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APRIL/MAY 2018 Volume 49 Number 6
20 Road Safety 26 Special Report: RACV Growing Pains Report 30 TCA News
32 AAPA News 34 Focus on Asphalt 40 AustStab News
42 TMAA News 43 ITS Australia Feature 50 National Precast Feature 52 Bridges in Focus 54 ACA Corrosion Feature
About the Cover Transport challenges have touchpoints on many parts of society and government service delivery. The Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) has over 55 years of experience focused on delivering a connected and adaptable future for Australia and New Zealand. ARRB’s teams are made up of world-leading Roads, Transport, and Infrastructure professionals with experience from both the public and private sectors.
Turn to Page 14 for the full story.
Back to Basics
Addressing the ‘Low Tech’ requirements for our high-tech transport future Dear Readers, As many of you would know, Highway Engineering Australia (HEA) has been a long-time supporter and advocate for the introduction and expansion of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) technology across our road and transport network. Sparked by my long-term professional involvement with the IT sector (as well as my undeniable fascination with all things high-tech), I believe that ITS technology has the potential to deliver significant improvements in efficiency and productivity across the majority of industry sectors, while also improving safety, reducing travel times and reducing the environmental impact of transport and freight in general. While I’m clearly in the ‘pro ITS technology’ camp, I also believe that we, as a nation, have a significant infrastructure issue that must be addressed before we can even begin to consider the wide-spread introduction of much of this technology. The issue to which I am referring is, perhaps not surprisingly, the quality of our road network infrastructure. Put simply, as much as I (and many others I’m sure) would love to see the establishment of integrated ITS technologies across the country - including the technologies required to facilitate autonomous vehicles – the sad fact is: much of our road network is simply not up to the task.
2 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
Indeed, most of our major capital cities still have sections of unmade road within their greater metropolitan boundaries. And as for the quality of the paved road network, much of it is in dire need of repair or replacement. That aside, it’s not only about the quality of the pavement. A number of critical ITS technologies including many of the ‘driver assist’ technologies such as ‘lane departure warning systems’ now being including in many new car models – also rely on quality line marking to establish the vehicle’s physical position on the road. While I’m not about to start a blame game for the poor quality of much of our road network (after all, attempting to apportion blame does nothing to solve the issue), it’s clear that something needs to be done. In short, without the critical ‘low-tech’ components of quality pavements and high quality, clearly visible line marking, many of the high-tech components simply won’t function. Please don’t misunderstand, I’m not for one moment suggesting that we slow down on the development and implementation of ITS technology so we don’t end up trying to put the ‘cart before the horse’ – quite the contrary. What I’m suggesting is that with ITS technologies moving forward at such a rapid rate of knots, we need to really step up our game in terms of road infrastructure construction and maintenance.
Together with energy and environmental management, transport (both people and freight) is one of the biggest challenges facing our rapidly growing nation. Our expanding cities, growing population and growing national freight task are pushing our current transport infrastructure to breaking point. Our road network is being expected to cater for vehicle numbers (and sizes, and weights) for which it simply wasn’t designed …and it’s taking its toll. We need action, and we need it now! And that action requires two things – funding and cooperation. Investing in quality transport infrastructure is an excellent investment, and not something that should be constantly hand-balled to the private sector. It’s clear that the funding model for road construction and maintenance – from local and rural roads through to state and federal highways – is deeply floored. As the saying goes, ‘the proof is in the pudding’. It needs rethinking urgently. And it needs rethinking without the added burden of a party-political blame game within or between the three layers of government. Only then will we be able to develop the national road infrastructure needed to carry us into the future.
Anthony T Schmidt Managing Editor
2018 Australasian Roadmarking & Signs Conference & Exhibition
DRIVERS OF CHANGE 29th and 30th August 2018 Dubbo Convention Centre, Dubbo, NSW
CALL FOR PAPERS The Roadmarking Industry Association of Australia invites your input into the development of a highly beneficial and instructive programme for our Australasian Roadmarking & Signs Conference and Exhibition which will be held at the Dubbo Convention Centre, Dubbo, NSW on August the 29th & 30th 2018. RIAA Conferences & Exhibitions are held bi-annually and have secured a well-established reputation for successfully bringing together delegates from all aspects of the road delineation industry throughout Australasia & indeed the world.
If you are interested in presenting a paper you are invited to submit an abstract for consideration by our conference organising committee. Your abstract should detail the following: Title/Theme, Author/Presenter, an overview of the material to be covered along with any key outcomes or conclusions.
We expect over 300 local & international delegates to attend this event which includes Roadmarking & Signs Industry Contractors and Suppliers of related materials; State and Local Road Authority Personnel; Engineers and Researchers as well as Consultants and Contractors within the Traffic Engineering and Road Safety areas. Submissions of Papers & Topics relating to how road safety can be enhanced by innovative or best practice use of pavement markings, signs, roadside delineators or barriers would especially be welcome, as would papers related to improvements in processes; materials; research and development; business practices; work safety; specifications; contracts; or indeed any other topics that you feel would be of benefit to our delegates.
Please send your abstract (preferably by email) by no later than May 31 to: Roadmarking Industry Association of Australia PO Box 5070, Hallam, Victoria 3803 T: 1300 625 983 (Intâ€™l 03 8679 5290) E: email@example.com | W: www.riaa.com.au
NSW government can lead the charge on telematics The Australian Logistics Council (ALC) has called on the NSW Government to take a leadership role and advocate for significant changes to the Heavy Vehicle National Law (HVNL). “ALC’s submission to the Inquiry into Heavy Vehicle Safety and Use of Technology to Improve Road Safety again reinforces the need for telematics to become mandatory in heavy vehicles,” said ALC Managing Director, Michael Kilgariff. The Inquiry is being undertaken by the Joint Standing Committee on Road Safety (Staysafe Committee) – a Committee of the New South Wales Parliament. “ALC has a longstanding record of advocating for the mandatory use of telematics,” Mr Kilgariff said. “In providing this submission, ALC has released a four-stage blueprint for the introduction of mandatory telematics (see below). “Telematics can help to improve heavy vehicle safety by providing truck drivers and transport operators with data that can detect any illegal and unsafe driving practices. “As Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales can play a key role in improving heavy vehicle safety by leading the charge for mandatory telematics. “The feedback we have received from industry, most recently at ALC Forum 2018, is that the mandatory use of telematics is essential to driving efficiency and safety improvements in the heavy vehicle sector,” Mr Kilgariff said. “Indeed, earlier this year, the Managing Director of Toll Group, Michael Byrne, wrote to the Prime Minister indicating their support for mandatory telematics. “Linfox Logistics has also supported ALC’s position, publishing our blueprint in their submission to the Inquiry. “Furthermore, ALC’s continuing discussions with industry participants regarding the
4 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy indicate that industry is continuing to embrace innovative technological solutions.” “This means it is now easier than ever to collect reliable data that can shape the development of a more efficient and safer freight transport network.” “Industry is grasping the nettle when it comes to telematics. Now is the time for governments to do likewise,” Mr Kilgariff concluded. For further information, please visit: www.austlogistics.com.au
Number of Electric Cars Rises from 2 to Over 3 Million The number of electric cars worldwide rose to 3.2 million according to a count taken at the beginning of 2018. Some 1.2 million are on the road in China, followed by 750,000 in the United States of America. Germany remains in eighth place with just short of 93,000 cars. Last year was a record-setter with 1.2 million new registrations. These figures were determined in a recent survey conducted by the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW). The researchers' analysis showed that the Chinese brands BYD and BAIC accounted for the greatest number of new registrations. Last year's most successful western automaker Tesla retained the top spot this year with 86,700 new registrations, despite the delays in the Model 3's rollout. BMW finished fourth, followed by VW in fifth place. Recent years' sharp increase in new registrations continued unabated in 2017 with around 55 percent growth. "If the rate remains anywhere near that, the number of electric vehicles registered annually will exceed 25 million by 2025," says Prof. Werner Tillmetz, a member of ZSW's board of directors and head of the Electrochemical Energy Technologies division. This is in line with announcements made by many manufacturers that they retooled a quarter of their manufacturing for electric vehicles within just seven years. As Tillmetz goes on to point out, "Growth rates like these also require enormous expansions in cell production. Market demand for cell capacity will then come to more than 1,000 gigawatt hours per year. That is tantamount to twenty new gigabyte battery factories and more than €100 billion in investments - all within just a few years. It will
take a broad investment campaign on the part of German and European industries to steer clear of the looming supply bottlenecks and strategic dependencies." Transportation powered by electricity is surging in many countries, above all in China. It is the world's most dynamic market in legacy vehicles and new registrations 1,212,280 electric cars are rolling on China's roads these days. The count nearly doubled in 2017 with 579,000 new registrations. The USA held onto second place with 751,510 e-cars, including last year's 195,140 newly registered vehicles. Japan ranks third with 201,410 cars. Norway is in fourth place, where authorities tallied 187,270 cars, an increase of 62,320. Norway is also at the top of the table when it comes to e-cars' percentage share of all passenger cars. They accounted for 39.3 percent of cars newly registered in 2017 and 6.2 percent of all cars on the nation's roads. Germany still fares relatively poorly compared to other counters. On the upside, the number of electric vehicles nearly doubled to 92,740 from 2016 to 2017. The count increased by 54,490, which means that Germany is tied with Japan, but still behind Norway, which has a population of just five million. E-car's share of new registrations in Germany came to 1.6 percent. The world's most successful manufacturers are China's Build Your Dreams (BYD) and Beijing Automotive Industry Holding (BAIC), with each accounting for around 100,000 electric cars registered in 2017. Tesla ranks third in the world with 86,770 electric cars. German automakers put in a good showing in terms of new registrations in 2017. BMW took fourth place with 67,940 vehicles, followed by VW with 52,250 e-cars. The German automotive industry sold around 146,000 electric vehicles altogether worldwide. Just 35,000 of these, or 24 percent of the total, were sold on the home market. ZSW's researchers counted cars with battery-powered electric drives, range extenders and plug-in hybrids; that is, all vehicles that are charged with electrical power. Full and mild hybrids and vehicles equipped with fuel cell technology were not taken into account. This analysis is based on data from the German Federal Motor Transport Authority, government agencies and NGOs abroad, and other sources.
The 5th International Federation of Structural Concrete (fib) Congress is coming to Australia in 2018.
7–11 October 2018
The Congress, focusing on the theme “Better – Smarter – Stronger”, is dedicated to bringing together leaders and practitioners in the concrete industry from all over the world. The multidisciplinary theme of the Congress provides an excellent forum to share knowledge, and to learn about advances in the concrete world. With over 580 abstracts submitted from over 50 countries and across 25 themes, there is something for everybody!
Registration Now Open
Features include: • 4 day technical program with over 350 presentations • 5 excellent key note speakers from around the globe • Exhibitors of concrete products & services from all over the world • fib Awards for Outstanding Concrete Structures Gala Dinner • Opportunities to connect with world leading concrete practitioners A Conference of this type is a once in a life time opportunity for the Australian concrete industry to show the world what we can do in our own backyard. Head to our website to secure your registration and find out more.
Professor Stephen Foster Congress Chair
New bus weight limit worth its weight in gold New South Wales bus operators will be the big winners following the recent announcement by the NSW Government to increase weight limits for three-axle buses. Minister for Roads, Maritime and Freight Melinda Pavey said raising the gross mass limit for the buses from 20.5 to 22 tonnes would help bus operators improve efficiency. “Today’s coaches carry a lot of extra equipment from wheelchair lifts to entertainment and toilet facilities which all add considerable weight to the vehicles. “NSW bus operators will now be able apply for a permit for the increased 22-tonne mass limit to operate on our roads.” A NSW Government review also found three-axle buses operating at 22 tonnes cause less road wear than two-axle buses operating at the maximum legal weight of 18 tonnes. Parliamentary Secretary for the Illawarra and South Coast Gareth Ward said buses operating at the new weight limit would also improve safety. “Buses operating at the new 22-tonne mass limit will also be safer as they will need to have anti-lock braking and electronic braking systems installed as well as electronic stability control to qualify for a permit,” Mr Ward said. “The three-axle bus mass limits are also being reviewed by the National Transport Commission to work towards a consistent national approach.” BusNSW Executive Director Matt Threlkeld said the new limits would particularly benefit long distance express coaches.
“Coaches are always picking up new passengers and luggage along their routes. The increased weight limits will give drivers the confidence to use the vehicle’s full seating capacity, meet safety standards and comply with the law,” Mr Threlkeld said.
Digital transformation of rail freight market a US$339 billion opportunity for US and Europe
Rail freight transport technology adoption is beginning to evolve just as commercial trucking did over the last five to ten years. ABI Research, a market-foresight advisory firm providing strategic guidance on the most compelling transformative technologies, finds that the Positive Train Control (PTC) regulation set for December 2018 in the United States and the European Train Control System regulation will be a tipping point for additive technology adoption. The purpose of the new regulation is to offer safety benefits
in a similar way to the electronic logging device (ELD) mandate for commercial trucking a year earlier. “Relatively nascent technologies developing for freight include: alt fuel/energy efficient locomotives and wagons, train control systems, video surveillance, predictive maintenance, intelligent rail infrastructure and operations, Freight Information Systems (FIS), and safety systems,” states Susan Beardslee, Senior Analyst at ABI Research. “Companies like Commtrex, Railnova, Cylus, and Activu are addressing industry pain points with asset marketplaces, predictive maintenance, cybersecurity, and visualization which may increase freight’s current 16% share of total transport revenues.” Tier-One Bosch is working with SBB Cargo on Asset Monitoring for Railway Applications (AMRA). Alstom is bringing rail autonomy to the Netherlands this year, with an approximate 62-mile test track. BNSF (owned by Berkshire Hathaway) recently became the first rail company to join the Blockchain in Transport Alliance (BiTA). The Thales Group’s CyberRail solution was designed to protect critical data infrastructures such as operation control centres. 4G growth is expected to top 3 million connections in rail by 2021, the same year that 5G is expected to see initial adoption. The next stage of intermodal “intelligence” adoption is poised to be rail. “Rail networks must reinvent themselves from centuries-old commodities transport into real-time, interoperable, and dynamic systems that are invaluable to a 21st Century supply chain. This can be accomplished through an integrated transportation ecosystem, greater resource utilization, and the creation of new value-added services,” concludes Beardslee. These findings are from ABI Research’s Rail Freight Digitization and Innovation report. This report is part of the company’s Intelligent Transportation & eFreight research service, which includes research, data, and Executive Foresights. About ABI Research ABI Research provides strategic guidance for visionaries needing market foresight on the most compelling transformative technologies, which reshape workforces, identify holes in a market, create new business models and drive new revenue streams. ABI’s own research visionaries take stances early on those technologies, publishing ground-breaking studies often years ahead of other technology advisory firms. ABI analysts deliver their conclusions and recommendations in easily and quickly
Minister for Roads, Maritime and Freight Melinda Pavey today was joined by Member for Kiama Gareth Ward, NSW Bus and Coach Association NSW and Premier Transport Group to announce increased weight limits for three-axle buses.
6 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
absorbed formats to ensure proper context. For more information about ABI Research’s forecasting, consulting and teardown services, please visit: www.abiresearch.com
INDUSTRY NEWS An aerial drone fitted with specialist LIDAR imaging equipment ready for lift-off on Melbourne’s Eastlink.
