused on livelihood, environment and food security, not only in J&K State but in the entire spectrum of our country. We have deliberated over the ongoing resource conservation programmes for subsistence of productivity in J&K where we have only 31% sown area instead of National average which is 46.16%. The economic growth is dependent by investing more budgetary funds in this sector, it is regretted that the various Central Government have not made reasonable investments to accelerate the growth rate in the Agriculture Sector during past many years. Now it is a matter of pride that the Central Government has announced loan waiver policy for small and marginal farmers during the current budget session of the Parliament, last month. It is also in this backdrop that the process of recapitalization of Primary Agriculture Cooperative Societies and Cooperative Banks was started in 2004 (Prof. A Vaidaynathan Committee Repot), and is now in the offing. The Central Government especially Hon'ble Prime Minister, Sardar Manmohan Singh, Hon'ble Union Minister of Agriculture Shri Sharad Pawar and Hon'ble Union Finance

Epilogue Ø 20 × April 2008

Minister Sh. P. Chadimbaram need to be congratulated. Keeping in view the challenges of the fluctuation in food production before 2002-03 by the food insecurity, shortage of quality nutrition was due to low productivity and less production. There are still imbalances due to the degeneration of eco-system and low water availability in the entire irrigation sector. Due to increase in the degrees of temperature we have to double the rainfed farming on scientific basis on normally to increase the cost of benefit ratio. We have had full fledged discussion over the 11th Plan Paper in our Cabinet Meetings held one at Srinagar and other at Jammu. The J&K Government has come up with a proposal to achieve the growth rate in Agriculture Sector by 4% per year and over all growth rate will be near about 8½%. It was only due to our continuous efforts that my Hon'ble Cabinet colleagues have first time categorized agriculture sector as a “Core Sector”. I am thankful to the Economic Advisor of J&K Government Dr.Haseeb Drabu, the then Financial Commissioner Planning and Development Department, Mr. S.s. Kapoor and Commissioner/ Secretary to Government Finance Department Sh. B.B. Vyas, for their valued contributions. The Hon'ble Chief Minister was kind enough to agree to grant the status of core sector to agriculture which should have been granted to it three decades earlier. Our government is determined to wipe out food insecurity by the end of 2010.

Abdul Aziz Zargar Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Cooperatives Jammu & Kashmir




Meeting Challenges In Jammu Province Nagendra Sharma Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have increasingly become matters of concern for developing countries and for the international community. While there are many complex factors that influence sustainable development and food security, it is clear that education in agriculture plays an important role in preparing farmers, researchers, educators, extension staff, members of agri-businesses and others to make productive contributions. A critical issue in the 21st century will be the changes and adaptations required in agricultural education in order for it to more effectively contribute to improved food security, sustainable agricultural production and rural development. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu was established in 1999 with a mandate of Research, Human Resource Development and Technology transfer. Since its inception the university has contributed immensely in tackling the problems faced by the peasantry of Jammu region through its research in various units located at Rajouri. Poonch. Bhaderwah, Raya, Dhiansar and Samba. Jammu region has high potential in field/fruit crops & in animal wealth. Ranbir Singh Pura is well known for production of basmati rice and Bhaderwah for rajmash, Paddar for black zeera, wild olive and sour pomegranate in mid hills; aonla, ber, desi mango, jamun in kandi belt of planting and saffron in Kishtwar area are some of the special features of the region. Besides, the region is rich in kangani goat, Bhaderwah sheep and Yak

of district Doda. University has mandate, not only to preserve the rich biodiversity of the region but also to develop the technical know-how for exploitation of these regional resources to achieve socio-economic development, sustainability and self sufficiency. At present, University has 58 externally funded projects which includes 29 under Horticulture Technology Mini-Mission (HTMM) and 9 Adhoc Projects under Coordinated Research Projects from ICAR besides internally funded projects. New varieties in rice, wheat, oilseeds & pulses have been released during the short life span of the university's inception. Agricultural technologies developed by the university have helped to mitigate problems faced by the farmers of Jammu region. These technologies reach farmers through the extensive extension network of the university and line departments of the state and partly directly through the university. The major impediments to the growth of agriculture in Jammu region are low productivity in agriculture resulting in poor employment and income generation, poor infrastructure, high population growth rate (>2.0%) and low literacy rate (<54.0%). Out of a total population of 44.3 lakh of Jammu region, 34.3 lakh (77.4%) live in villages. Out of an area of 18.0 lakh hectares, only 6.92 lakh hectares is under cultivation. The production of the important food crops, namely rice, maize and wheat account for 84.0 per cent of total cropped area; the balance 16.0 per cent is shared by inferior cereals and pulses. Major area of Jammu region is under dryland agriculture with ground water

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 21 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

exploitation to merely 1.3 per cent. Highlights of research of the university in different crops is reproduced here with. Field Crops Jammu produces 1.99 Lakh qtls of rice, 4.5 Lakh qtls of wheat, 4.1 Lakh qtls of Maize, 7900 qtls of pulses, 42100 qtls of oilseeds & 15800 qtls of minor cereals. Net irrigated area in Jammu is 109169 ha (15.8%), out of which canal irrigation is available to only 79358 hectares (11.50%) and hence agriculture in rest of the region (84.2%) is mainly dependent on rain water availability, To overcome water availability problem the university has developed water harvesting structures that store rain water for long usage. Through extension wings and Govt. subsidies these structures are being popularized in the Jammu region for prosperity of farmers' community. Th e u n i ve rsi ty h a s foc u se d on development of value added crop varieties for domestic and export markets. Sanwal basmati (IET 15815) in rice; RSP-303 in wheat; DGS-l (Gobi Sarson); RSPT-l & RSPT-2 (Toria); RSPR-l & RSPR-3 (Raya) and SCS-3 (Chickpea/gram) have all performed better over the earlier varieties and have helped to narrow down the gap between state and national average. Under dry land conditions of Udhampur, intercropping of maize+cowpea in 1:1 ratio during kharif and wheat+mustard in 4:1 ratio during rabi are found to be profitable prepositions. Similarly under dry land conditions of Rajouri, the




intercropping of cowpea in maize during kharif season and mustard in wheat during rabi season has been found to be promising as compared to monoculture of these crops. The university under ICAR mega seed production project has refined seed production technology and initiated production of breeder seed with added emphasis on hybrid cultivars. Paras, a single cross hybrid in maize has recorded grain yields of up to 55.6 q/ha and needs promotion through seed production and distribution. Techniques have been developed to handle cut-worm problem in maize. The package of practices for Rajmash, Moong, Soyben and Cowpea have been prepared and printed. Horticulture: The horticulture sector occupies an important position in the farming system of Jammu. The region has three agoclimatic conditions: sub-tropical, mid temperate and temperate. Each region has its own potential to grow specific fruits. Temperate fruits like pear, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, walnut etc grown at elevation of 1000-3000 meters above mean sea level are important cash fetching fruits. These fruits in addition to supplementing diet of the people also form an important item of export. The production of various fruits includes 10458 metric tons of apple, 14152 mt. of pear, 501 mt. of apricot, 15104 mt. of citrus fruits, 13292 mt. of mango, 12799 mt. of ber and 20067 mt. of walnut. Due to rich diversity of agro-climatic conditions, topographical variations and altitudinal differences, horticulture is emerging as the major farming activity among the farmers of Jammu region. Ber, aonla, Guava, wild pomegranate and olive are emerging as important fruit crops attracting hundreds of farmers every, year in dryland areas. In the mid-

hill zone, the agro-climatic conditions are highly suitable for the successful cultivation of fruits like olive, kiwi, pecanuts and strawberry. The state Govt. has chalked out plans to bring more area under these fruits. Under the beekeeping programme, management practices for local bee Apis cerenci have been worked out to save the colonies of this species from extinction. The state faces many problems with regard to development of horticulture that includes low productivity, high percentage of off-grade fruits, fragmented land holdings and poor connectivity to markets. To help farmers, university has established a quality testing laboratory to provide quality testing and R&D support to farmers and industry. Post harvest handling, storage and processing protocols have been developed for the benefit of farmers and industry. Considering the importance of research in this field the Department of Agriculture, State Govt. Agencies and SKUAST-J should more closely collaborate for benefit of the state. Scope for the production of high value crops like saffron, kala zeera, olive, walnut etc has been enhanced through research on problems of corn rot in saffron, fruit drop in walnut and inducing flowering & fruit set in olive varieties and mosaic disease of rajmash. The year around cultivation of mushrooms through inclusion of button mushrooms, milky mushrooms and dhingri (Pleurotus) in cycle is expected to extend income of farmers and generate employment in rural areas. Studies on standardization of propagation techniques in aonla have helped in multiplication of planting material. A strawberry cultivar 'Chandler' has performed better in terms of yield and quality. Research on strawberry has helped in increased production and export of this fruit out of Jammu. As a significant achievement Jammu has

