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2nd edition, April 2010

Nano-Tera.ch SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT


Foreword

Prof. Giovanni De Micheli Program Leader, Executive Committee Chair

NTF RTD

The Nano-Tera.ch program supports research in the engineering of complex (tera-level) systems for HSE (Health, Security and the Environment) using micro- and nanotechnologies. We believe the convergence of technologies in these areas represents fertile ground for innovation, and that it will be instrumental in the development of new markets and the improvement of living standards.

ED

The Swiss Federal government is backing this initiative with funds of CHF 60 million from 2008 to 2011. The research is also backed by an equal amount of matching contributions from participating and thirdparty institutions, including CHF 1.8 million which OPET (Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology) has made available to universities of applied sciences. With this funding, nineteen RTD (Research, Technology and Development) and two NTF (Nano-Tera Focused) projects have started. The RTD projects aim to leverage collaborative, interdisciplinary research in order to tackle complex problems. Each project is carried out by a team of scientists belonging to different Swiss institutions, thus forming the best possible research groups in the country. The current projects focus on enabling nanosystem technologies, as well as their application to systems engineering. The NTF projects focus on specific technologies, such as low-power electronics and microfluidics. Nano Tera.ch has also launched ED (Education and Dissemination) activities in both micro- and nanotechnology and tera-level complexity. These activities take the form of short courses given by experts. Altogether, a total of 105 research groups are involved in the current projects. The route to success of the Nano-Tera.ch program is guided by the relevance of the topics, the convergence of technologies and the quality of the researchers. We expect the scientific impact to be strong in Switzerland and abroad.

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Research, Design and Engineering of complex systems The Nano-Tera program aims at bringing Switzerland to the forefront of a new technological revolution driving engineering and information technology for health and security of humans and the environment in the 21st century. The goals are, for example, to detect in real time different health risks and conditions through body-integrated bio probing, to reveal security risks through smart buildings and environments, to save energy through ambient sensing, and to detect and monitor environmental hazards such as floods and avalanches from inaccessible positions on earth. The underlying enabling technology is provided by micro/nanotechnologies and their applications to distributed, networked embeddedsystem design. The keyword is integration of various nano-scale technologies in tera-scale (complex) systems. Nano-Tera’s challenge is to steer the convergence of people and teams from very different technological and cultural domains. While the existence of such synergy opportunities between nano-devices and tera-scale applications are widely recognized, an ambitious large-scale holistic integration approach such as the one proposed by the Nano-Tera.ch program is still unheard of.

Tera Communication Challenges Energy Scavenging

Security Circuit Design

System Level ‘Tera’

Distributed Intelligent Agents

Devices

ull ket P Mar

Environmental Monitoring

Remote Networking

Physical Level ‘Nano’

Components Push logy o n h Tec

Personalized Health Care

Materials Structure

Nano Manufacturing Challenges

The Swiss National Science Foundation supervises and safeguards the quality of the Research, Technology and Development projects.

02

NANO-TERA.CH


Wearable embedded systems The technology pursued by Nano-Tera will miniaturize electronics and sensors on flexible bases to integrate them into “smart textiles” or within the body. Applications are very promising in medical monitoring and health assistance, sports, or personal communication and entertainment. Ambient systems Large-scale distribution of auto-configurable networks of miniature sensor nodes will provide intelligence for environmental monitoring, building intelligence and beyond. Such augmented reality will change our perception of the world. Remote systems Ambient and micro systems will also communicate on large distances, taking lightweight intelligence from cities and environment into longer distance remote challenges.

Enabling technologies Micro / Nano electronics Micro-electronics’ progresses, guided by Moore’s law, have to make a leap forward with new concepts to reach the nano-scale world of Nano-Tera’s applications. Emerging technologies using nanowires, nanotubes and polymers, will push devices towards ultra-low consumption and ultra-thin layers. Sensors Nano-Tera type of demands in biology, environment and medical applications need new sensors. Ultra-low powered cantilever or nanotubes arrays, single photon optics, cell- and microfluidics-based chips, bio-compatible coatings, are important challenges for sensor research. MEMS / NEMS As the interface between the human and nano-systems, they are a cornerstone in Nano-Tera’s ambitions. These nano-systems holding together sensors and actuators will have to be integrated in or around the human body, harvest their energy, use novel materials. Systems & software On a larger scale (Tera), nano-systems will interact in a social and autonomous way. This implies new strategies for wireless networks and systems: self-organization, dependability, resource awareness with safe and secure real-time operation. Information & communication On the application level, unprecedented amounts of data will have to be gathered and processed. Distributed design, signal processing, data management and web connectivity will be addressed by Nano-Tera, as well as the design tools to reach their goals. SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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ED

Application systems

NTF RTD

for Health, Security and Environment


The Projects Research, Technology, Development projects (RTD) CabTuRes

Enabling autonomous sensor nodes: low-power nano-sensor/electronics building blocks based on tunable carbon nanotube electro-mechanical resonators

Prof. Christofer Hierold, ETHZ

▶ p. 06

CMOSAIC

3D stacked architectures with interlayer cooling

Prof. John Thome, EPFL

▶ p. 08

GreenPower

Connecting renewable energy to green mobility using hydrogen as energy carrier

Prof. Jan-Anders Månson, EPFL

▶ p. 10

i-IronIC

Implantable/wearable system for on-line monitoring of human metabolic conditions

Prof. Giovanni De Micheli, EPFL

▶ p. 12

IrSens

Integrated sensing platform for gases and liquids in the near and mid-infrared range

Prof. Jérôme Faist, ETHZ

▶ p. 14

ISyPeM

Intelligent integrated systems for personalized medicine

Prof. Carlotta Guiducci, EPFL

▶ p. 16

LiveSense

Cell-based sensing microsystem

Prof. Philippe Renaud, EPFL

▶ p. 18

MIXSEL

Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers for wafer-scale mass production

Prof. Ursula Keller, ETHZ

▶ p. 20

NanowireSensor

Integrateable silicon nanowire sensor platform

Prof. Christian Schönenberger, UniBas

▶ p. 22

Nexray

Network of integrated miniaturized X-ray systems operating in complex environments

Dr. Alex Dommann, CSEM

▶ p. 24

NutriChip

A technological platform for nutrition analysis to promote healthy food

Prof. Martin Gijs, EPFL

▶ p. 26

OpenSense

Open sensor networks for air quality monitoring

Prof. Karl Aberer, EPFL

▶ p. 28

PATLiSci

Probe array technology for life science applications

Dr. Harry Heinzelmann, CSEM

▶ p. 30

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NANO-TERA.CH


Platform circuit technology underlying heterogeneous nano and tera systems

Prof. Qiuting Huang, ETHZ

▶ p. 32

QCrypt

Secure high-speed communication based on quantum key distribution

Prof. Nicolas Gisin, UniGE

▶ p. 34

SelfSys

Fluidic-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems

Prof. Jürgen Brugger, EPFL

▶ p. 36

SImOS

Smart implants for orthopaedics surgery

Prof. Peter Ryser, EPFL

▶ p. 38

TecInTex

Technology integration into textiles: empowering health

Prof. Gerhard Tröster, ETHZ

▶ p. 40

X-Sense

Monitoring alpine mass movements at multiple scales

Prof. Lothar Thiele, ETHZ

▶ p. 42

Nano-Tera Focused projects (NTF) PMD-Program

A programmable, universally applicable, microfluidic device platform

Prof. Sebastian Maerkl, EPFL

▶ p. 44

ULP-Logic

Sub-threshold source-coupled logic (ST-SCL) circuits for ultra-low power applications

Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, EPFL

▶ p. 45

Education & Dissemination projects (ED) COMES

Complexity management in embedded systems

Prof. Mariagiovanna Sami, USI

▶ p. 46

EducationalKit

Education kit for wearable computing

Dr. Daniel Roggen, ETHZ

▶ p. 47

TED-Activities

Training, education and dissemination activities

M.Sc. Philippe Fischer, FSRM

▶ p. 48

D43D

Manufacturing, design and thermal issues in 3D integrated systems

Prof. David Atienza, EPFL

▶ p. 49

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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NTF RTD

PlaCiTUS

ED

Research, Technology, Development projects (RTD)


Principal Investigator Prof. Christofer Hierold, ETHZ

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Prof. Wanda Andreoni, EPFL Prof. Nicolaas de Rooij, EPFL Prof. Lรกszlรณ Forrรณ, EPFL Dr. Oliver Grรถning, EMPA Prof. Adrian Ionescu, EPFL Prof. Maher Kayal, EPFL Prof. Bradley Nelson, ETHZ Prof. Dimos Poulikakos, ETHZ