Aerial drone captures lidar map of Eastlink tunnel to prepare for future trials of fully self-driving cars To enable the operation of most fully selfdriving car prototypes, the road network needs to be mapped in high resolution. When EastLink’s Mullum Mullum tunnel in suburban Melbourne was closed for overnight maintenance recently, Telstra’s aerial drone captured a LIDAR map of the tunnel. This brings the EastLink tunnel a step closer to being able to support safe trials of fully self-driving cars. LIDAR is a digital surveying technology that uses a rapidly pulsing laser light to build up an accurate 3-D representation of the area being surveyed. One of the applications for LIDAR is to make high resolution 3-D maps. LIDAR maps are used by most of the latest fully self-driving car prototypes, which are now under-going trials overseas in places like San Francisco. These fully self-driving cars are preloaded with a LIDAR map of the trials area in which they are permitted to fully self-drive themselves. The cars also have their own LIDAR scanner which captures a real-time LIDAR view of the vehicle’s surroundings. The fully autonomous driving system within these prototype cars compares the real-time LIDAR view against the pre-loaded LIDAR map to significantly increase the accuracy of their self-positioning system, as well as to help identify other objects
that the car needs to avoid – such as pedestrians, cyclists, animals and other vehicles. EastLink corporate affairs and marketing manager Doug Spencer-Roy explained, “Over the past year, EastLink has been trialling the latest driver assistance functions now available to the Australian public in some production vehicles. Those trials have already identified opportunities to improve the operation of those functions. By starting the process of capturing high resolution LIDAR maps of EastLink, we have now embarked on preparing EastLink for safe trials, under controlled conditions, of fully self-driving vehicles.” “As an added bonus, LIDAR maps of the EastLink tunnels can also be used to support our maintenance activities, by allowing the details of the tunnel infrastructure to be viewed in 3-D when planning maintenance works,” he added. Telstra provided the aerial drone, LIDAR scanner and LIDAR map data processing. Telstra’s experienced pilot controlled the drone as it flew through the EastLink tunnel to capture the LIDAR map. Telstra Enterprise’s executive director growth, Andrew Wildblood said, “Drones are an important emerging technology that will have many applications and benefits for
our business, our customers and the wider community.” “Telstra will continue to play an important role in this space, with our world class network enabling our customers to take advantage of drone technology now and into the future. Telstra has a dedicated cross-company drone team that are actively exploring the efficiency, cost reduction and safety benefits that drones can deliver our customers, like EastLink, across a number of different industry sectors.” In EastLink’s recent Annual Victorian SelfDriving Vehicle Survey, 29% of the 15,000 survey respondents said they wanted their next vehicle to fully self-drive on all roads. However, it will be years before fully selfdriving cars are introduced for the public in Australia. In the meantime, fully self-driving car prototypes need to be trialled here safely, under controlled conditions. Doug Spencer-Roy concluded, “Trials of fully self-driving car prototypes need to be conducted under controlled conditions on Australian roads to test their safe operation in Australian environments, including our urban streets, arterial roads, freeways and tunnels. To enable these trials, the trial sites first need to be mapped in high resolution. With the LIDAR mapping of EastLink’s Mullum Mullum tunnel by Telstra’s aerial drone, we have now started that process.”
The Australian Railway Historical Society NSW Division latest publication, The Hawkesbury River Railway Bridges by Bill Phippen OAM, is a fascinating and comprehensive history, well worth reading for historians, engineers and railfans alike. on the ge, Brid largest way third 1889, r Rail the in y Rive , was een built betw a kesbur ney NSW it was nection ed by he Hawts of Syd ld when ay con er Separat ld nev outskir in the wor the railw ia. cou le in ge brid l link Austral colonies workab as out the fina nies of h, the with said was colo kes of bus nation and his le ry Par before eastern metres t the a sing kilo . Hen ths into brough mon them sand ge, thou rated between brid ge was es from fede the brid piec an have links g of . The ds of sport Americ openin address san by tran ons at the eld of thou embled foundati e much ass aps Tenterfi in tens ly the and s to coll a ship famous York n. Sad e close t as ing New kme mos in sail w and l wor bridge cam ded it ent of loca the ia nee Departm ge Glasgo rs and t brid ed and n Austral th. The men enginee promis ace were e whe the nor com a repl projects the tim line to were new r build 9, at ply ed to n othe er. At the in 193 time sup ways’ pow continu war whe war man the Rail icated vital s of NSWrs of the erial or aps perh d, fabr . Railway the yea t of mat 6 it was igne tion wan des ing n for 194 niza dur ned ion in ing bee the orga abando complet t, hav within men ge’s ely brid achieve complet test cted grea constru and
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The Hawkesbury River Bridge is the largest single asset in the care of the Sydney Trains. Situated in an obscure bend in the river it is unseen by the public, except when they cross it. Two bridges have had to be built, side by side, both technically challenging for their time, and both requiring spectacular, and well photographed, engineering feats to move the huge steel spans into place.
8 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
PLEASE ORDER AT PHONE: (02)96994595 EMAIL firstname.lastname@example.org
Bill Phippen was born in Sydney in 1950. He graduated in Civil Engineering from Sydney University in 1976. Bill was elected to the Founding Board where he served continuously until 2017. From 1996 until 2012 Bill was the President of TAD. In 2010 he was named by the Sydney Morning Herald as one of the 100 most influential people in Sydney. In 2013 Engineers Australia named Bill as one of the 100 most influential engineers in Australia. Bill is a member of the Engineers Australia Sydney Division Heritage Committee.
John Holland tackles gender pay equity John Holland has announced a win for gender pay parity – adjusting the salary of women found to be paid less than their male colleagues across the business. CEO Joe Barr said the company identified 15 per cent of women were being paid less than men and acted immediately to fix the problem. “The construction industry hasn’t typically led the way when it comes to providing a level playing field for women, but that’s something I am determined to change,” Joe said. “I want John Holland to be a great place to work where everyone is treated fairly and has the same opportunities to be their best. I also want that for our whole industry and John Holland needs to play its part.” Gender pay equity is about ensuring women and men performing the same role are paid the same amount, and women and men performing different work of equal or comparable value are paid fairly. “John Holland has now told employees we will stamp out the gender pay gap where it exists. Fixing salaries immediately is the first step, and now the challenge is making sure pay gaps doesn’t creep back in. “This is about truly understanding and addressing the issues that create pay inequity in the first place. As part of my role I’ve held gender forums across the business to get to the bottom of these issues. “Our commitment on gender pay is just the start. We’ve got a lot more to do when it comes to making our workplace more inclusive for everyone, especially women. It’s something I am passionate about because it’s not only good for our business, it will lift our whole industry. “Our next focus is on embedding a flexibility and wellbeing culture into the business – no small feat in construction and property. We already offer lots of benefits to our people to promote flexible working and I want to lead the way to make this a reality on John Holland work sites.” Joe Barr was also named a Pay Equity Ambassador by the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA).
Infrastructure Australia updates its Priority List The Australian Government has welcomed the 2018 Infrastructure Priority List which was released recently by Infrastructure Australia. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Transport Michael McCormack said the Priority List is critical in informing all levels of government and the private sector on what priority projects and initiatives are under development across the country. “I am particularly pleased to see the addition of two major Queensland projects to the list following the assessment by Infrastructure Australia as having the potential to improve connectivity and reduce urban congestion,” Mr McCormack said. “The Brisbane Metro with its focus on bus services in inner Brisbane to improve bottlenecks on the South East busway has been assessed as a High Priority project on today’s list.
“The Beerburrum to Nambour Rail Upgrade has also made the list for the first time as a Priority project which will significantly enhance access to Brisbane from the north. “The Australian Government will continue to commit to the infrastructure Australia needs. We are making a record $75 billion investment into nation building projects which is contributing to new heights for both economic growth and job creation across Australia.” Minister for Urban Infrastructure Paul Fletcher said the updated Priority List provided important input into the Government’s deliberations on which major national infrastructure projects should receive Federal funding. “Of the 12 high-priority and priority projects in the Infrastructure Priority List released today, the Australian Government has already committed funding to seven,” Mr Fletcher said. “The Infrastructure Australia Priority List is a dynamic document, with ten projects having now dropped off the list because the Government has committed funding to them allowing construction to commence. This illustrates our strong, ongoing commitment to delivering quality, nationally significant infrastructure. “We will be considering further investment in priority infrastructure in the 2018 Budget,” Mr Fletcher said. Infrastructure Australia is the Government’s national infrastructure advisory body, with a key role in assessing business cases for major projects seeking Australian Government funding, and maintaining the IPL to inform future government and private sector investment decisions.
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April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 9
Hyperloop TT Opens First Global Innovation Centre for Logistics in Brazil Hyperloop Transportation Technologies (HyperloopTT) recently announced the establishment of HyperloopTT's XO Square as part of a new multi-million dollar agreement with Brazil in Contagem, Minas Gerais. Located on 5.4 acres, the massive XO Square facility will house the company's new HyperloopTT logistic research division, a fabrication lab, and an ecosystem of leading global companies, startups, universities, innovators, scientists, and governments from all around the world focused on solving growing issues in logistics. The centre is officially supported by the Government of the State of Minas Gerais, the State of Minas Gerais Research Foundation (FAPEMIG), the Federation of Industries of the State of Minas Gerais (FIEMG), and the Municipality of Contagem. The agreement was made through a public-private partnership (PPP) with an investment of approximately $7.85 million in its first phase, which includes contributions from HyperloopTT, the Secretariat of Economic Development, Science, Technology and Higher Education (SEDECTES), and private investors. In addition, the physical space of 5.4 acres and 43,000 square feet of constructed space has been provided by the Municipality of Contagem. "The State of Minas Gerais, and the municipality of Contagem in particular, are one of the most significant logistics distribution hubs for Brazil," said Bibop Gresta, Chairman of HyperloopTT. "With a strategic geographic position, a high concentration of large industries, and a dedication to innovation, it is an ideal location for HyperloopTT's XO Square." "We set out to fix transportation nearly five years ago, yet there are many issues
10 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
that need to be solved beyond building the Hyperloop. Ecosystems like XO Square are critical to helping us solve these challenges together," said Dirk Ahlborn, CEO of HyperloopTT. "If you have or are looking for logistics solutions, come to Brazil." "The government of Minas Gerais works towards promoting the State's innovation and entrepreneurship scenario, encouraging young people to become involved in research and technology. Our objective is to connect large companies and startups, generating businesses and smart solutions for different areas," said State Secretary of SEDECTES, Miguel Corrêa. “Knowing that Minas Gerais will host HyperloopTT's research centre, means that we are contributing with the State's economic growth throughout different paths, such as science, technology and innovation. This choice strengthens and boosts credibility for the actions being developed by the government.” According to the Mayor of Contagem, the public administration has worked to attract innovation, taking advantage of the city's logistics capacity, in addition to investments of more than R$ 1 billion to be made in urban mobility in the next three years. "Contagem is known as the cradle of the State's industry and we are betting on a new industrial revolution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte. The effects of this will be very positive in the sense of generating wealth and knowledge and in the self-esteem of the population," said Alex de Freita, the Mayor of Contagem.
Improvements on the way, but Victoria’s rail far from OnTrack Victorians have spoken, naming Wyndham Vale, Bentleigh and Waurn Ponds as Victoria’s best stations; while giving Donnybrook, Ruthven and Aircraft stations the thumbs down as Victoria’s worst railway stations. Wyndham Vale, Donnybrook and Waurn Ponds are on the VLine network. RACV’s On Track survey is Victoria’s most comprehensive rail satisfaction survey, asking Victorians why they take the train, what they like and dislike about their station or service, as well as how they rate their station. Feedback from previous On Track surveys has assisted with the design of new stations, and this year’s survey demonstrates that many
of the findings of the last survey have been factored into newly-built stations. Wyndham Vale continues to be Victoria’s most-liked station due to its strong design features that have kept it at number one two years on from opening. Bentleigh, McKinnon and Ormond stations have jumped to number two, five and four respectively thanks to rebuilds as part of the Level Crossing Removal Program. “Without doubt, the rebuilding of many stations as part of the Level Crossing Removal Program has influenced the ratings immensely from last year, and when the level crossing work is complete, we’d expect many poorly-rated stations along the Dandenong corridor such as Murrumbeena and Carnegie to have big increases in passenger satisfaction in the next survey”, said Dave Jones, RACV’s Manager of Mobility Advocacy. Donnybrook, Ruthven and Aircraft scored poorly due to basic station designs with limited shelter, as well as poor transport interchanges and complimentary bus services. “Stations like Donnybrook and Aircraft are near major growth areas where housing estates have boomed, but the stations and local transport haven’t kept up with demand. Passengers at stations such as Donnybrook and Aircraft struggle to find car parks, bus connections are limited, and the station environment unpleasant. No wonder they rate poorly,” Mr Jones said. “It is imperative that we see improvements to these poorly rated stations to not only improve the commute of those who use these stations daily, but also to encourage more Victorians in these growth areas to use public transport and take pressure of our roads”, Mr Jones added. Other common complaints included overcrowding, infrequent services, and the regular use of replacement busses on V/Lineoperated services. “It’s clear that more work needs to be done to improve the reliability of our rail services. 20 per cent of OnTrack survey respondents cited the convenience of using a car over public transport – and with Melbourne’s projected population growth – this is not sustainable”, Mr Jones said. Full details of RACV’s On Track survey are available at: www.racv.com.au/ontracksurvey
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When you want to know what just happened... or why it happened... or which components failed... and when... and why... Finite Element (FE) Modelling with LS Dyna and other specialised software is the most revealing set of tools
When you want LS Dyna models or other tools, you need an experienced team with mega computing capacity. After all, the accuracy of the data and computations is critical - lives depend on it! Knowledge and experience work hand in glove for the best results, and at if3 and GDTech we have both the knowledge, experience and computational capacity to meet all of your Finite Element (FE) Analysis modelLing needs - from vehicle safety barriers, roadside structures and vehicles, through to aerospace, structural, thermo dynamic, light, explosives and ballistics.
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Global Design TECHNOLOGY (GDTech) have been modelling in the aerospace industry for almost 3 decades and modelling vehicles and safety barriers since 2002 delivering unrivaled experience and capacity • 180 Engineers and Technical staff • Outstanding Computational Capacity • 80 LS-Dyna licences • 1 cluster >1000Gb RAM • 2 clusters > 128 cores each • 15 years of experience Modelling crash barriers • Worldwide collaboration with manufacturers installation companies & road authorities • Involvement in Standardization Committees (EN1317, NCHRP350, MASH) • Involvement in International Federations (ERF: Europe and IRF: International) • Cost effective • Extensive library of established modelling tools and sets • Exisiting modelling sets for a wide range of standard materials and a wide range of vehicles including heavy vehicles and motorcycles • Team of 10 SPECIALIST CRASH simulation engineers
SHAPING A SMARTER TRANSPORT FUTURE Australia and New Zealand are on the verge of extraordinary change: from the way we travel and connect, to where we live and how we work. Australia’s cities are home to 90% of the nation’s population and growing faster than anywhere else in the developed world. Outside of cities, our road network density is the lowest in the world. Seasonal rains or extreme weather events can create the longest detours in the world. A forward thinking approach is needed to bring about a reset moment in how we manage the unique and often contradictory challenges of our transport system and to focus on its future. The Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) has over 55 years of experience focused on delivering a connected and adaptable future for Australia and New Zealand. ARRB has a three-pronged approach to building a smart, connected transport network that will support future technological innovation. First, develop homegrown knowledge and expertise to identify and overcome the challenges we’ll face in future decades, making our cities smarter, cleaner, greener, safer, more efficient and more productive. Second, analyse and interpret global trends, continually applying them to the Australian and New Zealand context. Finally, collaborate with the best researchers, practitioners and organisations in Australia, New Zealand and across the globe.