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 22 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

started export of this crop with a record production of around 1,00,000 kg during 2006-07 through efforts of university and l i n e d e p a r t m e n t s . Pr o m i s i n g technologies for high density cultivation of strawberry with plasticulture, planting techniques, micro irrigation methods, plastic mulching, use of plastic tunnels, runner production and postharvest management in strawberry have revolutionized its cultivation. Jammu produces 83100 metric tons of fruits and vegetables. A large number of varieties/hybrids identified in vegetable crops and agro-techniques standardized have been included in package and practices of vegetable. Research on offseason and high value vegetables like broccoli, asparagus, celery and mushrooms is likely to benefit farmers of Jammu region in the long run. The scientists have developed agrotechniques for round the year cultivation of knolkhol and radish. Farmers have been greatly benefited with leading to higher income. Extensive training programmes have been conducted by the university to promote river bed cultivation, rainy season vegetables, winter vegetables, scientific management of vegetable crops, integrated pest management in vegetable production, post harvest management and marketing of vegetables, multiple cropping systems in vegetable cultivation and seed production techniques in vegetable crops. Keeping in view the futuristic expansion of this area a college of Horticulture and Agroforestry is proposed by the university. Biotechnology The climate of the state is ideally suited for R&D in the field of biotechnology. Some infrastructure already exists for this purpose with SKUAST-J. Most of the research in biotechnology has taken




place for temperate zones of the country. Hence, technical innovations cannot simply be borrowed from other states. There is a need to develop indigenous technology for productivity enhancement and developing new varieties of crops. Micropropagation protocols for multiplication of disease free planting material of ginger, hybrid/ms lines of tomato and tuberose have been developed by SKUAST scientists. Another challenge in the development of biotechnology is the linkages between the research institutes and the cultivator, a gap which becomes a hurdle in the commercialization of biotechnological research. Hence, to improve the biotechnological sector, the state government should provide funds to build the infrastructure for biotechnology research and encourage research initiatives in hybridization, micro propagation, tissue culture and other biotechnological applications in horticulture. This would help university to use biotechnology, to introduce new and improved cattle breeds, to set up a biotechnological park, to provide support for seed and plant production, to develop high-nutrition fodder at low cost. The university envisages an advance centre of biotechnology for consideration of the state govt.

small holders/producers has an immediate impact on poverty that can improve the purchasing power and nutritional status of the poor farmers. The poverty reducing impact of livestock production can be greatly enhanced by increasing efficiency of livestock production and decreasing cost of production, making farmers achieve greater profits. Livestock production costs can be reduced with break through in disease control, feeding efficiency, breeding and management which is achieved mainly through dedicated and holistic activities of veterinary institutions. Veterinary college at R.S. Pura is striving to achieve these goals.

Livestock and Dairy

Livestock production is growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector and thus being termed as 'Livestock Revolution'. This term refers to the astonishing consumer driven increase in the production of livestock. As the urban population is becoming richer due to rapid industrial growth and their income rise, the dietary preferences change, they want to eat more livestock and dairy products. Keeping this in mind the scientists of livestock product technology at SKUAST-J have standardized techniques for production of 'Kaladi' with quality uniformity and high shelf life along with several other products and processes.

Animal husbandry has the potential to play a prominent role in poverty alleviation since it is the source of livelihood for a large chunk of rural folk. In J&K, animal husbandry plays a significant role as 0.13 per cent GDP of the state is contributed by this sector. The region has precious wealth of buffalo (10.40 lakh), sheep (34.11 lakh), goats (20.55 lakh) and poultry (30.84 lakh). Cattle and poultry are the most important tools for the development of rural economy. Thus livestock industry in the state has vast scope for development. Increasing the income of

In terms of production, there is a huge gap between demand and supply. Due to climatic conditions there is a great demand for meat and warm clothes. The breeds of available cattle are unable to provide both components in sufficient quantities. The sector provides direct employment to about 2.0 lakh people. Thus, this sector needs attention to achieve adequate expansion to bridge the demand supply gap. Research is oriented to develop improved breeds of cattle and poultry required to fulfill the needs of the state. Research output is geared to generate good quality cattle

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 23 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

feed. The state provides suitable climate for cattle breeding and hence research is initiated that can help to establish cattle breeding centers and produce poultry to meet the increased demand for poultry products. The milk production has increased to around 7.66 lakh metric tons. The demand for milk and milk products has been increasing continuously in the region and hence there is an enormous scope for dairy development. There is abundance of local breed of cattle and for improvement of these through crosses with new breed has to be undertaken. The sector has vast job opportunities. From the stage of subsistence activity, dairy development can grow through modernization and thereby increase income and employment opportunities. Hence, establishment of college of food technology is visualized with modern dairy processing plant, pilot facilities in F&V and food grain processing to provide R&D support for establishment of post harvest handling, storage and processing pilot facilities at university that shall ultimately help in established of processing industry in the region. The assistance for this college from state govt. will go a long way to help peasants of the state and the activities of respective line departments. Plant Protection: The university has identified number of resistant sources against insect-pest and diseases after its inception. Some bio control agents were also tested against soil born insect-pests disease attack in fields, fruits and vegetable crops. Integrated pest management module is also applied to manage the insect pest attack and reduce the risk of environment pollution.




Fishery Development The total fish output of the state is estimated at 1,90,557 qt. and of Jammu 30240 qt. and the number of fisherman around 66,955 with another 10000 employed in this sector. However, there is a big gap between demand and supply. In addition to local population, defense personnel, and tourists are the source of increasing demand for fish. With 27,781 km of rivers/streams, the state has a potential to produce 40.0 million tons of fish. Presently there are 18 state-owned trout hatcheries and 22 fish farms. Development of this sector in Jammu division shall increase employment opportunities. In order to exploit the potential of this sector, university is striving to develop fish breeds with high returns to farmers, encourage private

enterprise for its marketing to neighboring states and develop technologies that shall help extend shelf life of fish. Fishing should be made part of tourism promotion in the state. Trout and golden Mahasheer temperate fishes are in great demand. Technology Transfer: The university has developed low cost and effective technologies to help farmers. To get a feed back on efficacy of these technologies and problems of farmers a village stay programme has been made mandatory for the researchers of the university. This helps to reorient research to the actual need of the farmers. However, to reach 3617 villages, 30 Tehsils, 561 Panchayats and 57 blocks of Jammu region effective and

committed support of Govt. agencies is required. There is need for establishment of training institutes in some cluster villages so that farmers can be trained properly. Central Govt. moots rural industrial hubs and wants Panchayats to become equity partners by offering land to private entrepreneurs at block, village and district level. This shall help villagers to find jobs in factories and Govt. shall be regulating partners' like in Town and Village enterprises (TVE's) of China. Through greater public and private partnerships, there is possibility of reversing decline in agricultural growth and ushering in 2nd green revolution. DR. NAGENDRA SHARMA Vice Chancellor, SKUAST-Jammu

Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri 185131 (J&K) Admission For College of Engineering & Technology (AICTE - LOI) College of Engineering and Technology (COET) - Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University announced admission 2008 to following Engineering streams : a. B.Tech. Computer Sciences & Engineering b. B.Tech. Information Technology c. B.Tech. Electronics & Communications For Detail Information Eligibility : 10+2 from a recognized Board with 45% marks (40% for Sc/St) with visit to university website : Physics & Mathematics as compulsory subject. Entrance Test shall be conducted somewhere in the month of July/August 2008. or Camp Office, Jammu / Srinagar Venue : Rajouri / Jammu / Srinagar Application Forms along with Information Bulletin and MAT Bulletin are available for sale on payment Rs. 700/by Demand Draft, drawn in favour of Registrar, BGSB University payable at Rajouri, from the office of 1. Assistant Registrar (Admissions), University Campus, Rajouri 01962-262616; 2. Camp Office, Opposite Channi Himmat, Bye Pass, Jammu 0191-2466892, 2464402; 3. Regional Office , Rose Lane Colony, Indira Gandhi Road, Parry Pora, Baghat Barzulla (Near SSRB) Srinagar, Kashmir 09419011449 and 4. Can also be downloaded from University website : For More Details Contact : Dean Academic Affairs, 09419103563 and Assistant Registrar (Admissions), 09419171665 No. BGSBU/Acad/08/17665 Dated : 23 February, 2008

Sd/Assistant Registrar (Academic Affairs)

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 24 Ă&#x2014; April 2008




Scenario In Kashmir, Ladakh Anwar Alam The role of Green Revolution in addressing the problems of food security in India is today known to everyone. It ushered en era of overall rural prosperity and became a model for transforming the agro-economic scenario of many developing countries. Apart from ensuring food security of the country on sustainable basis, the overall agricultural development played a pivotal role in overall economic growth, employment generation and poverty alleviation. Even after more than four decades of Green Revolution, that was subsequently followed by yellow (oilseeds), white (milk) and blue (fish) revolutions, our policy planners are conscious of the fact that overall economic growth is inconceivable without growth in agriculture sector. However, future agricultural development in the country would be guided not only by compulsions of improving food and nutritional security, but also by the concerns of environmental protection, sustainability, profitability and even by agricultural exports. Liberalization process under World Trade Organization (WTO) regime and globalization of markets calls for competitiveness and efficiency of our agricultural production. Agriculture in Jammu and Kashmir State has an important place in the socioeconomic fabric of its civilization. The State with a net geographical area of 10.14 M ha, has four agro-ecological zones viz. Sub-tropical zone (low hills, 300-800 m asl) and intermediate zone (mid hills, 800-1800 m asl) falling in Jammu Division comprising of 10 districts, temperate valley zone (high hills, 1800-2200 m asl) comprising of 10 districts and cold arid Ladakh (very high hills, >2200 m asl) comprising of 2 districts. It is important to note that net cultivable area represents just 7.4 per cent of the total geographical area, besides 6.5 per cent being under forest, 3.3 per cent uncultivable land including pastures and 0.9 per cent fallows. Only 41 per cent area is irrigated in the State of which 92 per cent irrigation is available through canals. Agriculture and its allied fields like horticulture, livestock husbandry, forestry, fisheries and sericulture is the primary economic sector of the State, which engages about 80 per cent population and provides about 36.3 per cent of the net domestic produce of the State. Agriculture is providing the people the food as well as many other products

like vegetables, livestock, dairy and poultry products for raising their income. It is a major source of providing raw materials to the agro-based industries. T h e r e h a s , h o w e v e r, b e e n a n unprecedented population pressure on the cultivable land and average cultivable land availability per head of agricultural population is as low as 0.5 ha only, whereas nearly 97 per cent fall in the category of small and marginal farmers with the average size of land holding at 0.7 ha.

during the last 50 years. Area, production and productivity of different crops have increased over the time but rate of development has been slow. Similar trend has been observed with fruit crops and livestock development. Gross cultivated area has increased from 0.689 to 0.987 M ha and cropping intensity has shown gradual increase, though maximum in Jammu region (176.8%), followed by Kashmir region (123%) and cold-arid Ladakh (106%).

Cropping system and pattern in Kashmir and Ladakh are distinctly different from that of plains. Temperate valley has agrihort (temperate), Fig.1 Land use pattern in J&K semi-pastoral Net geographical area 10.139 Mha L i v e s t o c k Area not available for Husbandry (LSH), Agriculture (82%) cold water fishery Area under forest (6.5%) and forestry 82% (mainly conifers), 7.40% Uncultivable land whereas cold arid including pasture (3.3%) 0.90% region of Ladakh Fallow (0.9%) has mostly 3.30% l i v e s t o c k 6.50% Net sown area (7.4%) h u s b a n d r y, silvipasture and agriculture (where Considerable transformation in irrigation is available). Low cropping agriculture sector has been observed intensity in these two regions primarily is Land resource utilization, cropping pattern and crop production

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 25 Ă&#x2014; April 2008




constrained by climatic conditions. Crop husbandry, livestock husbandry and horticulture are severely affected by prolonged severe winter, minimum temperature may touch –10oC in the o valley to –35 C in Ladakh. To overcome this agricultural structures and environment center measures need to be developed and applied. Polyhouses of different designs have already been adopted by many farmers enabling plant environment control during extreme weather conditions. Livestock sector equally needs similar measures.

cent of net sown area is under paddy cultivation alone. The valley is still facing the severe problems of food shortage and annual import of more than 2.5 lakh tones of food grains is carried out to maintain the consumption standard of 522 grams per capita per day. The situation demands a concerted effort on the part of government, public sector institutions and enterprising farming community to overcome the imbalance and ensure food and nutritional security of the masses in Kashmir and Ladakh region.

It is important to note that food production is not keeping pace with the increase in population, despite the fact that food crops alone constitute more than 65 per cent of the cropping area, whereas in Kashmir more than 50 per

Food grain production The status of food grain production and productivity in Kashmir and Ladakh is as follows :

A) Area (lakh ha) Kashmir

















Total (major food crops) Total





B) Production of food grains (lakh tones) Rice
































Total -1

C) Average productivity (q ha )

Epilogue Ø 26 × April 2008

Increase in production of food crops has primarily been the result of increase in productivity rather than horizontal expansion of land. Under proper management reasonably good productivity levels can be achieved. Using University rice variety Shalimar Rice-1, paddy productivity of 6-7 t/ha is easily achieved but farmers have recorded upto 5 q/kanal i.e. 10 t/ha inspite of relatively low temperatures and irrigation water (snow melts) being too cold. Early onset of witner and protracted witner, which is common occurrence, reduces growing season and causes cold damage. To get over this problem University advocates nursery raising under plastic tunnel or polyhouses to advance transplanting and to protect the plants against the bad weather. Wheat is largely grown in Jammu region and some in Ladakh with rainfed crop having 1.5-2.0 t/ha and 3.5-4.0 t/ha under irrigated and proper management. Rice-wheat rotation has been made a reality now in Kashmir using University varieties Shalimar Rice-1 and Shalimar Wheat-1 which should go a long way meeting food and feed shortage. Maize is concentrated in hilly areas, raised often on hill slopes with average productivity of only 1.7 t/ha, 1.9 t/ha in Jammu, 1.1 t/ha in Kashmir but there are pockets in Doda where 2-2.5 t/ha of quality maize is produced under rainfed conditions. Maize composites with 4-6 t/ha have been released by the University, 3.5-4.0 t/ha in cold hill area using Shalimar Maize KG-1/KG-2 varieties. Successful maize + rajmash is also popular with the farmers. University has released five pulse varieties with 0.8-1.2 t/ha yield, superior lines are in pipeline. Productivity of pulse can be increased by




application of Rhizobium culture (alongwith PSB and VAM), recommended doses of fertilizer (NPK) and manure, protective irrigation and weed management. Being deep rooted respond to interculture, raised bed planting gives better plant stand and protection against water logging. Fruit production Apple : There were 46,189 ha under apple in 1974-75 with average productivity of 4.12 t/ha. Apple production has grown, now there are 100,702 ha under apple with average productivity of 10.34 t/ha. Ambri is a native germplasm of apple valued for its


Shalim ar


M id bloom er, sem i-soft-shell, average yield 2-5kg/tree or 6.75 q\ha (unshelled).


