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Industry News


Cover Feature: City of Gold Coast


Fleet Maintenance

OCT/NOV 2018 Volume 4 Number 5


20 Equipment Focus 24 Case Study: Propex Novomesh 950 26 Project Focus: Stockholm Loop


30 Concrete Institute News 38 Construction Materials


40 National Precast Feature 50 Precast Technology 52 ACA Corrosion Feature


About the Cover The Gold Coast is a vibrant, growing city. It has reached the point where it is no longer a small, regional centre. By 2031 the city’s population is expected to grow to nearly 800,000 and the number of daily trips on its transport network is expected to approach four million. The City of Gold Coast is investing in public transport and has a strong focus on getting the infrastructure priorities right to keep the city moving as it grows.

Turn to Page 12 for the full story.


Planning for Population Growth: Putting the Horse in Front of the Cart Dear Readers, It may be a well-worn adage, but I believe that the need to ‘put the horse in front of the cart’ is certainly apt when it comes to the current discussions of population growth and placement. By this I am of course referring to the renewed calls for new permanent immigrants to be only granted a visa if they agree live somewhere other than Sydney or Melbourne for at least 5 years – preferably in regional Australia. Before I continue, I will take this opportunity to state for the record that, in general, I am in favour of encouraging ‘population decentralisation’ away from Sydney and Melbourne. Those who live there – or more specifically, those who regularly commute in either Sydney or Melbourne – will likely understand. And while this subject is clearly far too complex to cover off in a short editorial, I also believe that when it comes to economic growth and employment issues, a steady and controlled increase in population is also capable of delivering sufficient employment opportunities and economic growth to make it sustainable… with one critical proviso, however; that the fundamentals are all in place first. We must first ‘put the horse in front of the cart’. While it’s clearly not only a question of transport infrastructure, using the example of roads and public transport does have the benefit of providing an easily recognisable ‘performance benchmark’, with which most people can easily associate.


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

With that in mind, it’s interesting to note that while road congestion and overstretched public transport networks are often the first two subjects to be raised when it comes to discussions of slowing population growth in our two largest cities, the same can’t be said when it comes to discussions of decentralisation. Indeed, many of the discussions I’ve heard recently, often completely ignore the fact that a significant increase in population in any area will have a significant impact on both infrastructure and services – irrespective of the ‘starting point’. One only has to look at the outer suburbs and growth areas of all of our capitals (and several of our major regional centres) to see this impact. Once quiet rural roads are now clogged major arterials struggling under traffic loads (both in terms of vehicle weights and numbers) for which they were never intended or designed. And despite claims and aims to the contrary, a large percentage of people in these outer growth areas do not have easy access to public transport services. But, as I said, it’s not just about roads and public transport – far from it. Houses need infrastructure and householders need services. From utilities, storm water, sewage treatment and waste & recycling services, through to healthcare, social services, aged care and recreational facilities, the list of requirements for a booming community is as expensive as it is extensive. What’s more, these services and infrastructure capabilities ideally need to be in place before the boom commences.

While it’s always difficult to try and estimate the future requirements of a community, city or region, it’s clear that on many fronts, we are clearly well behind the eight ball (sorry for yet another well-worn adage – but again, it’s quite apt!) Importantly, whether this shortfall in infrastructure and services stems from under-investment, under-estimating population growth trends, trying to ‘do things on the cheap’ - or, as I suspect, a mix of all three - is effectively moot point. What’s done is done and we will all be living with the consequences while we play catch up. Be that as it may, I don’t believe that we can use that as an excuse to continue in the same manner. In short, we can see the accelerating growth, and we can see the consequences of not providing infrastructure and services to meet the increased demands. If that’s not enough evidence that we need to lift our game, I don’t know what is.

Anthony T Schmidt Managing Editor

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Cat equipment and training helping incarcerated Indigenous men to lead more stable, productive lives. Leading Australian Caterpillar dealer WesTrac is lending its support to the Fairbridge Bindjareb program, an initiative that is successfully helping incarcerated Indigenous men to find work and turn their lives around. WesTrac has long provided Cat equipment for use by the Perth-based program and in more recent times has been running training days for participants, providing training for instructors, and introducing contracting firms to the scheme. WesTrac WA Chief Executive Jarvas Croome says WesTrac’s increased commitment to the Fairbridge Bindjareb program is a reflection of the outstandingly positive results it has achieved. “More than 90 percent of participants finish the scheme and more than 40 percent of recent graduates have gone on to find work,” he says. “By the end of the program, they have a real direction and self-belief.” A joint initiative of the West Australian Department of Justice, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet and youth training organisation Fairbridge, 4

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

the Bindjareb Program was established in 2010 and aims to break the vicious circle Indigenous men can fall into when they enter custody. Generally speaking, the longer and more frequently men are incarcerated, the less likely they are to have the skills needed to get a job and lead a stable life. Fairbridge helps to correct this by providing minimumsecurity prisoners based at Karnet Prison Farm the chance to train for jobs in the mining and local government sectors ahead of their release. Between 10-12 participants at a time go through a 14-week course where they undergo intensive training and mentoring and gain relevant trade qualifications. “We aim to give people a hand-up, not a hand-out,” explains Program Manager Brett Hawthorn. “We want them to leave here with new cultural, life and work knowledge plus the support network they need to make sustainable change in their lives.” Bindjareb trainer and mentor George Miles explains participants leave the prison each day and learn the skills, commitment and professionalism necessary to operate plant equipment including graders, loaders, skid steers, watercarts and side tippers. “At the moment we have a Cat 14M grader and a 930 loader from WesTrac that the guys are doing training on,” he says.

“Because WesTrac supplies these free of charge, the guys are able to get lots of time on the equipment and a really get a good understanding. That’s not something we could do if we had to hire it.” As part of the course, participants also spend a full day at WesTrac’s West Australian headquarters at Guildford. They get a tour of the warehouse and inventory system and a chance to learn about and operate state-of-the-art Cat equipment at the Demonstrational Learning Centre (Dig Pit). Miles says the confidence that WesTrac and other supporters show in the participants has a transformational effect on them. “They are different people by the end of the course,” he says. “We get to hear about some of them getting married, buying themselves a nice car, a house, and taking photos with their newborns.” Some have long criminal histories, and at the end of the course they come out and say I’m never going back there,” he added. WesTrac Used Equipment & Rental Business Manager Darren Hall says the scheme has also created a positive buzz within WesTrac, with employees keen to get involved and help out. “The team at WesTrac get a real sense of personal achievement and accomplishment from interacting with the guys and sharing their knowledge,” he says. “So WesTrac gets something out of hosting them, as well.” Hall says the next step for WesTrac may be to take on a course graduate. “At the last graduation I attended, I brought down a couple of our HR team,” he says. “So, we’re looking at future possibilities of being able to employ one of them, too.”

ABOUT WESTRAC WesTrac is one of the largest Caterpillar dealers in the world and supplies and services Caterpillar equipment in Western Australia, NSW, and the ACT. WesTrac's wide array of machinery and construction equipment and its wholeof-life management solutions make owning and operating equipment as easy, profitable and safe as possible.

ABOUT FAIRBRIDGE Fairbridge is a major youth charity and registered training organisation (RTO). It owns and operates a town site named Fairbridge Village near Pinjarra, just south of Perth. The organisation delivers a range of programs aimed at achieving long-term, positive, sustainable change in the lives of young people in need.


INNOVATIONS RAISE SAFETY OF CRANE LIFT OPERATION Monash University research into fatal crane accidents worldwide has sparked the development of new cutting-edge technologies based on gaming software that could help save hundreds of lives. Dr Yihai Fang from Monash University’s Department of Civil Engineering has created programs using game engine software that employs sensing, simulation and visualisation to enhance the safety of crane lift training and operation. According to Dr Fang, current practices in lift planning and operation are ineffective and severely out of date in terms of recognising and mitigating potential safety risks. He said they can’t respond to the increasing complexity of and rapid changes on a construction site which puts workers’ safety in jeopardy. His team turned to gaming technology to help them develop simulation software that allows them to pre-plan and practise risky lift manoeuvres in a close-to-reality and risk-free virtual environment. “Cranes are involved in a significant number of injuries and fatalities in construction, with people being hit by crane parts/loads and electrocution being the most frequent cases,” said Dr Fang, whose research was in response to a series of fatal crane accidents across the world.

“Many of these incidents are due to the misjudging of space between cranes in the work site and surrounding entities, such as workers, power lines and structures.” Just recently, a man was killed and two others injured when a tub of concrete fell from a crane at a construction site in Box Hill, Victoria. There was another case of a man being run over by a crane in Adelaide last year. "Current practices cannot ensure a safe workplace during crane lifts because of a number of deficiencies in existing planning techniques – the most severe being inadequate consideration to avoid cranes swinging over workers,” he said. In response to these challenges, Dr Fang’s team has developed a Lift Virtual Prototyping (LVP) system, which enables the lift team to plan lift activities through a process of modelling, simulation, and analysis. The team can use the system to optimise the crane’s location and lift path based on pre-designed models and accurate cloud data that represents the workspace, including up-to-date spatial constraints at the time of the lift. Prior to undertaking the task, workers can build a virtual prototype of a crane lift in a virtual, risk-free environment and collaborate with other workers to carefully plan and time risky manoeuvres.

In addition, Dr Fang’s team created a Real-time Smart Crane system that can capture the crane motions and monitor the spatial clearances between the crane parts/ load and surrounding entities. Results from rigorous field testing with real cranes on construction sites and offshore platforms have been integrated into this system. The system can also detect if a worker approaches or walks into the crane workspace, and assessments can be made as safety issues emerge. “Workers should no longer need to be concerned if a heavy load might fall on them. This technology alerts the crane operator if workers move into the danger zone under heavy loads so they can adapt accordingly,” Dr Fang said. “With an emphasis on workplace safety and improved project management practices, we’re hoping to engage industry partners to support further research in this important area. No worker should feel unsafe while on the job and these new technologies might provide a life-saving solution,” he concluded. Watch the Lift Virtual Prototyping (LVP) system in action at: Watch the Real-time Smart Crane system in action at:

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Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

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THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS BICENTENARY ICE 200 CIVIL ENGINEERING TRANSFORMING LIVES AUSTRALASIA CONFERENCE To mark the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) 200th anniversary, the New South Wales local association of the ICE, recently hosted the ICE 200 Australasia Conference – civil engineers transforming lives in Sydney. The ICE 200 Australasia Conference showcased how civil engineering is transforming the way we live, and provided a comprehensive look at the skills, technologies, policies and infrastructure projects that will shape our communities in the future. Renee Reilly, Australasia Manager at ICE, said: “Our research has shown that the majority of both adults and young people don’t know what a civil engineer does. Our bicentenary creates a platform for the industry to shout loudly about civil engineering on a global scale, explaining not just the importance of civil engineering but how it has directly transformed people’s lives. In the lead up to ICE’s bicentenary the institution surveyed the general public and discovered that 55% of adults and 65% of young people said they didn’t know what a civil engineer does. ICE Immediate Past President, Professor Timothy Broyd, who opened the conference, explained: “Civil engineers can be proud to say that ours is a profession with a great history of transforming lives. We are the Invisible Superhero’s of society.” “We want to emphasise the power behind what engineers do and engage a public audience of adults and young people, telling the story of how Civil Engineers transformed lives in a major way.” “The global challenges we face today are not small. Every person across the globe deserves a safe home, clean water, sanitation, clean air, electricity, and the means to travel,” he said. “Our profession is ideally placed to answer the many challenges the world faces. Civil engineers have for centuries been at the heart of social and economic


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

progress and helped improve the world in which we live. They provide many of the things we need and take for granted every day – like clean water, transport and electricity – directly transforming people’s lives.” “By 2050 the world’s population will reach 9 billion. Civil engineers need sustainable ways to develop the built environment these people will live in. It has never been more important to have passionate and creative civil engineers tackling the problems society faces head on,” Professor Broyd added. The ICE 200 Australasia Conference highlighted that the role of the engineer of the future is not just producing more efficient infrastructure. The engineer of the future needs to identify the broader challenges of the 21st century, and to become part of their solution. Our predecessors saw poverty, high mortality rates, stagnant economies and growing populations, and proposed ways in which infrastructure could transform lives. The engineers of the future must do the same. The ICE is committed to do all it can to support the development of the engineer of the future, to motivate a new generation of engineers; engineers who can draw on new technologies and new methods; engineers who want to face up to the challenges of society, engineers who challenge the status quo, engineers who want to make a difference to our planet – the Invisible Superheroes of the future!