CabTuRes

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Enabling autonomous sensor nodes: lowpower nano-sensor/electronics building blocks based on tunable carbon nanotube electro-mechanical resonators

NANO-TERA.CH


CabTuRes

ED

NTF RTD

Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in our lives and possible applications are countless. Micro and nanotechnologies are the natural choice for enabling complex sensor nodes, as they are small (thus unobtrusive), cheap and low power. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a perfect example of how nanosystems offer features unachievable with microsystems: their outstanding structural, mechanical and electronic properties have immediately resulted in numerous device demonstrators from transistors, to physical and chemical sensors, and actuators. A key idea of the project is to combine elements from the fundamental knowledge base on the physics of carbon nanotubes, gathered in the past several years, and the fundamental engineering sciences in the area of micro/nano-electromechanical systems, to develop novel devices and processes based on CNTs. Specifically, it seeks to demonstrate concepts and devices for ultra-low power, highly miniaturized functional blocks for sensing and electronics. Due to their small mass and high stiffness, doubly clamped CNTs can exhibit huge resonant frequencies. These are carbon nanotube resonators which, as recently demonstrated or predicted theoretically, can reach the multi-GHz range, can be tuned via straining over a wide range of frequency, offer an unprecedented sensitivity to strain or mass loading, exhibit high quality factors, and all these with a very low power consumption. Two specific applications are being targeted. First of all, because of their high quality factors and high frequencies of operation, carbon nanotube resonators offer a wide range of electronics applications, where they can be used as tunable voltage controlled oscillators, clocks or nano electro-mechanical filters and detectors. Another application is mass balances for sensing: since mass loading creates a shift in resonant frequency, with huge sensitivity to tiny mass variations, the resonators can be used to measure gas molecule densities or weigh nano bodies such as proteins and viruses. And as the resonant frequency is also affected by strain in the CNT, strains and forces could be measured in a rather straightforward manner. The outcome may have implications in several domains: it will support health in diagnosis or preemptive detection of air borne pathogens and advance the basic science of proteomics, genetics and virology. Besides, autonomous, ultra-small and ultra low power sensors could find their way in many wearable, ambient or remote systems.

project may push electronic systems and nano sensors to new levels “ ofThepresence in our daily lives, for the benefit of elderly people, for disabled persons, and for everybody’s security by environmental monitoring. ”

Prof. Christofer Hierold, ETHZ

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Principal Investigator Prof. John Thome, EPFL Prof. David Atienza, EPFL Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, EPFL Dr. Bruno Michel, IBM ZRL Prof. Dimos Poulikakos, ETHZ Prof. Wendelin Stark, ETHZ

CMOSAIC

3D stacked architectures with interlayer cooling

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NANO-TERA.CH


The CMOSAIC project is a genuine opportunity to contribute to the realization of arguably the most complicated system that mankind has ever assembled: a 3D stack of computer chips with a functionality per unit volume that nearly parallels the functional density of a human brain. The aggressive goal is to provide the necessarily 3D integrated cooling system that is the key to compressing almost 1012 nanometer sized functional units into a 1 cm3 volume with a 10 to 100 fold higher connectivity than otherwise possible. Even the most advanced aircooling methods are inadequate for such high performance systems where the main challenge is to remove the heat produced by multiple stacked dies with each layer dissipating 100-150 W/cm2. Therefore, state-of-the-art microscale single-phase liquid and two-phase cooling systems are being developed, using specifically designed microchannel arrangements with channel sizes as small as 50 microns. The employed coolants range from liquid water and two-phase environmentally friendly refrigerants to novel nano-coated, nonwetting surfaces. To this aim, CMOSAIC has brought together a multi-disciplinary team of internationally recognized experts who are jointly conducting research to explore the underlying physics of the proposed cooling mechanisms through experiments and theoretical modelling. The team will also develop all the necessary modelling and design tools needed to simulate 3D integrated circuits stacks during their operation in order to mitigate hot spots, and test various prototype stacks with the goal of identifying and bringing into reality novel methods for heat removal in these high performance systems.

“ An important contribution to the development of the first 3D computer

chip with a functionality per unit volume that nearly parallels the functional density of a human brain is the integration of highly effective microscale cooling channels directly within the chip itself. Prof. John Thome, EPFL

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Indicators show that the speed of transistor density and microprocessor performance improvements that drove the IT industry for the last 50 years are now limited by connectability issues between multiple cores and air-cooling rates. With its CMOS scaling engine slowing, the industry is striving to find new packaging alternatives to maintain the overall pace according to Moore’s law. While 2D scaling has been used in high performance processors for several decades, the third dimension has not yet been tackled. Recent progress in the fabrication of through silicon vias has opened new avenues for high density area array interconnects between stacked processor and memory chips. Such three-dimensional integrated circuits are attractive solutions for overcoming the present barriers encountered in interconnect scaling, thus offering an opportunity to continue the CMOS performance trends over the next few decades.

NTF RTD

CMOSAIC


Principal Investigator Prof. Jan-Anders M책nson, EPFL Prof. Leszek Lisowski, CSEM Dr. G체nther Scherer, PSI

GreenPower

Connecting renewable energy to green mobility using hydrogen as energy carrier under the Belenos Clean Power initiative

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NANO-TERA.CH


The principle is to use solar energy, collected on home roofs, which is then used to electrolyze water in order to produce hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are compressed and stored locally to match the gap between supply and demand. Hydrogen and oxygen are filled in adhoc car reservoirs, and subsequently transposed to electricity for fuel cell driven cars. Such a demonstrator system can already be built today; however the economic viability of the project depends on disruptive innovation based upon our capacity to face and resolve very demanding scientific and technical challenges in the years to follow. One of the main issues in this coherent effort is the optimization of the hydrogen production and usage chain. Several major steps, both in science and engineering, are needed to achieve the commercial exploitation of the overall concept: As part of the developments on-going within Belenos, an issue is the development of adequate membranes for the fuel cells. In this project, the membrane will be based on new materials to enable a cost effective application in an H2-O2 fuel cell. These new membranes will be optimized for cost as well as for mechanical and chemical stability. Another issue addressed in this project is the safety related to hydrogen and oxygen storage in a car or at home: new appropriate materials will be developed to guarantee the gas storage system. The project will also seek to design, simulate and set up a unit managing gas flows, throughout the system components as well as the required communication system.

“ One of the most credible initiatives for moving from a fossil fuel based mobility towards a green, solar based mobility. ” Prof. Jan-Anders Månson, EPFL

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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An environmentally friendly transportation system is of paramount importance for the decrease of emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. Belenos Clean Power (BCP) has been created as a Holding company whose aim is to accelerate the necessary revolution in clean energy production and consumption using solar energy, converting and storing it in the form of hydrogen and oxygen for mobility and other purposes. For the first time at national level, this initiative is considering green mobility as a part of the entire energy chain: it will give the impetus to accelerate and accumulate the know-how in R&D and production by associating creativity in new and existing resources in the several areas concerning clean energy.

NTF RTD

GreenPower


Principal Investigator Prof. Giovanni De Micheli, EPFL Dr. Sandro Carrara, EPFL Dr. Catherine Dehollain, EPFL Dr. Fabio Grassi, IRB Prof. Qiuting Huang, ETHZ Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, EPFL Dr. Linda Thoeny-Meyer, EMPA

i-IronIC

Implantable/wearable system for on-line monitoring of human metabolic conditions

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NANO-TERA.CH


Metabolism monitoring is a complex, slow and expensive process, mainly because of the unavailability of accurate, fast and affordable sensing devices that can detect and quantify multiple active compounds in parallel and several times a day. Indeed, systems available on the market use wearable devices (accelerometers, heartbeat monitoring system, etc) but do not measure metabolites. The only available real-time, implantable/ wearable systems for metabolic control are limited to glucose monitoring and used by diabetic patients. However, many different molecules present crucial relevance in human metabolism. They are monitored daily in general hospital practice by automatic blood sampling, but the analysis involves using off-line, large and expensive laboratory equipments. This project seeks to develop research in the field of integrated smart biosensors for online metabolism analysis that significantly improves the quality and reliability of human measurements, while at the same time reducing analysis time and cost. The new system will investigate many different metabolic compounds of interest in cardiovascular diseases as well as inflammatory diseases and personalized nutrition, such as lactate, cholesterol, ATP, and others. To pursue this aim, an innovative technology will be developed by integrating software/hardware/ RF/micro/nano/bio systems in three devices: a fully implantable sensors array for data acquisition, a wearable station for remote powering and signal processing and a remote station for data collection and storage. Apart from multi-panel sensors capable of sensing several metabolites in parallel and in real-time, the expected major breakthroughs include new software algorithms for decoupling different contributions from different metabolites on the same sensor spot as well as a new CMOS design for the fully-implanted, complex and low consumption electronics for sensing and remote powering.