BUILDING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE
ARRB is focused on five key outcome areas:
Australian urbanisation rates are higher than anywhere else in the developed world. But unlike many major global cities, Australian metropolitan and urban areas have much lower population density. Melbourne, for example, has three times the land area and only half the population of London.
Future Transport Infrastructure; infrastructure which serves future needs as much as it does yesterday’s needs
Safe Systems / Human Factors; user safety & security on our transport system, and understanding human decision making as a key system design criterion
Sustainability and Resilience; ensuring that our transport systems work for an appropriate level of investment, can adapt to change/ disaster and cause no environmental harm
Future Transport Technology; seizing the opportunities to improve customer experience which rapid advances in technology offer
Next Generation Asset Management; Redefining to allow scarce skilled decision makers to focus on decision-making and not repetitive, routine tasks.
Population growth in a growing economy translates to even greater transport asset maintenance challenges. In response to these domestic challenges, ARRB is involved in a range of local transport technology and infrastructure development and testing programs. ARRB is harnessing the value of transformative technology to: • Predict future disruptive opportunities and challenges • Meet growing community needs and aspirations • Simplify complex decision making ARRB sees great value in developing adaptive and affordable infrastructure for future generations. In particular, we deliver: • Improved resilience • Better access and journey experience • The right infrastructure choices for the community
ARRB has earned a reputation for independent advice, scientific integrity, and professional excellence and is recognised for its critical role in improving productivity, safety, sustainability and amenity outcomes on Australia’s transport network.
BRINGING GLOBAL INNOVATION HOME The global transport sector is already building smart connected roads that can communicate with vehicles and drivers about safety hazards while generating clean power to fuel our cities. At ARRB we are bringing that practical knowledge to Australia and New Zealand as we prepare for a connected future. For example, in partnership with Australia & New Zealand Driverless Vehicle Initiative (ADVI), ARRB is testing autonomous heavy vehicle “platooning” along our highways to increase efficiency, improve driver safety and lower freight costs for consumers. We are also testing a range of world leading resilience and security technologies and approaches: • Optimising recovery and rehabilitation models for the transport system • Deliver an improved and informed understanding of security challenges that face the network • Embed a safe system approach to transport solutions By continuing to engage with and learn from global experience, ARRB ensures that Australian road providers have the knowledge and skills they need to bring the world’s best road and transportation experiences to Australian road users.
COLLABORATION AND PEOPLE Transport challenges have touchpoints on many parts of society and government service delivery. They can no longer be solved by a single discipline. Instead, the solutions must be based on collaboration. ARRB collaborates with people and organisations that have the skills and experience to help us better and more quickly achieve our objectives. We build multi-disciplinary teams with highly evolved skills, to deliver: • Best practice solutions to address transport challenges to serve our members; • Efficient, timely and cost-effective business solutions; and • Apply world’s best practice in everything we do Our teams are made up of world-leading Roads, Transport, and Infrastructure professionals with experience from both the public and private sectors. We work closely on projects with Engineers; Road and transport infrastructure design professionals; construction and maintenance specialists; road safety specialists; asset managers; purchasing and procurement professionals; fleet and equipment managers; traffic management specialists and ITS professionals.
The mobility solutions of the future will require different skills, technologies and ideas – and better collaboration.
WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROAD RESEARCH AND INNOVATION PROGRAM (WARRIP)
The future of mobility isn’t just about getting from A to B - it will change how we live. It will affect the supply chain and operating models of countless businesses. It could open new possibilities for people whose access is currently limited through disadvantage, infirmity or age.
The Western Australian Road Research and Innovation Program (WARRIP) is a partnership between ARRB and Main Roads Western Australia focussing on pavements; asset management; structures and bituminous surfacing; and investment in the technology and systems necessary to gain a better knowledge of the condition and capacity of current and proposed assets.
Innovation will not come from a single organisation operating in isolation. Our collaborations are being driven by a unifying focus on the public, our biggest client. From Smart roads, Autonomous vehicles and data collection/application. Australia’s mobility solutions will be best designed by continuing to work together – by collaborating with new partners, from business right through to government. ARRB has a proven track record of collaboration, internationally and locally, with organisations to improve the roads and transport infrastructure to benefit all Australians and New Zealanders.
The WARRIP Program is an integral part of Main Roads WA’s commitment to developing a culture of sustainability internally, in the industry and across the community.
NATIONAL ROAD SAFETY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (NRSPP) The National Road Safety Partnership Program (NRSPP) brings together industry, government and researchers to help develop and share evidence- based solutions and promote road safety in the community where they operate. The program aims to help businesses and organisations create a positive road safety culture both internally and externally.
The diverse NACoE program has a strong focus on pavements, asset management and structures research. It targets international best practice, providing guidance to reduce excessive conservatism and allow the use of innovative materials, and translating new knowledge into best practice. The NACoE’s major developments include: • Savings and performance: EME2 • Sustainability: Crumb rubber modified binder • Durability: Foamed bitumen stabilisation • Benefits in excess of the cost
We have already achieved outstanding outcomes in the areas of cost saving and performance, sustainability, safety and reliability. TMR Director-General, Neil Scales OBE recently told Infrastructure Magazine.
In partnership with ARRB, IRSM was awarded the road network condition surveys for the Government of Andhra Pradesh, within both the Andhra and Rayalaseema regions, totalling 43,000 km.
EME2 Over the past two years we have been involved in an effort to transfer EME2 asphalt technology to Australasia from France. Two research projects were commissioned to facilitate the technology transfer. Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads has invested in the development of guidelines for the structural design of pavements containing EME2. A key characteristic of this effort is the involvement of, and in-kind contributions from, various industry partners including the Brisbane City Council – the use of one of its roads allowed for the evaluation of pavement design concepts and in situ performance of EME2. We carried out the pavement design and the site setup and is also performing the ongoing performance monitoring. Australasia is now preparing for implementation of this technology and will lead to more cost-effective pavement designs and more sustainable use of scarce pavement materials.
NATIONAL ASSET CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE (NACOE) The National Asset Centre of Excellence (NACoE) is an ARRB collaboration with the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR). NACoE was established to improve the specialist capability and capacity of both TMR and ARRB through a sustained, collaborative program of challenging projects which unlock innovation and deliver superior technology and road transport solutions.
In just six years, IRSM has established itself as a professional provider of road data assessment, continuing to grow and expand its operations. Its primary business is road surface condition surveys, along with pavement strength testing (via Falling Weight Deflectometer). IRSM has successfully grown its work capacity by winning a number of significant data collection projects in India.
AUSTRALIAN & NEW ZEALAND DRIVERLESS VEHICLE INITIATIVE (ADVI) Self-driving vehicles will make driving easier, allow people to be more productive and offer greater mobility to a wider range of people than ever before. They will also help improve road safety, reduce emissions, and ease congestion. As a result, self-driving vehicles will provide significant economic, environmental and social benefits, including improving social inclusion. The key thrust of the ADVI is to build momentum by rapidly exploring the impacts and requirements of this new technology in a truly Australian context and making recommendations on ways to safely and successfully bring self-driving vehicles to Australian roads. To do this we will raise public awareness through live demonstrations involving government, industry, research entities and the media. The intention is to provide an avenue to showcase the involvement and contributions of collaborating partners involved in this important initiative.
INDIAN ROAD SURVEY & MANAGEMENT (IRSM) In operation since 2009, ARRB’s Indian joint venture company, IIRSM was established to provide efficient and cost effective data rating services.
At ARRB we understand that the success of transport infrastructure projects hinges on your ability to choose partners that understand the unique requirements of the Australian transport landscape. The peace of mind you experience working alongside a partner who is able to support you across the breadth of your operation enables you to focus on results - and that can often be the difference. In a competitive marketplace of providers large, small, local, regional and national the challenge is to identify the right partner for your specific project needs. Regardless of scale or the level of technical complexity, ARRB delivers specialist expertise, responsiveness and support you can rely on - each and every time. For more information on future collaborations visit ARRB.com.au
PARTNERING WITH ARRB TRANSPORT CHALLENGES ARE MULTIDISCIPLINARY & REQUIRE BOTH DEEP & WIDE SKILL SETS TO SOLVE. AT ARRB WE HAVE
INVESTED IN THE BEST PEOPLE WITH BOTH NATIONAL &
INTERNATIONAL REPUTATIONS TO COLLABORATE & SOLVE THE NEXT GENERATION OF TRANSPORT CHALLENGES. MICHAEL CALTABIANO CEO OF ARRB
Artist’s Rendering of the planned LAX Automated People Mover Image courtesy Urbanize LA
Fluor Team Selected for LAX Automated People Mover Fluor Corporation recently announced that its joint venture team was selected as the preferred proponent to design-build, finance, operate and maintain the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) Automated People Mover project for the Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA). Fluor plans to book its share of the contract value later this year. “We are excited to join with LAWA on its first public-private partnership, providing a best-value technical and financial solution to extend LAX’s world-class facilities, reduce congestion and provide time-certain travel options,” said Hans Dekker, president of Fluor’s infrastructure business. “The selection of the Fluor team further solidifies Fluor’s industry-leading ability to successfully manage complex public-private partnership (P3) projects. The project will benefit from Fluor’s megaproject and transit expertise, including the Eagle Commuter Rail P3 project in Denver and Maryland’s Purple Line Light Rail Transit P3, and the recently awarded design-build Green Line project in Boston. We are proud to enter into a longterm partnership with Los Angeles World Airports to deliver this world-class transit link using our proven integrated life-cycle approach and experience.” The project includes a total of six stations that will connect a new consolidated rental car facility, intermodal transportation facilities, expanded airport parking and Metro transit to the airline terminals. The project will provide reliable, time-certain access to the airline terminals for passengers and employees. It will transform the experience for travellers at one of America’s busiest and most iconic airports, while bringing jobs and workforce development opportunities to the local community.
18 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
Fluor will participate in every phase of the 30-year project. Fluor is an equity member of the LAX Integrated Express Solutions (LINXS) development team, along with partners Balfour Beatty, Hochtief, ACS and Bombardier. Fluor will also lead the designbuild joint venture team, which includes LINXS Constructors, along with partners Balfour Beatty, Flatiron and Dragados. Design and construction is scheduled to begin later this year, with passenger service scheduled for 2023. Following the construction, LINXS Operators, comprising Fluor, Bombardier, Hochtief and ACS will provide approximately 25 years of operations and maintenance services. About Fluor Corporation Fluor Corporation is a global engineering, procurement, fabrication, construction and maintenance company that designs, builds and maintains capital-efficient facilities for its clients on six continents. For more than a century, Fluor has served its clients by delivering innovative and integrated solutions across the globe. With headquarters in Irving, Texas, Fluor ranks 149 on the Fortune 500 list with revenue of $19 billion in 2016 and has more than 60,000 employees worldwide. For more information, please visit www.fluor.com
Melbourne Airport train needs to be part of a broader transport plan RMIT University infrastructure and urban planning expert Professor Jago Dodson says a new rail link for Melbourne’s airport is welcome news, but needs to be part of a broader transport plan if it is to have major benefit. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull recently pledged $5 billion for a long-awaited rail line connecting the airport with the CBD.
The project’s total price tag could rise to $15 billion. "The proposal by the Federal government is welcome news from the perspective of improving Melbourne's rail network and its integration with a major activity node,” Dodson says. “However, a big concern is that the Airport link is happening outside of any clear transport plan for metropolitan Melbourne, because the Victorian government has no transport plan. “We have no clear formal assessment whether the $15 billion to be spent on Airport rail is preferable in terms of costs and benefits to commencing the second metro link, or expanding suburban rail access to underserved growth areas, or other public transport improvement. "And the eventual route needs to include opportunities for urban redevelopment beyond rapid airport access. For example, an Upfield alignment could enable redevelopment of the former Ford factory site.” Dodson warns it would be foolish to steam ahead with a new rail link without considering the bigger picture for Melbourne’s already heaving public transport network. This includes limiting road use. “We need to expand the Melbourne metropolitan rail network far beyond the Airport line if we are to meet the needs of a city of 8 million, but we also need to limit road competition with this network,” he says. “It is foolish to expend $15 billion in rail development if we then also build major roads, such as the Westgate tunnel or Tullamarine widening, that compete with our rail investment". Jago Dodson is Professor of Urban Policy and Director of the Centre for Urban Research at RMIT University. Professor Jago Dodson has an extensive record of research into housing, transport, urban planning, infrastructure, energy and urban governance problems. He has contributed extensively to scholarly and public debates about Australian cities and has advised national and international agencies on urban policy questions.
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ACP SENTRY BARRIER W BEAM SYSTEM LANDS IN TRANQUIL TASMANIA The ACP Sentry Barrier W Beam System is a roadside w-beam guardrail system suitable for containing, redirecting and shielding vehicles from roadside obstacles. The barrier has been designed and tested to meet the evaluation criteria of MASH Test Level 3 for a longitudinal barrier. This is the current state-of-the-art performance criteria, exceeding the requirements of NCHRP 350 Test Level 3.
The Sentry W Beam System makes its way into Kingston, Tasmania ACP together with GEOTAS Pty Ltd, a civil infrastructure installer in Tasmania, was successful in the bid to supply and install Sentry W Beam along Summerleas Road in
Kingston, Tasmania. The system proved to be the best option for the head contractor due to its narrow footprint required for the location, the speed and simplicity of its installation and, of course, the value for money it offers when all the benefits are weighed up.
Now crash tested as a Median barrier, connections onto G4 W-Beam, Thrie Beam barrier and the X-Tension 350 End Terminal The ACP Sentry Barrier W Beam System was recently successfully crash tested as a Median barrier. Connections onto G4 W-Beam and Thrie Beam barrier were also separately crash tested. ACP recommends the use of the approved X-Tension 350 Tangent/Flared and X-Tension 350 Median End Terminals on approaches and departures of the Sentry W Beam and Sentry Median barrier systems correspondingly. With the shortest length of need of any approved TL-3 proprietary w beam system and end terminals on the market, ACP‘s Sentry W Beam systems and X-Tension End Terminals provide the highest cost benefit to any asset owner or purchaser.
Important Features • AS3845: 2015 & MASH TL-3 compliant and recommended for acceptance by the Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel • Less components, weight and narrower footprint than conventional public domain guardrail systems with no block out and stiffener required • Crash tested and recommended for use with an X-Tensional End Terminal
20 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
• Superior dynamic deflection results with added testing on a zero offset to the batter hinge • Large flexibility and tolerance in system height to accommodate easy transitioning • Easily capable of transitioning into W-Beam, Thrie-Beam, Public domain and Proprietary terminals • Shortest length of need in the market of only 30m between terminals
ACP is proud to be a partner and user of BlueScope steel products for the manufacture of guardrail products and associated items. ACP places Australian made BlueScope steel first for its standard of compliance, incomparable quality, availability and service. For more information on the ACP Sentry Barrier W Beam System please contact ACP on (02) 9772 4172.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Please call Australian Construction Products on 1800 724 172 or (02) 8708 4400 or visit www.acprod.com.au
2017 WA preliminary crash book: Inattention road deaths increase The 2017 Preliminary summary of fatalities on Western Australian roads has revealed an increase in the number of people killed in inattention related crashes. Acting Road Safety Commissioner Iain Cameron said 28 fatalities (17%) last year were from inattention related crashes. “That’s more than a 100% increase on the previous five-year average of 13 deaths,” said Mr Cameron. “This increase has largely been driven by an increase in inattention-related fatalities in the metro area which more than doubled in 2017. Mobile phone use is getting a lot of publicity and mobile phone use is part of the problem, but it’s much more extensive than that. When we try to do two things at once we switch in and out of the two tasks and driving is too challenging to do that, particularly in urban areas where there is a lot happening.” Inattention-related fatalities in the metro area more than doubled in 2017. The preliminary figures show an overrepresentation of regional road deaths with 91 people killed on country roads last year, compared to 70 road deaths in the metro area. “Over the past five years, we’ve seen a gentle, steady decline in the metro area. Still too many, but we’re heading in the right direction,” said Mr Cameron. “More concerning is regional WA, where it has fluctuated quite significantly over the past five years.”