FISHERMANS BEND FINAL FRAMEWORK EMBRACES GREEN STAR AT SCALE The Victorian Government has lifted the bar on both the environmental and social sustainability credentials of Australia’s largest urban renewal project with the release of the final Fishermans Bend Framework, in an announcement welcomed by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA). The final Framework builds on the commitments made in the initial draft requiring that all developments in the new precinct achieve a minimum 4 Star Green Star rating, with buildings over 5,000 square meters to be built to a 5 Star Green Star standard. The Government has also increased the inclusivity of Fishermans Bend with the introduction of a social housing uplift scheme. GBCA Head of Public Affairs & Membership Jonathan Cartledge congratulated the Victorian Government on its close engagement with industry and the community throughout the consultation period. “When governments really take the time to listen and consult extensively and in good faith, the outcomes for the community are invariably improved, as is the case with this city-changing precinct,” Mr Cartledge said. “We are delighted the Government has embraced the Green Star – Communities model and chosen to require even more environmental rigour at Fishermans Bend with the increase in requirements to a 5 Star Green Star rating for largescale buildings which will boost the standard from best practice to Australian excellence.” Though pleased with the decision to lift the site’s environmental sustainability credentials to meet 5 Star Green Star or equivalent standards, Mr Cartledge cautioned that independent certification was vital. “Benchmarking Fishermans Bend developments against the GBCA’s 4 and 5 Star Green Star rating requirements is




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important but only certification will provide community confidence that these goals are being met,” he said. “A key benefit of certification is that it provides independence, rigour and transparency to the assessment process.” “Independent third-party certification from the GBCA provides assurance and integrity, unlike unverifiable claims of ‘equivalency’. Such outcomes should not be permitted as they risk undermining in the implementation phase for the bold vision the Government has set out for Fishermans Bend,” he added. “Green Star is Australia’s only holistic rating system for the sustainable design, construction and performance of buildings, fitouts and communities.” “We look forward to continuing our engagement on this vital project through our ongoing collaboration with the Fishermans Bend Taskforce to support the Government’s work and inform how Green Star may be taken up at a building level within the precinct utilising the planning frameworks and other initiatives.”


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

Mr Cartledge said that a holistic approach to sustainability is multifaceted, and that it is encouraging to see the government also promoting social and economic sustainability outcomes through commitments to social and affordable housing and a focus on job creation. “These planning controls enshrine environmental and social sustainability at the heart of Fishermans Bend as a site that will define Melbourne’s future, embracing its eight sustainability goals,” he said. “Moving forward, certainty in governance and leadership will be essential in delivering Fishermans Bend and maintaining the

renewed community confidence that has been established. This will require transparency and careful planning. “The GBCA believes government must lead by example in requiring the highest possible standards for any new developments on government-owned land in Fishermans Bend. “This is a rare opportunity for government to lead in development best practice and must be embraced. “We applaud the hard work the Victorian Government has already put in and look forward working with them as Fishermans Bend comes to fruition,” Mr Cartledge concluded.

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he Gold Coast is a vibrant, growing city. It has reached the point where it is no longer a small, regional centre. By 2031 the city’s population is expected to grow to nearly 800,000 and the number of daily trips on its transport network is expected to approach four million. As the city continues to grow, high levels of car dependence will mean more traffic congestion on the road network. Gold Coast Mayor Tom Tate said the City of Gold Coast is investing in public transport and has a strong focus on getting the infrastructure priorities right to keep the city moving as it grows. “Gold Coast has often been seen as a boom city but I believe that’s something to avoid because it is almost always followed by a bust and that does no-one any good. But I can tell you that this City is enjoying a marvellous period of growth and much of that growth is in infrastructure. “We are strengthening our services’ skeleton to enable population growth and lifestyle amenity to keep pace with community expectations. You would appreciate that this is never an easy task given the cost of infrastructure development.


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

“The Commonwealth Games that we hosted earlier this year was a fantastic boost to our budget of infrastructure. We are deeply grateful to the Queensland and Commonwealth governments for their financial contributions which enabled a $1 billion outlay on roads, light rail, sporting facilities and ancillary projects. “We must continue to plan carefully to deliver a future that is lifestyle friendly. This will impose necessary change in habits in order to manage traffic congestion and protect our economy, lifestyle and environment. “It’s an exciting time here on Gold Coast as we pursue the opportunity to make this the greatest city on the planet to live the Aussie dream,” he said.

Gold Coast is in full swing of delivering its cultural legacy The cultural evolution on the Gold Coast has taken hold with the long-held vision to transform the city’s civic heart at Evandale into Home of the Arts. The City has delivered on the first stage with the $37.5 million HOTA Outdoor Stage completed before time and within budget

in December 2017. One of Australia’s most talented international exports Tim Minchin jettisoned the striking amphitheatre onto the national scene with an opening performance in March 2018, setting the scene for an eclectic artistic led program which has included Neil Finn and the Queensland Symphony Orchestra.


To build the free-standing structure, 100 tonnes in support beams were welded in-situ and its footings buried 15 metres into the ground. A team of acoustic engineers was also assembled to test and install the French manufactured L-Acoustics sound system. Another structural challenge was to create a green roof with an adventure trail over the top of the stage and from where you can enjoy sweeping city skyline vistas. HOTA Outdoor Stage can cater for up to 5,000. With backdrop views to the city skyline and the hinterland, the versatile stage doubles as a quality black box venue and can also accommodate seated functions for up to 250 people. The surrounding lush concert lawn features sub-tropical themed plantings with advanced palms and trees.

National industry recognition

HOTA Gallery to become a cultural beacon The next stage in the evolution of HOTA is underway with the start of works on the international standard art gallery overlooking the outdoor stage. Set to become a cultural beacon in the Australian artistic scene, the vertical format six-level gallery will include a rooftop experience at 30m above the ground providing 270 degree views of the city skyline and landscape. At $60.5 million, the gallery will include 2000sqm of international standard exhibition space, including a 1000sqm main exhibition gallery – a grand volume space of six-metre high walls and no columns allowing for significant pieces of art to be displayed – and 900sqm permanent collection space over three levels. There will also be a 145sqm children’s gallery and an additional 1000sqm for the valuable City collection, workspace and crate storage. Integrated design has been paramount to addressing complex issues specific to the site, such as acoustics due to the

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Striking design has seen HOTA Outdoor Stage collect several industry awards including the National Landscape Award for Tourism at the Australian Institute of Architects 2018 International Festival of Landscape Architecture which followed on

from the Tourism Award of Excellence and the Civic Landscape Architecture Award at the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects Queensland Awards.

Photo by

It was the culmination of many years of planning to find a design which truly reflected the Gold Coast and embraced the city’s unique character while cleverly addressing its evolving cultural facility needs. The vision was the result of an international design competition in 2013 in which 75 design teams from every continent submitted their ideas for turning the 17-hectare site, just behind Surfers Paradise, into a cultural destination. The winning team was led by Australia’s foremost cultural architects, ARM Architecture, who teamed up with Berlinbased landscape architects TOPOTEK 1. A key design feature applied to the masterplan is the voronoi, a naturallyoccurring dynamic and generative pattern which links the precinct’s buildings and landscape. The project then entered masterplanning followed by detailed design for the Stage 1a outdoor stage and concert lawn – all to be delivered by a full consultant team of engineers from all disciplines. Work commenced in 2016 when a jumble of old council buildings were removed to make way for the stage and returning 1.5 hectares for civic and community use. Structural engineering expertise was required for the gravitydefying 600 sqm cantilevered shade structure to provide sun and glare protection for performers on stage.

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018



PICTURED ABOVE: HOTA Gallery and Green Bridge concept designs

relation of the gallery with the outdoor stage and the complexity of delivering an international gallery with AAA rating for climate control and security. The coloured three-dimensional building façade has also presented complicated engineering challenges. Hansen Yuncken, highly regarded for managing the technically-challenging Museum of Old and New Art (MONA) in Hobart, has commenced early works. Major construction work will commence in mid2019 with completion by the end of 2020 and official public opening in early 2021.

Green bridge to link city’s cultural heartland with main tourism area HOTA will be linked with the Gold Coast’s main tourism area via the much anticipated HOTA green bridge. The $19.5 million green bridge will provide more ways to access HOTA and add to the City’s active transport network. The 5m wide pedestrian and cycle link will span 130m across the Nerang River to 14

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the Chevron restaurant and retail strip and include aspects of the voronoi design. A steel box girder technique will be used to allow ease of construction. Engineering challenges included mobility compliance while ensuring it is high enough to allow the same clearance for vessels as the Chevron Island west bridge. This has been achieved through an architectural J-bend arrival experience over

Evandale Lake, providing the opportunity to include shaded seating from where you can enjoy the Surfers Paradise skyline and HOTA precinct landscape views and an area for pop-up food carts. The bridge construction is a joint venture between Georgiou Group Pty Ltd and Brady Marine & Civil Pty Ltd. Main bridge construction will start in December 2018 with completion scheduled for late 2019. PICTURED BELOW (L-R): City of Gold Coast Director, Transport and Infrastructure, Alton Twine; and Mayor Tom Tate inspecting the site of the new Chevron Island Green Bridge.


EXTENDING THE LIGHT RAIL NETWORK The light rail has been transformational for the Gold Coast since its opening in 2014, attracting an average of 20,000 passengers per day. During the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games light rail did the public transport heavy lifting with 1.1 million tram journeys made over the 11-day event. This proves that highfrequency, high-quality public transport corridors can dramatically increase public transport use on the Gold Coast. The light rail system is designed to be delivered in stages to respond to the city’s growth. Stage 2 of the light rail between Gold Coast University Hospital and Helensvale rail station opened in December 2017, linking the Gold Coast and Brisbane by rail like never before. Gold Coast Light Rail Stage 3A is the proposed third stage of the world class transport system, extending the light rail south from Broadbeach South to Burleigh Heads. It is the next part of a bigger plan to connect light rail from the heavy rail network at Helensvale Station to Coolangatta via the Gold Coast Airport.