M akdhoom


Late bloom er, sem i-soft-shell, 2.50 kg/tree or 6.75 q/ha (unshelled) yield


W aris


Late bloom er, sem i-soft-shell, 2.41 kg/tree or 6.50 q/ha (unshelled) yield




M ide bloom er, soft-shell, 1.72 kg/tree or 4.64 q/ha (unshelled) yield

companion crop in saffron plantation. However, it was removed because of perpetual damage due to frost. University has developed/released following mid and late bloomer almond varieties : Productivity of these varieties is

Area (ha) Productivity (t/ha)

screened and released the following two varieties being superior in their postharvest characters : Hamdan : Light coloured kernels, high shelling percentage (>54%) Sulaiman : Light amber coloured kernels, 52% shelled







Am bri is native germ plasm , alternative bearer, susceptible to diseases APPLE VARIETIES RELEASED BY SKUAST-K Lal Am bri (Am bri x RD)

Regular bearer, high organoleptic rating, 50 t/ha on M-9, HD-planting

Sunhari (Am bri x GD)

Regular bearer, high organoleptic rating, 50 t/ha on M-9, HD-planting

Firdour (GD x Rom e Beauty x Malus floribanda)

Scab resistant, 90-95% red colour, sub-acidic, m edium size


Scab resistant, sw eet, juicy, m edium size fruits, term inal bearer


High yielder, sw eet, big size fruit, spur bearer, 90% red, 50-60 t/ha

aroma and long shelf life but an alternate bearer and has become susceptible to disease (apple scab) San Jose Scale and pest. Red Delicious is reigning commercial apple variety which needs diversification, it has low shelf life and also not a regular bearer. University has developed 5 apple varieties. Almond : It is a high value nut. There were 9361 ha under almond in 1974-75 with average productivity of 0.16t/ha (unshelled) which has increased to 16, 679 ha with average productivity of 0.86 t/ha. It is rather too low productivity because it is mostly rainfed. It is

relatively low but they flower at a time that by-passes frost period and give reasonable yield. There is urgent need to increase productivity of almonds in Kashmir through intensive R&D specially breeding and management. Walnut : It has very good demand in foreign markets and it earns about Rs. 120 crores in foreign exchange. However, it is a highly cross-pollinated crop mostly of seedling origin. Seeded walnut takes 10-12 years to fruit, too long an unproductive period. Hardly any inputs are given to walnuts, these are defacto organic products. University has

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 27 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

University has succeeded advancing bearing in walnut by using grafted sampling bearing starts from 3rd/4th year. University has succeeded in having higher success rate under low cost polyhouses condition (70-80%) better than using electric operated costly Hot Callusing Cable (HCC) System. Production of grafted samplings of identical clones should be taken up in a big way to increase walnut production. Grafted walnut at 8 x 8m spacing can yield more than 2.5 t/ha (unshelled). Average productivity of walnut has increased from 0.79 t/ha (1974-75) to 1 . 3 7 t / h a ( 2 0 0 3 - 0 4 ) . Wa l n u t




management especially irrigation, and nutrient application need to be addressed. Cherry : It is a fruit crop of Kashmir where it has monopoly in India. It is also a

of Pok has rich biodiversity in apricots and some of the varieties known for their quality. The following apricot varieties raised in Kashmir Division are : Apricots have varied use as fresh fruit,




Larger fruits with dull colour, shelf life are relatively larger.




Dark red colour sweet fruits




Datrk red colour sweet fruits




Early maturing

deciduous of fruit crop. There were 654 ha under cherry in 1974-75 with a production 510 t, an average productivity 0.78 t/ha which has increased over to 2531 ha with annual production of 7308 t and an average productivity of 2.89 t/ ha. However, productivity of cherry in advanced countries has reached to 40-50 t/ha. It is a fruit with very short shelf life of about 7d. Gummosis is wide spread and lot of fruit is lost due to cracking in the event of untimely rain. The cherry varieties raised in the Valley are : Apricot : Apricot, Zardalu (Hindi), Khoobani (Urdu), Ctcheir (Kashmiri) is major fruit crop of the Ladakh region and also raised in the valley. It has wide

sun and solar and osmodehyderated apricots. Dehyderated apricots are used as prunes in developed world thus are exportable commodity if hygiene and quality is maintained. Sulphiting and osmodehyderation yield attractive colour. Solar dryers and sulphiting technique developed by SKUAST-K and Osmodehyderation developed by RRL Jammu need to be promoted to preserve this highly perishable nutritive fruit for better economic dividends. Wild apricots are good for soil conservation and can be raised on hill slopes and undulating areas. Its leaves are good feed to sheep and goats and the wood has several economic uses, kernel oil is




A sweet apricot cultivar raised in the valley, pulp and kernel both sweet, kernel used as almond substitutes.




A sweet apricot cultivar raised in the valley.


Gilgati Sweet


Sweet apricot from Gilgit region raised in Kargil locally known at ‘Bota Cher’




Sweet apricot widely grown in Kargil region, possibly of Afghan origin.




Wild apricot having sweet pulp but bitter kernel widely grown in Leh and Kargil. Kernels are used as oilseed.

adaptation, grows all over J&K except Jammu and Kathua district. Skardu area

considered of medicinal value, stems yield edible gum etc.

Epilogue Ø 28 × April 2008

Vegetable production Dietary awareness has resulted in major shift in food habits of the people who now prefer low fat, low cholesterol foods rich in vitamins, phytomins, minerals and dietery fibres thus marked spurt in demand for quality vegetables. In Jammu and Kashmir vegetables are grown on 57,300 ha with annual production of 9.96 lakh tones providing 206 g/caput/day. Average productivity of vegetables in J&K is 17.38 t/ha against national average of 15.03 t/ha. Higher vegetable productivity is in Ladakh region (29.5 t/ha) followed by Kashmir (21.56 t/ha) and lowest in the Jammu region (13.26 t/ha). Though area, production and productivity have improved over the years, productivity in J&K is still much lower than developed nations, 40 t/ha under open field conditions and 60 t/ha on average under protected conditions. Area under vegetable production and productivity break up (2003-04) Factors responsible for low productivity of vegetables include : Non-availability of quality seed, as a result farmers depend on their own seeds which are often of inferior quality. Government and other public sector organizations produce very little vegetable seed. Because of low replacement rate of vegetable seeds, farmers use (certified) seed for 3-4 generations by which they are degenerated genetically. Low level of adoption of improved production technologies, usually traditional, INM and IPM not put to practice.




S. No.


Area 000, /ha

Production 000,t

Productivity, t/ha




















Source: Department of Agriculture Kashmir 2004, Department of Agriculture, Jammu 2004 (unpublished)

Non-adoption of high yielding, resistant varieties and hybrids. Biotic and abiotic stresses. Inadequate irrigation facility, 60% of vegetable crops raised under rainfed conditions. Environmental hazards, late snowfall and incidence of frost damage are not uncommon. Due to high temperature low and RH cucurbits suffer due to poor pollination. Financial constraints of many farmers prevents use of costly inputs. Poor marketing infrastructure. High post harvest losses due to on-farm storages for perishables. Vegetable production in the region can be increased by adopting the following strategies : Promotion of vegetable hybrids : Production of hybrid seed locally and their subsequent cultivation can increase vegetable production by 2-4 times. The seeds of vegetable hybrids developed by SKUAST-K or at national level and tested on farmers fields or identified under AICRP on Vegetable Improvement need to

be produced in the region and made available to the farmers as well as seed producers. Vegetable seed production can be taken up in the Valley and Ladakh in a big way.

S. No.


temperatures is better suited in J&K than other states practicing protective farming. Popularization of off-season vegetable cultivation : High altitude areas of the Valley and Ladakh can produce off-season vegetables for the plains with great economic advantage, specially those areas where protective irrigation can be provided. Achieved and expected yield levels of some important vegetable crops

Yield obtained by farmers (q/ha)

Expected yield (q/ha)














Sweet pepper















Popularization of polyhouse technology : Vegetables early or late in the season fetch much higher prices than main season crop. Polyhouse technology can help realizing this economic op p ortu n i ty. Prod u c ti vi ty u n d e r protected cover is much higher than outdoor conditions, a productivity of 60 t/ha of capsicum and about 150-200 t/ha of tomato and cucumber. Crop is protected against insects and vectors of disease. Polyhouse technology because of low

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 29 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

Though area, production and productivity have improved over the years productivity in J&K is still much lower than developed nations, 40 t/ha under open field conditions and 60 t/ha on average under protected conditions. Leading countries are USA, UK, Holland, Japan, Israel, Korea, China, India etc. Within India there are wide variations in p r o d u c t i v i t y, t h e y i e l d s o n experimental farms with varieties and hybrids are 10.22 t/ha and 25.76 t/ha, respectively and are higher than average farm yields.