22 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
The most dominant road crash type is single vehicle running off the road, with investments in shoulder sealing and audible edge lines important responses in regional WA. “Ultimately, the message to people is you’ve got to take care, as people like yourselves are being killed at a rate more than double any other region in WA,” said Mr Cameron. “The majority of people dying are within their own local government area, it’s local people who know the roads and they are still crashing, so please take extra care.” A breakdown of the 2017 preliminary crash statistics also shows: • One third of fatalities were vulnerable road users, including motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians • 81% of those people killed were men • Police suspect at least one of four behavioural factors (speed, alcohol, inattention and fatigue) contributed to 102 road deaths. • The most represented age group in road fatalities was 20-29 years • 22 motor vehicle occupants killed were not wearing seatbelts • Of the seven cyclists killed, three were not wearing helmets The 2017 Preliminary summary of fatalities on Western Australian roads is available for download from: www.rsc. wa.gov.au
Works underway on safer Hamilton Highway in western Victoria A safer Hamilton Highway is on the way for motorists in Western Victoria with works underway on a $10 million upgrade between Geelong and Cressy. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Transport Michael McCormack said the recently approved upgrade as part of the Australian Government’s $75 billion infrastructure investment would target deteriorated sections of the highway as well as upgrade a key Bannockburn intersection to ensure a safer and more reliable journey. “This is a substantial investment that will support the region’s economy and give the local community greater confidence in the safety and reliability of the highway while making access to Geelong from the
surrounding area quicker and safer,” Mr McCormack said. Victorian Minister for Roads and Road Safety Luke Donnellan said the Hamilton Highway was vital to the future of western Victoria and would ensure it remained fit-forpurpose in the long term. “We’re pleased to be delivering this upgrade particularly for local people in Cressy and Inverleigh who travel to and from Geelong every day,” Mr Donnellan said. Victorian Member for Western Victoria Gayle Tierney said the project would also involve shoulder sealing, delineation, signage improvements and line marking. “To keep everyone safe during the works, speed limits will be reduced to 40 km/h near work areas and lane closures may be required so drivers should plan their journey and allow extra time,” Ms Tierney said. Construction on the project is due for completion by the end of March 2019 weather permitting. The upgrade is jointly funded by the Australian and Victorian governments.
REGISTRATION NOW OPEN Early Bird Registration Deadline: 1 June 2018
IInternational nternational C Convention onvention C Centre entre S Sydney ydney 3–5 October 2018 3–5 O ctober 2 018 FOUNDING PARTNERS
The Australasian College of Road Safety ety (ACRS)) an and nd Austroads invite you to attend the largest road safety-ded dicated conference in the Southern Hemisphere. The 2018 Australa asian Road Safety Conference (ARSC2018) will be held in Sydney a at the International Convention Centre from Wednesday 3 to Friday 5 October 2018. ARSC2018 will showcase the region’s outstanding researchers, practitioners, policymakers and industry spanning the plethora of road safety issues identied in the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety: Road Safety Management, Infrastructure, Safe Vehicles, User Behaviour, and Post-Crash Care. ARSC2018 will bring with it a special focus on engaging all levels of government and community, from the city to the bush, to move “Towards Zero – Making it Happen!”” The comprehensive 3-day scientic program will showcase the latest research; education and policing programs; policies and management strategies; and technological developments in the eld, together with national and international keynote speakers, oral and poster presentations, workshops and interactive�symposia.
To register your expression of interest as a delegate, speaker,�sponsor or trade exhibitor, or for further information about the Conference, please visit www.australasianroadsafetyconference.com.au. Additional enquiries should be directed to the Conference Secretariat, Encanta Event Management on +61 3 9863 7608 or ARSC@encanta.com.au.
WHO SHOULD ATTEND? With a record number of submissions received, ARSC2018 is expected to attract over 700 delegates including researchers, policing and enforcement agencies, practitioners, policymakers, industry representatives, educators, and students working in the elds of behavioural science, education and training, emergency services, engineering and technology, health and rehabilitation, policing, justice and law enforcement, local, state and federal government, traﬃc management, and vehicle safety.
REGISTRATION NOW OPEN EARLY BIRD CLOSING 1 JUNE 2018
YOUR HOST CITY: SYDNEY Situated on a breathtaking harbour, Sydney is one of the world’s most attractive and exciting cities. With its rich mix of colonial and indigenous history, multicultural cuisines and festivals, museums, exhibitions and theatres, Sydney is an experience waiting to happen. Enjoy the mild sunny climate and miles of golden beaches. Stroll along Darling Harbour, The Rocks and Circular Quay enjoying the sights of the world famous Opera House, or climb the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The new ICC Sydney is Australia’s rst fully-integrated convention, events, exhibition and entertainment centre, and is located at the heart of its very own Sydney harbour waterfront precinct, set amongst restaurants, retail and a vibrant public domain on Darling Harbour.
DELIVERING OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE AND VALUE AUSTRALIAN 2 YEAR IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE REPORT C
Smart Cushion Replacement Parts Costs
Durability and Robustness
• 3 main types of components were replaced over the 59 resets
• 31 different Smart Cushion units required 1 or more resets
• Shear Pins (2 x $2 = $4) required for every reset
• 8 Smart Cushions were reset twice
• Delineator Panel ($190) required for 21 resets
• 1 Smart Cushion was reset 5 times
• Sled Panel ($1416) required for 4 resets • The total cost of replacement parts over the 59 resets was $9,994 • The average cost for each reset was $169
• 2 Smart Cushions were reset 4 times • 1 Smart Cushion was reset 11 times • Average Reset Time 55 Minutes (1 person crew) • All Smart Cushions were reset ﬁt for service after an impact
THE ONLY STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS REQUIRING REPLACEMENT IN OVER 90% OF IMPACTS ARE 2 X ¼” SHEAR BOLTS (COST < $5)
SMART CUSHION INNOVATIVE DESIGN AT ITS BEST
Renowned for its remarkable performance in the ﬁeld - both in terms of its impact energy absorbing capabilities and the speed and ease with which the unit can be reset following an impact - SMART CUSHION is also being lauded by governments, road authorities, contractors and infrastructure owners alike for the signiﬁcant reduction in post-impact repair and reinstatement costs that it offers when compared to other traditional impact barrier systems. Tested and approved to the US MASH TL3 standard, the key to SMART CUSHION’s remarkable performance lies within its unique design, which incorporates methodologies to dissipate energy both by mechanical and by hydraulic means. Speciﬁcally developed to maximize both safety and reusability, SMART CUSHION’s fully redirective, non-gating, bi-directional, design delivers outstanding performance and durability before, during and after an impact. Unlike the old-style attenuators, the SMART CUSHION attenuator rarely reaches maximum stopping resistance due to the interactive feedback nature of the system. It is this continuous interactive feedback system that allows the lowest ride-down accelerations when impacted end-on.
THE SMART MONEY IN ROAD SAFETY IS ON SMART CUSHION Low initial cost does not always equate to getting a good return on the investment. This is particularly true for impact protection systems, which by their very nature, are extremely likely to require repairs and/or replacement parts following a vehicular impact. Put simply, what may appear at the outset to be a ‘better value’ solution can, in fact, end up being an extremely expensive selection, with repair costs quickly adding up to multiples of the initial purchase price. If every impact results in a majority or even total replacement of the unit, perceived savings can soon disappear – and the costs will continue to escalate… year after year! SMART CUSHION has set a new benchmark in what road safety experts regard as 'good value' in crash cushion selection. Together with the signiﬁcant reduction in labour and trafﬁc management costs offered by SMART CUSHION following an impact, the fact that in over 90% of impacts the only structural components requiring replacement are 2 x ¼” Shear Bolts (costing less than $5), when it comes to whole-of-life costs, SMART CUSHION truly is in a league of its own!
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Overcoming Melbourne’s ‘Growing Pains’ by Dave Jones, Manager - Mobility Advocacy, RACV and Tina Webb, Senior Engineer - Roads and Traffic, RACV Victoria’s population is growing; forecast to increase from just over 6 million to approximately 10 million by 2050. The vast majority are projected to settle in Greater Melbourne. RACV has reviewed Melbourne's transport networks in the 'interface' Councils – those bordering the city and carrying the burden of a rapidly growing population. Whilst new sub-divisions are having new roads built, the 'Metropolitan Growing Pains' audit identified 142 transport infrastructure projects that form missing links, or are needed to increase capacity and improve safety in growth suburbs. Over half the projects are public transport projects, including new and extended rail lines, railway station improvements and busways. Expansion into the outer areas is not new for Melbourne. Land is cheaper on the fringe and many residents value space over
26 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
proximity to the city. The State Government’s Plan Melbourne notes that Melbourne’s greenfield lots are the second-cheapest among Australia’s capital cities. The numbers are stark, but they support the need for investment and change; • By 2031, Melbourne's population in the outer suburbs will have overtaken the total population of Melbourne’s inner and middle suburbs. • It is estimated that by 2050, Melbourne’s transport networks will need to cope with 23 million trips per day, nearly double the current figure of 12.5 million. • In the 2016 Census only 5-10% of the workforce in the outermost suburbs actually worked in the Melbourne CBD. Most worked within their own Council area or an adjoining one. Their commutes are not suited to a CBD focused radial masstransit system.
Melbourne’s outer south-east has long been a corridor of major growth. By 2031 it is expected that Casey will have established itself as the most populous region with well over 400,000 residents. Population growth in the south-east is being matched in Melbourne’s northern and western suburbs. Tarneit, in the outer west, had the largest population growth of any suburb in Australia over the past 10 years to 2016 and Doreen and Truganina ranked second and third for fastest-growing suburbs. Not only is the direction of growth expanding across outer Melbourne, so too is its intensity.
Plan Melbourne notes that in recent years, average residential densities have increased from 15 to around 18 dwellings per hectare. Medium and high-density housing is now a standard component of new subdivisions so that the average population density of planned suburbs such as Plumpton in the west will be the same, or higher, than some of Melbourne’s established inner suburbs. In the outer suburbs, transport networks have fallen behind and are not meeting the demands of our population. Inadequate public transport, gaps in the road network and congestion are creating barriers to mobility, including access to critical services,
education and employment opportunities. There are signs of change, with the current State Government committing $1.8 billion to address some of the road backlog in the City of Wyndham, where fast-growing Tarneit and Truganina are located, although construction has not yet started. It is clear that similar investments are needed in Melbourne’s northwestern, northern and south-eastern suburbs. RACV estimates that over $13 billion dollars is required to address the backlog of road and public transport projects in the short term. Much more will be needed to commence a range of medium to long term road and public transport projects, including over $6.4 billion (Infrastructure Australia, 2018) to acquire land for a planned outer metropolitan road/rail corridor and intermodal facility. The 2018 audit did not quantify or document changes to the bus and bicycle networks, and footpaths. However, in 2016 a separate analysis by RACV identified 111 high use bus stops in the interface Councils that did not have connecting footpaths. RACV estimated that only $2.3 million would fix the issue. Additionally, just over $15 million would provide missing footpath connections to another 1,374 lower use stops. RACV's 2017 On Track Survey provided Victorians with an opportunity to rate their train stations and services. The best and worst stations were in Melbourne's growth areas, with Wyndham Vale scoring 8.97 out of 10 as the best for the second survey running, and Donnybrook the worst with 3.41 out of 10. Both are operated by V/Line, Victoria's regional passenger service operator, beyond the boundaries of the metropolitan train network. Outer Melbourne needs a well-funded, multi-year investment program to meet these road and public transport challenges and ensure that residents of our outer areas are well connected to employment and their community. Victorian’s have been promised integrated planning and infrastructure delivery through the Transport Integration Act (2010), Plan Melbourne (2017) and the formation of Transport for Victoria (2017). Now we need this promise to be met, and for the Victorian and Federal Governments to work together to ensure that the development of our major cities provides essential infrastructure to support population growth. Results of the 2017 RACV On Track Survey are available at: www.racv.com.au/ ontracksurvey For further information on RACV’s Growing Pains project, or to download a copy of the 2018 RACV Growing Pains report, please visit: www.racv.com.au/growingpains
April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 27
Innovative Engineering FlexFence Wire RopeBarriers Safety Barrier Roadside Safety • Consideration for Motorcyclists • No Snag Points • Lighter
MASH TL3: 2,270kg Utility @ 100km/h
MASH TL3 NCHRP-350 TL4
Narrow Width Fewer Components Rapid Installation
8,000kg Truck + 2,270kg Utility
• Fully Compliant to MASH TL4 • High Containment • Locally Designed and Manufactured
INGAL CIVIL PRODUCTS
MASH TL4: 10,000kg Truck + 2,270kg Utility
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• • • •
Brisbane (07) 3489 9125 Perth (08) 9452 9111 Adelaide (08) 8169 2300 Wagga 0427 779 588
• Melbourne (03) 9358 4100 • Sydney (02) 9827 3333 • Newcastle 0400 235 883 Ref: LG0917
Committed to Your Safety FlexFence Wire Rope Safety Barrier
• Compliant to NCHRP 350 • Available in TL3 or TL4 configuration • Superior 4 rope system • Machine swaged, stainless steel fittings for dependable in-service performance
• Can withstand multiple impacts before replacement • Compliant to NCHRP-350 TL2 and TL3 • Configurations available to shield hazards from 610mm to 3200mm wide • Available for speeds from 40km/h to 120km/h • Temporary or permenant applications • Easy on-site repair after most impacts
• Variable post spacing to suit deflection requirements • Posts can be powder-coated • Available with the non-release TL3 Terminal – designed to not release the cables upon impact, allowing the system to remain tensioned.
• Compliant to NCHRP 350 • Available in TL2 or TL3 configurations • Can be installed parallel or with a tapered offset to the roadway • Absorbs vehicle impact energy • Available packaged as individual units
FLEXIBLE MASS MONITORING WITH ON-BOARD MASS (OBM) SYSTEMS Transport Certification Australia (TCA) today advised that type-approved OBM Systems will soon be available through the National Telematics Framework. Often referred to as electronic weigh scales, OBM Systems are widely used to manage vehicle loading, to demonstrate conformance that mass limits are being met for other parties along the supply chain, to enable higher productivity access to the road network, and to manage loading practices to improve road safety. TCA Chief Executive Officer, Chris Koniditsiotis, said, “The inclusion of OBM Systems within the National Telematics Framework digital platform ensures the collection of mass information is not a ‘one trick pony’ and can be used seamlessly across different industries, policy areas and regulators.” TCA type-approval includes an assessment of accuracy and integrity of OBM Systems, as well as an assessment of the business standing of OBM System suppliers – a key indicator of OBM System suppliers’ ability to deliver the level of business continuity and support expected by stakeholders. In addition to meeting these core obligations, OBM Systems may offer varying functions and capabilities to meet different stakeholder needs, expectations and future policy requirements.