In 2017, the City of Gold Coast completed a Preliminary Business Case for Stage 3A, including community and stakeholder engagement. The City is now partnering with the State Government to produce a Detailed Business Case for Stage 3A. Expected to be completed in December 2018, the Detailed Business Case will inform government about the proposed route, station locations, procurement, financial and budget implications of the project. Construction of Stage 3A could start in 2020, pending funding contributions from the Queensland Government, Australian Government and City of Gold Coast. “The first two stages of our Light Rail network proved to be a huge hit with the travelling public. Planning is now well advanced for completion of the business case to push ahead with Stage 3A and the community is overwhelmingly supportive of pushing ahead and taking the network through to the Airport and Coolangatta along with subsequent spur lines to centre in the west and north,” said Mayor Tom Tate.

LIGHT RAIL STAGE 3A KEY FEATURES • 6.7km between Broadbeach South and Burleigh Heads • Dual track centre of Gold Coast Highway • Up to 8 stations • 5 new trams • Two traffic lanes retained either side of light rail • Travel time approx. 16-17 minutes between Broadbeach South and Burleigh Heads

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018



The increasing demand for clean, green ways to get around requires an increase in sustainable local infrastructure. The City is investing in more coastal pathways throughout the Gold Coast, with numerous projects underway or recently completed including: • Currumbin Oceanway (Tomewin Street to Kropp Park) • Narrowneck Oceanway (Cable Street to Ferny Avenue) • Broadwater Way, Main Beach (Yacht Club to the Sundale Bridge) • Len Fox Park Shared Path, Labrador • Marine Parade Shared Path (Marine Parade to Stevens Street) • Tugun to Bilinga Oceanway (Toolona Street to Bilinga Surf Life Saving Club) • Golden Four Drive Shared Path (Toolona Street to Matters Street).

More than trams

Connecting Tugun to Bilinga

With the extension of light rail comes the opportunity to revitalise precincts along the corridor, contributing to a more liveable, accessible, activated and sustainable urban environment. Stage 3A of light rail proposes significant urban design improvements at Burleigh Heads and Nobby Beach like better pedestrian connections, outdoor dining, cycle storage and safer pedestrian environments. Stage 3A will also see local cycling facilities and access upgraded. This will cater for more cycling in the corridor, with better connections to light rail.

The new Tugun to Bilinga of the Gold Coast Oceanway provides high quality pedestrian and cycling access between Currumbin and Coolangatta

The $4 million dollar project, Gold Coast Oceanway Tugun to Bilinga, will allow locals and visitors to walk or cycle along eight kilometres of high quality pathway between Currumbin and Coolangatta. The new section of Oceanway will provide access for the mobility impaired and provide improved facilities such as seating and bike racks at the street ends. This pathway is part of the City’s investment to extend the network of walkways and bike paths to create a better connected Gold Coast.

Green transport - a key tool in planning for growth The Gold Coast has more than 1,000 kilometres of bikeways that interconnect with major transit routes and link neighbourhoods to schools and foreshores. The City of Gold Coast is growing this network of green trails along the city’s beaches and waterways to get more people out of cars and choosing to walk or cycle. 16

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

“It’s an exciting time here on Gold Coast as we pursue the opportunity to make this the greatest city on the planet to live the Aussie dream.” GOLD COAST MAYOR TOM TATE.


QUALITY, PERFORMANCE AND VALUE TITAN PROVES THAT YOU DON’T HAVE TO SACRIFICE QUALITY OR SAFETY TO GET BETTER VALUE FROM YOUR TYRE AND WHEEL BUDGET From private vehicle owners and owner/ operators with a single truck, van or piece of equipment, through to large commercial equipment and vehicle fleet operators, hire companies, councils and other authorities regardless of the size of the fleet or type of equipment involved - one thing they all have in common, is that they’re all trying to get the most out of their vehicle and equipment maintenance budgets. In these days of tight budgetary constraints - both business and personal - and ‘having to do more with less’, vehicle maintenance, particularly things such as replacing tyres, can often be ‘put on the back-burner’. Unfortunately, this can also result in a serious reduction in both safety and performance, as owners either choose sub-standard tyres simply based on price or, worse still, choose not to replace tyres which are often illegal and/or dangerous until they are quite literally unable to go any further. Over the past decade in particular, easy access to global markets and internet commerce, and the accompanying boom in small-scale supply businesses, has seen an array of products flow into the Australian market, including tyres. As well as resulting in a seemingly endless array of brands and products, this new market expansion has


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

also seen a significant reduction in traditional ‘brand loyalty’ as companies and individuals alike search for savings. Unfortunately, as is the case with many business segments, some sections of the tyre market in Australia have now become little more than a ‘race to the bottom’ - not only in terms of price and service, but also, in some instances, quality and safety. Be that as it may, leading tyre, wheel and undercarriage specialists Titan Australia, have set out to prove that when it comes to tyres and wheels, you don’t have to sacrifice quality or safety to get better value. Adam Oakenful, Chief Operating Officer with Titan Australia, explained: “While in the past there has been a tendency to associate cheaper-priced tyres with inferior quality or performance – a view which is perhaps not surprising considering some of the products that have managed to sneak under the radar over the years that’s certainly not the case with any of our products.” “From the company’s earliest beginnings in the USA in 1890, Titan has built its reputation on delivering high quality products which deliver outstanding safety and performance, whilst also offering excellent value for money,” he added.

As a global leader and one of the world’s largest manufacturers of specialist tyres, wheels and tracks, Titan manufacturers all of its own products at facilities across the globe. This massive global manufacturing capability not only provides significant economies of scale, it also means that Titan is able to maintain strict quality control over the entire production and supply chain - from start to finish, including fitting. “The shear scale of Titan’s global operations means that we’re able to provide outstanding quality products often at a fraction of the price of other brands,” Adam Oakenful said. “Perhaps most importantly, rather than simply selling tyres based on the size, we work with our customers to select the most appropriate tyres for their specific equipment and applications.” “After all, it doesn’t matter if it’s a passenger vehicle, 4WD, small truck, prime mover, construction machinery or even a forklift, it’s no good selecting a tyre simply based on the fact that it’s the cheapest available. You need to be sure that it’s fit for purpose, safe and will deliver the long-term performance you need,” he added. “Anything else is a false economy that will likely end up costing more in the long run – and when it comes to safety, that’s a price you don’t want to pay.” For further information on Titan’s full range of products and services, please call: 1300 791 672 or visit:




The ACA is proud to be hosting yet another Corrosion & Prevention conference and exhibition this year in Adelaide, South Australia an inspiring, dynamic and cultured city.



• 6 Plenary Lectures • Quality Technical Program Black and white • 60+ Booth Trade Exhibition • Various Technical Forums • Interactive Learning Centre • Social & Networking Functions Awards dinner • Partner Program

• Concrete • Steel Corrosion • Water Infrastructure • Oil & Gas • High temperature corrosion/ Non-ferrous metal corrosion • Asset Management • Cathodic Protection • Mining • Defence • Applicators • Coatings • Research

YOUR HOSTS The Australasian Corrosion Association Incorporated (ACA) is a not-for-profit, membership association, that disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention through the provision of training courses, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities.

For more information and to register go to:


THE AUSSIE INVENTION TRANSFORMING WORKSITE SAFETY An Australian business has revolutionised the way that machinery owners and operators manage the process of ensuring equipment is safe to use. Managing the potential risks associated with using plant and equipment is extremely important because the wellbeing of every operator, workmate and visitor on a work site depends on it. It also ensures business continuity which is important for owners, shareholders and suppliers. What started as a SQL database with an access front end used to identify faults and compile risk assessments on plant & equipment being auctioned in Wagga Wagga


Construction Engineering Australia â&#x20AC;˘ Oct/Nov 2018

NSW has now grown to become the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest plant and equipment safety platform. This cloud-based platform was a world first when launched in 2004 and has evolved to become the leading product of its type, now holding detailed safety and compliance data for more than 105,000 makes and models of plant and equipment.

MASSIVE UPTAKE IN CONSTRUCTION Plant Assessor is used by over 2000 businesses including machinery owners, hire companies, importers, distributors, dealers and auctioneers. The construction industry has recently been increasing its adoption of technology at an exponential rate. It is also one of the

largest users of machinery, with a large proportion of this machinery is hired in or provided by sub-contractors and other third parties. When it comes to major projects, the construction industry is also home to some of the most intense and demanding safety systems of any industry. Plant Assessor delivers transparency around machine hours and condition, safety information, service status, pre-start history and more. It also allows easy sharing this information with others, which considerably reduces compliance cost whilst improving the quality of the information available. As a result of this, Plant Assessor has seen a massive uptake by contractors

across all tiers of the sector including larger sub-contractors and sole traders. Major principal contractors utilising Plant Assessor include CPB, Lend Lease, John Holland, BMD, Downer Group, BGC, Watpac & Fulton Hogan.

WHY IT’S SO WIDELY USED Plant Assessor has proven to be extremely popular because it has set the benchmark for managing plant and machinery safety, whilst making it simpler and easier to manage. The machinery database is enormous, the software features useful and the user interface is clean and simple so people find it extremely easy to use. Plant Assessor is constantly updated with new machines, specifications, legislative and other requirements, so you are always up to date.

MAKING CONTRACTOR MANAGEMENT EASIER Over the past few years, Plant Assessor has been heavily focused on making it easier for organisations to manage contractors, whilst also saving contractors time and money on compliance and fleet management. This is done by sharing plant and other records between contractors and principals using sophisticated but easy to use site and subcontractor management functions. Combine this with the recent introduction of a low cost “pay as you go” style membership, and it is now practical and cost effective for contractors of any size to invite their sub-contractors to set up a Plant Assessor membership and add & share their machines and information. The contractor benefits in a variety of ways, including free digital pre-starts for all their machines and operators, built in maintenance scheduling and record keeping, and a reduction in admin time in providing compliance information to any of their clients. Pay as you go means that contractors can pay by machine for the features that are valuable to them - there are no large, long term subscription commitments required. The principal contractor benefits as the collection and review of compliance and other information is simpler and easier, and the principal contractor is quickly and simply able to make sure that every contractor has immediate and continuous access to the critical policy, procedure and site information that contractors are required to understand and comply with. If you’d like to know more about how Plant Assessor can help you manage machinery safety in your business and make your life easier, contact Plant Assessor on 1300 728 852 or visit the website:

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Okubo reduction drives have great extended service with 2.5 cubic metre concrete mixer trucks.

OKUBO MIXER DRIVES, NOT JUST MINI MIXERS Okubo Drives is well known to the concrete industry for use in mini mixers in the 2.5 to 3 cubic metre range. The model PK24 Okubo gear drive was developed for Japanese mini mixers in the 1970s. Represented in Australia by Australian Pump Industries, the drive can be found on hundreds of mini mixers across the country. Many units were sold in under the private label of Japanese hydraulics company Daikin. Those units are branded DD09, but are Okubo drives. Okubo pioneered the manufacture of planetary reduction gear boxes. The product is not just used in mixer drives, but also in construction equipment, deck cranes, slewing mechanisms and even final drives in crawler tractors.