“ The development of a better and more reliable diagnostics implantable system will be useful for the individualization of therapies, disease prevention and nutrition in patients, athletes and the elderly.

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Prof. Giovanni De Micheli, EPFL

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Personalized therapies require accurate and frequent monitoring of the metabolic response of living tissues to treatments. On-line monitoring of patients with specific physiological conditions (e.g., heart, cardiovascular, cancer diseases) is a key factor to provide better, more rationale, effective and ultimately low-cost health care. This is also required in professionals and recreational sportsmen training, as well as in elderly or disabled citizen care.

NTF RTD

i-IronIC


Principal Investigator Prof. Jérôme Faist, ETHZ Prof. Edoardo Charbon, EPFL Dr. Lukas Emmenegger, EMPA Prof. Hans Peter Herzig, EPFL Dr. Daniel Hofstetter, UniNE Dr. Alexandra Homsy, EPFL Prof. Eli Kapon, EPFL Prof. Herbert Looser, FHNW Prof. Markus Sigrist, ETHZ

IrSens

Integrated sensing platform for gases and liquids in the near and mid-infrared range

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NANO-TERA.CH


The idea is to create a photonic sensor platform with high performance and reliability which will leverage on the new source, detector and interaction cell technologies to create a new sensor element with vastly improved performance and lowered cost. These improvements will be demonstrated further by the incorporation into two pilot applications, the first one aiming at the demonstration of sensing in the gas phase, the second one in the liquid phase. The compact sensing platform for gases under development is based on multipath absorption cells with various compact semiconductor light source and detector types. Infrared absorption spectroscopy can be used to detect a wide variety of gases. To demonstrate its suitability for breath analysis, the first part of this project is focused on the detection of helicobacter pylori – a bacteria responsible for gastric ulcers – by means of isotopic ratio measurements in exhaled CO2. The integrated sensing platform for liquids is based on waveguiding and surface measurement technologies and the same sources and detectors as for the gas sensing. The idea is to couple the sources to a silicon-based optical module where the liquid analyte will flow through a built-in microfluidic channel. This is intended to be used mainly in bio-medical applications with an emphasis on drugs and doping agents detection in human fluids: specifically, a first targeted demonstrative application for this sensor would be the cocaine detection in human saliva.

“ Although the general principles of chemical sensing deploying optical

methods are well-known, recent developments, particularly in the field of infrared photonics, will lead to a real breakthrough in this technology.

Prof. Jérôme Faist, ETHZ

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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There is an increasing demand for sensitive, selective, fast and portable detectors for trace components in gases and liquids, e.g. due to increasing concerns about atmospheric pollutants, and a need for improved medical screening capabilities for early detection of diseases and drug abuse. In that context, the project IrSens aims at building a versatile platform based on optical spectroscopy in the near and midinfrared range. Indeed, techniques based on optical absorption offer the possibility to realize a non-invasive and highly sensitive detection platform. It allows to probe the vibrational frequencies of the targeted molecules – most of which are located in the near and mid-infrared range, and to obtain an unambiguous signature of the investigated gas or liquid.

NTF RTD

IrSens


© CSEM

© CSEM

Principal Investigator Prof. Carlotta Guiducci, EPFL Dr. Thierry Buclin, CHUV Prof. Giovanni De Micheli, EPFL Prof. Christian Enz, CSEM Prof. Carlos-Andrés Pena-Reyes, HES-SO

ISyPeM

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Intelligent integrated systems for personalized medicine

NANO-TERA.CH


The huge variability range in drugs response poses strong limits and severe problems in drug treatment definition. The largest part of variability in drug response (roughly 80%) resides in the pharmacokinetic phase, i.e. in dose-concentration relationships. This project aims at providing advanced technologies for assessing drug response by measuring drug concentrations and relevant biomarkers. In particular, it aims at providing drug treatment optimization based on processing of statistical and personal data and to enable seamless monitoring and delivery by an ultra-low power integrated system. Thus it is the purpose of the project to advance the state-of-the-art in personalized medicine by creating new enabling technologies for drug monitoring and delivery control rooted in the combination of sensing, in situ data processing, short-range wireless communication and drug release control mechanisms. These new technologies, in combination with currently available medical devices (e.g., micropumps, micro-needles, etc.) can significantly improve medical care and reduce the related costs. The research goes beyond the state-of-the-art because of the introduction of new sensing and delivering technologies, ultra-low power sensor interface and wireless communication integrated in a miniaturized remote-powered hardware platform with energy-efficient data processing and robust control software. Targeted application domains will be HIV infection, cancer diseases and post-transplant therapies, which are currently addressed by the research in pharmacokinetics carried out by our medical partner at CHUV. The overall benefit of this research is bettering medical practice by enabling personalized medicine while reducing health care costs. This goal is achieved by a concerted effort in various disciplines that will be embodied in demonstrators and validated in the field in the framework of the project. The state-of-the-art will be advanced by providing an electronic-control dimension to drug treatment, based on real-time sensing and on safe and optimal dosing policies. Expected scientific breakthroughs include new integrated sensors for specific drugs and biomarkers, new drug delivery mechanisms via electronically-controlled silicon membranes and a formal design methodology for provably correct and safe electronic drug delivery.

“ Our project will have a strong positive impact on the health care sector,

by improving medical practice in highly critical drug treatments of severe diseases in Switzerland and abroad. Prof. Carlotta Guiducci, EPFL

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SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Medical progress is increasingly improving the survival rate and life quality of patients affected by serious, life-threatening conditions, such as HIV infection, disseminated cancers or vital organ failure. These achievements rely significantly on new radical improvements of drug regimens and therapeutic protocols. Newly adopted treatments for such diseases require the daily administration of highly active therapies in the long-term.

NTF RTD

ISyPeM


Principal Investigator Prof. Philippe Renaud, EPFL Prof. Nicolaas de Rooij, EPFL Prof. Martial Geiser, HES-SO Prof. Hubert Girault, EPFL Dr. Martha Liley, CSEM Dr. Michael Riediker, IST Prof. Jan van der Meer, UNIL Prof. Viola Vogel, ETHZ

LiveSense

Cell-based sensing microsystem

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NANO-TERA.CH


LiveSense

ED

NTF RTD

A big challenge in environmental monitoring is to dispose of a base of autonomous remote nodes that are capable of locally collecting samples and sending biologically and chemically relevant information through a communication network. Analytical chemical methods commonly used are mostly based on sophisticated instrumentation which does not scale to miniature systems for deployment as field sensors. The use of biological entities such as cell lines or micro-organisms as the basis for assay methodologies has been well developed, and research has demonstrated their applicability for monitoring the environment for bioactive or toxic compounds. The response of cellbased sensors is related to a metabolic pathway and thus relevant to effects expected for human beings. In many cases, the response of cells and cell-based sensors is extremely sensitive. While the concept of cell-based biosensors has been researched for several years, their implementation is restricted to a few commercial applications that are not deployable as autonomous sensors. This project addresses the need to improve the environmental monitoring of the many chemical and biological compounds that are affecting our biosphere and eventually human health. The idea is to use living cells as biosensors and to monitor them in a microfluidic bioreactor equipped with microsensors. Living cells are the most natural biosensors, since they integrate the biological effects of the compound mixtures and respond by metabolic or phenotypic changes that are relevant to potential effects in the human body. The projects aims at the realization of a complete autonomous microsystem that would include a cell culture microbioreactor, secondary sensors to measure cell response and monitor the microbioreactor process, a signal processing control unit and a wireless communication unit to link the microsystem to a sensor network. The research is based on known cell models selected in two cell types: bacteria – used because there is already a wide experience on bacterial bioreporters and they are rather easy to culture – and eukaryotic cells – because their metabolic response to toxicants is more similar to reaction pathways in the human body. The microbioreactor will be integrated into a functional demonstrator for the deployment of a cell-based sensor network monitoring water quality in a Swiss river.