Vegetable varieties/hybrids developed and recommended for release by SKUAST-K

S. No.

Crop varieties


Av. yield (q/ha)

%increase in yield over check

Status of varieties/ hybrids


Tom ato

Im proved Shalim ar-1



Recom m ended for release by RCM & ZREAC 2005






Minikit trial



PP-48 PP-2500

306.60 345.19

51.31 27.46

Recom m ended for release by RCM & ZREAC 2005

Hybrids 1.



674.07 503.70

139.58 79.68

Recom m ended for release by RCM & ZREAC 2005


Cucum ber


1226.63 810.64

179.13 125.24

Recom m ended for release by RCM & ZREAC 2005


Sw eet pepper


544.44 437.04

99.59 60.08

Recom m ended for release by RCM & ZREAC 2005


Tom ato


1088.88 826.66

76.88 34.38

Recom m ended for release by RCM & ZREAC 2005


Hot pepper


268. 3 289.4

76.71 90.50

Minikit trial


O kra

SH-O H-3 SH-O H-7

257.8 248.9

29.00 24.00

Minikit trial

Livestock husbandry Livestock husbandry is source of livelihood for landless. State has 31.34 lakh cattle (46 crossbred), 8.10 lakh buffaloes, 39.3 lakh sheep (70% crossbred), 20.0 lakh goats, 0.35 lakh yak, 65 lakh fowl, 5 lakh duck with 84.6 per cent under backyard poultry. Per capita milk availability is 330 ml/day against a national average of 210 ml/day, but average productivity is still only 1000 l/lactation and during winter months productivity drops down drastically. Sheep and goats are reared under semipastoral system. However, there is acute shortage of meat and poultry. Against a demand of 1200 lakh kg, production is only 235 lakh kg of red meat, causing severe strain on state's economy. Poultry has to depend upon imported feeds; severe winter adversely affects egg and poultry production with steep rise in

morbidity and mortality. In this background maize is a candidate that deserves due attention and animal shelter and environment control measures become a necessity. Livestock are of considerable importance in Kashmir. The livestock population per thousand persons is as high as 911 for the State as a whole. The livestock also provide the people with meat and mutton, a valuable source of protein. The production of meat has been reported as 17.6 lakh tones. The production of eggs reported in 2001 is about 559 million a year. The livestock population per thousand persons at 2644 is the highest in Ladakh. There are around 1128 sheep and 865 goats per 1000 persons. The number of cattle and yak are also very high here. Kashmir at 581 has the lowest number of livestock per 1000 persons. There are around 273

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 30 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

cattle and 239 sheep per thousand persons in this region. There is paucity of feed and fodder for the livestock especially during the winter months as a result productivity suffers. University is operationalizing rice-wheat rotation in the valley which should alleviate the crises to a certain extent. During winter months most of the ruminants thrive on dried leaves of willow and keekar etc. Being a foodgrain deficit region, feeds largely come from the outside, as a result pelleted feeds in the valley are relatively more expensive. Sabzaar variety of oats is performing very well and it should be popularized and its quality seed made available to the farmers. The feed and fodder situation in comparison to the number of livestock




does not seem to be encouraging. Only 4 per cent of the area is under fodder crops. The net sown area is in itself very small and four per cent of that is even smaller and far from adequate to take care of the animal feed and fodder. However, the land utilization statistics show that the area under grazing land and permanent pasture is about 2.8 per cent of the total reported area. These permanent pastures often take care of the sheep and goats while fodder is given to milch animals. The green fodder helps better milk production as witnessed in the State. However, NBSS survey has also reported overgrazing and degradation related to overgrazing in some parts of the State.

In order to meet the increasing demand of food due attention is required to be paid to rainfed areas and turn these so called “grey areas” into green. The following approach is required to be adopted : In the areas having high productivity of a particular food crop, the emphasis has to be laid on the strengthening of marketing and price support so as to maintain the productivity. In the areas where the extensively grown crops have low productivity, emphasis has to be laid on introducing and adopting an improved sustainable technology to increase the productivity.

Status of feeds and fodders in J&K

In areas where the Source Availability of Requirement of Deficit Mt c r o p p ed dry matter, Mt dry matter, Mt area is less Fodder 3.20 4.0 0.75 (19%) and the productivit Concentrate 0.30 2.0 1.70 (85%) y of crops is l o w , Total 3.56 6.0 2.45 (41%) attempts to replace the The Ladakh region that is naturally less existing crops with more efficient and endowed and dry has the maximum high yielding crops need to be given number of livestock. The density in priority. relation to human population as well as cultivated area is very high. Again the Diversion of area specifically growing livestock are more in the Jammu region, coarse grain to other high value cereals compared to Kashmir valley. Severe need to be encouraged. shortage of feed and fodder is seen in the Ladakh region. Hence more regionEmphasis on growing short duration crops specific strategy is needed in the area of so as to increase cropping intensity is livestock. This is because more than the needed to increase productivity. milk economy, which appears to be good; the other livestock probably need more attention, particularly from the point of Increasing the marginal areas under meat, mutton and wool production pulse or oilseed cultivation to increase together with enhancing pashmina the returns and ensure nutritional production and the livelihood security. alternatives of nomadic people. Addressing the need of rainfed ecosystems

In rainfed areas efforts should be made to promote mixed cropping so as to increase the water and nutrient use

Epilogue Ø 31 × April 2008

effiency and ensure sustainable production. Cereal-legume or cerealoilseed cropping sequence would ensure additional income and higher production of cereals, pulses and oilseeds. Rainwater harvesting and its efficient utilization should form important part of the strategy which shall increase production and productivity. The effort should require adequate financial support for equipment and infrastructure. Emerging challenges In order to achieve the food security in the region in terms of physical, economic, social and ecological access to a balanced diet and safe drinking water so as to enable every child, woman and man to lead a healthy and productive life, the following challenges need to be addressed in future : Natural resource management : Soil and water are two key natural resources in agriculture and with continuous exploitation these resources are shrinking. Research on water use efficiency through in-situ water harvesting, watershed management, micro-irrigation techniques and plasticutlure needs to be strengthened. Land use planning will be a critical factor for sustainable agriculture in future. For this soil, plant, water, vegetation, climatic and socio-economic factors have to be considered for drawing a land use plan around arable farming, forestry, pasture, agro-forestry, horticulture and other uses. Agro-biodiversity conservation : Introduction of high yielding crop varieties has increased uniformity and genetic erosion. Conservation of genetic diversity and gene pools is essential for future genetic improvement of crop plants and to meet the diversified and




ever changing needs of mankind. Agrobiodiversity includes genetic diversity of plants, livestock, fisheries and microbes. Biotechnology : Discoveries in the areas of plant tissue culture and recombinant DNA technology have opened up new avenues and dimension for the crop improvement. It has also helped in reducing the cost of some costly inputs like chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. Recent developments in the area of molecular biology have made it possible to genetically engineer the plants for ameliorating some of the impediments hampering agricultural productivity. Integrated nutrient management : Exhaustive crops and cropping systems have hastened the pace of degeneration of soil. Use of organic manure and inorganic source in balanced manner would ensure sustaining the biological productivity of the soil. Emphasis needs to be laid on plant residue management, biofertilizers and associated cropping of legumes with cereals especially in rainfed and marginal farms. Integrated plant protection and pest management : To reduce the losses in production, indiscriminate use of pesticides is usually made. These pesticides are by and large non-specific and result in environmental pollution, human health hazards and emergence of resistant forms of target species. Integrated pest management approach based on synergistic use of resistant varieties, adoption of appropriate cultural practices, use of bio-pesticides and biocontrol agents and disease management is essential for sustainable food productivity and maintaining ecofriendly environment. Post harvest technology and value addition : Large scale post harvest losses are a common feature in our food

production system. Rapid urban growth and changing socio-economic factors have resulted in escalated demand for diversity of food and other agricultural products. Increasing demand for quality products and with globalisation of markets, the post harvest intervensions warrant high priority. The demand for high quality horticultural and food products has necessitated the application of protected agricultural technology, which will also help promotion of agricultural export, especially of flowers and high value seeds. Improved seed and planting materials : Quality seeds of high yielding crop varieties have been the primary factor for increasing the productivity. Research priority for characterization of varieties using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers is needed to safeguard the piracy and ensure supply of high quality seeds. Livestock and fisheries : Livestock is an important component of agricultural system of the state particularly that of small and marginal farmers in Kashmir and Ladakh. Research and development efforts need to be integrated and expanded to improve this important component of agriculture. Fisheries is an area of considerable importance for farm diversification in the state having large number of natural water bodies. The researchable issues include survey of inland water bodies, potential and problems of aquaculture, breeding and production of high quality and more productive fishes, feed formulations, fisheries health, pollution of aquatic system, survey and conservation of aquatic biodiversity, waste utilization, value addition, domestic marketing and distribution, export related management etc.