Okubo manufactures a comprehensive range of heavy-duty mixer drives with capacities of up to 8-10 cubic metres. “Everybody knows the ‘mini mixer’ drive because we see them every day on the streets of Sydney and around the country,” said Aussie Pumps Chief Engineer, John Hales. “In South East Asia, a huge number of drives involved in transit mixers for concrete delivery are Okubos, although they may be private labelled,” he said. Australian Pump Industries carries spare parts to suit these great gears although, many machines often run for up to a decade before needing any components. All that’s really necessary is to keep the oil clean and make sure they’re lubricated with the right grade of oil. It’s a good idea and

keep your eye on the sight glass built into the heavy-duty forged steel body. Okubo has been a prime supplier to key manufacturers of agricultural and construction machinery. They include John Deere, Caterpillar, Mitsubishi and many other famous brands. “The Okubo system is very different to the European style of mixer drives,” said Hales. “Japanese companies like Okubo have a total quality approach that makes for very happy, long-term customers,” he said. Further information on the full range of Okubo Mixer Drives – from Mini Mixer through to larger gear drives - is available from Australian Pump Industries or authorised distributors throughout Australia. Visit:

Outstanding Concrete Washout Solutions McLanahan’s field-proven concrete and slurry recycling equipment is supported and serviced in Australia by our local team of engineers and service technicians. The McLanahan Filter Press is recognised as the most effective Filter Press for treating concrete slurry.

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NOVOMESH® 950 FIBRES DELIVER A HIGH QUALITY RESULT FOR BRIGHTON COUNCIL MULTI-USE PATHS UNIQUE STRUCTURAL SYNTHETIC FIBRE REINFORCEMENT SYSTEM SPEEDS CONSTRUCTION AND BOOSTS CONCRETE PERFORMANCE IN MULTI-USE PATHS Located some 25 kilometres north-east of Hobart on the banks of the Derwent River, Brighton Council municipality in Tasmania is an area steeped in history. Not surprisingly, the combination of close proximity to Australia’s southern-most capital, attractive riverside location and blend of urban and natural environments, have made the municipality a popular destination for residents and businesses alike, with the municipality experiencing strong and consistent growth in recent years. Needless to say, this growth has also been accompanied by an increased demand for recreational facilities and infrastructure. With that in mind, Brighton Council is undertaking a number of projects, including extending the municipality’s network of multi-use paths. The most recent multi-use path project has seen the construction of an additional 2.1 kilometres of new high-quality 2.5m wide concrete paths across the network. Constructed by Tasmanian-based specialist contractors Visualise Kerbing & Concreting Pty Ltd, the new multi-use paths have been constructed using a concrete mix incorporating NOVOMESH® 950 High Performance Polypropylene Fibres from Propex Concrete Systems. NOVOMESH® 950 incorporates a blend of micro and macro synthetic fibres to deliver a range of benefits to the concrete in both the plastic and hardened state, including: outstanding post-crack performance; a reduction in shrinkage and settlement cracking; and a significant improvement in both impact, shatter and abrasion resistance - making it ideal for use in the paths. Speaking about the Brighton projects, Blayne Bester, Director with Visualise Kerbing & Concreting Pty Ltd, commented: “As with any public infrastructure project, when it comes to multiuse paths, long-term quality and performance is paramount. We need to be sure that the paths will be able to withstand years of use and exposure to the elements.” Another major benefit of NOVOMESH® 950, is that it alleviates the need to transport, cut and place crack control wire mesh. This not only delivers significant reductions in total construction time and costs, it also eliminates the problems and risks associated with the incorrect placement and/or support of crack control wire mesh within the concrete. The NOVOMESH® 950 fibres are supplied in pre-proportioned degradable bags and pucks, and can be added to the concrete either on-site or at the batching plant. The fibres are then mixed for a minimum of five minutes at full mixing speed to ensure uniform 24

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

distribution of fibres throughout the mix – providing an integral network of fibre reinforcement which protects the concrete throughout the entire slab thickness. “By combining both macro and micro synthetic fibres, NOVOMESH® 950 provides us with the ideal solution for projects such as the multi-use paths,” Blayne Bester added. “The mix is easy to place and finish, and it delivers an excellent quality finished product – without us having to transport, cut and place mesh.” “Importantly, we’ve used the NOVOMESH® 950 fibres on a number of other previous projects – some of which were completed quite some time ago – and this has given us a first-hand opportunity to see that the fibres are continuing to perform and the pavements are still looking good long after the job is finished,” he concluded. For further information please visit:

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Masmo Skyline and ‘FootBoat’ football arena. Artist’s rendition courtesy Belatchew Arkitekter.


SOLVING THE SWEDISH HOUSING CRISIS THROUGH TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT AND SPORTS The Stockholm Loop project is an effective catalyst for 120,000 new homes and its residents' needs in terms of work, housing, distribution, trade and sport. According to Swedish government agency Statistics Sweden, 700,000 new homes will be needed over the next ten years in Sweden. The task for Belatchew Labs was to seek the answer to the question of how metropolitan regions can be developed in

WHAT IS TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT? In urban planning, a Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a type of urban development that maximizes the amount of residential, business and leisure space within walking distance of public transport. A TOD typically includes a central transit stop (such as a train station, or light rail or bus stop) surrounded by a high-density mixed-use area, with lowerdensity areas spreading out from this centre. A TOD is also typically designed to be more walkable than other built-up areas, through using smaller block sizes and reducing the land area dedicated to automobiles. The densest areas of a TOD are normally located within a radius of ¼ to ½ mile (400 to 800 m) around the central transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians. By upgrading existing infrastructure instead of building new, a sustainable solution of the housing issue is created, where sleepy outlying areas are activated and made attractive for more hours during the day. However, in order to achieve this, a number of challenges needed to be solved. To begin with, a bridging of physical barriers


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

order to contribute to the solution to the housing crisis without establishing new cities and avoiding costly infrastructural initiatives, and instead applying existing resources more efficient and sustainable. Stockholm is a centre-oriented city, where the metro network starts from the centre without the possibility to change trains elsewhere than in the city centre. As a consequence, the outskirts of the city

in the form of open water, railway tracks and motorways must be achieved. Belatchew Labs' solution for breaking these barriers is based on the introduction of a new high-density neighbourhood typology and the creation of new types of buildings, such as an updated station building, a transport hub and bridge houses over motorways, railways and open water. These buildings create identity for the different new neighbourhoods with the potential to counter the city's depopulation daytime through innovative programs for both housing, workplaces, distribution, trade, culture and, not least, sports. Sports also create ties between people over social barriers, while simultaneously retargeting the spotlights from the centre to the periphery. Belatchew Labs' implementation of the TOD strategy in Metropolitan Stockholm is the Stockholm Loop concept - an effective catalyst for more than 120,000 new homes and its residents needs of housing, distribution, trade and sport. Stockholm Loop comprises the establishment of new urban development areas around twelve existing stations within a radius of 400 - 800m from each station which in total utilises more than 400 hectares of previously unused land. In order to illustrate the Stockholm Loop strategy, Belatchew Labs designed a number of buildings station houses in Bergshamra and Gubbängen, as

are depopulated daytime and connections between the existing neighbourhoods in these places are weak. Belatchew Labs' strategy is based on "Transit Oriented Development" (TOD) and the fact that there are under-utilized locations at the outer edges of the subway lines, which can be densified and activated by establishing new homes and other functions at under-utilized existing stations.

well as bridge houses in Masmo and Huddinge. One way to give these outlying areas a common identity could be the establishment of an annual sporting event that fuses all the nodes in Stockholm Loop through a race that includes swimming, cycling and running. The route in total constitutes approximately 64 km - which comprises about 1.5 marathon runs - a Stockholm Loop indeed. In addition to positive health effects that result from sports, Stockholm Loop will also retarget interest from the city centre towards the outskirts. "The key strengths of Stockholm Loop are the creation of more than 120,000 new homes, the sustainable use of existing infrastructure, and increased social sustainability through activated outlying areas and community-creating sports initiatives," says Rahel Belachew, CEO and Principal Architect Belatchew Arkitekter. "We are now calling on all stakeholders in the region at municipal, county council and state level - as well as private actors - to find solutions to the housing situation in Stockholm together, while creating lively outlying areas without building entirely new cities," concludes Rahel Belatchew. Follow the development of Stockholm Loop at:


Gubbängen/Hökarängen rail station with exterior loop running track. Artist’s rendition courtesy Belatchew Arkitekter.

QUICK FACTS • There is an acute shortage of housing in Sweden as more than 700,000 new homes need to be built during the coming 10 years. • Stockholm Loop proposes more than 120,000 new homes in twelve underutilized locations at the outer edges of the Stockholm metro system. • Stockholm Loop builds on the use and upgrade of existing infrastructure. • Stockholm Loop introduces a new typology for high density areas that accommodates work, housing, distribution, trade and sport. • The creation of new types of buildings: an updated station building, a transport hub and a bridge house. Four examples of these buildings have been designed. • Bridge houses bridges physical barriers such as motorways, railways and open water. • Transport hubs include transhipment of goods as well as distribution of e-commerce deliveries with the help of drones. • Outlying areas are activated and are made attractive during more hours of the day. • The establishment of resources for different types of sports at the twelve sites create identity and links between people across social barriers while providing positive health effects. • An annual sports race - the Stockholm Loop - with swimming, cycling and running, comprising about 1.5 marathon, which retargets the spotlight from the centre to the periphery.

ABOUT BELATCHEW LABS Belatchew Labs is a studio within Belatchew Arkitekter that works with experimental projects that aims first and foremost to investigate and test new approaches and solutions to urban and architectonical issues. The projects are visionary and strive to inspire, question and challenge. Belatchew Labs' projects have received several awards, including the Architecture Review MIPIM Future Project Award 2015, the Smart Living Challenge 2014 and the Swedish National Design Award Design S 2014.

ABOUT BELATCHEW ARKITEKTER Belatchew Arkitekter is an architectural firm working within a wide range of projects, from urban planning and housing to offices and public buildings. The work of the office is idea driven with an aim to find unexpected solutions that enhance the potential of a site and add value to real estate. Belatchew Arkitekter follows the global development

Transit facilities are designed to double-up as attractive public spaces with other facilities. Artist’s rendition courtesy Belatchew Arkitekter

on sustainability and consider it our mission to integrate sustainable solutions in all our projects. Belatchew Arkitekter was founded by current CEO and Principal Architect Rahel Belatchew, who received her master's degree in architecture from the Ecole Spéciale d'Architecture in Paris 1996 and has worked as an architect in Paris, Luxemburg, Tokyo and Stockholm. Rahel Belatchew has been appointed Architect of the Year and Belatchew Arkitekter and Belatchew Labs have received several awards in recent years. Rahel has participated in juries of many prestigious awards in Sweden and internationally, such as the World Architecture Festival, Les Totems Wood Award in France, the Latvian Wooden House Award, the Swedish Wood Award and Swedish Architects' Residential Award. Belatchew often also gives speeches about architecture and city planning in Sweden and abroad.