One of the most prominent differentiators between OBM Systems is the way mass information is presented and recorded – from the provision of electronic displays, through to mass information collection, and interconnectivity with telematics devices. Three categories of OBM System type-approval cater for these functional capabilities, as summarised below:
OBM Systems in this category electronically display mass information to drivers and/or loaders
OBM Systems in this category also collect and transmit mass information
OBM Systems in this category collect and transmit mass information in a standardised way to telematics devices (in accordance with TCA's Interconnectivity Specification) permitting the ability to ‘plug and play’
Being part of the National Telematics Framework provides the scalability and interconnectivity to suit stakeholder needs. This fusing of data collected from different devices and systems, in a standardised way through the National Telematics Framework, opens the door for new opportunities for industry and government to do business. TCA will keep end-users up to date with the availability of type-approved OBM Systems, as they become available. Additionally, a reminder to providers and suppliers of OBM Systems interested in receiving type-approval to contact TCA. Further information on OBM system typeapproval, including the application process can be found at www.tca.gov.au/truck/ obms-ta.
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30 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
TCA provides assurance in the use of telematics and related intelligent technologies. How TCA help the transport industry: • We connect both industry and government to telematics and related technologies • We check and approve technology to help transport operators make informed decisions • We provide information and advice on technological developments.
What we do: • Administer programs such as the Intelligent Access Program (IAP) • Type-approve In-Vehicle Units (IVUs) and On-Board Mass (OBM) systems • Data analysis and policy advice • Lead progress in connected / automated vehicles. .
Transport Certification Australia
Connect with TCA
P +61 3 8601 4600
Subscribe to receive TCA updates:
F +61 3 8601 4611 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Transport Certification Australia
2018 Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (AAPA) Industry Awards Nominations Now Open ACKNOWLEDGING INDUSTRY ACHIEVEMENTS Nominations are now open for the 2018 Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (AAPA) Industry Awards, which recognise the leaders and innovators driving positive change in the flexible pavements sector. The six award categories are: • 2018 Road Worker of the Year • 2018 Outstanding Project • 2018 Innovation • 2018 Industry Leadership • 2018 Safety Initiative • 2018 Emerging Leader Winners will be announced at the respective AAPA State Gala Dinners, with each state winner automatically placed in contention for the National Awards, this year taking place in Queensland. The 2018 Gala Dinner dates are: • South Australia: 1 June (nominations close 30 April) • New South Wales: 15 June (nominations close 1 May) • Victoria: 22 June (nominations close 14 May) • Western Australia: 29 June (nominations close 21 May) • Tasmania: 5 July (nominations close 4 June) • Queensland: 17 August (nominations close 25 June) Last year we saw true industry leadership from our 2017 winners who demonstrated a proactive approach to drive cost savings, enhance safety and sustainability and deliver real innovation that embraces change for a better tomorrow. The 2017 National AAPA Industry Award winners were:
32 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
2017 Outstanding Project Award
2017 Road Worker of the Year
Supported by Puma Bitumen Winner: Kingsford Smith Ave Reconstruction Project, Downer (Western Australia) Downer delivered an outstanding project in the Kingsford Smith Avenue, Reconstruction Project, a road that is the approach to Perth Airport. Downer delivered an alternative design solution to government that: • delivered the project 1 month early, reducing impact to the public; • used 100% recycling techniques, driving sustainability outcomes; and • reduced the cost of the project by 60%. The Downer project demonstrates innovation, client focused outcomes, working collaboratively and is an exemplar nationally.
Supported by Wirtgen Australia Winner: Ian Kirby, Boral Asphalt (Queensland) Ian is recognised as the frontline leader, the “go to person” for safety solutions and development of new initiatives for his contracting crews. With Ian’s extensive experience, there is not much Ian has not seen or done in our industry. Some of Ian’s notable accomplishments include: • development of the Bitac Applicator Trolley to reduce manual handling risk on site; • development of the Paver Visual Exclusion Zone Cable, enhancing on-site safety; • driving quality on projects such as the smooth rides enjoyed on the Queensland Cooroy to Curra Project (Section B – roughness only 8 NAASRA Counts); • delivering Queensland major projects including the first significant Queensland Stone Mastic Asphalt project near Dalby (52 000t) and 250 000t of Bitumen Treated Base near Roma. Ian was also a major part of the AAPA Award winning Toowoomba Range & Legacy Way Tunnel projects. Always professional, with a customer focussed work ethic, Ian is deserving winner of this award.
2017 Safety Initiative Award Supported by Caterpillar Winner: Gerard Killick, Fulton Hogan Gerard is an established leader with over 25 years working in the industry and he is driven to enhance the safety of our people. His latest initiatives saw both: • the introduction of new spreader vehicles to Fulton Hogan, South Australia that reduce vehicle roll-over and hitting overhead objects risk; however • Gerard’s passion for safety and commitment to drive change resulted in a collaborative relationship between Fulton Hogan and Caterpillar to design and build what has become the new CW12 pneumatic tyre roller. This initiative eliminates reverse driving risk on these vehicles with national application, enhancing the safety of our people.
2017 Emerging Leader Winner Supported by Viva Energy Winner: Paul Horn, Boral Asphalt (Queensland) Paul joined Boral as a graduate in 2003 and has risen quickly through the ranks from Project Engineer to now Operations Manager (Qld / PNG).
Paul builds teams through leadership, mentoring and growing of confidence as can be seen in his 25 direct reports, where there has been less than 2% turn over in the last 5 years. Paul has shown early industry leadership by: • playing a major role in operationalising the Queensland / New South Wales harmonised asphalt specification; • process change and developing training that achieves significant improvement in air voids compliance; • leading the introduction of technology transfer such as EME2 and actively participating in the AAPA Technology & Leadership Committee for the last four years. Recognised by his peers, management, and clients for his initiative, understanding, communication skills and commitment, the AAPA community congratulates Paul and we look forward to what comes next.
2017 Innovation Winner Supported by COLAS Australia Winner: SAMI Bitumen Technologies SAMI has developed an innovation that removes operational constraints that have previously
P L A N T
prevented effective long-haul use of crumb rubber modified seal binders. There innovative process has extended the haulage range of crumb rubber modified binders from 300km to 1100km from point of manufacture. This has ben successfully demonstrated in South West Queensland. This innovation now allows remote Australian roads benefit from the sustainability benefits of crumb rubber, breaking the operational limitations of the past and delivering a product that also reduces cost and extends asset life. We thank and congratulate SAMI Bitumen Technologies for this national leading innovation.
2017 Industry Leader Winner Supported by Astec Australia Winner: Mr Peter Todd, A/CEO (Vicroads) Peter has been a prominent industry leader across Australia for many years, with senior Government positions in South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria. He is currently the Acting Chief Executive Officer of Vicroads, which is testament to his drive since starting his career as a young pavement engineer. Peter has also provided valuable leadership through his past representation on the AAPA
E Q U I P M E N T
P A R T S
To submit a nomination for the 2018 AAPA State and National Industry Awards, please visit: www.aapa.asn. au/2018-state-and-national-awards-nominations/
S E R V I C E
S U P P O R T
PAVIN G PR
ASP HA LT
Board, where he brought his considerable experience to the table engaging with industry to assist our industry to deliver the best technical and economical services to the community. In recent times, his initiative has led to our industry making a quantum leap, “Toward Safer Sprayed Sealing Operations” by introducing measures to address the high risk of the reversing aggregate spreading operation of sprayed sealing. His initiative to provide incentives for early industry adoption of the necessary new equipment has removed previous impediments to the introduction of the technology to Australia. Last year, VicRoads, in association with Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (AAPA), announced its intention to phase out the use of reversing spreaders in its spray seal operations by 2022. AAPA is proud to recognise Peter Todd as our industry leader and thank him for his contributions to our sector.
S U P P O RT
EQUIPMENT TO BUILD AND RESTORE THE WORLD’S INFRASTRUCTURE ASTEC AUSTRALIA.
an Astec Industries Company
PO BOX 142, ACACIA RIDGE, QLD, 4110 • 1300 278 322 (1300 ASTEC AUS) • astecaustralia.com.au
FOCUS ON ASPHALT
Strong growth led Ammann Australia to move to its new, expanded home in Caboolture.
AMMANN AUSTRALIA MOVES INTO EXPANDED FACILITY Solid growth has led Ammann Australia to relocate its headquarters, warehouse and training centre to better serve its customers in the region. The facility was moved from Narangba to a new location about 10 km north in Caboolture. The move took place in January 2018.
“This move is a reflection of Ammann’s growth in the region, and our commitment to serving customers through training, service, and product and parts availability,” said HansChristian Schneider, CEO of Ammann. “We have grown and become a leader in that market, and this investment reflects that.” The new facility includes a warehouse that is 40 percent larger, a 50 percent increase in office space, and a new training centre.
NEW TRAINING CENTRE
Cutting the ribbon to the new training centre are Ammann CEO Hans-Christian Schneider (left) and Scott Rickards, After Sales and Product Support Manager for Ammann Australia.
34 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
The training centre is a key improvement that will benefit customers. It’s a dedicated area with classrooms and space for hands-on lessons as well. Training aids include: • Interactive 3-D modelling • Access to purpose-built animations • Plant component availability for maintenance demonstrations • A fully functioning as1 Control System simulator “The training centre concept incorporates shared learning and exchange of best practices in the plant industry,” said Scott Rickards, After Sales and Product Support Manager for Ammann Australia. “This new centre is a continuation of what we started a few years ago.” “We developed an innovative training program, and the response has been so
strong that we opted for the new facility,” he said. “Many customers have sought a standardised solution to customer training, which Ammann first provided in Australia in 2014. Prior to that, there were limited training opportunities for people working around asphalt plants,” said Rickards, who also is a key trainer. “The status quo commonly saw training handed down from operator to operator, or companies investing to send staff internationally abroad to gain detailed knowledge.” The training now is closer to the customers, which improves access whilst also reducing travel time and costs. Importantly, the convenience also ensures more operators can participate. The simulator is a particularly popular training tool. “This simulator allows the student to gain valuable operational experience in a safe and controlled classroom environment, without the stress and pressure of having to learn during real production,” said Paul Vandersluis, Managing Director of Ammann Australia. “Ammann’s highly experienced training staff can remotely provoke plant faults and errors on the control system during the simulator training, so the trainers can gauge how the student reacts and deals with such a problem in a real-life situation.”
AMDURIT® WEAR PROTECTION
EXTENDED LIFE = COST SAVINGS Amdurit ® from Ammann protects valuable parts and components up to three times longer than wear-resistant steel. The extended life provides significant cost savings at asphalt, concrete and gravel plants. • Extended life means fewer purchases of replacement parts and components. • Fewer replacements greatly reduce labor costs. • Plant uptime and production are improved. Protecting your plant with Amdurit is easy. Fastening methods – including welding, clamping and bolting – enable quick installation. Amdurit is a simple change that can lead to real savings at your plant. For more information on Amdurit and asphalt mixing plants, compactors and pavers please visit www.ammann.com
Ammann Australia, 8/85 Pasturage Road, Caboolture, 4510, Queensland Phone + 61 7 5498 0920, email@example.com PMP-2283-00-EN | © Ammann Group
FOCUS ON ASPHALT
The new location features a 40 percent increase in warehouse space to ensure product and parts availability.
“Now employers have another avenue to train their staff, without the possibility of wasting product or having unnecessary plant downtime,” he added. The interactive courses range from basic introductory content to advanced, detailed explanations of asphalt plant processes and functions. The Level 1 course is predominantly aimed at new employees or those new to the asphalt
production environment. It provides students with an introduction to the production process and plant safety, identification of parts of the plant and their functions, basic maintenance tasks and correct operation of the plant. The Level 2 course is aimed at more experienced operators and gives them a detailed overview of plant operation and parameter settings, maintenance tasks,
optimization of the plant through maximising efficiencies and plant throughput, and utilizing reporting functions built into the control system. The Level 3 course is aimed at the experienced Ammann plant operator to become a real expert in the plant functionality, specialised maintenance tasks and analysis of energy consumption and production quality. The Production Manager course enables senior production staff (including production supervisors/managers) to retrieve and analyse valuable production protocol data and statistics to gain the optimum performance from their plants and minimize operating costs.
ABOUT AMMANN Ammann is a sixth-generation, family-owned business that produces asphalt and concrete mixing plants, compactors and asphalt pavers at nine production sites in Europe, China, India and Brazil. Its core expertise is in road building and transportation infrastructure. Visit www.ammann-group.com for more information.
QUALITY • PERFORMANCE • RELIABILITY Specifically designed for road maintenance and construction, Bonne Tractor and Trailer Brooms from Garwood International deliver performance you can rely on. • Choice of Models (with or without on-board diesel engine to drive hydraulics) • Low Maintenance • Highly Efficient • Easy to Manoeuvre • 2.0 metre sweep width HEAD OFFICE 3 Hexham Place, Wetherill Park, NSW 2164 (02) 9756 3756
NSW, ACT & WA Tony Miller 0429 444 451
VIC, TAS & SA Ian Pinney 0409 905 451
QLD & NT Ken Russ 0407 789 370
36 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
Why have plain, drab and uninspiring uncoloured concrete, asphalt and mortars, when you can take your project to the next level with high quality abilox® UV resistant mineral oxide powder pigments from Ability Building Colours? Available in a choice of over 70 standard colours OR in your own custom colour, abilox® is ideal for use in premixed concrete, asphalt, mortars, paints, surface coatings, caulks, sealants, applied finishes and a range of other construction products - delivering extremely high quality, consistent, reliable and permanent colours that won't fade or degrade.
Call us today on: 1800 337 324 (Toll Free) Ability Building Colours 133-135 Northern Road West Heidelberg Victoria 3081
Postal address: PO BOX 391 West Heidelberg Victoria 3081
P: 03 9457 6488 F: 03 9458 4683 E: firstname.lastname@example.org www.abilityproducts.com.au
FOCUS ON ASPHALT
Green light for perfect communication – VÖGELE’s PaveDock Assistant greatly facilitates the feed process.
GREEN LIGHT FOR PERFECT COMMUNICATION PAVEDOCK ASSISTANT FROM VÖGELE SIMPLIFIES THE TRANSFER OF MIX
Even in conventional paving there are some challenges to overcome. Working without interruptions, for instance, and avoiding the jolts caused by the feed trucks as they dock. Both of these issues can now be overcome thanks to a new innovation from global paving equipment specialists VÖGELE. Known as the PaveDock Assistant, it’s one of the options now offered for the company’s new generation “Dash 3” pavers. Operating on the principle of a signal light, it improves communication on the job site and actively supports the truck driver when docking. The system excelled in every respect when paving the surface course for the modification of an exit on the B271 federal highway. The effectiveness of the new PaveDock Assistant was highlighted during a recent paving job on Germany’s B271 federal highway near Bad Dürkheim near Mannheim. The job, which was in the vicinity of a motorway exit, needed to be completed in the shortest possible timeframe to minimise disruptions to traffic. Thanks to the PaceDock Assistant, the paving - which was completed using one of VÖGELE’s SUPER 1800-3i pavers - was able to be completed without interruption The PaveDock Assistant simplifies communication between the paver operator and the driver of the feed vehicle - ensuring smooth deliver of asphalt and uninterrupted paving.
As well as helping to boost efficiency and minimise delays, another key advantage of the PaveDock Assistant is that it eliminates the need to use horns in job site traffic. This wide-spread practice is not only unreliable – particularly when paving with multiple pavers – but also annoys local residents and confuses vehicle drivers.
Easy handling from the paver operator’s ErgoPlus 3 console For the paver operator, changing signals to pass on instructions to the lorry driver is a simple and intuitive process from the paver’s ErgoPlus 3 console. All functions of the SUPER pavers are integrated into the innovative, easy-to-learn operating concept from VÖGELE. Importantly, thanks to the PaveDock Assistant, docking feed trucks did not cause a single jolt on the B271 job site. Jolts are dreaded, because they affect the screed and can leave imprints on the freshly paved asphalt course.