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 32 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

Environmental sustainability : Increased attention has to be paid to the impact of agricultural technologies on ecological sustainability as the farming will intensify in future. Diversified agriculture : As a consequence of the importance attached to growth oriented research on agriculture, which came mostly from crop research, the vast potential available with other farm enterprises, by and large, has remained under exploited. Diversification of agriculture to include livestock, fisheries, horticulture and agro-forestry needs to be emphasized on the basis of a scientific land use planning for resource optimization. It would need value addition, post harvest intervention and efficient agri-business strategies. Epilogue Experts of national and international repute have expressed the view that Jammu and Kashmir is fairly food secure as far as the food availability is concerned more due to better PDS than the complete self-sufficiency in production. However, the analysis of PDS data shows that the lowest ten per cent in the rural areas do not consume much PDS grain though they eat well. Probably they depend upon the subsistence farming or purchase of local grain, better suited to their food habits. If a strategy of large scale shift to non food crops is taken, PDS has to be effectively extended to the rural lower income groups. Since poverty is not of great concern, and affordability is ensured, the government should take care of the availability and distribution of food grains. Considering the natural resource health of the region there is large untapped potential to develop horticultural crops




and agro-processing industries. A systematic shift to horticultural crops and high value crops such as saffron and kalazeera would improve the incomes and livelihoods of the people which will ensure access to food and nutritional security. This should be accompanied by the extension of credit as well as insurance with the insurance linked credit cards. Unemployment is a problem in Jammu and Kashmir, though Ladakh region has fewer problems. While poverty measured in terms of the bear minimum requirements is very low in the State, the

unemployment situation still prevails. It is possible to shift to high value crops in a group effort. Market linkages and agroprocessing linkages will have to be developed. Given the natural resource base and the human resource base together with ideal climatic conditions for growing high value crops, Jammu and Kashmir has the potential to become one of the most prosperous states of the country. In Ladakh region the process of diversification of farming systems and consumption patterns needs to be

accelerated through actually reinforcing package of technologies, services and government policies. The huge difference observed between farm gate prices of agricultural commodities and consumer's prices needs to be bridged. Fodder and feed banks are essential for ensuring adequate animal nutrition during winter. Steps to achieve 100 per cent literacy need to be accelerated.

ANWAR ALAM Vice Chancellor, SKUAST-Kashmir

HOT BILLIONS Centrally A/C Formally Atmosphere with Hygienic Food Kitties Parties, Get-together, Birthday

Contact us at : VIJAY KUMAR MENON Rehari Chungi, Jammu Ph. : 2543498, Mb. : 9419143214 Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 33 Ă&#x2014; April 2008




Availability, Accessibility And Affordability Arun Manhas Food security refers to availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. As a nation, we have come a long way from an under developed nation resorting to age old techniques of agriculture and industry to one capable of launching space vehicles and exploiting nuclear power. Thanks to the immense growth in science and technology, we could achieve a potential leap in the production of food grains through what is termed as the Green Revolution. Food security was once defined as resulting from the interplay of food production, food availability and economic recess in terms of purchasing power. Now it has one more dimension, i.e. food utilization. Agriculture occupies an important place in the economy of the State. The share of Agriculture and allied sectors in the Gross State Domestic Product for the year 2006-07 stands at 28.61%. On the other hand nearly 70% of the population in the State derives its livelihood directly or indirectly from the Agriculture sector. The total geographical area of the State is 2.23 lacs sq. km including those parts, which are under the occupation of Pakistan and China. About 92 per cent of the geographical area of the State consists of high mountains rugged topography and only 5 per cent is available for cultivation. Jammu and Kashmir is more or less food secure because as per Planning Commission of India only 3 per cent of the population is poor, but this food security is sustainable or not in the coming years is yet to be seen. The concept of the food security could be related with agricultural productivity as more the food grains means more food security. Apart from this the growing

population has to be commensurate with increase in agricultural production and also the increase in purchasing power of a common man. In Jammu and Kashmir the causes of food grain deficiencies have been low cultivable area, insufficient progress in dry zone/rain fed agriculture, stagnation in food grain production, change in cropping patterns, faulty public distribution system, inefficient institutional arrangements. The remedy for having food security would be increase in agricultural production as it being synonymous with food security. Fruit cultivation is the only cropping system in State which not only helps in impressing biological productivity and nutritional standard but also assists in maintaining ecological sustainability, earning foreign exchange and providing direct and indirect employment opportunity. Green revolution also needs to be extended to Jammu and Kashmir for witnessing major increase in food grain production as Punjab and Haryana. Moreover, production of coarse cereals like maize, Bajra and Jawar should be emphasized which are suitable for drought prone areas of the State. The Government through investments in vital agricultural infrastructure, credit linkage and encouraging the use of latest techniques should motivate each district to achieve self-sufficiency in food production. Extension of irrigation facilities and other linkages from agricultural and horticulture Departments could be instrumental in increasing the production. High priority should be given to bridge the gap between the potential and present yields of farming system and great attention should be given to harvesting techniques, storage facilities and bioprocessing methods.

Epilogue Ø 34 × April 2008

Decrease in population would imply adequate availability of food for more people. Inadequate livelihood opportunities in rural areas result in household nutritional insecurities. The planning should be conducive to fostering job-led economic growth based on micro enterprises supported by micro credit and inturn increasing purchasing power of people. The Government should emphasize upon “Universal Access to food”. The schemes like National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), Mid day meal, Food for work should be religiously implemented which will inturn provide desired nutrition to the poor masses. The effect of globalization is also to be seriously looked upon Self-reliance and self-sufficiency are now replaced by export promotion policies, i.e producing for the world market which often leads to the negligence in the affairs of our poor population. Currently food Corporation of India (FCI) plays a role in price stabilization through maintaining buffer stocks and supply of food grains for distribution through PDS. The role of FCI and PDS needs to be re-looked upon, so that the subsidized food grains reach the target population. Role PRI's needs to be strengthened. What we urgently need is a dual policy with specific short term and long-term focus along with participatory development and good governance to solve our miseries, then only we can have Jammu and Kashmir self reliant, selfsufficient and food secure in its real sense. ARUN MANHAS, educated in veterinary sciences, is an officer with J&K Government