Bergshamra Basecamp with exterior climbing wall. Artist’s rendition courtesy Belatchew Arkitekter. Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018





fib 2018 WRAP UP The Concrete Institute of Australia was proud to host the fifth fib Congress held in Melbourne on behalf of the International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib). The Congress brought together over 700 delegates from 40 different countries around the world to Melbourne for a week of learning, discussion, networking and fun! With a program that focused on making concrete better-smarter-stronger, delegates were presented with an amazing opportunity to learn about latest trends, network with leading global influencers, and develop worldwide contacts in the industry. The conference was the biggest concrete event ever held in Australia and as an international event, provided an amazing platform for the Institute and our local sponsors, exhibitors, presenters, and delegates to be seen on the world stage. The secret to the success of the conference organisation was the dedication and experience of the Organising Committee. Conference Chair, Professor Stephen Foster from UNSW provided the team with experience and knowledge with his understanding of fib, and as a leader in concrete research. Further to this, his dedicated work on the scientific program, with a large list of international committee members, created a program that was not only diverse and interesting, but was of a quality not seen in Australia before. Professor Foster was also awarded Honorary Membership to fib at the Congress for his contribution and achievements to their cause. The organising committee was also well served by staff from the fib and CIA. The Secretary-General of fib, Dr David FernandezOrdonez, and his team made sure that the Congress followed the typical requirements of the fib but with an Australian feel to the event experience. The Instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s team, led by CEO David Millar, were only too happy to put the framework together to host such a prestigious event, in conjunction with the Conference Organisers, Arinex. Whether you attended the technical sessions, sat in on committee meetings, or networked with friends and colleagues, fib 2018 Congress was an event that provided everyone with ample opportunity for educational growth and professional development.

Concrete Institute of Australia CEO David Millar speaking at the official opening


Construction Engineering Australia â&#x20AC;˘ Oct/Nov 2018

Professor Stephen Foster (right) was awarded Honorary Membership to fib at the Congress for his contribution and achievements to their cause

TECHNICAL PROGRAM The technical program was wide and varied, covering streams such as durability, materials, structures, repair and retrofit, innovations, precast concrete, sustainability, project reviews and case studies, and history and special interest. Within these streams there were over 400 technical papers and posters presented over 6 parallel sessions. The technical program was headlined by 5 plenary presentations and several special sessions, which many delegates noted were of excellent quality. Some of the highlights included:


• An outstanding opening plenary session from Dr Andy Davids on “The Art and Science of Designing and Building the Tallest Buildings in the World”. Andy’s incredible experiences, and wonderful stage presence, gave the delegates a lasting impression for the congress on what it takes to inspire some of the most incredible buildings around the world. His overview of the construction of “The Tower”, designed by Santiago Calatrava, will be remembered by all. • The special session titled “Existing Bridges - Service Life & Challenges for the Future” provided delegates with a rare opportunity to hear from a panel of bridge experts from all parts of the world. The panel all took time to speak about their thoughts on the challenges being presented on the service life of existing bridges in light of recent collapses around the world, including the Genova Polcevera Bridge in Italy, and then taking part in a Q&A discussion with the audience. As expected the forum generated some interesting and, at times, heated and healthy debate.

The exhibition ensured that the congress delegates had an opportunity to network with a number of local and international organisations, and to connect with the large array of new technologies and information on show. The highlight on the exhibition floor was definitely the Welcome Reception where delegates got to meet a number of native Australian animals up close, a wonderful treat for all our international (and local) guests. The Congress also recognised the fib’s Awards for Outstanding Concrete Structures, held at the Melbourne Park Function Centre. Awards were handed out in the category of Buildings and Civil Engineering, and a fantastic evening was had by all as delegates were entertained by an aboriginal dance troupe, whilst witnessing some of the world’s best concrete structures in all their glory.

SPONSORS, EXHIBITORS AND SOCIAL EVENTS The fib 2018 Congress is most grateful for the support provided by all the sponsors of the conference. In particular, Gold Sponsors, ACRS and Dywidag Systems International, were prominent throughout the event, and Silver Sponsors, Ancon and Freyssinet, as well as Lanyard Sponsors, ramsetreid, also contributed significantly to a great conference.

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018





Concrete 2019, the 29th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, will be held at the state of the art International Conference Centre in Darling Harbour, Sydney, from the 8th to 11th September 2019, and you are invited! The conference, which will focus on the theme Concrete in Practice – Progress through Knowledge, is aimed at delegates, presenters and key note speakers from all over Australia and the world! The conference, which will be co-chaired by Dr Daksh Baweja and Dr Warren South, will feature a 3 day technical program with over 200 papers and presentations, covering over 20 concrete topics. The conference will also feature a special session throughout the event, held in the exhibition hall, allowing sponsors, exhibitors, innovators, and our next generation of concrete experts to present to delegates. Concrete 2019 is also co-sponsored by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and it is envisaged that a number of notable ACI technical committee members, as well as senior board and staff, will join us in Sydney in September. The CIA has an excellent relationship with ACI and this international alliance will make an impact at Concrete 2019. Together with an impressive list of local and international sponsors and exhibitors, a social program that includes our traditional Welcome Reception and Awards for Excellence in Concrete Gala Dinner it is an opportunity to connect with concrete experts from around the world and is a fantastic opportunity to be amongst the best of the concrete industry. 32

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

The Concrete Institute of Australia is, as always, honoured to be hosting our blue ribbon event, and accordingly invite members and the concrete construction industry at large to join us in Sydney for what we hope will be our biggest conference event ever. For more details read on, or please visit:

KEY NOTE SPEAKERS Concrete 2019 has already secured outstanding key note speakers who will allow us to delve into their experience in practice and knowledge transfer. These include: Anne Ellis - Founder and CEO of Ellis Global, consultants assisting those harnessing the power of technology and innovation to transform engineering and construction in the built world. Prior to launching her own company, Anne was Vice President, Innovation and Knowledge Share Director at AECOM, and is also a Past President of ACI. Prof. Christoph Gehlen - Director of the Centre for Building Materials of Technical University of Munich. His main research interests include special concretes, durability of concrete, life cycle assessment of reinforced concrete members, and repair/ rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures..







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Michelle L. Wilson - Director of Concrete Technology at the Portland Cement Association (PCA), Skokie, IL. Michelle is an expert in concrete materials and specifications, and is a Director with ACI as well as being Chair of ACI301 Specification for Structural Concrete.

ABSTRACTS ARE BEING ACCEPTED NOW! Concrete 2019 will focus on the theme “Concrete in Practice – Progress through Knowledge” and abstracts are being accepted now! The topics being focused on for the conference are varied and include: • Alkali-activated concretes • Alternative cementitious materials • Bridge structures • Case studies and major projects • Concrete materials for Design and Construction – What’s New? • Construction (infrastructure, development, innovations) and major projects • Durability (and modelling for durability) • History of concrete and education • Modelling and design • New concrete component materials • Precast and prefabricated concrete • Reinforcing and Prestressing Materials • Repair and rehabilitation • Resilience • Seismic • Shear and Torsion • Shotcrete • Shrinkage and Creep • Standards, specifications and codes • Structural Strengthening • Underground and Foundation Structures Please visit: for more information and to get involved now!

KEY DATES Now 1 December 2018 31 January 2019 30 May 2019 8 September 2019

Super Early Bird registration Abstract submissions close Full Paper Submission open Comments on Full Papers and Final Author Notification Concrete 2019 opens

SPONSORSHIP & EXHIBITION OPPORTUNITIES Want to cement your brand within the Australian and international building and construction industry? Consider sponsoring and exhibiting at the industry’s premier conference, Concrete 2019. Facts and key benefits: • Concrete 2019 expects up to 500 delegates and exhibitors • Chance to deliver your clear message to your industry professionals and target groups • New and innovative program, themes and topics • Demonstrate your support & commitment to the advancement of knowledge in this area • Strengthen your brand awareness with your clients • Participating provides you with a platform for instant industry recognition • Align your brand with key industry professionals Concrete 2019 is already being supported by BASF as Platinum Sponsors and Ancon as Silver Sponsors, but there are still plenty of opportunities available for premium sponsorship, unique events, products, marketing material and exhibition space. Concrete 2019 is the perfect forum for all companies actively involved in the building and construction industry to promote their products and services. Book today and don’t delay! Contact Concrete 2019’s sponsorship and exhibition team at:


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

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PROGRESS THROUGH KNOWLEDGE The Concrete Institute of Australia’s mission is to promote and develop excellence in concrete research, technology, application, design and construction. In recent times the Institute has played host to the International Federation for Structural Concrete’s 5th fib Congress to an incredible 700 people, bring nearly 400 concrete industry members to Australia from other countries. Next year the Institute’s biennial conference, Concrete 2019, will be held in Sydney with the theme Concrete in Practice – Progress through Knowledge, and it too is aimed at delegates, presenters and key note speakers from all over Australia and the world! The Institute has many ways in which it carries out its mission, including the organisation of conferences where knowledge can be dispersed and shared via many networks. However, it is through these networks that other avenues exist for progress to made through the knowledge bank stored by members and colleagues, both local and internationally. The Institute’s relationship with fib means that Members can get access to the widely sought fib Bulletins when they are released in electronic format. fib Bulletin is a generic term for a series of publications that include several types of technical documents: model codes, application manuals, design guides or recommendations, stateof-the-art reports, and technical reports, which form a detailed record of the results attained by commissions and task groups in the field of research and application to concrete structures. Depending on a bulletin's status, its contents will be harmonized through approval by a task group (technical reports) or commission (state-of-the-art reports), or, if necessary, presented, discussed and assessed by the fib technical council (manuals, guides and recommendations) or the general assembly (model codes). The Institute has available 79 such technical bulletins, from fib Bulletin 1 “Structural Concrete Handbook version 1” through to fib Bulletin 79 “Fibre Reinforced Concrete – from design to structural applications” and receive new documents on a regular basis to upload for Members. The Institute itself publishes technical documents and in recent times has been developing a suite of publications on Durability. The most recent of these, the Recommended Practice Z7/02 “Exposure Classification” was recently released in hard copy and electronically, and is already being used in practice. In Z7/02, exposure classes from the various Australian Standards dealing with concrete durability have been considered and combined into one set of exposure classes, applicable to any and all structures. This should help reduce any confusion there may be in the industry. It also introduces exposure classes not included in Australian Standards which are commonly dealt with by durability consultants. It is anticipated that the wider range of exposure classes will assist designers in correctly identifying the appropriate exposure. The increased range of exposure classes in Z7/02 will help designers identify mechanisms that are not immediately apparent, and reduce issues, particularly for structures where a detailed exposure assessment is required, and this can often only be


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obtained from a site visit, previous experience of the structure and exposure types, and exposure tests. Many of the exposure designations used in Z7/02 will be new to most Australian specifiers and practitioners. However they are essentially an amalgam of all the exposure classes from all Australian structures codes, split into different exposure types. The Concrete Institute of Australia continues to strive for excellence in concrete and for this to progress through knowledge. To find out more about these documents, please visit

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A HISTORY OF SUPPORTING THE AUSTRALIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY One of the company’s earliest pioneering concrete admixture products was used during the first stage of Sydney Opera House’s construction. From the Sydney Opera House to Brisbane Airport, GCP Applied Technologies, a global construction products technologies company, has played a vital role pioneering the use of specialty building materials and chemicals in Australia’s construction industry. In 2016, W. R. Grace separated into two independent public companies, GCP Applied Technologies and W. R. Grace, so each could focus on their respective strengths. The company now known as GCP Applied Technologies (GCP) pioneered the development of specialised chemicals for use in cement grinding more than 80 years ago. Since then, GCP has evolved from pioneering the use of concrete admixtures and waterproofing membranes to become a world-leader in

specialty construction chemicals, specialty building materials and technologies. “W. R. Grace established operations in Australia in 1936,” said Hume Ronald, Commercial Director for Australia and New Zealand. “Since then, our business team has played an important part in the development of the industry here, including participating in the first conference to discuss the use of chemical admixtures in Australia. GCP’s construction technologies were used in some of the country’s key construction projects such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney M5 Motorway, the Victorian Arts Centre, Port of Brisbane, Auckland’s Commercial Bay Project and even a tunnel at the Poatina Power Station in Tasmania.” Throughout the late 1960s, GCP employees worked as members of the Australian Standards Committee to develop a national standard for chemical admixtures in concrete and recommended a code of practice for their use.