“ We are building the bio cell phone. ”

Prof. Philippe Renaud, EPFL

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Principal Investigator Prof. Ursula Keller, ETHZ

Prof. Eli Kapon, EPFL Prof. Pierre Thomann, UniNE Prof. Bernd Witzigmann, Uni Kassel

MIXSEL

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Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers for wafer-scale mass production

NANO-TERA.CH


Semiconductor lasers are ideally suited for mass production and widespread applications, because they are based on a wafer-scale technology with a high level of integration. Not surprisingly, the first lasers entering virtually every household were semiconductor lasers in compact disk players. A new ultrafast semiconductor laser concept has been introduced by Prof. Keller, which is power scalable, suitable for pulse repetition rate scaling in the 10 to 100 GHz regime, supports both optical and electrical pumping and allows for wafer-scale fabrication. This class of devices is referred to as the modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL). The next step towards even lower-cost and more compact ultrafast lasers will be electrical pumping with both pico- and femtosecond pulses. This would result in devices ideally suited for many applications such as telecommunications, optical clocking, frequency metrology, high resolution nonlinear multiphoton microscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser display – anywhere where the current ultrafast laser technology is considered to be too bulky or expensive. The project aims to demonstrate optically and electrically pumped MIXSELs in both the pico- and femtosecond regime. Picosecond MIXSELs are ideally suited for clocking applications whereas femtosecond MIXSELs are required for continuum generation and many biomedical applications. For both cases, average powers above 100 mW with electrical pumping and above 500 mW with optical pumping should be reached, which represent significant advances of ultrafast MIXSELs.

“ Our research on the development of novel ultrafast semiconductor lasers will support and strengthen a field that is significant in value creation. ”

Prof. Ursula Keller, ETHZ

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Short pulse laser sources have enabled many applications in science and technology. Numerous laboratory experiments have confirmed that they can significantly increase telecommunication data rates, improve computer interconnects, and optically clock in the future multicore microprocessors. New applications in metrology, supercontinuum generation and life sciences with two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography only work with ultrashort pulses, but have relied on bulky and complex ultrafast solid-state lasers. However, users in health care and life sciences generally would rather get the short pulses without any further overhead and with a simple turn-on-off switch. It is therefore essential for them to have access to compact, easy-to-use and inexpensive ultrafast lasers. Recent developments in novel semiconductor lasers have the potential to reduce the complexity of ultrafast lasers.

NTF RTD

MIXSEL


Principal Investigator Prof. Christian Schönenberger, UniBas Dr. Michel Calame, UniBas Prof. Beat Ernst, UniBas Prof. Jens Gobrecht, PSI Prof. Andreas Hierlemann, ETHZ Prof. Adrian Ionescu, EPFL Prof. Uwe Pieles, FHNW Prof. Janos Vörös, ETHZ

NanowireSensor Integrateable silicon nanowire sensor platform

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NANO-TERA.CH


In this context, an ideal solution is an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensor platform based on silicon nanowires to be integrated in a CMOS architecture. Indeed, in addition to the expected high sensitivity and superior signal quality, such nanowire sensors could be mass manufactured at reasonable costs, and readily integrated into electronic diagnostic devices to facilitate bed-site diagnostics and personalized medicine. Moreover, their small size makes them ideal candidates for future implanted sensing devices. While promising biosensing experiments based on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have been reported, real-life applications still require improved control, together with a detailed understanding of the basic sensing mechanisms. For instance, it is crucial to optimize the geometry of the wire, a still rather unexplored aspect up to now, as well as its surface functionalization or its selectivity to the targeted analytes. This project seeks to develop a modular, scalable and integrateable sensor platform for the electronic detection of analytes in solution. The idea is to integrate silicon nanowire field-effect transistors as a sensor array and combine them with state-of-the-art microfabricated interface electronics as well as with microfluidic channels for liquid handling. Such sensors have the potential to be mass manufactured at reasonable costs, allowing their integration as the active sensor part in electronic point-of-care diagnostic devices to facilitate, for instance, bed-side diagnostics and personalized medicine. Another important field is systems biology, where many substances need to be quantitatively detected in parallel at very low concentrations: in these situations, the platform being developed fulfills the requirements ideally and will have a strong impact and provide new insights, e.g. into the metabolic processes of cells, organisms or organs.

“ In a long-term vision, we can expect the development of embedded systems allowing the constant monitoring of health parameters for chronicle diseases like diabetes. Prof. Christian SchĂśnenberger, UniBas

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There is nowadays a growing need for sensing devices offering rapid and portable analytical functionality in real-time as well as massively parallel capabilities with very high sensitivity at the molecular level. Such devices are essential to facilitate research and foster advances in fields such as drug discovery, proteomics, medical diagnostics, systems biology or environmental monitoring.

NTF RTD

NanowireSensor


Principal Investigator Dr. Alex Dommann, CSEM Dr. Pierangelo Gröning, EMPA Prof. Hans von Känel, ETHZ

Nexray

Network of integrated miniaturized X-ray systems operating in complex environments

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NANO-TERA.CH


The miniaturized X-ray sources are based on multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) cold electron emitters and advanced microsystems technology. The electron field emission properties of CNTs, with their high current densities, make them prime candidates for cold emitter cathodes. Using CNT cold electron emitters will make it possible to miniaturize the whole X-ray source. Additionally, as opposed to classical thermionic emission, field electron emission of the CNT is voltage-controlled which allows for high modulation frequencies up to GHz level. The X-ray direct detectors in turn are based on crystalline germanium absorption layers grown directly on a CMOS sensor chip yielding high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray detectors. Single photon detection will allow for a significant improvement of contrast for applications in security, health care and nondestructive testing. A first landmark application is for example the extraction of depth information from an X-ray image without the need to do tomography. With X-ray time-of-flight measurements based on Compton backscattering, the depth inside objects where scattering occurs can be precisely measured. This calls for an intensity-modulated X-ray signal in the MHz range which can be achieved with CNT based cold emitters. An obvious application would be the detection of buried landmines: the Compton backscattering signal can indeed indicate the landmine position with much better accuracy than metal detectors. Another key application is in the area of tomographic imaging, making use of the fact that both the X-ray source and the X-ray detector are pixelated. Since the X-ray source is built as a matrix of micro X-ray sources that can also be addressed and controlled individually, the combination of pixelated X-ray sources and detectors brings up completely new imaging capabilities, in particular the possibility to do static tomographic imaging and therefore reduce costs or increase throughput.

“ The results will lead to radically new approaches in the use and

exploitation of X-rays, and completely novel X-ray systems which are not possible today. Dr. Alex Dommann, CSEM

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SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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This project targets the development of novel pocket X-ray sources and X-ray direct detectors that will be combined in a distributed network to solve important tasks, for example in the field of security, by ensuring reliable and real-time monitoring of failure sensitive parts in large manufacturing plants or in public transportation.

NTF RTD

Nexray


Principal Investigator Prof. Martin Gijs, EPFL Dr. Sandro Carrara, EPFL Prof. Richard F. Hurrell, ETHZ Prof. Jeremy Ramsden, UniBas Dr. Guy Vergères, ALP

NutriChip

A technological platform for nutrition analysis to promote healthy food

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This is the major motivation of this project, focused on the development of an integrated lab-on-a-chip platform to investigate the effects of food ingestion by humans. The core of the system is an integrated chip, the NutriChip, which, as a demonstrator of an artificial and miniaturized gastrointestinal tract, will be able to probe the health potential of dairy food samples, using a minimal biomarker set identified through in vivo and in vitro studies. The project will develop innovative CMOS circuits at the nano-scale for high signal-to-noise ratio optical detection and propose a special microfluidic system closely integrating cell-based materials within the chip. The NutriChip will be tested for screening and selection of dairy products with specific health-promoting properties, in particular immunomodulatory properties. The CMOS detection chip will be used to image down to single immune cells. For the biochemical validation of the NutriChip platform, the response of the immune cells upon the application of food will be examined by monitoring the Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, key molecules bridging metabolism and immuno-regulation in nutrition.

“ The project builds on modern analytical strategies of biology, engineering and classical human nutrition research to evaluate in vitro the influence of food quality on health. Prof. Martin Gijs, EPFL

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SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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The gastrointestinal tract plays a key role in the adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients, xenobiotics (drugs, toxins) as well as other molecules originating from commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is a tight gatekeeper controlling the uptake of nutrients and potentially harmful substances and the immune cell layer underlying the epithelial barrier is devoted to avoiding undesired reactivity to dietary proteins and enteric flora, while responding rapidly to pathogens threats. In light of the importance of gastrointestinal immuno-modulation, laboratory models have been developed, in particular, cell culture in vitro models involving a confluent layer of epithelial cells and a co-culture of immune cells separated by a permeable synthetic membrane. These models allow the activation of immune cells in response to the transfer and processing of molecules across the epithelial cell layer, and can potentially be used to screen food for specific physiological properties of nutrients. The classical cell culture design suffers, however, from a lack of efficiency when it comes to using such systems in a high throughput modus. It is therefore highly desirable to downscale such cell cultures and to make them more amenable to automation in order to promote efficient in vitro screening of the physiological properties of selected foods.