Roots Of Conflict And Separatist Politics Fayaz Ahmad Mir

The politics of separatism got strengthened in Kashmir with the dismissal and arrest of Sheikh Abdullah on August 9, 1953. Kashmir is the abode of various races and ethnic groups whose history goes back thousand of years. The Kashmiris thus vitally differ in some respects from their counterparts in the sub-continent. It is the Kashmiri identity and the quest for its survival and growth which made Kashmiri People to resist the Mugals, Afghans, Sikhs and Dogra regimes. Due to the value of this identity, it is quite possible that if both India and Pakistan honourably guarantee not only the existence but also the peaceful development of Kashmir, most Kashmiri will prefer an independent Kashmir”. Kashmir as it exists today was created by the British government in 1846 and was handed over to Raja Gulab Singh through the treaty of Amritsar. The treaty impinged and sustained a big stigma on the Kashmiri identity and on the state as a whole. The treaty consisting of ten articles makes no mention what so ever of the rights and interests of the people. However, the clash between Kashmiri identity and Dogra usurpation was noticeable when the treaty met different small uprisings and finally the uprising of 1931. With the changing circumstances in subcontinent the Kashmiri Muslims increasingly became conscious. It was in 1931 that the growing dissatisfaction of the Kashmiri people burst into flames and led to Kashmir movement. In order to

give the freedom movement of Kashmir a secular character Muslim Conference (framed in 1932) was converted into National Conference in 1939. After the conversion process the freedom movement got divided into secular and religious groups. The roots of the separatist politics in Kashmir can partly be traced to that split. The roots of the separatist politics in Kashmir partly lie in the sub-continents partition in 1947. The indecision of Maharaja to accede to either of two dominions by August 14, 1947, because of his own desire of complete independence laid foundation for an instable Kashmir polity. The Governor General of India while accepting the instrument of accession from Maharaja of Kashmir assured that in case of any state where the issue of Accession has been the subject of dispute the question of Accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state since the Kashmir situation did not stabilize even after UN intervention the separatist politics had the fertile ground to grow. Since Accession of Jammu and Kashmir State to Indian Union took place not only in haste but also in circumstances of war, the decision itself left many groups in Jammu and Kashmir State dissatisfied. Even Maharaja Hari Singh and Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah too were in essence

Epilogue Ø 35 × April 2008

looking for an independent state of Jammu and Kashmir. The war of 1947 largely limited their choices. The largescale disappointment of both proaccession and anti-accession forces contributed to early political separatism finding its foothold in Jammu and Kashmir State. The first anti-accession political group formed in Jammu and Kashmir was political conference by G. M. Karra. All the events and political developments of post 1947 era taken together should leave no body in doubt that Sheikh Abdullah was dreaming of becoming an independent ruler of Kashmir and the Anglo-US block was at that point of time encouraging him to entertain such a demand. However the politics of separatism got strengthened in Kashmir with the dismissal and arrest of Sheikh Abdullah on August 9, 1953. The separatist politics of Jammu and Kashmir between 1953-1975 was run under the auspices of plebiscite front. The basic objective of the plebiscite front was to press for the demand for holding a free and fair plebiscite under the United Nations Auspices. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front was formed in 1964, which embarked on a campaign to push for independence. Another militant organization Alfata also comes to light. Immediately after the theft of the sacred relic from Hazratbal Shrine, a


politics. Widespread irregularities in the vote count and mass arrests of MUF candidates in the elections aftermath fuelled popular disillusionment with the electoral politics. The candidates and the agents of the MUF became the first rank militants and separatist leaders in early 1990's. Moreover the election of 1987 became immediate cause for the uprising of the 1989 in Jammu and Kashmir State. There was a mushroom growth of militant organizations in early phase of militancy in J & K. It was estimated that more than 100 militant organizations operated in J & K. Although this militant movement sought to achieve the single objective of “Liberating” Kashmir from the domain of India, but after the mushroom growth of militant groups, these become arch enemies of one another. The differences occurred when JKLF and its allies propagated the cause of total independence from both India and Pakistan. on the other hand Hizbul Mujahideen (affiliated with the Jamat-iIslami) and its allies favoured the cause of Kashmiri's accession with Pakistan. The Hizbul Mujahideen and certain other militant out fits like Muslim Janbaz Force, Hizbullah, Tehrik-e-Jehad, Operation Balakote, Al-Umar etc. at one point of time formed a common apex body called “United Jehad Council (UJC)” in 1990. But since the eruption of militancy in 1989-90, the need of a broad political platform had been felt. This was the necessity of militant outfits also. Somehow no serious effort was made towards its realization in the early years of movement. In terms of progress towards political dialogue, within the valley itself, however signs of consolidation and cooperation were seen. The first aspect of this was that the top militant groups were all affiliated to the major political

organizations and militant leader defer to the political figures decisions on the non-military aspect of the movement. So rather than being isolated bands of misguided youth, “the militants took their cues from these well-established political figures who are mostly veterans of Kashmir politics. The purposes were that political parties guide and unite the militant groups. The misunderstanding and group clashes should be eradicated. There was strong sentiment in Kashmir that political leaders should guide and control the militant movement and provide it guidance and leadership. The high point was reached when a broad multi group Azadi movement was launched following the militant upsurge. The beginning was made by senior separatist leaders who not only articulated but also consolidated the movement in a cohesive manner. These leaders to began with came to be known as Pung Group (group of five persons) while they were being held together in jail 1992. Thus it was on December 27, 1992 that a strong need was felt for a broad-based, ideologically flexible organization for representing the Kashmiri sentiments in a proper perspective. It was with this intention on this day and year that Mirwaiz Umar Farooq took an initiative and convened a meeting of various organizations and individuals. The second meeting was convened on 8th March 1993 with the objective to have a common strategy for unitedly facing the situation in Kashmir, In this meeting it was decided to have an organization with different politico-social and religious organizations. The representatives of different groups invited to this meeting expressed grief and agony over the situation in Kashmir and condemned the large-scale killing of the people of Kashmir. In this joint conference the

Epilogue Ø 36 × April 2008

leaders formed a joint committee to carry the political movement to its destination. The monitoring committee's task was to stop the inter group clashes among the different militant outfits. The committee consisted of Syed Ali Shal Geelani, Molvi Abbas Ansar, S. Hamid, G. M. Batt, Shabir Sadeeqi, Yousef-ul-Umar, Peer Hfiz-ullah Mukadoomi and Molvi Mobarki. In this meeting another subcommittee was also set up to draft a constitution for the new organization. Thus finally the conglomerate of APHC came to existence. On the one hand, it gave a united political platform to the militants to settle down their inter-group conflicts and on the other the Hurriyat could now in a united manner present the conflict in Kashmir in proper perspective before the bar of world public opinion. The formation of Hurriyat was realization of urges and aspirations of the suppressed people. So the growth and development of the APHC can be traced to the 1993 phase of the Kashmir militancy. APHC which claims to be sole representative organization of Kashmiri people has achieved some success in presenting the Kashmir conflict according to their perspective before various international forums. APHC through different techniques and strategies has mobilized people for what they called the final settlement of Kashmir Issue. In an atmosphere of violence and conflict the political space vacated by established political parties was occupied by APHC. It has been possible only by the support and cooperation of the Kashmiri people that APHC could emerge as a legitimate body. The APHC was formed with a set of objectives dealing with how conflict can be terminated and peace restored in the state. The objectives are as under: To make peaceful struggle to secure for the people of the state of Jammu and


new political party, Awami Majlis-i-Amal was formed with Mirwaiz Molvi Farooq as chairman. It also stood committed to plebiscite to resolve the Kashmir Tangle. After the holy relic movement there was a phenomenal rise in the separatist youth politics in the state. To start with youth politics in the state like the Front and other like minded organization had the slogan of right to self-determination as their main plank and their movement was by and large peaceful, with no trace of violence in it. The fragmentation of youth organization and multiplicity of their number however infused an element of militancy in some of them. From that point of view these militant organizations can be compared to present organization which too are largely manned by young leaders.

eleven years in Pakistan with manifest anti-Indian policies too had an impact on internal political situation in Jammu and Kashmir. Internally, centre state relations in spite of 1975 accord would not always move in right direction, more so after the death of Sheikh Abdullah successive central governments

The 1975 Accord resulted in a setback to the separatist politics in Jammu and Kashmir but it could not mark the end of the separatist sentiment in the state. There were some elements in the plebiscite front which were opposed to this accord. Mahaz-i-Azadi launched by Late Sofi Akbar, Jamat-i-Islami, People's League and JKLF were important organizations, which questioned Kashmiri Accession to India and emerged main anti-accord organizations. From 1977 to 1982 the separatist youth movement virtually died down. It was only after the death of Sheikh Abdullah that the separatist groups started gaining strength and intensifying their activities.

The 1975 Accord resulted in a setback to the separatist politics in Jammu and Kashmir but it could not mark the end of the separatist sentiment in the state. There were some elements in the plebiscite front which were opposed to this accord. Mahaz-i-Azadi launched by Late Sofi Akbar, Jamat-iIslami, People's League and JKLF were important organizations, which questioned Kashmiri Accession to India and emerged main anti-accord organizations. From 1977 to 1982 the separatist youth movement virtually died down. It was only after the death of Sheikh Abdullah that the separatist groups started gaining strength and intensifying their activities.