ABOVE: In recent years, GCP products have also supported mega-construction projects, such as the 322-metre Q1 residential tower in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. LEFT: One of the company’s earliest pioneering concrete admixture products was used during the first stage of the Sydney Opera House’s construction. Photo: National Archives of Australia

“At GCP, we are focused on not just providing solutions for the most complex construction challenges but also helping to drive the development of entirely new technologies for the construction industry,” said David Myers, Vice President of Technology. In recent years, GCP products have also supported mega-construction projects, such as the 322-metre Q1 residential tower in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. The tower is the world’s sixth tallest residential tower and is the tallest building in Australia. “For the Q1 project, the concrete needed to be pumped up to level 80, some 259 metres above ground, and also meet a slump range of 160 mm to 200 mm for different floor levels because of rebar interaction,” said Ronald. “To construct a commercial building of such height required the very best superplasticiser available — GCP’s ADVA® superplasticiser.”

CONCRETE SOLUTIONS GCP’s full portfolio of construction products that strengthen, protect and enhance the 38

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Powering a Sustainable Future

durability of structures includes specialty construction chemicals and specialty building materials. Specialty construction chemicals include a range of concrete admixtures and cement additives for producers of cement, concrete, mortar, masonry and other cement-based construction materials “GCP’s specialty construction chemicals improve the quality, consistency and durability of cement-based construction materials. They also reduce environmental footprints by lowering the energy use and CO2 emissions of the construction process,” said Myers. GCP’s cement additives and water reducing concrete admixtures reduce air pollution equivalent to more than 10 million cars annually. In addition, through the use of GCP’s cement additives globally, approximately 3,000 megawatt hours of electricity are saved daily. That’s equal to the daily energy consumption of half a million families. Specialty building materials include products and systems for barrier and moisture protection, wall membranes, pre-applied and post-applied waterproofing, roofing underlayments and remedial waterproofing products. GCP’s building materials also includes MONOKOTE® fireproofing materials for steel structures, one of the world’s most frequently used fire protection products. “In 1965, when we introduced the Australia market to BITUTHENE®, a cold-applied, self-adhesive waterproofing membrane, it replaced older methods of installing waterproofing membranes that involved multilayer felt and hot bitumen,” said Ronald. “The introduction of BITUTHENE® waterproofing helped Australian construction companies to reduce risks from water damage, construction mess and labour costs.”

FUTURE READY In 2017, to enable cement producers in Australia to lead in product and construction quality, cost efficiency and sustainability, GCP introduced two new additive ranges and a waterproofing membrane system: • TAVERO™ VM grinding aid additives help stabilise vertical roller mills during production by reducing water injection requirements and cement pre-hydration. At the same time, they improve cement performance by delivering higher strengths and shorter setting times. • OPTEVA™ HE quality improvers are cement additives that provide options for gaining higher early (HE) strength, and are particularly effective for challenging cements. • The PREPRUFE® Plus waterproofing system with Advanced Bond Technology™ is engineered to protect structures below ground from water ingress, corrosive soil, gas and moisture – and deliver productivity with faster, labour saving installation. “At GCP, we believe every project, large or small, deserves the best level of protection,” said Myers. “That’s why we are constantly pioneering new solutions for complex challenges.” We are looking forward to many more years of supporting Australia’s construction industry,” he added. For further information, please visit:

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NATIONAL PRECAST MEMBERS STEAL THE SHOW Public buildings and infrastructure become iconic by striking a permanent pose and Australian precast concrete is doing just that with award-winning projects on national and worldwide scales. From the Australian Institute of Architect’s Architecture Awards to the international Engineering News-Record’s Global Best Project Awards (US), precast concrete is stepping into the spotlight and stealing the show, noted by its long-term durability and outstanding design versatility.

OPTUS STADIUM When Optus Stadium opened in January 2018, it was met with local and international acclaim. In recognition of this, the project earned the highest honour at the Australian Institute of Architect’s 2018 WA Architecture Awards, winning the prestigious George Temple Poole Award. Here, the stadium also received three named awards, including the Jeffrey Howlett Award for Public Architecture, the Wallace Greenham Award for Sustainable Architecture, as well as the Mondoluce Lighting Award and the Colorbond Award for Steel Architecture. Designed by Hassell, Cox, and HKS, the stadium comprises impressive precast concrete elements. An architectural wall façade featuring 4,000m² of precast panels manufactured by Western Australian-based precaster, Delta Corporation, creates a wonderful first impression for stadium visitors. With images etched into selected segments and sandblasted at varied depths, the panels exude class with contrasting architectural finishes— some with a smooth surface and others with exposed aggregate. Integral colouring using pigments produced earthy tones and a saw tooth profile was achieved using custom moulds. All panels were Class 2 and the experience and skill of the Association’s member resulted in outcomes of exceptional quality. At the centre of the sporting action are more than 3,500 individual units of prestressed precast seating plats manufactured by both Delta and fellow National Precast member and Western Australian-based precaster, PERMAcast. All structural elements were manufactured in high quality steel forms to an immaculate Class 2 off-form finish.

CADOGAN SONG SCHOOL Designed by Palassis Architects, the Cadogan Song School at St George’s Cathedral in Perth was celebrated for its ‘outstanding contribution to the quality of concrete in Australia’ at the Concrete Institute of Australia’s 2017 Awards for Excellence. The project won the prestigious Kevin Kavanagh 40

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Trophy—the highest honour that can be awarded to a concrete project. As well, it was awarded the 2017 WA State Award of Excellence in the category of Commercial Buildings. Fast forward to 2018, and the Cadogan Song School’s eminence has continued to soar. At the Australian Institute of Architect’s 2018 WA Architecture Awards, the project received the Margaret Pitt Morison Award for Heritage and the Julius Elischer Award for Interior Architecture. As well, it earned an award in the Public Architecture category and a Commendation in the Mondoluce Lighting award category. One of South Australia’s National Precast members, SA Precast (Specialty Architectural Precast), manufactured all precast concrete elements for the interstate project. These included curved beams for the rehearsal room, two precast concrete spires, three lattice feature wall panels, the first storey supporting columns for the second storey shells and the shells for the second storey that form the colonnade. The elements were manufactured by the specialty architectural precaster with a white cement and featured a lightly textured off-form finish.


WYNYARD WALK A major pedestrian walkway now connects Sydney’s Wynyard Station to the bustling Barangaroo waterfront precinct and the CBD. Having won the State Award for Infrastructure Projects at the Concrete Institute of Australia’s 2017 Awards for Excellence and the Public Design Award at the 2018 Australian Interior Design Awards, the Wynyard Walk is a stunning example of precast concrete in Australian infrastructure. National Precast member, Asurco Contracting, manufactured precast glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels for the walls and ceiling of the tunnel at its South Australian factory. This process involved the framing, mouldmaking, manufacture, installation and coating of the elements. Barangaroo’s waterfront development alone attracts up to 33,000 visitors and occupies approximately 23,000 office workers daily. The new 180-metre walkway allows pedestrians to travel from the station to the waterfront in just six minutes, making it a vital part of the State Government’s commitment to meet transport demands in Sydney.

Located adjacent to yet another Delta project – the iconic Fiona Stanley Hospital – the 11,000m² building has a significant focus on enhancing the student experience. It is a three-level structure with mixed educational, administrative, and commercial facilities that provides support to both students and staff while also enabling real-work style training.

SYDNEY SKYTRAIN With an aesthetic appeal that sets a new benchmark in infrastructure, the Sydney Skytrain is the most visible legacy of the Sydney Metro Northwest project. Delivered by Salini Impregilo, it is Australia’s first fully-automated metro rail system. As a tribute to its brilliance, the Sydney Metro Northwest project won the top prize for the railway sector at the 2018 Global Best Project Awards by US construction magazine, Engineering News-Record. The project was among 22 selected by a jury for their excellence in construction, attention to safety and diversity, and the benefits they provide to their respective communities. Hanson Precast, one of National Precast’s New South Wales members, manufactured 2,300 precast concrete parapets and 56 platform units for Stage 1 of the project – the Sydney Skytrain. As well, the precaster produced the skytrain’s in-situ concrete, and part of their factory was used to produce 1,200 precast concrete viaduct segments.

SOUTH METROPOLITAN TAFE, MURDOCH Another Delta Corporation project, the new T Block building at the South Metropolitan TAFE in Murdoch is a fine example of a contemporary design that enhances the overall campus experience. So much so, that it was awarded the highest honour for Best Educational Building in the $20 – 50 million category at the Master Builders 2018 Excellence in Construction Awards. Designed by Armstrong Parkin Architects, T Block offers students and staff a remarkable venue where learning meets the workforce. Most notably, the building features a precast concrete screen façade that has fulfilled structural and aesthetic ambitions. The design is a uniquely-shaped lattice with a smooth Class 2 off-form finish to all surfaces.

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WHEN THE X-CELLENCE FACTOR IS A WINNER The nature of the construction industry is hard-wired to stimulate innovation in the face of relentless change. Architectural fashions come and go, legal regulations – particularly concerning construction safety and building operational safety – progress to raise standards, and communities globally are holding their collective breath to see how climate change and sustainability demands play out for the built environment. However, before, during and after all these influences, the commercial imperatives of competition and efficiency in a high-value and high-risk industry are constant drivers of the responses.

TRENDING TOWARDS PREFAB One of the biggest industry trends in this current generation has been the emergence of prefabrication. The smart money is on seeking to minimise the quantities of raw materials and smaller components that are brought to the building site and individually handled. The preferred option, that is increasingly being realised, is starting the construction process off-site in factories. This involves bringing fewer, larger, finished elements to site that are ready for large-scale assembly. This trend is accelerating through the major structural and architectural materials of steel, concrete and timber – leaving behind any others that cannot catch the prefabrication wave.

THE ROLE OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN CRITICAL DESIGN Amid all this change, some things stay consistent. While designers and builders still demand increased flexibility in prefabrication methods, they remain constrained by the basic physical properties of the materials they specify. Timber is still timber. Reinforced concrete is still reinforced concrete. It is perilous to overlook the fundamental properties of the materials used. At its simplest, concrete is merely reconstituted rock. Rock, like all natural materials, has some variability in properties and likelihood of naturally occurring defects and flaws. So, we minimise these effects by breaking it up, mixing it up and sticking it back together again to get uniform and predictable properties. The same 42

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engineering principle is exploited for chipboard, plywood and cross-laminated timber (CLT). So, in what aspects is concrete distinctive – and specifically precast concrete? Where does it have the edge – the X-cellence Factor – over the other prefabricated materials?

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY Concrete alone has uniform dimensional properties in all directions – consider dimensional change, due to moisture loss or due to temperature variations. Structural concrete needs to be reinforced with steel and it is a necessary feature that steel has the same coefficient of thermal expansion as the concrete around it, so that they work in harmony.

DIMENSIONAL FLEXIBILITY Because it is homogeneous and not layered into strong and weak directions, reinforced concrete can easily vary in thickness with no loss of basic material properties. Poured into a mould and not machined from a flat blank, reinforced concrete can be designed into any free-form threedimensional shape—and by definition, it has zero risk of delamination.