Milestone for greater process reliability during transfer of the mix Despite its relative simplicity, the PaveDock system has not only helped to overcome a common of common work site issues, it has also set a new benchmark in process reliability during transfer of asphalt mix from the delivery truck to the paver. The system uses two signal lights to indicate clearly whether the feed truck was to reverse, stop, dump mix or drive off again. The signal lights are positioned high up on the hardtop of the machine, where they are easily visible to the truck driver at all times.
38 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
Continuous transfer of mix on the B 271 in Bad Dürkheim: the VÖGELE innovation PaveDock Assistant excelled in every respect when paving a surface course.
Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (AAPA) International Knowledge Transfer (IKT) 2018 Outreach to Asia Expressions of Interest are now open to organisations wishing to submit nominees to attend the 2018 Australian Asphalt Pavement Association (AAPA) International Knowledge Transfer (IKT) Outreach to Asia. AAPA has been conducting a dedicated program of international outreach for more than 30 years. The program provides the Australian roads industry with access to, and details of, new products, processes and design tools from around the world. This is an opportunity to discover tools that deliver value for money, efficiency gains and innovative solutions that can be implemented within Australia.
AAPA, together with our supporting partners Australian Roads Research Board (ARRB) and AUSTROADS, will host participants throughout Japan, China and South Korea and will include the 2018 GEO China Conference and will focus on topics including: • The latest sustainable flexible pavement initiatives • Intelligent monitoring of pavement condition • Perpetual pavement design in practice • Safety at roadworks • Alternative approaches to asphalt technology for airports • Noise attenuating porous asphalt • Bitumen refining for the Australian market • Bitumen and polymer modified binder specification • Smart systems for process control • And more……
The AAPA IKT 2018 Outreach to Asia is planned to take place from 14 July to 29 July 2018. If you are interested in nominating your company and your employees to attend, please contact Erik Denneman: email@example.com
10 YEAR PERFORMANCE REVIEW OF INSITU STABILISED UNSEALED ROADS A large proportion of regional road networks are unsealed but still provide important access to regional centres for residents. It is a constant challenge to councils to keep these networks serviceable and safe, even through extensive wet periods or dry dusty conditions. Stabilisation of these pavements is one option to reduce maintenance requirements, minimise disruption to the travelling public and improve safety. AustStab is always supportive of investigation and trials of stabilisation to improve the performance of these unsealed pavements, typically with only low traffic volumes. Some 10 years ago AustStab received funding from the Federal Government to carry out a number of trials in southern NSW and these trial sections are currently being assessed for performance. A summary of the scope of this review and some preliminary findings are as below. Full reporting will be carried on completion of the performance review.
Figure 1. Location of trial sites in the south west region of NSW
Whilst stabilisation technology is a matured road construction technique and practice, the business environment for road maintenance is conservative due to limited resources. The common questions road owners may ask regarding this technique are: • How much does it cost? • How long does the treatment last before first maintenance? • What is the mix design and how much binder do we use? • Is the surface slippery in the wet? • Will the process work on all of my unsealed roads? The initial goals of this research project were: • substantially reduce dust generation from unsealed roads • reduce maintenance frequency and hence maintenance costs to Shires • provide safe all-weather access on unsealed roads
BACKGROUND The members of AustStab have continuously worked with rural local government engineers in Australia to develop long term cost effective solutions to minimising dust generation and significantly reduce the maintenance frequency of unsealed low volume roads. Prudent spending of limited road maintenance funding is paramount by Shires, and beneficial to rate payers and the wider public users of these roads. In 2007 AustStab received research funding from the then Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government to conduct five trials of insitu stabilisation of unsealed roads. The locations of the trial sites are listed in Table 1 and shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3. View of Woodlands Road,
TABLE 1. LOCATION OF THE FIVE TRIAL SITES Road Name
1. Barber Rd
2. Woodlands Rd
Cement/slag (70:30) PR11L
3. Old Corowa Rd 4. Four Corners Rd
Hydrated lime PR11L Cement/slag (80:20)
3% 2% 4%
5. Back Mimosa Rd
Hydrated lime PR11L
40 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
Figure 2. View of Barber Road Griffith
Figure 4. View of Four Corners Road, Jerilderie
• incrementally improve the structural strength of the road
INITIAL FINDINGS Some initial findings from the 10-year research project are summarised as follows: • All trial sites are unique and represent a range of typography and pavement materials commonly seen on unsealed roads in this region of NSW. • Although, three of the five sites were level, the sites at Four Corners and Woodlands Road had significant longitudinal grades that subjected the pavement to potential scouring from heavy rainfall events. • In contrast, Back Mimosa Road is between two concrete causeways and the narrow road funnels traffic into one lane compared to Barber Road where vehicles can occupy two lanes. This situation results in traffic loading concentrated into two narrow wheel paths. • The general level of rutting was 10 to 20 mm in depth which is considered satisfactory given the ten-year period since construction. • Although discrete sections of the trial sites at Barber, Old Corowa and Woodland Roads had been graded within 5 years after construction, the other sections of the trial appeared to be performing satisfactorily.
AUSTSTAB AWARDS OF EXCELLENCE AustStab’s 23rd Annual AGM will be held at Cape Schanck on the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria from 24-26 July 2018. The key event for the AGM is the Annual Gala Dinner on the 25th of July. At the dinner, winners of AustStab’s annual Awards of Excellence will be announced. The Awards are open to any individuals and Australian private and public organisations working in the field of pavement recycling and stabilisation. Entrants do not need to be members of the Association to be eligible, however contractors completing the work must be registered in accordance to the AustStab/ ARRB accreditation scheme. Registrations for the AGM and submissions for the Awards are available on the AustStab Website:
KEY DATES • • • •
19 March 2018 Nominations Open 7 May 2018 Nominations Close 22 May 2018 Judging Completed 25 July 2018 Gala Dinner / Award Presentations
CATEGORIES The 2018 AustStab Awards of Excellence incorporate five categories, namely: • Occupational Health and Safety, • Excellence in Research or Education, • Innovation or Excellence in Sustainability, • Recycling in Local Government, • Young Stabiliser of the Year
CPEE SHORT COURSE ON PAVEMENT RECYCLING AND STABILISATION The dates and locations for the remaining 2018 Stabilisation Training short courses are as follows: • Sydney: May 8-9 • Adelaide: May 16-17 • Brisbane: May 30-31 • Darwin: June 6-7 • Launceston: June 21 (1 day) • Albury: September 18-19 For further details and registrations please visit the CPEE website: www.pavementeducation.edu.au
April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 41
Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) President Brendan Woods.
WORKING IN HARMONY The Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) President Brendan Woods wants to ensure all traffic management across Australia is harmonised, enabling cross border collaboration and engagement. Mr Woods has outlined National Harmonisation as a key credential for the Austroads Safety at Roadworks project which includes, licensing, training and active traffic management on roads across Australia. He is determined this goal is delivered to assist the federal and state governments in achieving a ‘one system fits all’ approach to infrastructure developments and roadwork planning and implementation in this country. “To me, it is absolutely paramount that traffic management in one state is mirrored in another. The process and work engagement is the same, but the red tape around training ambiguities and inconsistencies between states belies understanding,” he said. Mr Woods has ensured that his legacy to the TMAA is that of an organisation that embraces harmonisation changes, resulting in a compliant, safer industry for all. “There has been talk of ‘harmonisation – making it all the same’ for years, but now is the time to act,” he said. “I believe road authorities are going to be driven to follow Austroads lead via the new Standard guidelines, and this, in turn, will
42 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
directly impact the way we are trained and accredited, and perform in the field,” he said. TMAA has been lobbying for this type of change since its inception in 2011, and it appears that these changes are closer than has previously been thought, with Austroads and Standards projects earmarked for integration in 2019.
Mr Woods has ensured he has a team of representatives providing advice and operational savvy to the Standards and Austroads working groups, thus ensuring safe, compliant and consistent traffic management principles and standards will be introduced. “The message is loud and clear, bring the states into line, ensure a one size fits all, and amend the legislation where needed to achieve this,” he said. “I find it incredible that not only do we have different training courses with different time frames for qualification for the same job in traffic management, but there are even different types of signs across borders portraying the same information,” he said. Mr Woods noted the national drivers licence, a one size fits all model, demonstrating harmonisation at its best. “Surely we can get to this level within the next 12 months, now that we have Austroads and Standards Australia working to achieve this,” he said. Mr Woods noted the lack of harmonisation in the industry is a concern for other Roadwork based associations and organisations such as AAPA, CCF, ARRB and RIAA. Mr Woods noted the TMAA was working in collaboration with these organisations to improve roadworker safety. “We have signed a Strategic Agreement with AAPA to work together to improve the safety of roadworkers across Australia,” he said. “This is a no brainer, it has to happen.” “It is time for all works on roads and all roadworkers to be managed and operationalised in the same way, with the same equipment, training and implementational rigours. It is time to work in harmony.” For further information, please visit: www.tmaa.asn.au
ITS SPECIAL FEATURE
Intelligent Transport Systems News and Feature Articles
ITS SPECIAL FEATURE
ITS AUSTRALIA ANNOUNCES MOBILITY AS A SERVICE RESEARCH PROJECT During March, Intelligent Transport Systems Australia (ITS Australia), the peak body for the intelligent transport systems industry in Australia, together with the iMOVE CRC, announced a project to better understand what Mobility as a Service means for Australia and, importantly, what Australians think. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the integration of multiple modes of transport into a single, intermodal travel service, accessible on demand. The fundamental point of MaaS is to put the users at the centre of transport and mobility options, with accurate and real-time information about modes, routes, and service availability, including public transport, ride-sharing, bikes, and walking and parking, helping travellers get to where they want to go more easily. A full MaaS ecosystem can offer people real choice and improve mobility outcomes for them as individuals all based on their individual needs, handling everything from accessibility needs, special requests and payments. MaaS also offers business models and platforms with advantages for transport operators including access to improved user and demand information, and opportunities to serve unmet or latent demand. The aim of MaaS is to provide an
alternative to the use of the private car that may be as convenient, more sustainable, help to reduce congestion and constraints in transport capacity, and importantly provide better mobility options for communities at an adaptable price. ITS Australia, through the iMOVE CRC, are partnering with the Institute for Choice (University of South Australia), and leading transport stakeholders; Transport for Victoria, Transport for NSW, Translink, Department of Transport WA and Royal Automobile Association SA, and developing a MaaS consumer research report asking the question; What does MaaS mean for Australia, and what do Australians think? Dr. Joffre Swait, research co-director at the Institute for Choice (I4C), said at a recent project working meeting that "MaaS promises to be an exciting new paradigm for the provision of transport services. I4C is delighted to be collaborating with partners in industry and government to help understand Australian consumers' expectations and preferences for MaaS." “To maximise the benefits of MaaS for Australia, there needs to be a well-planned and collaborative approach. To that end we have
developed a consumer survey to be taken by thousands of Australians nationwide. This survey is supported by an exhaustive literature review and analysis of existing mobility services that fit the MaaS description, as well as interviews with leading transport professionals from the public and private sectors.” Ian Christensen, Managing Director, iMOVE Australia said “A successful transport system encompasses many forms of getting around, often mixing several different transport modes. It is crucial to understand the drivers for choice of mode in order to deliver options that work for transport users. iMOVE is pleased to support this MaaS project that will provide important consumer and industry perspectives to help shape the MaaS element of the overall transport landscape for Australia”. Susan Harris, CEO, ITS Australia added “The research and survey responses will be analysed to glean insights into how Australia can prepare a pathway forward for these mobility services locally. Looking at a holistic approach that ensures our most important stakeholders, endusers or customers are included in preparing for this exciting once-in-a-generation opportunity.” Susan Harris will present the initial findings of the national consumer research and report project at the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Conference in Sydney, 3 May 2018 – the inaugural MaaS conference for ITS Australia. The complete report will be published and presented to the industry in early June.
EXPERIENCE THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORT IN VICTORIA Victorians are lining up to book their place on the state’s first autonomous shuttle bus at La Trobe University. More than 600 students, staff and members of the public from Melbourne’s north and beyond have already expressed interest in joining the Autonobus trial as it moves into a new phase of testing. Director of La Trobe’s Centre for Technology Infusion Professor Ani Desai said the time had come for Autonobus to open its doors to passengers. “We are excited to be offering Victorians a unique opportunity to step into the future and experience first-hand world-leading driverless technology,” Professor Desai said. “The public’s participation is essential. The success of all new technologies stands or falls with the end user adoption. That is why we are inviting anyone, not only the technology enthusiasts, to come and give us feedback. This feedback will help shape the future of transport in Victoria.
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Jonathan Myers, Head of Growth, Innovation and Partnerships at Keolis Downer, said the research team had conducted four months of extensive research on Autonobus to test technical and safety aspects of the bus. “Since November, Autonobus has travelled hundreds of hours on a set route along Science Drive at La Trobe’s Bundoora campus for testing purposes ensuring passengers safety,” Mr Myers said. “The aim is to gain a better understanding of how autonomous vehicles can be integrated into the existing public transport system to connect passengers to a transport hub – a concept known as first to last mile connectivity. Partly funded by the Victorian Government Smarter Journeys Program, the project brings together the private sector, academia and Victoria’s largest member organisation. It is a collaboration between VicRoads, Keolis Downer, La Trobe University, HMI Technologies, RACV and ARRB.
“We are committed to developing technologies which deliver a safer, more efficient and sustainable transport future and electric self-driving vehicles have amazing potential in that regard,” CEO of HMI Technologies Dean Zabrieszach said. The La Trobe Autonobus trial rides will start on 23rd April 2018. Those interested in taking part in the trial can, can register their interest at the Autonobus website: www.latrobe.edu.au/technologyinfusion/autonobus
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ITS SPECIAL FEATURE
IoT TECHNOLOGY TO
REDUCE TRAFFIC CONGESTION A PILOT STUDY USING ‘WORLD-FIRST’ INTERNET OF THINGS TECHNOLOGY TO HELP REDUCE TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND CREATE THE FOUNDATIONS FOR THE DEPLOYMENT OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IS UNDERWAY IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA. ARTICLE BY ANDREW SPENCE. Global technology leader Cisco is investing $1 million in partnership with the South Australian Government and the City of Adelaide to measure the dwell time and queue length of vehicles as they wait at a busy city intersection, a key element for congestion monitoring. It is also calculating rolling averages across the day via a customised dashboard and a suite of metrics that show how well the traffic light sequences are operating at that intersection. Built on Cisco Kinetic for Cities, a first of its kind IoT operations platform designed to unlock the power of data from billions of connected devices, the pilot has two phases. In the first phase, six sensors will be set up at the busy intersection of Grenfell and Pulteney streets in the heart of Adelaide’s CBD. These sensors will gather intersectionapproach traffic information, such as location and speed of vehicles as well as pedestrians. With this information, tailored algorithms to recommend traffic light intervals can be proposed to improve traffic and pedestrian-crossing flow. The second phase involves an assessment of whether the same infrastructure can be applied to quickly and accurately determine the location
and movements of autonomous vehicles, which is critical to being able to manage, direct and control driverless cars. The initial pilot ran from 29 January through to 3 February. Other intersections in Adelaide are now being selected to potentially test and scale the solution city-wide, followed by a national roll-out. Other technology companies including QuantumIT, SQLstream, Quanergy, Astrata, Data#3, and Bartco Visual Information Systems have also played an integral part in the pilot. In 2015, Cisco named Adelaide as its first smart and connected ‘Lighthouse City’ in Australia, one of nine across the world. The agreement gives the South Australian capital access the Cisco’s global network and a partnership in the Internet of Things. South Australia also has a history of involvement with autonomous car research and in 2015 held the first driverless car trials in the Southern Hemisphere. It hosts a number of leading autonomous car companies including Cohda Wireless and RDM Group, which opened its Asia-Pacific headquarters in Adelaide last year.