After the death of Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah political scene in and out side the state under went great transformation. Externally former Soviet Union had intervened in Afghanistan giving rise to Islamic forces. There was Islamic revolution in Iran as well, which had its impact on worldwide Islamic groups and organizations. Further, Ziaul-Haq's consolidation of Power for

especially during congress rule created impediments in the centre state relations. The manner in which Indira Gandhi tried to coerce Farooq Abdullah during 1983 elections and launched a communal campaign in Jammu against him and finally unconstitutional dismissal of Farooq Abdullah in 1984

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 37 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

further widened the negative perceptions and created a huge space of dissatisfaction in Kashmir which was immediately filled up by religious and extremist forces. The last nail in the Coffin was the Rajiv Farooq Alliance and emergence of Muslim United Front (MUF) as a formidable force in 1987 elections. In the year 1986 a new political grouping called Muslim United Front was formed in order to fight the National Conference Congress alliance. The major aims and objective of MUF centered around issues such as promotion and protection of Islamic solidarity, adherence to the fundamental principles of Islam maintaining its cultural distinctiveness, precious heritage and traditions promoting co-operation among Muslims. MUF's entry into the election in 1987 changed the entire complexion of the electoral politics in the state. It made the contest quite tough and close in the Muslim dominated constituencies, especially in the Kashmir Valley. It was for the first time that national conference after its revival in 1975 had faced a real challenge to its hegemonic position. After the elections the coalition government headed by National Conference increasingly turned hostile towards political opponents. All the candidates of the front who were defeated were arrested along with their prominent supporters immediately after the results were announced. Some of them were arrested right inside the counting hall and were beaten up publicly by the police and N.C. candidates jointly. Most of them were detained under public safety act to different jails of the state. Thus the denial of democracy witnessed in 1987 was the last straw that broke the camels back. In this way the elections of 1987 marked a watershed in Kashmir


Kashmir the exercise of the right of selfdetermination in accordance with the UN Charter and the resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council. However, the exercise of the right of selfdetermination shall also include the right to independence as explained hereafter in sub-clause (ii) To make endeavors for an alternative negotiated settlement of the Kashmir Dispute amongst all the three parties viz; (a) India (b) Pakistan (c) People of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, under the auspices of UN or any other friendly countries provided that such settlement reflects the will and aspirations of the people of the state. To project the on-going struggle, in the state before the nations and governments of the world in its proper perspective as being a struggle directed against the forcible and fraudulent occupation of the state by India and for the achievement of the right of the selfdetermination of the people. To make endeavours in keeping with the Muslim majority character of the state for promoting the building up of a society based on Islamic values, while safeguarding the right and interests of the Non-Muslims. To make endeavors for the achievement of any objectives which may be ancillary or incidental to the objectives

specified above. After the examining the set objectives of APHC, The broad perspective that emerges is: First, though APHC emerged as the political face of the militant movement it nevertheless stressed upon the peaceful means to be employed for attainment of objectives. Second, it still feels that dispute can be resolved by implementing UN Resolutions on Kashmir, it needs to be mentioned here that the UN Resolutions provided only for two alternatives i.e. accession to India or Pakistan. Third, conscious of growing urge in Kashmir for an independent state the APHC in its constitution clarified that right of selfdetermination would also include the third option of independence of the Jammu and Kashmir state. One can also add that inclusion of third option was a way of reaching out to Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, a constituent of All Parties Hurriyat Conference. Fourth, conscious of changing political situation in India and Pakistan after 1971 breakup of Pakistan and emerging international realities APHC does not close its eyes to any other alternative settlement of Kashmir conflict provided aspirations of the people are taken into account. It was partly in recognition of changing geopolitical situation in sub-continent. Fifth, APHC believes in presenting the Kashmir Issue before the Nations of the world in proper perspective, in

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 38 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

highlighting what they call the fraudulent occupation of the state by India. Sixth, while recognizing the Muslim majority character of the state the APHC maintains that such a character of the state the APHC maintains that such a character of the state needs to be preserved. It asked for preservation of Islamic values but at the same time safeguarding the interests of the NonMuslims. The very fact that Non-Muslims could not join the APHC, and APHC failed to have a concrete programme for religious minorities, reduced it to a Muslim-Kashmir centric Organization. The organization also could not reach out to other regions and communities of the state. The ideological differences within and between constituents of the APHC came to the surface with the commencement of 2002 Assembly election. The State Assembly Election 2002 placed APHC into the cliff-stick situation. The conglomerate was not in a position to clarify to the people whether they should boycott these elections or not. This time the leaders of the APHC were not unanimous to launch a door-to-door boycott campaign against this election which otherwise they used to do in the elections of 1996, 1998 and 1999. The hardliner leaders led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani of this apex body openly denounced the process of holding elections and thus asked for a complete boycott. Most of the APHC leaders


particularly from moderate camp remained tight lipped about these elections and did not utter even a single word whether the people should boycott or participate in these elections. This ultimately created a deep conflict between the leaders of the conglomerate and they began to level serious charges against one another. Not only this, the hardliners and the moderates blamed each other for a sellout on Kashmir. The final shot was fired when Syed Ali Shah Geelani of Jamat-I-Islami blamed Sajad Gani Lone of People's Conference for fielding proxy candidates in these elections and thus bartering the Kashmir Cause. He asked for strict action by APHC against Sajad Gani Lone but the plea was rejected by majority of the APHC Executive members and thus giving a clean chit to Mr. Sajad Gani Lone by its newly elected Chairman Molvi Abbas Ansari. The response to the election process proved a destabilizing factor for the APHC which got divided into two groups. One led by Molvi Abbas Ansari is known as APHC (Ansari) and the other group led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani is known as APHC (Geelani). Both the factions are trying to secure points over each other and thus claiming the real All Parties Hurriyat Conference. So far every effort made by some top most separatist leaders, eminent citizens, journalists and academic intelligentsia have failed largely to unite two factions which have adopted parallel lines. Jammu and

Kashmir Liberation Front led by Mohammad Yasin Malik has not allied with either of the two groups, so far and thus adopted an attitude of impartiality. Apart from other things the Assembly Elections of 2002 also created an element of dissension within the APHC as already discussed. To conclude it remains to be seen how far efforts towards unification will succeed and how

Not only this, the hardliners and the moderates blamed each other for a sellout on Kashmir. The final shot was fired when Syed Ali Shah Geelani of Jamat-IIslami blamed Sajad Gani Lone of People's Conference for fielding proxy candidates in these elections and thus bartering the Kashmir Cause.

effectively the APHC can mobilize public opinion for the same. On the other hand the very relevance and legitimacy of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference will be tested in the wake of multiple challenges emerging in and around Kashmir. Apart from other things one thing is certain

Epilogue Ă&#x2DC; 39 Ă&#x2014; April 2008

that the APHC will have to make use of its mobilizational skills in order to make itself relevant in the changing situation. The Hurriyat will have to function in a fast changing regional and international political climate. It will have to make fuller use of different strategies to reach out to different sections of the society. The international order in the aftermath of 9/11 peace process in South Asia has provided new changes to the APHC. Even otherwise the domestic political space is witnessing a lot of political comprehension with concerns of the people becoming acute. It seems that the APHC is passing through a difficult phase. First the split of organization into two factions, second the improvement in the Indo-Pak relations and the likely fair that it may overshadow Kashmir issue. The third most important point is that the coalition government has high-jacked the agenda of Hurriyat conference. The People's Democratic Party (PDP) also made extension use of the separatist discourse even while making on attempt to make inroads into the political constituency of the national conference. It even uses green flag and the pen and inkpot (the electoral symbol of erstwhile Muslim united front). Thus above mentioned are the important challenges before Hurriyat conference and the conference has to overcome these challenges and make its presence relevant in the present changing political scenario.


51 53 55 Columns Tareekh Disputes, if any, subject to jurisdiction of courts and competitive tribunals in Jammu only. Editor in Chief Zafar...


51 53 55 Columns Tareekh Disputes, if any, subject to jurisdiction of courts and competitive tribunals in Jammu only. Editor in Chief Zafar...