CREATIVE FINISHES Precast concrete flat grey wall panels still dominate the demand for factory construction, but long gone are the days when this was its main use, along with its use for bridge beams, drainage pits and pipes. Pigments, stains, textures, tactile features, all grades of polishing, and even embedding other materials (or simulating them using form liners) as surface veneers such as brick or wood, are all options for the designer. As well, expressing photographic images directly into the concrete surface is a possibility in recent times.

FIRE Amid all the tragedy and confusion worldwide surrounding assured fire safety, concrete remains unquestionably and totally not combustible. Here, issues regarding smoke or fume generation in a fire are also eliminated. Concrete is as safe as houses!

SUSTAINABILITY Once it is manufactured, then precast concrete's embodied carbon and energy is locked in forever. It is untouchable by combustion, corrosion, weathering, rotting, organism attack, or even by crunching it up at the completion of its life-cycle for re-use in something else. As well, lowered energy costs are on the cards due to its outstanding thermal benefits when well designed.



Nobody needs maintenance burdens. Concrete is essentially inert and has unrivalled resistance to chemical, biological and UV degradation— and precast even more so. When factorymanufactured by a reputable precaster, means of expensive repair and rehabilitation in the future can ultimately be avoided.

Innovation marches on – even with concrete technology itself – but fundamental material properties are just that. They are always there to be enjoyed or endured, depending on how smart we are in design and construction. Best practice seeks to tick all the boxes. Precast concrete just keeps on giving.

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MJB Industries Pty Ltd is a state wide supplier of concrete pipe and precast products that prides itself on quality and service. Established in 2006 as an Australian Private Company, MJB Industries Pty Ltd has built a reputation as a supplier of choice for many civil companies and contractors throughout the state of Western Australia. From modest beginnings, MJB has grown and diversified into a large enterprise which is now one of Western Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s larger pipe and precast manufacturing plants. We have the ability to produce large span Box Culverts, SRP RRJ Pipes up to 1800mm diameter & stormwater liners up to 2100mm diameter. To complement the range of products that MJB manufactures, we also stock: - Stormwater Pipe (To Main Road Specification) - Stormwater Pits (To Main Road Specification) - Main Roads Covers: GT, GN, HN & RN - Box Culverts (To Main Road Specification) - Box Culverts â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rail Loading & Custom Loading - Specialised Precast We invite you to call us with any enquiries that you may have. Please contact our sales team at

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Nawkaw colour staining at Sydney's Top Ryde Shopping Centre.



BELOW: Clever use of positive and negative standard moulds at John Curtin School of Medical Research in Canberra.

ANY SHAPE, PATTERN AND TEXTURE At National Precast, we strive to educate and provide assistance to professionals within the construction industry. Our Tech Talk series has been developed to address some of the common queries within the precast concrete space. In this issue, we look at the colour and surface finish of architectural precast concrete.

TURNING DESIGN DREAMS INTO CONCRETE REALITY Turning a lacklustre project into a celebration of design has never been so obtainable. With superior quality control, high class custom finishes, and rapid construction, architectural precast is the exemplary building material of choice for turning design dreams into concrete reality. Precast concrete offers unsurpassed design flexibility that delivers a low-maintenance and durable solution, with exceptional thermal mass benefits when insulated. Its offsite manufacture delivers a plethora of benefits, which are recognised by many and its proven versatility, durability, and strength is showcased in many iconic buildings that will last for generations to come. 44

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Factory-produced precast concrete allows designers to enjoy freedom of form with few restrictions. The shape of precast, whether straight or curved, is achieved using either custom-made steel, concrete or timber moulds or from mould (or form) liners. They can be used not only to create shape but also for a range of patterns and textures. The unique ability of precast to blend in with existing structures or to replicate patterns, shapes and other materials gives the architect a wide palette of choice. Precast can be used to replicate or complement heritage structures, or to mimic facades of alternate materials such as stone, timber, corten steel, or corrugated iron. The range of available finishes may depend on the manufacturer selected and to an extent, the type of precast element.

OFF-FORM FINISH Off-form concrete elements can be produced using grey or off-white cement. In this case, the Classes and tonal variations specified in AS 3610 Formwork for concrete, apply.

To further enhance a grey off-form finish, all National Precast members can incorporate shapes, patterns, textures and colours into the off-form finish. Refer also to this Standard for specification guidance for coloured precast or precast with special applied finishes.

CUSTOM SHAPES AND 3D SURFACES Elements can be custom-designed and manufactured with 3D surface finishes to create unique textures and profiles. This can be done using custom-made moulds, form-liners, tiles, bricks, stone, void-formers, or other techniques such as bush-hammered or hammered-nib applications.

ETCHING Etching is a process that removes the fines from a concrete surface after the element has been manufactured. The result is a light, flat, sandtextured surface that resembles limestone or sandstone, which is usually complemented by adding a subtle pigment to the concrete mix.

GRIT (OR SAND) BLASTING Grit (or sand) blasting uses compressed air or water to propel various particles such as granulated furnace slag, aluminium oxide, or glass beads onto a concrete surface. The depth of the grit blasting can be varied to produce a smooth texture, through to a coarse texture.

EXPOSED AGGREGATE An exposed aggregate finish removes the top layer of the concrete matrix, revealing the top surface of the aggregates in the concrete mix. Chemical retarders are often applied to the surface to etch away the concrete matrix, leaving the aggregate intact. Alternatively, a water washing technique may be used. This is often applied in conjunction with other finishes.

HONING AND POLISHING Honing and polishing are two individual surface treatments that can be combined as a two-step process to create a superior surface finish. Honing involves the removal of the outer surface of concrete with a grinder that has a coarse abrasive effect, exposing the aggregate in the concrete and giving it a matt level surface. Polishing is a similar process, taking the finish to the next level using finer abrasive materials to take a finer cut from the concrete. The result is not dissimilar to natural polished stone or granite.

COLOURS: TRANSLUCENT, OPAQUE AND METALLICS Achieving a unique colour solution requires a good understanding of concrete and the precast manufacturing process—knowledge that National Precast Members have. When producing samples, colours can be finessed by changing sands, cements, aggregates and pigments. Painting and staining are also options to achieve the perfect colour.

ABOVE: Graphic concrete at Optus Stadium in Perth.

CEMENTS, SANDS AND AGGREGATES Mechanical or chemical treatments of the precast surface can be used to expose the colour of sand and stone aggregates. Doing so can impart an overall colour to the concrete. Using coloured sands and off-white cement, lighter shades of brown, red or yellow can be achieved. Darker grey tones can result from using dark sands and grey cement.

PIGMENTS Where the desired colour cannot be achieved by the cement and aggregates alone, colour pigments can be incorporated into the concrete mix. Pigments are available in a wide range of colours, from deep to pale pastel colours and hues. More standard pigments are green, black, red, brown, yellow, blue, and white. These can be obtained in commercially blended forms to produce many intermediate colours.

STAINING An alternative to using pigments in the concrete mix or painting is the use of a stain that is absorbed into the concrete surface. These stains can be translucent or opaque in flat or metallic colours and are often combined with the use of form liners to achieve a broad combination of aesthetic results.

HOW TO FIND OUT MORE The colour of concrete is determined by its age as well as its components, viz: • grey, off-white or white cement, • coloured sands and aggregates, • oxides, and • moisture content.

For more information on architectural precast, refer to Amazing Architecture (National Precast) and for advanced knowledge of design, manufacture, and the use of precast concrete, refer to the Precast Concrete Handbook (National Precast)—both available for purchase at:

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018




As Australia’s economy continues to evolve towards the digital age, the demand for more sophisticated literacy and numeracy skills within the workforce is increasing. The most recent international survey on these skills – the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) – paints a bleak picture for Australia. The survey reveals that one in five Australians have literacy and/or numeracy skills that are below the minimum requirement to operate effectively in the workplace and in society. This report echoes the persistent concern of the Australian Industry Group (Ai Group) about the low levels of literacy and numeracy in Australia, especially in the workforce. The Skilling the Existing Workforce, Final Project Report conducted by Ai Group reveals that 45% of survey respondents considered Australia’s labourers and process workers to be the largest occupational group affected by low levels of literacy and 46

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numeracy. Here, it stated that the most common problems include poor completion of workplace documents (42%), material errors and wastage (32%), along with teamwork and communication problems (28%).

INDUSTRY AND LITERACY GROUPS WORKING TOGETHER As technology evolves, Australia’s low literacy and numeracy skills become a bigger issue. However, industry and literacy groups are now banding together to craft a strategy to address the problem. 26TEN is a network of organisations and individuals working together to improve adult literacy and numeracy in Tasmania. With an ambitious ten-year strategy to improve these skills, 26TEN supports the state’s workforce by offering workshops as well as Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF) validation and moderation sessions.

26TEN offers grants for employers and peak bodies to run projects to improve the literacy and numeracy skills of Tasmanian workers. Here, the organisation funds people to work together in a coordinated way to lift these skills.

THE DUGGANS DIGITAL CONNECTIONS PROJECT National Precast member and Cradoc-based company, Duggans, is just one company striving for a more skilled workforce within Australia’s construction sector. Duggans recently completed the Duggans Civil Digital Connections project, which focused on upskilling the company’s civil and earthworks operators to use digital technology. Duggans’ General Manager, Brent Hardy, says this all began after a local Huon Valley 26TEN launch in 2017. “I attended the launch and found out about a pilot project that aligned with our strategy. After having conversations with 26TEN – with the support of Hobart-based training organisation, Work & Training – we applied for a grant and were given $47,000 to fund a workplace trainer,” Mr Hardy details. In turn, Duggans agreed to release the workforce for training, purchase fifteen iPads, and support the trainer and the process. “The company is moving towards new systems with more efficient and electronic modes of documentation and communication. As a business, we were needing to come up with application technologies and from the workforce, we assumed that there would be people at different levels.”

UPSKILLED IN NO TIME The project commenced in July 2017 and was completed in February 2018. It involved a trainer travelling to various Duggans’ worksites and teaching staff how to use tablets to complete digital forms, communicate job information, and document work processes. “The idea was to teach staff how to use email, the internet, apps, and understand anti-virus. It then evolved to being able to use the tablets for timesheets, safe work method statements, pre-start checks, and so on,” Mr Hardy says. Duggans’ Crusher Operator, Scott Phillips, says he was initially reluctant to start the training but was surprised at how simple the technology was to use. “I didn't want to know anything about it to start with. I had the idea that ‘I don’t need it, I only crush rock’ and when they put it to me, it was somewhat confronting,” Mr Phillips admits.


“Once you get through the basics and understand how it operates and how it fits in with the company, it all falls into place.”

TAKING THE SKILLS HOME The mastery of digital skills is increasingly more important to meet the challenges of the evolving economy, both within and outside of the workplace. “It’s not just about their reading and writing, but it’s also about their digital skills. Often, the older generations have never used computers or email systems, let alone a portable tablet,” Mr Hardy explains.

“By not having those skills, people aren’t able to fulfil their potential or even their basic needs going into the future. These may include pension forms, or even booking doctors’ appointments.” Staff were supplied with an iPad each and were taught how to complete personal tasks such as their online banking and browse Gumtree. Here, they were given the opportunity to become more comfortable with the device and were able to gain ownership of it. “In my personal life, with the iPad, I actually bought a tractor from Melbourne via Gumtree,” Mr Phillips says.