Cisco Australia & New Zealand Chief Technology Officer Kevin Bloch said the team was looking forward to analysing the results of the pilot. “Traffic congestion in Australia’s cities is getting worse, and we need to act now before autonomous vehicles join our already busy roads,” he said. “We believe this technology could have a real impact on drivers, cyclists and pedestrians in Adelaide, and other cities, because its traffic light network will be able to make real-time decisions.” South Australian Science and Information Economy Minister Kyam Maher he was pleased Cisco had given Adelaide the opportunity to develop and trial its smart city technology. “It’s a vote of confidence in our growing innovation ecosystem and boosts our reputation as a global leader in adopting smart technologies and smart solutions,” he said. “The South Australian Government remains focused on establishing Adelaide as a dynamic and liveable smart city underpinned by robust innovation initiatives, digital infrastructure and support programs to help local business and entrepreneurs thrive.”
AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TO
IMPROVE INTEGRATED TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS As technology moves towards a driverless future, the University of Melbourne is helping to improve integrated transport solutions and make our transport safer with the launch of its own autonomous mini shuttle bus. The autonomous vehicle is designed for lowspeed urban environments and is part of a threeyear partnership with French company EasyMile, specialists in autonomous vehicle technology. Unique to this collaboration is the inclusion of open platform technology, which will allow the vehicle to be regularly updated by researchers and improved as autonomous software advances. University of Melbourne Vice Chancellor Glyn Davis said the vehicle will provide researchers unprecedented access to autonomous technology, putting students at the forefront of research and development.
46 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
“The world is on the edge of a transport revolution,” Professor Davis said. “Technology is transforming the transport industry, impacting not only the way we travel, but also the way we live. “Having our own autonomous vehicle at the University of Melbourne gives students and academics the opportunity to focus their research projects on real-life transport solutions to improve safety, sustainability and reduce congestion.” Head of EasyMile Asia Pacific Simon Pearce said the University will be the innovation hub for EasyMile in Australia and New Zealand. “This vehicle is a functioning example of what the future of mobility for end users looks like, combining the benefits and flexibility of the technology with the economy of group transportation,” Mr Pearce said.
ITS SPECIAL FEATURE
University of Melbourne Professor in Transport for Smart Cities and AIMES Director Majid Sarvi said industry and research partnerships play an important role in transport’s future. “The benefits of autonomous vehicles are only realised if they are connected with other transport solutions,” Professor Sarvi said. “By partnering with EasyMile through projects such as the University’s Australian Integrated Multimodal EcoSystem (AIMES) – a world-first living laboratory based in the streets of Melbourne – we are able to test highly integrated transport technology that make a real difference to people’s lives,” he said. “We’re working with more than 40 industry, government and academic partners, designing a highly-integrated, intelligent ecosystem to deliver safer, cleaner and more sustainable urban transport outcomes. “Having our own autonomous vehicle ensures researchers can further improve autonomous vehicle safety and how this integrates with other transport options.”
CUBIC WINS TRANSPORT SUPPLIER OF THE YEAR AWARD AT LONDON TRANSPORT AWARDS 2018 Cubic Corporation announced that its business division Cubic Transportation Systems (CTS) won the “Transport Supplier of the Year” award at the London Transport Awards for its relationship with Transport for London (TfL). The awards are run in association with Transport Times and supported by organizations including London Councils, London Travel Watch and London First. The independent judging panel aim to recognize excellence in transport and reward innovation and progress for transport initiatives in the city. The award ceremony took place at the Park Plaza Riverbank, London during March. Cubic and TfL have enjoyed one of the longest supplier relationships in the United Kingdom, spanning over three decades. Both companies have been continually paving the way for groundbreaking transport solutions that have helped keep millions of people in the city on the move each year.
“We are delighted for Cubic to be recognized through the Supplier of the Year Award,” said Shashi Verma, chief technology officer for TfL. “Our work with Cubic to deliver Oyster and contactless ticketing has completely changed the way people pay for travel in London – making it easier and more convenient.” “I look forward to continuing working closely with CTS to further improve the customer experience of traveling in London,” Mr Verma said. “We’re extremely proud and honoured to receive this award. It speaks volumes about our performance and work with TfL,” said Roger Crow, executive vice president and managing director of Europe, Cubic Transportation Systems. “We’re committed to working closely with our customers to understand what they require, so that the technology we provide delivers value not only for them but also for their customers,” he added. For more information about Cubic, please visit: www.cubic.com
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April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 47
ITS SPECIAL FEATURE
AUTOMATED SPEED PLUS STEERING CONTROL When part of Melbourne’s EastLink freeway was closed for overnight maintenance recently, EastLink conducted a demonstration of handsfree driving with automated speed plus steering control, using the adaptive cruise control and lane keep assist functions of a Honda CR-V VTi-LX. The demonstration was planned to help Victorian motorists gain a better understanding of adaptive cruise control, lane keep assist and other driver assistance functions. It builds on an earlier demonstration, which was broadcast in December, of only automated steering control through the EastLink tunnels. EastLink corporate affairs and marketing manager Doug Spencer-Roy explained, “This demonstration of automated speed plus steering control resulted from the Annual Victorian SelfDriving Vehicle Survey conducted by EastLink – the largest such survey ever undertaken – in which more than half of the 15,000 respondents rated their awareness of self-driving cars as ‘very little’ or ‘none’.”
“Through this demonstration of automated speed plus steering control, as well as the earlier demonstration of automated steering control through the EastLink tunnels, EastLink is helping motorists gain a better understanding of the latest driver assistance functions, and how they will evolve to make self-driving cars possible in the future.” “In a number of realistic freeway scenarios, the latest demonstration showed a vehicle steering itself along EastLink while automatically adjusting its speed to ensure a safe distance was always maintained to other vehicles involved in the tests.” “In one scenario representing a traffic jam caused by an accident, the vehicle was able to bring itself safely and automatically to a complete stop behind other vehicles stopped on the freeway.” “Road safety will be significantly improved through the take-up and use of driver assistance functions such as adaptive cruise control and lane keep assist.”
“EastLink is Melbourne’s safest freeway, and we want to keep it that way. Motorists can help by adopting and using the latest driver assistance functions,” concluded Doug Spencer-Roy. In EastLink’s Annual Victorian Self-Driving Vehicle Survey, only 15% of survey respondents said their car had an adaptive cruise control function, of whom more than a quarter said they don’t use that function. However, adaptive cruise control, lane keep assist and other driver assistance functions are increasingly available in the latest cars including sports utility vehicles, and at much lower prices than previously. EastLink selected the all-new Honda CR-V VTi-LX for the demonstration following its participation in the trials of the latest automated vehicle technologies that have been undertaken by EastLink in partnership with VicRoads, the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB), La Trobe University and RACV. The all-new Honda CR-V VTi-LX, which is available for $44,290 , includes the Honda Sensing package as standard. The Honda CR-V is representative of a new generation of affordable vehicles equipped with an advanced safety technology suite. Honda Sensing comprises a range of driver assistance functions such as lane keep assist, adaptive cruise control with lowspeed follow, collision mitigation braking, forward collision warning, lane departure warning, and road departure mitigation. NOTE: Hands-free driving is currently not allowed on Victorian roads. Motorists should always drive with at least one hand on the steering wheel at all times. The demonstration was able to include hands-free driving using adaptive cruise control and lane keep assist as it was conducted on a section of EastLink when closed to traffic for scheduled maintenance activities, and under controlled conditions.
KEY ENABLERS FOR TRUCK PLATOONING DEVELOPED BY RICARDO With major truck platooning R&D and demonstration projects ongoing in Europe, Asia and North America, Ricardo is leading the way in bringing the prospect of heavy duty long-haul ‘truck platooning’ to the world’s highways – offering the prospect of CO2 emissions reductions and operator fuel savings, while improving traffic flow and road safety. In addition to their ongoing R&D and demonstration programmes, Ricardo’s connected and automated vehicle (CAV) experts were actively involved in the recently completed EcoTwin III truck platooning project. This European research initiative successfully developed technology for a robust three-truck platooning system enabling an inter-vehicle time gap for the platooned trucks of 0.3 seconds or less (or 7 m at 80 km/h) that is both functionally and operationally safe. While the EcoTwin III project concluded in late 2017, the Ricardo project team has continued to build upon the results in the crucial areas of functional safety and the development of platooning control software.
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In its platooning safety work, Ricardo has further developed processes for CAVs based on a modified approach based on the automotive functional safety standard ISO 26262. In doing so, the safety case approach has also been deepened to demonstrate the required level of complexity for CAV safety in the context of platooning. In addition, Ricardo has developed a deeper understanding of the requirements of highways authorities for CAV road exemptions. Ricardo has also continued to develop its PCAMS (Platooning Control Algorithms, Model and Simulation) software which provides a ‘whitebox’ system that is adaptable for platoon lead and following vehicle control using camera/radar and V2V data. The system enables a stable intervehicle gap size to be maintained and ensures the string stability of the platoon. The PCAMS software is based on the original work Ricardo led in the H2020 SARTRE programme and through various follow-on platooning projects in Europe and North America.
“Truck platooning offers an opportunity to improve the safety of truck transportation, reduce CO2 emissions and operator fuel costs, while also reducing the demands placed upon truck drivers,” explains Ricardo vehicle automation and safety specialist Richard Saady. “This is probably one of the closest to market CAV applications and one that offers tangible environmental, commercial and safety benefits. We are pleased therefore to be developing some of the enabling technologies and participating in collaborative R&D programmes, aimed at bringing the benefits of this technology to the world’s highways.” For more information visit: www.ricardo.com
The Road to Relevant Research TECHNOLOGY HELPS
AUTOMOBILE DEALERS RETRIEVE VEHICLES International automotive technology company ERM Advanced Telematics Ltd. is stepping up efforts to offer the Parking Habits service developed by the company to automobile dealerships working in the BHPH (Buy Here Pay Here) car financing method. The Parking Habits solution monitors drivers' parking habits by building a representative model that shows where a vehicle, which has the solution installed, is parked, when it was parked during the day, week, month, and year and the frequency it was parked in any spot. Parking Habits has already enabled American car financing companies, which installed the solution, to retrieve within a few weeks 400 cars of drivers who are in arrears, saving millions of dollars. To date, ERM has provided the service as a large-scale pilot in the United States and countries in South America. Whenever the driver fails to meet the payments for the car, the company that sold the car can use the Parking Habit software to predict where the car will be parked at particular times and days and send a repossession crew to retrieve it. The Parking Habits solution can help predict problems with the payments for the car before they even occur. The car financing company is able to see if, when and how the drivers have changed their parking habits in a way that requires the companyâ€™s attention. For example, if the alerts highlight a driver that has stopped parking each morning near his or her workplace, it might suggest that the customer has lost his or her job and might have difficulties in paying for the car on time. Parking Habits is implemented as ERM-developed technology that is embedded into the StarLink tracking units that the company supplies, and on the service provider's servers, allowing the software to operate even if the driver disconnects the StarLink from his or her vehicle. The software, which resides in both the car and at the fleet management server that is used by the company that sold the car, samples the driver's parking habits at different times of the day to create a daily update profile of the parking habits, and reports the location of the car to the server in synchronization with the monitoring of the vehicle's location. "The Parking Habits service, which we developed, offers car sellers an innovative way to predict and prevent financial issues before they occur. With a small investment, ERMâ€™s solutions can save our customers millions of dollars, as well as the hassle and the time invested in locating and retrieving vehicles that were not fully paid for," says Eitan Kirshenboim, CMO of ERM Advanced Telematics. "In the past two years, Parking Habits was successfully implemented by car financing companies, which are the customers of our partners in the United States and South America. As a preventative measure, these companies can identify situations that can signify a worsening in the customer's financial status. The companies can act accordingly before or after any delay in payments, or at least be aware of the growing risk in relation to the customer. Our Parking Habits service greatly reduces the risk companies take when offering car financing, and allows them to quickly, easily, and at minimal risk and cost retrieve vehicles for which they did not receive the required payments."
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April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 49
NATIONAL PRECAST FEATURE Installing one of the 24 precast piles which were manufactured for the bridges’ abutments.
When embarking on the $28 million project, the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) knew the bridge replacement would cater for the region’s future growth and improve flood and storm immunity. National Precast member, Stresscrete, was contracted to manufacture and deliver the precast concrete elements.
Opting for a precast concrete solution offered significant project efficiency improvements for TMR through quality assurance and speedy construction times. TMR Director General Neil Scales said the precast elements were delivered to site before works began, so they were available for installation as required. ‘‘Precast concrete saved time as the materials were delivered to site and installed, avoiding the wait for the poured deck units or piles to set,’’ Mr Scales explained. Stresscrete manufactured 168 deck units for the project, with each unit measuring up to 20 metres long and weighing up to 23 tonnes. In addition, 24 precast piles were manufactured for the bridges’ abutments, measuring up to 20.5 metres long and weighing up to 13 tonnes. All components were delivered to site by Stresscrete Heavy Haulage. Three decks were cast per day in a 75-metre-long in-line stressing bed and two piles were cast per day at the precaster’s Rockhampton factory. The deck units measured up to 20 metres in length and weighed up to 23 tonnes.
BRIDGING THE ELEMENTS: NEW BRIDGES FOR MACKAY’S FUTURE PROJECT: VINES CREEK BRIDGES REPLACEMENT PROJECT PRECASTER: STRESSCRETE CLIENT: QUEENSLAND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT AND MAIN ROADS BUILDER: QUEENSLAND BRIDGE AND CIVIL On Queensland’s east coast, the replacement of two bridges will inject a new lease of life to the area as the State Government improves connections to the Port of Mackay. As one of Queensland’s leading multi-commodity ports, the Port of Mackay is a major servicing centre for the Central Queensland mining and agricultural industries. Providing the sole access for heavy vehicles travelling to and from the Port, the two double-lane Vines Creek Bridges on Mackay-Slade Point Road (Harbour Road) are vital pieces of infrastructure in the local transport network.
50 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
NATIONAL PRECAST FEATURE
Stresscrete Owner Craig Zinn said the delivery and unloading of the precast components was carefully co-ordinated in line with the project schedule - ultimately making for smooth transportation and installation. “Using precast allowed us to meet the client’s program and deliver a speedy and high-quality result,” he detailed.
Stresscrete manufactured a total of 168 deck units for the project.
THE QUALITY CONNECTION
TMR considered several factors when weighing up the benefits of using precast piles versus cast-in-place piles. The nature of bridge foundations was one of the key considerations. Because of the variable nature of the creek bed and scour depth potential of the foundations, cast-in-place piles were needed for the construction of the bridge piers, however precast piles were used where possible to maximise project efficiency. “Using precast concrete allowed for the deck units and piles to be cast in a controlled environment and inspected for quality assurance before being transported to site,” Mr Scales said. “This eliminated some of the uncertainty with in-situ concrete that is poured and set on site, which can be impacted by weather or other factors.”
A 2019 COMPLETION
The project is being undertaken in two stages with the inbound bridge being demolished and replaced, followed by the outbound bridge. This staged approach ensures two-way traffic is maintained throughout. The main construction works started in May 2017 and the overall project is expected to be completed in March 2019.
Stresscrete has been leading the way in the manufacture and supply of precast and prestressed concrete products for over 20 years. At Stresscrete, we pride ourselves on the delivery of a quality product on time. With our expertise and experience, we can offer a selection of innovative precast and prestressed concrete solutions for your project, whether at tender stage or project delivery.