NTF RTD

NutriChip


Principal Investigator Prof. Karl Aberer, EPFL Prof. Boi Faltings, EPFL Prof. Alcherio Martinoli, EPFL Prof. Lothar Thiele, ETHZ Prof. Martin Vetterli, EPFL

OpenSense

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Open sensor networks for air quality monitoring

NANO-TERA.CH


Challenges that are not well addressed today are dealing with the heterogeneity and widely varying characteristics of the sensor equipment, measurements and data analysis, supporting and exploiting mobility of sensors and involving the community in a trusted, fair and transparent manner into the monitoring activity. Air pollution monitoring is particularly suited to study these challenges as they are particularly pronounced in this scenario. A wide variety of sensors (meteorological data, air pollutants and fine particles) is used, normally not integrated with one another, with measurements sharing complex atmospheric chemistry and transport processes. These monitors could be stationary or mobile (public and private vehicles, personal devices, airborne vehicles) providing real-time information and warnings on air pollution that is of great public health importance. OpenSense will address key research challenges in the domain of information and communication systems related to community-based sensing using wireless sensor network technology in the context of air pollution monitoring. Solutions to these problems affect typically all layers of an information and communication system architecture, with interdependencies and synergies among the different layers. For that reason the research team consists of experts in signal processing, networking, robotics, data management and qualitative reasoning. The project will result in open technology that allows integrating diverse sensors, including mobile sensors, into a single environmental model. The information processing techniques we develop will provide important insights to enable other Nano-Tera application domains dealing with monitoring complex events.

“ Our goal is to provide an open and extensible platform for monitoring air quality in real-time, for better understanding environmental phenomena and their effects and involving people into this task. Prof. Karl Aberer, EPFL

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SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Wireless sensor networks and publishing of sensor data on the internet bear the potential to substantially increase public awareness and involvement in environmental sustainability. These technologies enable capturing sensor data by involving public authorities and the general public and making real-time information on environmental conditions available to a wide public. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas is a prime example of such an application as common air pollutants have direct effects on human health, thus becoming an extremely important environmental issue in large areas of the world due to increasing urbanization. However, bringing the vision of public involvement in environmental monitoring to a reality poses substantial technical challenges, to scale up from isolated well controlled systems to an open and scalable infrastructure where many nano-scale sensors generate terabytes of data.

NTF RTD

OpenSense


Principal Investigator Dr. Harry Heinzelmann, CSEM Dr. Friedrich Beermann, EPFL Prof. J端rgen Brugger, EPFL Prof. Nicolaas de Rooij, EPFL Prof. Hans Peter Herzig, EPFL Dr. Agnese Mariotti, CePO Prof. Ernst Meyer, UniBas Prof. Pedro Romero, LICR Prof. Horst Vogel, EPFL

PATLiSci

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NASA

Probe array technology for life science applications

NANO-TERA.CH


Interestingly, it has been shown recently that the stiffness of cancer cells affects the way they spread in the body. Equally important are the adhesion forces of cancer cells to other cells. The measurement of nanomechanical properties of cells as well as cell-cell interactions as a function of milieu parameters is thus of particular interest in cancer research. The nanomechanical properties of microcantilevers allow to use them as highly sensitive probes for the detection of molecular species adsorbed to them. The additional mass and/or the surface stress exerted by the adsorbents changes the mechanical properties, such as their bending or their resonance frequency, and can be readily detected. This method has been developed into a technology that is often described as mechanical nose, since many of these cantilevers in parallel, each responsible for the detection of a specific target substance, detect an ensemble of substances. The nanomechanical nose mirrors the design of the human olfactory system, where mechano-transduction in olfactory cells is coupled to the biological neural network, i.e. the brain. The old medical art of diagnosing disease by its odor, limited by observer dependence and lack of quantitative analysis and the limited sensitivity of the human nose, thus finds its correlation in nanomedicine, where nanomechanical olfactory sensors allow quantitative and objective analysis of carcinogenic diseases in point-of-care early diagnostics. This project is about further developing probe array techniques for life science applications, notably in the context of cancer research. The consortium shows the balance between experts in sensing technology as well as oncology.

“ We expect our research to advance personalized medical diagnostics and to develop new tools for research in cell-based drug screening. �

Dr. Harry Heinzelmann, CSEM

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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The development of techniques based on micromechanical force sensors (micro-cantilevers) is of increasing importance for applications in biological sciences. Scanning force microscopy and related techniques allow for high resolution imaging e.g. of membrane proteins, offering unprecedented insights into their structure and their functioning. Furthermore, related non-imaging methods such as force spectroscopy allow studying the mechanics and the adhesion forces between materials ranging from proteins to entire cells. An impressive body of literature on mechanical properties of molecules and their interaction forces has been generated in the recent past. However, little has been done so far on a cell level, due to the complexity and the number of the experiments to be conducted.

NTF RTD

PATLiSci


Principal Investigator Prof. Qiuting Huang, ETHZ Dr. Catherine Dehollain, EPFL Prof. Christian Enz, CSEM

PlaCiTUS

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Platform circuit technology underlying heterogeneous nano and tera systems

NANO-TERA.CH


It is therefore crucial to fully understand the operation and limitations of these devices in order to design robust digital, analog and RF circuits. In the next decade, the challenges to the semiconductor industry and the applications it supports will lie not so much in realizing smaller and faster transistors as in how to make the best out of the billions of transistors per chip we already have. Understanding how to handle complexity in mixed signal embedded systems is therefore crucial for the next generation of applications that deal with health, microsystems and communications. How to partition system functionality into digital, analog and RF or sensor realizations on a system on chip optimally is one of the key topics that will impact the era of nano CMOS technologies. This project investigates the challenges in mixed signal platforms, such as those embedded in biomedical electronics, micro-systems, sensor networks and wireless communications, from both device and systems perspective. Demonstrators will be developed that cover generic sensor interface/data acquisition, passive telemetry, wireless body area network, wireless sensor networking and wireless wide area networks. The achievements will benefit other proNano-Tera projects focusing on the sensor/actuator side of microsystems, as well as wireless communications SoCs that will challenge the state-of-the-art in integration level, versatility and sophistication of nano CMOS systems.

“ The nano-CMOS design platform will allow the different devices

required for health, security and environment applications to be much smaller and have a much longer autonomy, thus offering more comfort and enabling new applications. Prof. Qiuting Huang, ETHZ

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The revolution in information and communication technology that is taking information flow into the era of tera-bits and the biomedical advances down to molecular scale would not have taken place without the accompanying downscaling of CMOS technology to the nano scale device size and tera system complexity. This aggressive downscaling has allowed the number of transistors per chip to be increased, thus extending their functionality and pushing up speed performance. However, this is obtained at the cost of severe degradation in certain quality metrics, such as increase of parameter variability, strong degradation of device matching, and increase in leakage currents including gate leakage, stronger short-channel effects (weak-inversion slope reduction, drain-induced barrier lowering, etc), ever lower supply voltage, novel degradation mechanisms and increasing reliability constraints. The profound changes in the device structure that are required to mitigate or eventually circumvent all these degradations will obviously have a significant impact on the way circuits, and particularly analog and RF circuits, have to be designed.

NTF RTD

PlaCiTUS


Principal Investigator Prof. Nicolas Gisin, UniGE Prof. Norbert Felber, ETHZ Prof. Etienne Messerli, HES-SO Dr. GrĂŠgoire Ribordy, IDQ

QCrypt

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Photoxpress

Secure high-speed communication based on quantum key distribution

NANO-TERA.CH


This project aims to considerably improve cryptography on both the key distribution level and the encryption level. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a secure way to generate and distribute keys, which is based on the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. However, existing systems are too slow. The new QKD system will be capable of producing keys at 1 Mbps rate, which means it will allow 1 MHz OTP encryption for high-level applications. In standard applications the data exchange rates continue to increase. Today’s commercial encryptors are already approaching 10 Gbps. Consequently the project seeks to develop a future proof encryption engine for up to 100 Gbps and looks to combine this high-speed encryption with high rate QKD, to allow the rapid changing of keys, thus considerably improving the security and simplifying the key management. The project will develop advanced prototypes for very-high-speed QKD and encryption. Both of these systems will greatly surpass any technology currently available. This is only possible by combining the outstanding competencies of the partners in such diverse fields as quantum optics, high-speed electronics and integrated circuit programming as well as cryptographic and network security. The modular approach will provide flexible solutions for diverse communication scenarios by operating the devices in unison or stand-alone. Finally, in contrast to current quantum key distribution systems, they will be compatible with standard optical networks and capable of using wavelength multiplexing.

“ We seek to take the emerging quantum technology associated with QKD to the level of future secure and high-speed communication networks. ”

Prof. Nicolas Gisin, UniGE

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Today’s information society relies heavily on storing and transferring data in digital form. Cryptography provides the means that is necessary to exchange data securely. It relies on two fundamental parts: first, one needs a secret key, which is subsequently used to encrypt the data with a mathematical algorithm. Secret keys can be transmitted using a trusted messenger, or in a more convenient way, using public key infrastructure, the security of which is based on computational complexity and suffers from the lack of a mathematical proof for the class of complexity. Modern encryption, using algorithms like the Advanced Encryption Standard, is generally considered unbreakable, provided the keys are sufficiently long. However, absolute security can only be guaranteed by the so-called one-time-pad (OTP), where secret keys as long as the message, have to be used.

NTF RTD

QCrypt


Principal Investigator Prof. Jürgen Brugger, EPFL

Dr. Helmut Knapp, CSEM Prof. Alcherio Martinoli, EPFL Prof. Bradley Nelson, ETHZ M.Sc. Laurent Sciboz, Icare Prof. Nicholas Spencer, ETHZ Dr. Heiko Wolf, IBM ZRL

SelfSys

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Fluidic-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems

NANO-TERA.CH


The ultimate goal is to self-assemble free-floating N/MEMS building blocks in a liquid, and then deploy the assembled parts onto surfaces, the environment or the human body, where they fulfill an application-specific functionality. This fluidic-based self-assembly forms the basis for future intelligent systems manufacturing beyond robotic assembly, flip-chip, etc. The expected outcomes are cost-efficient, yet flexible and form an exemplary combination of high numbers (tera) of ultra-small components (nano/micro) to be assembled into complex systems. The project involves an intimate interaction between advanced micro/nanoengineering, surface functionalization, microfluidics, sensor/ actuator and micro/nanorobotic concepts, as well as modeling and computer-aided design. The first phase of the research focuses on the setting-up of the free-floating and guided fluidic assembly technology. The work will then be devoted to the implementation of the enabling technology for two applications that have been identified, one targeting the assembly of RFID micro-tags with other M/NEMS in a massive parallel way, the other aiming at the assembly of liquid-containing micro-capsules that can be triggered for liquid release. In general, such integrated systems can enable non-invasive smart drug delivery devices, self-assembling implants, surgical microrobots, smart clothing, ultra-small wireless sensor nodes for environmental monitoring and proactive maintenance of complex civil and mechanical structures.

“ We strive to find a remedy for the upcoming assembly challenge for ultra-

miniature functional systems, and to contribute to novel manufacturing schemes for high added value products that represent one of Switzerland’s key economic factors. Prof. Jürgen Brugger, EPFL

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Packaging and assembly of micro/nanosystems (M/NEMS) is a key factor in their commercial success, but is often neglected in academic and pre-competitive industrial research and development. A lack of innovative solutions for the manufacturing of next-generation smart systems with hybrid, multi-functional devices would hamper the advances that are needed in health care, information technology and environmental engineering. For instance, a typical situation today is that the individual components of the hybrid system can be readily fabricated separately by well-known state-of-the-art methods, but they are either too small or too numerous to be assembled using conventional assembly techniques. The solution studied in this project is based on interaction forces in liquids and goes well beyond what is known today as fluidic self-assembly on surfaces using wetting properties to fine-position MEMS parts.

NTF RTD

SelfSys


Principal Investigator Prof. Peter Ryser, EPFL


 Prof. Kamiar Aminian, EPFL Dr. Catherine Dehollain, EPFL Prof. Pierre-André Farine, EPFL Prof. Brigitte Jolles-Haeberli, CHUV M.Sc. Vincent Leclercq, Symbios Prof. Philippe Renaud, EPFL

SImOS

Smart implants for orthopaedics surgery

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This project seeks to design innovative tools to measure in vivo biomechanical parameters of joint prostheses, orthopaedic implants, bones and ligaments. These tools, partly implanted, partly external, will record and analyze relevant information in order to improve medical treatments. An implant module includes sensors in order to measure the forces, temperature sensors to measure the interface frictions, magneto-resistance sensors to measure the 3D orientation of the knee joint as well as accelerometers to measure stem micro-motion and impacts. An external module, fixed on the patient’s body segments, includes electronic components to power and to communicate with the implant, as well as a set of sensors for measurements that can be realized externally. This equipment is designed to help the surgeon with the alignment or positioning phase during surgery. After surgery, by providing excessive wear and micro-motion information about the prosthesis, it will allow to detect any early migration and potentially avoid later failure. During rehabilitation, it will provide useful outcomes to evaluate in vivo joint function. The tools provided can also be implanted during any joint surgery in order to give the physician the information needed to diagnose future disease such as ligament insufficiency, osteoarthritis or prevent further accident. The proposed nanosystems are set to improve the efficiency of healthcare, which is both a benefit to the patient and to society. Although the scientific and technical developments proposed in this project can be applied to all orthopaedic implants, the technological platform which is being built as a demonstrator is limited to the case of knee prosthesis. In addition, by reaching the minimum size achievable thanks to clever packaging techniques and also by reducing, or even removing, the cumbersome battery, it paves the way for a new generation of autonomous implantable medical devices.

“ This much more effective monitoring of the patient’s function will

contribute to valuable improvements of their quality of life and of future treatments. Prof. Peter Ryser, EPFL

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Over one million hip and knee prostheses are implanted each year in the EU and the US. The expected lifetime for these prostheses is between 10 and 20 years, but premature failure is quite common (about 20% for people less than 50 years old). Prosthesis failures require revision surgeries that are generally complex and traumatic. None of these prostheses contain microchips and few are analyzed based on motion analysis devices.

NTF RTD

SImOS


Principal Investigator Prof. Gerhard Tröster, ETHZ

Dr. Michael Baumberger, SPZ Dr. Kunigunde Cherenack, ETHZ Dr. Manfred Heuberger, EMPA M.Sc. Jean Luprano, CSEM Dr. Stéphanie Pasche, CSEM Dr. René Rossi, EMPA Prof. Martin Wolf, USZ

TecInTex

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Technology integration into textiles: empowering health

NANO-TERA.CH


TecInTex addresses these issues by developing the necessary basic fiber and textile technology, at the nanometer and micrometer scale, that will provide the highly needed full integration of novel functionalities into truly wearable clothes without compromise on textile properties. The key elements include electronic and optical fibers, sensor yarns, transducers between electrical and optical signals, sensor stripes and functionalized fabrics. The expected results cover a family of new sensorized and functional fibers, which will allow in situ measurements of body functions and biological species in body proximity, approved fabrication processes and working prototypes dedicated to health care, rehabilitation and prevention. One tremendous and growing market for these textiles is health care. Two demonstrators for wearable biosensing will be developed under the leadership of the Swiss Paraplegic Center and the University Hospital of Zurich. The TecInTex mission will be concentrate specifically on two demonstrators in the health care domain. The active NIRS sock is a wearable near infrared spectroscopy device which allows to monitor tissue oxygenation in the muscle continuously and non-invasively for the early detection of peripheral vascular disease. Another application is the intelligent underwear for paraplegic people, which allows the detection of pressure ulcers, an open skin lesion affecting bed-ridden patients.

“ Our mission is to provide the crucial core modules to design and to manufacture truly wearable functional clothes. ” Prof. Gerhard Tröster, ETHZ

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Future personal mobile systems consist of a communication and computing hub – e.g. a Smart Phone – which ensures the continuous and online connectivity. The personalization of this communication node requires the connection to sensing capabilities close to the human body, which detect the user’s context, be it the activity, motion, health or the mental and social behavior. In that spirit, an increasing variety of wearable functionality is being developed and demonstrated worldwide. However, in the textile sector, the actual breakthrough of these novel technologies is absent due to a general lack of compatibility of conventional electric, electronic and sensory devices with textile processing procedures and textile wearability. Indeed, existing e-textiles usually integrate state-of-the-art electronic devices into clothing, inducing many limitations like restricted flexibility, washability and comfort.