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April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 51
BRIDGES IN FOCUS
Bridging the gap between budget and repairs A regional bridge and critical lifeline for locals, received a vital upgrade in traffic in only three weeks – thanks to a custom-made solution using Bridgeply in a way never done before. With a number of old hardwood deck planks crumbling but many in good working order, Kiah Rd Bridge in Gillieston Heights, NSW, was functional yet ageing unevenly. A total refurbishment of the bridge deck was unfeasible due to cost and the low traffic volume. Bridge owner, South Maitland Railways, sought a unique solution to help extend the life of the remaining planks, while simultaneously maintaining the bridge weight limit and improving its structural integrity. Big River Group custom made Bridgeply planks and used them in a way that had never been done before – as running boards fixed to the existing hardwood transverse boards along the bridge. The plywood planks were even created with stepped ends so they could be joined in a way that would transfer weight load from sheet to sheet as traffic passed over them. “On top of these existing challenges of budget and weight limits, it was crucial
52 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
to undertake the work as quickly as possible and ‘in traffic’, as the bridge is the only access for a handful of properties near Gillieston Heights,” said Warren Hedley, Manager of South Maitland Railways Pty Ltd. “When a bridge is closed or is load limited, the impact on the local community can be significant. Fortunately, this vital
upgrade was completed within three weeks – on time and on budget,” said Hedley. The decks were manufactured in the Grafton Mill, NSW. As the planks were 800mm wide but manufactured from 1200mm sheets, the offcuts were utilised in the core of the decks to minimise waste and cost. “As they are made from three layers of bonded plywood, the layers on each
BRIDGES IN FOCUS
Bridgeply panels are traditionally available in standard widths of 1200mm, and can be custom made to other sizes. The Big River Grafton Mill has a scarf joining machine that allows plywood machining to almost any sheet size within the limits of transportation – including lengths of over 10 metres. The longest order made to date is a 13.1m sheet of Bridgeply, which was carried on a 14m long semi-trailer.
ABOUT BIG RIVER GROUP
end could be stepped so the sheets could interlock together rather than having to mitre cut them,” explained Dan Berryman, National Wholesale Manager, at Big River Group. An economic alternative to steel or concrete, Bridgeply can be easily applied to damaged or deteriorated hardwood decking. Additionally, its lightweight composition means less machinery is required to install it. “We chose Big River Bridgeply for its distinct adaptability to our unique problem, as well as its quality and Australian Origins” – Kiah Road Bridge owner South Maitland Railways Pty Ltd, Manager Warren Hedley.
Bridgeply – Structural Grade Plywood Bridgeply is a structural grade plywood manufactured to AS/NZS 2269-2012 made from AFS/PEFC chain of custody certified sustainable Australian plantation pine. It provides a reliable replacement where suitable lengths of solid hardwood timber are unavailable for bridge decking. The ply is cross-laminated, with the grain at right angles in alternating layers, to evenly distribute longitudinal and lateral stiffness. The product is envelope treated (H4) to protect against termites, fungus and environmental degradation.
River Group manufactures and distributes timber and steel formwork products, timber flooring, structural plywood and related timber products, and distributes a broad range of other building products, including MaxiWall, primarily to the commercial and residential, non-residential, and infrastructure, construction market segments. Big River owns and manages 13 sales and distribution outlets including Sydney, Gold Coast, Brisbane, Sunshine Coast, Townsville, Illawarra, Melbourne, Hume (ACT), Adelaide and Perth. The Company also owns and operates manufacturing facilities at Grafton and Wagga Wagga in NSW. Big River provides customers with the security of a full support network, and technical expertise at every stage of the product lifecycle. This is the guarantee of quality and service that Big River has based its 110 years of success on. For further information, please visit: www.bigrivergroup.com.au
A Fascinating History of an Iconic Bridge The Hawkesbury River Bridge is the single largest asset in the care of Sydney Trains. Situated in an obscure bend in the river, it is out of public view, except when crossing it. The current bridge was built alongside the original bridge, side-by-side. Both bridges were technically challenging for their time, and required significant ingenuity and engineering feats to move the huge steel spans into place. Fortunately, the construction of both bridges was well photographed. The history of these iconic bridges has now been documented in Bill Phippen’s new book The Hawkesbury River Railway Bridges. Detailed, informative and with an array of photos, it provides a fascinating and comprehensive history of these remarkable structures, and is an extremely worthwhile read for historians, engineers and railfans alike. (329 pages, $88). The Hawkesbury River Railway Bridges is available from the Australian Railway
Historical Society NSW Bookshop, Ph: (02) 9699 4595 or visit: www.arhsnsw.com.au ** Highway Engineering Australia (HEA) readers are able to purchase copies of The Hawkesbury River Railway Bridges for the special pre-sale price of $75 (valid until April 30th).
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Bill Phippen OAM was born in Sydney in 1950. He graduated in Civil Engineering from Sydney University in 1976. Bill was elected to the Founding Board of TAD disability services where he served continuously until 2017, holding the position of President from 1996 until 2012. TAD Disability Services is a charity which builds custom equipment for people with disabilities. On Australia Day 2013 Bill was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for service to people with disability, and to the community. In 2010 he was named as New South Wales Senior Volunteer of the Year and by the Sydney Morning Herald as one of the 100 most influential people in Sydney. In 2013 Engineers Australia named Bill as one of the 100 most influential engineers in Australia on the basis of his work with TAD and invited him to be a Fellow of that Institution. Bill is a member of the Engineers Australia Sydney Division Heritage Committee.
April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 53
ACA CORROSION FEATURE
Centre pylon of the Makatote viaduct in New Zealand prepared for restoration ÂŠ2016, TBS Group
THE IMPACT OF CORROSION ON BRIDGE INFRASTRUCTURE Throughout the Asia Pacific region there are tens of thousands of bridges and related road and rail infrastructure. The variety of designs and construction material used to build these assets present a wide range of challenges to the people charged with managing and maintaining them. Degradation of bridges is caused by many different factors including corrosion and other stresses from both the environment and heavy vehicles passing over them. In Australia, the yearly cost of asset maintenance is estimated to be approximately $32 billion. Avoidable corrosion damage accounts for $8 billion of this and continues to have a major economic impact on industry and the wider community. The proportional costs and impact of corrosion are similar for most countries in the Asia Pacific region. Corrosion will affect all types of metals to varying degrees of severity and speed. Unless comprehensive management plans are developed and implemented, steel and other metals will 'rust' and reinforced concrete will spall and crack. Corrosion can be prevented or minimised by either 'isolating' the material from its environment with some sort of coating or implementing an active intervention system such as cathodic protection. The environment and prevailing climatic conditions also contribute to the degradation of bridges. The largest cities in the region are either in coastal or tropical zones, with some even exposed to the combination of both. Bridges in Darwin and Brisbane, along with many other cities throughout the region, can be impacted by extreme wind speeds of tropical storms in addition to the high levels of airborne salt found in coastal locations. Harsh environments - especially with high chemical levels or extreme temperatures - can accelerate rates of corrosion.
54 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
Bridges also carry massive loads from moving vehicles which impose vibrational and other stresses onto structures. Approximately 200,000 cars and trucks cross Melbourne's Westgate Bridge each day, making it one of the country's busiest road corridors. Sydney's Harbour Bridge carries 160,000 vehicles each day between North Sydney and the CBD as well as 204 trains. The Auckland Harbour Bridge carries a similar volume of road traffic, although it is estimated that half the people crossing the bridge in the morning peak hour are on buses. The owners and managers of these assets must ensure that bridges are safe, while maintaining acceptable levels of service for the duration of the expected life of the asset. If appropriate asset management strategies are implemented, it is possible to restore an asset to near its original condition and maintain its functionality for the remaining service life and, possibly, even beyond. Working with industry and academia to research all aspects of corrosion, the Australasian Corrosion Association Inc. (ACA) provides an extensive knowledge base that supports best practice in corrosion management, thereby ensuring all impacts of corrosion are responsibly managed, the environment is protected, public safety enhanced and economies improved. Recognition of the need to effectively maintain road and rail infrastructure is increasing. An illustration of this is the announcement by the Australian Federal government of further funding of its national Bridges Renewal Program. Darren Chester, former Federal Minister for Infrastructure and Transport, said that the Australian Government's funding would see an additional 186 projects added to the
replacement or upgrade work being carried out on 201 bridges already. The new funding is in addition to the $216 million already committed under the first two rounds of the program. Another was the initiation by Raed El Sarraf, Corrosion and Asset Integrity Consultant with WSP Opus in New Zealand, of a Big Bridges Workshop in 2017 that was held in Sydney and attended by representatives of the stakeholders in the larger, iconic bridges in the region, including the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Auckland Harbour Bridge, Brisbane's Story Bridge and Melbourne's Westgate Bridge. The two most common causes of concrete corrosion are carbonation and chloride or 'salt attack'. The alkaline (high pH) conditions in concrete forms a passive film on the surface of the steel reinforcing bars, thus preventing or minimising corrosion. Reduction of the pH caused by â€œcarbonationâ€? or ingress of chloride (salt) causes the passive film to degrade, allowing the reinforcement to corrode in the presence of oxygen and moisture. Leaching of the alkalinity from concrete also lowers pH to cause corrosion of steel reinforcement. Stray electrical currents, most commonly from electrified traction systems, can also breakdown the passive film and cause corrosion of steel reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete elements. As reinforcing bars rust, the volume of the rust products can increase up to six times that of the original steel, thus increasing pressure on the surrounding material which slowly cracks the concrete. The most exposed elements usually deteriorate first and it may take 5 to 15 years for the effects of reinforcing steel corrosion to become visibly noticeable. Cracks eventually appear on the surface and concrete starts to flake off or spall.
ACA CORROSION FEATURE
Corrosion mitigation flowchart.
Warren Green, Director and Corrosion Engineer at engineering consultancy firm, Vinsi Partners, stated that not all corrosion of reinforcement leads to visible rust staining, cracking, delamination or spalling of cover concrete. Significant section loss can also occur where there is localised pitting or localised corrosion at cracks and surface defects. Ultimately, structural failure may occur without any visible consequences of corrosion on the surface of the concrete. Pits usually start out quite narrow, but with time coalesce to form larger ones and result in section loss over a greater (anodic) area. Green stated that various repair and protection technologies and approaches are possible during the lifetime of a reinforced concrete structure, depending on the type of corrosion mechanism. Remedial options available that can slow the rate of reinforcement corrosion include coatings, penetrants, waterproofing, corrosion inhibitors, electrochemical (galvanic anodes) and electrochemical (hybrid treatment). There are also remedial options to stop corrosion of reinforcement. These include cathodic protection, electrochemical chloride extraction and electrochemical re-alkalisation. In addition to the range of repair and protection approaches, the latest concrete structures incorporate new materials and production methods which improve longevity and performance. As a result of the research into concrete additives, construction companies and engineering consultancies have access to all the latest technologies that yield a suite of proactive and reactive processes and procedures to maximise the durability of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete. The physical aspects of applying a coating or repairing a section of steel or concrete present their own challenges for owners and operators of bridges. The towers and stays of
suspension-type bridges often require staff to have advanced abseiling skills so they can access them. Metal structures usually need specialised equipment and scaffolding to allow workers to safely perform maintenance work. New Zealand has approximately 2,300 bridges of varying size associated with the country's highways. A large proportion of the bridges are concrete decks on steel frames and supports or pre-stressed concrete structures, in addition to bridges made of conventional reinforced concrete and timber. According to Willie Mandeno, Principal Materials and Corrosion Engineer with WSP Opus, the maintenance and monitoring of these structures continually adapts to changing conditions and technologies. The iconic Auckland Harbour Bridge is a steel truss and box girder design. For many years, the maintenance of this bridge involved a continuing program of painting, where applicators started at one end and when they got to the other end, went back to the beginning again. According to Mandeno, this has changed. “Old oil-based paints became very brittle and could crack then delaminate,” he said.
“In the late 1990s they changed to a moisture cured urethane which gives approximately a 20-year lifespan before the bridge needs to be repainted.” While the time between recoating is now much longer, it is still necessary to continually monitor the old coatings to ensure adhesion is maintained. “When re-coating, the ideal is to just replace the top coat,” Mandeno said, “but we usually have to do some maintenance work first, such as cleaning and re-priming of edges and around rivet heads.” Early solvent-based paints used to contain chromates and lead, along with a range of other hazardous chemicals. “We have had to balance protecting the environment with the reduced performance of water-based coatings,” Mandeno said. “One solvent-free long-life coating that we now recommend for use in coastal areas is thermal sprayed zinc. One limitation of this material, and the alternative high-build inorganic zinc silicate coatings, is that it is that they are only available in shades of grey.” Many roads throughout the region are being upgraded to allow for longer and heavier trucks. All road authorities face similar challenges when managing the risks of ageing infrastructure designed to a much lower standard, whilst still providing access for modern heavy vehicles. Short span structures like culverts are only exposed to one axle group at any one time whereas longer span structures built during the past century are now required to carry substantially more load than they were originally designed for. In New Zealand, Mandeno stated that many of the older timber rail bridges nearing the end of their useful life are being replaced by 'weathering steel' girder bridges which should provide a longer operational lifespan. Officially known as “structural steel with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance,” weathering steel is a high strength, low alloy
'Weathering steel' narrow-gauge rail bridge in New Zealand
April/May 2018 | Highway Engineering Australia 55
'Weathering steel' girder bridge.
EQUIPMENT ACA CORROSION FEATURE FEATURE
steel that, in suitable environments—those not exposed to high levels of salinity and pollutants—may be left unpainted allowing a protective rust “patina” to form and minimise further corrosion. Alloy components such as copper, chromium, silicon and phosphorus form less than two per cent of the steel but it retains appropriate strength, ductility, toughness and weldability so that it can be used for bridge construction. All structural steel rusts at a rate determined by the amount of moisture and oxygen to which the metallic iron is exposed. As this process continues, the oxide (rust) layer becomes a barrier restricting further ingress of moisture and oxygen to the metal, and the rate of corrosion slows down. The rust layer that forms on most conventional carbon-manganese structural steels is relatively porous and flakes off the surface allowing a fresh corrosion cycle to occur. However, due to the alloying elements in weathering steel, a stable rust layer is produced that adheres to the base metal and is much less porous. This layer develops under conditions of alternate wetting and drying to produce a protective barrier which impedes further access of oxygen and
56 Highway Engineering Australia | April/May 2018
moisture. It is possible that if the rust layer remains sufficiently impervious and tightly adhering, the corrosion rate may reduce to an extremely low one. It can be relatively simple to calculate loads and stresses on bridges when weights are distributed evenly across the structure, but road authorities also have to deal with heavy and over-dimension loads. Movement of such vehicles requires special planning as there are some roads and bridges that are physically unable to support massive weight concentrated into a small area. Modern technology can assist in managing some structures sensitive to vibration from heavy vehicles. Electronic sensors can be set up to monitor vibrations and other stresses on structures so that a large number of data points are logged that can be downloaded for analysis. Sensors can also be connected to remote cameras that are triggered whenever a threshold vibration level is exceeded to identify which vehicles are producing these effects. It is strongly recommended that a durability plan be developed which then becomes a critical tool in supporting an overarching asset management strategy.
The plan should clearly outline likely corrosion-related risks and agreed mitigation approaches as early as possible in an asset’s lifecycle, ideally during the planning and design stage.
ABOUT THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION The Australasian Corrosion Association Incorporated (ACA) is a not-for-profit, membership association, that disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention through the provision of training courses, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities. The vision of the ACA is that corrosion is managed sustainably and cost effectively to ensure the health and safety of the community and protection of the environment. For further information, please visit: www.corrosion.com.au
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