NTF RTD

TecInTex


QuickTime™ et un décompresseur sont requis pour visionner cette image.

Principal Investigator Prof. Lothar Thiele, ETHZ Dr. Jan Beutel, ETHZ Prof. Alain Geiger, ETHZ Dr. Stephan Gruber, UZH Dr. Hugo Raetzo, FOEN Dr. Tazio Strozzi, GAMMA Dr. Urs Wegmüller, GAMMA

X-Sense

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Monitoring alpine mass movements at multiple scales

NANO-TERA.CH


It will develop dependable wireless sensing technology as a new scientific instrument for environmental sensing under extreme conditions in terms of temperature variations, humidity, mechanical forces, snow coverage as well as unattended operation that are needed for longterm deployment. This technology should integrate various sensing dimensions (such as pressure, humidity, crevice movements, high precision deformation and movements) in terms of sensing and processing and the idea is to extend the spatial scope from local (microscopic) measurements to large scale information derived from satellite radar remote sensing and fuse the resulting information to achieve an unparalleled degree of precision in space, time and accuracy. The new measurement technology developed can be used to advance applications in science and society: geophysical and climate-impact research as well as early warning against landslides and rock-fall. Research and development of several advanced sensing technologies and their system-level integration via systems and software engineering lie at the core of the project. They include model-based design to ensure dependable operation in a highly resource-constraint setting, optimized use of harvested solar energy through energy-efficient algorithms and long-term reward maximization as well as multi-objective optimization of the multi-processor hardware platforms. Also crucial is research on advanced differential GPS sensing for high-precision movement detection and the development of sensor fusion algorithms combining different classes of sensors with high spatial granularity and satellite-scale X-ray images. All these activities are guided by thorough geophysical modeling and simulation as well as by demands from early warning scenarios. The project has the clear objective to develop a technology demonstrator that integrates the new technologies into the application field.

“ Anticipation of future environmental states and risk is improved by a

systematic combination of environmental sensing and process modeling.

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Prof. Lothar Thiele, ETHZ

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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Recent observed environmental changes as well as projections in the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change shed light on likely dramatic consequences of a changing mountain cryosphere following climate change. Some very destructive geological processes are triggered or intensified, influencing the stability of slopes and possibly inducing landslides. Unfortunately, the interaction between these complex processes is poorly understood. This project addresses the key issues in response to such changing conditons: monitoring and warning systems for the spatial and temporal detection of newly forming hazards, as well as extending the quantitative understanding of these chagning natural systems and our predictive capabilities.

NTF RTD

X-Sense


PMD-Program The development of microfluidic technology has revolutionized biological research thanks to the fluid handling capabilities, integration and economies of scale it offers. Currently, microfluidic devices are highly specialized components that require expert knowledge for their design and fabrication. The application specificity of designs significantly increases the cost of microfluidic technology and reduces its applicability.

Principal Investigator Prof. Sebastian Maerkl, EPFL

This project develops a new class of generally applicable microfluidic devices that can be reconfigured for different applications by means of software. These software-reconfigurable devices would not require application-specific designs leading to a subsequent reduction in cost. Conversely, the necessary programs and methods required for each application could be easily distributed along with the devices or even developed by the end-user. The devices build on the development of multilayer soft-lithography and microfluidic largescale integration that enable the fabrication of devices featuring a high-density of active components at very low cost.

This next evolutionary step of microfluidic “ complexity will broaden the impact of microfluidics in a number of fields. � Prof. Sebastian Maerkl, EPFL

PMD-Program

A programmable, universally applicable, microfluidic device platform

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Principal Investigator Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, EPFL

To overcome these issues, a new circuit family is proposed, based on the source-coupled differential topology. Using sub-threshold source-coupled logic (ST-SCL) circuits, it is possible to reduce the stand-by current of each logic cell down to a few pico-amperes – equivalent to about one single electron charge every 20 nanoseconds – resulting in extremely low power dissipation levels that cannot be reached using conventional circuit topologies. Experimental ST-SCL circuits have been shown to operate with an equivalent energy of 600 eV per operation. The ultimate objective of this work has been to develop a library of digital and mixed-signal functional cells that can be used in various ultra-low power applications.

“ We are inventing computing with leakage currents. ”

Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, EPFL

ULP-Logic

Sub-threshold source-coupled logic (ST-SCL) circuits for ultra-low power applications

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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The demand for implementing ultra-low power digital systems in many modern applications such as mobile systems, sensor networks or implanted biomedical systems has made the design of logic circuits in sub-threshold regime a very important challenge. The goal of this project is the exploration of new methodologies for implementing ultra-low power digital integrated systems. One of the main issues in design of ultra-low power CMOS digital circuits is the leakage current due to sub-threshold conduction and gate-oxide tunneling. The tight tradeoff among different device parameters makes the design of such systems in advanced CMOS technologies a very difficult task.

NTF RTD

ULP-Logic


COMES Designing advanced (most often, distributed) embedded systems interacting with the physical world, such as the ones envisioned in the Nano-Tera.ch initiative, implies dealing with extreme complexity – from modeling and simulation of the physical systems to identification of optimal information collection and processing, from design and validation of hardware to design and testing of software, etc. In general, such complexity would make a real-world design and implementation actually unfeasible; identifying the approaches that lead to feasibility while at the same time granting accuracy and robustness becomes the main challenge. Principal Investigator Prof. Mariagiovanna Sami, USI Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, EPFL

The overall problem of complexity management for embedded systems is addressed in this project, which consists of a sequence of coordinated actions of different types. The educational program is composed of two 1-2 day workshops (respectively at the beginning and at the end) and a school, lasting five days and revolving around a few key topics. This aims at preparing a strong basis, considering different viewpoints and presenting challenges and solutions of specific relevance to Nano-Tera.

Simple problems are not amusing: making complex “ problems simple is the best challenge! ”

Prof. Mariagiovanna Sami, USI

COMES

Complexity management in embedded systems

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Principal Investigator Dr. Daniel Roggen, ETHZ Dr. Dennis Majoe, ETHZ

In this project we develop an educational kit to support hands-on teaching of wearable computing and the rapid prototyping and demonstration of simple context aware wearable computing systems. This kit is composed of hardware, software and algorithmic bricks that can be interfaced in a simple way using “plug-and-play” principles at the hardware and software level. Applications and demonstrations can be programmed using a dedicated development environment tailored for context-aware wearable computing applications.

“ Wearable computing: it’s about experiencing it!”

Dr. Daniel Roggen, ETHZ

EducationalKit

Education kit for wearable computing

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT

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From a technical and scientific viewpoint, wearable computing is approaching a maturity level where it can leave universities and enter the realm of industrial and consumer applications. In order to keep a competitive advantage, it is important to educate future engineers in this new technology. In the same way, university students choosing an academic career need to think about the science behind next generation wearable systems. In a broader sense, there is a need to make wearable computing more mainstream, outside of academic and engineering circles, in order to enable deployment of wearable computing driven by application scenarios.

NTF RTD

EducationalKit


TED-Activities The Nano-Tera program gathers scientists from different backgrounds – physics, chemistry, biology, microtechnology, optics, etc – working on common projects in different fields: sensors and actuators, signal processing, software, system architecture, application fields and more. This leads to a large demand for cross-disciplinary education among the scientists, which is being addressed by an internal workshops program. These events allow the community to gain insight about the work of others and encourage interactions.

Principal Investigator M.Sc. Philippe Fischer, FSRM Prof. Nicolaas de Rooij, EPFL

In order to ensure the success of the industrialization stage, there will be a need for transfer of knowledge from the research institution to the industry: this is addressed by a large continuous education program for engineers active in research and development or other professionals. Nano-Tera is pursuing scientific excellence in many technologies and in their integration into systems. For students and researchers at Swiss and foreign universities and especially for young researchers from the Nano-Tera community, condensed summer schools on specific topics are planned.

“ Courses on advanced scientific topics must be considered as pioneer work with the objective to raise early adopters for a new technology. ” Philippe Fischer, FSRM

TED-Activities

Training, education and dissemination activities

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Principal Investigator Prof. David Atienza, EPFL Dr. Vasileios Pavlidis, EPFL

This activity consists in the organization of a tutorial course on 3D integration designed to highlight the important strides that have recently been achieved in this emerging research field and introduce this potential technology to young researchers and students. It focuses on specific issues related to vertical integration and includes world-wide renowned speakers from both academia and industry in an effort to demonstrate the different approaches and objectives of each community has in 3D systems. It is also a unique opportunity to disseminate the research results and share the gained experience within the Nano-Tera.ch CMOSAIC project.

“ The development of 3D integrated systems is a clear example of a system-level interdisciplinary effort that can have a profound impact in our society. � Prof. David Atienza, EPFL

D43D

Manufacturing, design and thermal issues in 3D integrated systems

May 26 - 28, 2010 www.d43d.com

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Three-dimensional integration or vertical integration is a revolutionary paradigm that trades off the increasingly difficult horizontal expansion with the vertical growth of integrated systems, surpassing many of the limitations of the planar semiconductor substrate. These systems are forecasted to provide unprecedented computational capabilities by enabling the symbiosis of heterogeneous technologies within a single multi-plane system. Consequently, 3D integration can host a multitude of products, ranging from traditional microprocessors to sophisticated systems-on-chip and the evolving labs-on-chip. To efficiently and profitably realize these types of systems, a plethora of interdisciplinary challenges need to be addressed at the technology, system architectures and software application development levels.

NTF RTD

D43D


Nano-Tera.ch events PI meeting Principal investigators from the first wave of RTD projects as well as some invited Excom members, and NTF and ED leaders gathered in October 2009 for their first meeting.

Back row: Peter Ryser, Patrick Mayor, Yusuf Leblebici, Gerhard Tröster, Alex Dommann, Daniel Roggen, Sebastian Maerkl, Middle: Christian Schönenberger, Boi Faltings, Front row: Peter Bradley, Giovanni De Micheli, John Thome, Philippe Renaud, Ursula Keller, Christofer Hierold, Jérôme Faist, Jürgen Brugger.

Annual meeting The first Nano-Tera.ch annual meeting, assembling over 200 researchers involved in the projects or from outside the community, is held on April 29th 2010.

CMOSAIC with a head start on public visibility Despite the recent beginning of most research activities, Prof. John Thome’s CMOSAIC project (▶ p. 08) is certainly the one which has been featured the most prominently in the news so far. The development of 3D stacked architectures with interlayer cooling and the partnership established between EPFL, ETHZ and IBM has allowed to generate interest by the media, both in Switzerland and abroad. In the same context, Prof. David Atienza of EPFL, also involved in CMOSAIC has won the best paper award at the 17th annual IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration. 50

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– Inside-out perspective: Each Nano-Tera.ch project has its own WikiPage. Every collaborator involved in these projects can participate and share information such as abstracts, news, didactic videos, and interesting results published. This is an opportunity to gain larger exposure and trigger interest from peers and other parties. – Outside-in perspective: General themes related to Nano-Tera have been identified to expand the vision of the application potentials for each research field. A selection of general information and news for each theme is being gathered and organized, and the corresponding pages will grow accordingly. Through this approach, a different image of the conducted research can be created and outlined for the benefit of the Nano-Tera community and interested parties that may want to join. Innovation and value for society often result from creating a bottom-up path which takes advantage of the Nano-Tera.ch infrastructure and dynamic interaction in the melting pot of ideas. The exchange of information between researchers at all levels as well as with the outside world is paramount to catalyze output and visibility in the value chain from research to product development. This interactive website is therefore made for the community and by the community.

http://www.nano-tera.ch/topdownbottomup

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An online community of knowledge platform revolving around the Nano-Tera area of research has been developed on the initiative of Dr. Bradley, Executive Director. The objective is to offer an open web-based sharing platform with complementary inside-out and outside-in knowledge management perspectives as well as top-down and bottom-up exchanges. This dynamic will steer general interest from various level of sources, from internal and external players to the overall core research carried out within the program, to its cutting edge expertise and to promising potential applications.

NTF RTD

The Interactive Community Portal of Nano-Tera.ch


Governing bodies The Executive Committee.

Prof. Boi Faltings EPFL

Prof. Giovanni De Micheli Chair, EPFL

Prof. Nicolaas de Rooij EPFL

Dr. Alex Dommann CSEM

Prof. Christofer Hierold ETHZ

Prof. Mehdi Jazayeri USI

Prof. Lothar Thiele ETHZ

John Maxwell Webmaster

Dr. Patrick Mayor Scientific Coordinator and Reporter

Michèle Tomsa Administrative Assistant and Project Controller

The Management Office.

Dr. Peter Bradley Executive Director

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Léonore Golay-Miauton Knowledge Community Developer


SNF evaluation panel for RTD Call ’08

SNF evaluation panel for RTD Call ’09

Dr. Andrea Cuomo STMicro

Prof. Paul Leiderer Chairman University of Konstanz

Prof. Paul Leiderer Chairman University of Konstanz

Prof. Manfred Bayer TU-Dortmund

Dr. Amara Amara Institut Supérieur d’Electronique de Paris

Prof. Satoshi Goto Waseda University Prof. Nick Jennings University of Southampton Prof. Teresa Meng Stanford University Prof. Heinrich Meyr University of Aachen Prof. Patrick Aebischer Chairman and President of EPFL

Prof. Ralph Eichler President ETHZ

Prof. Khalil Najafi University of Michigan Prof. Calton Pu Georgia Tech Prof. Lina Sarro TU Delft Prof. Göran Stemme Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

Dr. David Bishop Bell Labs Dr. Frederica Darema NSF (USA) Dr. Al Dunlop Industrial Consultant Prof. Klaus Ensslin ETHZ Prof. George Gielen Leuven University Prof. Chih-Ming Ho UCLA Dr. Patrick Hunziker Uni. Hospital Basel Dr. Karl Knop SATW Prof. Jeff Magee Imperial College

Dr. Mario El-Khoury CEO CSEM

Prof. Antonio Loprieno President UniBas

Prof. Moira Norrie ETHZ Prof. Jürg Osterwalder University of Zurich Prof. Christopher Rose Rutgers University Prof. Rodney Ruoff University of Texas Prof. Hubert van den Bergh EPFL Dr. Marco Wieland Inst. Straumann AG

Prof. Piero Martinoli President USI

Prof. Martine Rahier President UniNE

Prof. Jean-Dominique Vassalli Rector University of Geneva

Dr. Frederica Darema NSF (USA) Prof. Patrick Dewilde Technische Universität München Dr. Urs Dürig IBM Zürich Prof. Klaus Ensslin ETHZ Prof. Rolf Ernst Technische Universität CaroloWilhelmina zu Braunschweig Prof. George Gielen Leuven University Prof. Chih-Ming Ho UCLA Dr. Patrick Hunziker Uni. Hospital Basel Prof. Moira Norrie ETHZ Prof. Jan Rabaey University of California Berkeley Prof. Albert van den Berg University of Twente Prof. Hubert van den Bergh EPFL Dr. Marco Wieland Nanopowers SA Prof. Hiroto Yasuura Kyushu University

Prof. Hiroto Yasuura Kyushu University

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Scientific Advisory Board

ED

The Steering Committee.


Distribution of all 105 research groups comprising

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28 institutions in 35 locations NTF RTD

Leading house EPFL Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne

ED

Consortium institutions CSEM Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology EPFL Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne ETHZ Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich UniBas University of Basel UniGE University of Geneva UniNE University of Neuch창tel USI University of Lugano Other partners ALP Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux CePO Pluridisciplinary Oncology Center CHUV University Hospital of Vaud EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research FHNW University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland FOEN FSRM GAMMA HES-SO IBM ZRL Icare IDQ IRB IST LICR PSI SPZ Symbios UNIL USZ UZH

Federal Office for the Environment Swiss Foundation for Research in Microtechnology Gamma Remote Sensing University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland IBM Zurich Research Laboratory Icare Institute id Quantique Institute for Research in Biomedicine Institute for Work and Health Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Paul Scherrer Institute Swiss Paraplegic Center University of Lausanne University Hospital of Zurich University of Zurich

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Consortium institutions

Other partners

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Edition: Dr. Patrick Mayor Scientific Coordinator and Reporter +41 21 693 81 66 patrick.mayor@nano-tera.ch Graphic design: Wauner Smith Portrait photographer: Alain Herzog Contacts: Prof. Giovanni De Micheli Program Leader +41 21 693 09 11 giovanni.demicheli@epfl.ch Dr. Peter Bradley Executive Director +41 21 693 81 62 peter.bradley@nano-tera.ch Visit our website: www.nano-tera.ch

NT 2nd edition web version  

SWISS SCIENTIFIC INITIATIVE FOR ENGINEERING COMPLEX SYSTEMS IN HEALTH, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT 2nd edition, April 2010

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