“By not having those skills, people aren’t able to fulfil their potential or even their basic needs going into the future. These may include pension forms, or even booking doctors’ appointments.”

INDUSTRY AS A VEHICLE FOR CHANGE Inadequate levels of workplace literacy and numeracy are having negative impacts on productivity and workplace safety. In the Ai Group’s survey, 38% of respondents saw a role for employers to improve workforce literacy and numeracy skills. This is exactly the action that Duggans has taken. Mr Hardy believes that using industry as a vehicle to improve the underlying knowledge, skills, and understanding of staff is a way of making a significant difference. “Industry will generally be prepared to pay for training—whether it’s time off to do it or paying a trainer. Even if it’s not directly work-related, it will certainly be esteem-related and that in itself has positive flow-on effects for the business,” Mr Hardy says. “The digital revolution really has only just started in our business and if you look at what other companies have—such as vehicle tracking and scanning of information—then the sky's the limit.”

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BGC Precast manufactures high quality architectural and structural wall panels to client's requirements in their modern factory in Kwinana, south of Perth. Photo: BGC Precast

TECNOCOM SUPPORTS NOISE CONTROL IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA: BGC PRECAST INVESTS IN BATTERY MOULD FOR PRECAST CONCRETE PRECAST NOISE-REDUCTION WALL SEGMENTS Based in Kwinana, south of Perth, Western Australia, BGC Precast, part of the BGC Group, has invested in a battery mould from tecnocom, Italy - a company belonging to the PROGRESS GROUP, one of the leading groups in machinery and solutions for precast concrete technology. The battery mould is being used to produce noisecontrolling wall panels, which are being installed along Perth’s new NorthLink motorway.

BGC Precast manufactures high quality architectural and structural wall panels to client's requirements in their modern factory in Kwinana. Since it’s establishment, BGC Precast has not only gained an enviable reputation for high quality products, but also its on-time delivery capabilities – a critical factor, especially with major projects. Used extensively along transport corridors across Australia, noise reduction

walls play a critical role in reducing the environmental impact of transport corridors on the adjacent communities. Indeed, as is the case with Perth’s NorthLink, with the majority of new major road, highway or rail projects now passing within close proximity to existing residential areas, noise control and maintaining the livability of adjoining areas is a primary consideration when designing any new transport infrastructure project.

The first equipment of its type in WA, the battery mould from tecnocom was installed at BGC Precast’s Kwinana plant in 2017. Photo: tecnocom


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018


Precast concrete is the material of choice for many of these walls which are designed to reduce the transmission of noise. Precast concrete panels can be designed to either reflect the traffic sound in order to reduce the noise level that passes the barrier, or redirect the sound by reflecting it in a specific direction(s) using a variety of surface inclines/angles and designs. Another alternative is to use absorptive barriers, which absorb the sound by forcing the sound pressure waves to move in and around tiny fibres or passages to dissipate the sound energy. BGC Precast produces sound reflecting walls in a range of designs – from simple geometric panels through to striking designs including smooth off-form, stained or coloured surfaces, and complex patterns created using form liners. Precast concrete noise walls offer a range of advantages, not the least of which is quality control. Being manufactured offsite, in a factory-controlled environment enables a high level of quality control at every stage of the manufacturing process. This not only results in high quality, highly consistent products with high quality finishes, it also plays a significant role in reducing production turn-around times for the components.

Finished sound wall elements ready for delivery and installation along Perth’s NorthLink project. Produced with battery moulds from tecnocom, the precast segments feature an excellent quality smooth finish on both faces. Photo: BGC Precast

Importantly, these efficiencies also extend to the project site fast construction time. With construction of the panels completed off-site, there are less people and a lot less equipment required on the project site. Finished panels are delivered ‘ready to install’ and as required as the project progresses. The first company in Western Australia to utilise this type of battery mould technology, BGC invested in the new tecnocom production line with battery moulds due to the advantages that it offers traditional casting tables, including: • Higher productivity in limited space • Excellent quality and finish on both faces of the precast element (both surfaces have a smooth) • Flexibility to adjust the mould size using intermediate shutters to enable two walls to be cast in each cell The innovative tecnocom system also provides BGC Precast with the flexibility utilise the battery mould equipment for a range of other applications in the

future, including the production of precast concrete partition walls for residential buildings, etc. tecnocom could support the installation with short delivery and installation time as well as providing knowledge transfer given by specialists who trained BGC in tuning of the concrete mix to be used. With a battery mould BGC is able to produce up to 20 panels, as the battery, which contains ten cells is able to handle two panels per cell. Speaking ab out the plant, Phil Surridge, Business Development Manager with BGC Precast, commented: “The decision to use a battery mould from tecnocom was made, after we had visited a reference customer in Abu Dhabi, who has a similar plant in operation.” “The quality and performance of the technology that we saw there, as well as tecnocom’s ability to meet an extremely tight production deadline, convinced us that it would provide us with the ideal solution we were after,” he added.

Battery moulds for concrete precast wall elements offer a high productivity in limited space. BGC produces up to 20 wall elements per cycle. Photo: tecnocom

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018



WATER LEAKS IN MULTISTOREY BUILDINGS AND CORROSION PROBLEMS by Hamid Khan, Product Segment Manager (Repairs and Grouts), Parchem Construction Supplies Pty Ltd The world was going crazy over Panama leaks. The scale of this leak is the largest that the world has come across to date. Yet there is another even bigger leakage problem that the construction world needs to be concerned about – water leaks. These are exceedingly detrimental to the health of high-rise buildings. Water can enter the building envelope through many different paths – from damp construction materials during the building phase, through leaking roofs, basements, wet areas and leaking water installations. Concrete being a semi-permeable material, water can find its

way in and it can readily spread. If the source of the water leakage is left unattended it can cause significant structural damage that often needs very expensive rectification to structural elements. Many reports and studies identified water leaks as the most common defect in buildings, regardless of country or location. Water leakage is the major cause of early onset of corrosion and concrete deterioration. Initiation of corrosion and depassivation of reinforcement is only possible in the presence of water, oxygen and corrosive agents such as chlorides and carbon dioxide. Leaking water in reinforced concrete acts as a perfect medium to bring electrolytes to corroding interfaces and is well documented. Water leakage in buildings results mainly from inadequate construction design, inferior materials, poor workmanship and deterioration of building materials.

Roof leakage causes severe corrosion.


Bathroom ceiling corrosion problems in multi storey buildings.

Water seepage from leaking bathroom to external building facade.


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

Water leakage in multi-storey buildings not only initiates corrosion problems in private residential multi-storey buildings but it also leads to a serious threat to hygiene. Wong and Hui, (2005), revealed that the failure of sanitary fittings, inadequate maintenance of sewer piping system and defects to waterproofing membranes in wet areas can cause dampness and seepage inside the buildings. In Hong Kong, the Department of Health identified water seepages in buildings as the possible source of the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003. Water leakages in the buildings due to poor maintenance and building defects can lead to growth of toxic moulds that can cause serious health and safety issues for the occupants. There is also established evidence of the relationship between water leaks in buildings and respiratory symptoms in occupants.

Delamination of paint due to roof leakage.

WET AREAS AND ROOF WATER LEAKS Ceiling leaks from bathrooms of the upper floors is the last thing one would like to experience. The water leak makes its way across the ceilings below causing damp patches and even worse when it starts to drip steadily. One of the main reasons of leakages in bathrooms, toilets and other wet areas is due to the failure of waterproofing membranes. Their installations in wet areas should be designed to allow prompt detection of leaking water and easy access for repair. Leaks in wet areas of high-rise buildings, has resulted in a high number of defects in most countries around the world. The


annual maintenance cost for wet areas is about 40 per cent of the total maintenance cost of a building (Chew and De Silva, 2004). With growing maintenance costs of existing buildings and facilities, researchers worldwide emphasize the importance of awareness of the root cause of the failures. Interestingly, a few studies revealed that the damage in these areas occurs when the bathrooms are relatively new, implying that the damage is not mainly due to poor maintenance; rather incorrect workmanship and use of inferior materials are the main culprits. In addition, it is a failure of the contract management system that did not detect the defects before it was too late to make corrections. The aggressive effects of external weathering on roofs make them more vulnerable due to deterioration. Roofs suffering from leaks could not only cause serious damage to structures but also pose a great risk of injury. Symptoms such as dripping water, damp patches, paint peeling-off, rust stains on the ceiling indicate that the roof waterproofing system is not performing. Due to a combination of lack of awareness and expediency, the ceiling is normally cosmetically repaired with ‘masala mortar’ without addressing the source of leaks. Consistent leaks from top roofs and

wet areas of the upper levels can initiate corrosion of the reinforcement causing concrete spalling, which can turn into a soffit collapse. A large percentage of seepage and moisture related defects in buildings originate from rain. Roof leakage in the buildings result in seepage to the flats below that causes discomfort to the occupants and frequent disputes between the landlord and the tenant in regard to the liability to repair. Research conducted by Lo, Leung and Cui (2005), on roof construction defects highlighted that the root cause of failure of the roof waterproofing membrane stems from the cracks in the roof parapet walls. It further concluded that the design and choice of material for roof parapet walls is critical to avoid failures of the waterproofing membrane on the roof slab.

Damage from leakage in balconies.


External balconies form an integral part of multi-storey apartment buildings. Water leaks in balconies can easily trigger the electrochemical corrosion process because these are subjected to more aggressive environments, resulting in damaged and spalling concrete. Balcony blunders can be classified into issues associated with a lack of understanding of the nature of the site, such as wind-borne salts and the normal seasonal changes in temperature and relative humidity. The more manageable issues include factors such as leakage due to failure of waterproofing membrane, inadequate drain slope, poor design, inadequate detailing, poor workmanship or a combination of these factors. The affected balconies, if they remain unattended, present both a danger to the structural integrity of building and the health and safety of the occupants. Inferior quality waterproofing membrane is one of the contributing factors of balconies failure. The use of a thin film instead of a robust tenacious waterproofing membrane to waterproof balconies must be discouraged. Concrete being the first line of defence, the cantilever structural element should be cast with high quality concrete. If screed is used to form slopes, it should have additional waterproofing properties using rubber latex emulsion. Water resistant tile adhesive and tile grouts should be specified to fix the final finish tiles with an adequate slope and drainage details.


Balconies concrete spalling.

Avoid Swimming in Basements: Leakage into basements may be attributed to many factors such as poor selection of the waterproofing system, inadequate detailing for joints and other critical locations, inadequate drainage design, poor concrete quality and workmanship, damage to waterproofing membrane, ground water level rise to name but a few factors. An interesting analogy by Chew and De Silva (2003) suggests that water seepage signs appear from the basement ceiling are not always related to the above factors but could also originate from the non-basement features of above ground landscaping,

Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018



water features, swimming pools or water ponding. Insufficient slope or clogged drainage of the planter structures can result in moist patches that, if unattended, lead to seepage and algae growth on basement ceiling finishes. (Chew and De Silva, 2003). Rising levels of the ground water table in urban areas can have serious implications to basements. The rise of ground water level (GWL) could be due to seasonal rise, capillary action or closure of dewatering activity in the surrounding neighbourhood construction sites. The structures designed without considering the obvious risks of GWL rise and the resulting hydrostatic pressure associated with water leakage is a serious risk. With sea water leakage, the structural integrity of basements is seriously compromised, as the chloride content of the concrete may rise above the threshold level resulting in severe corrosion problems.

Leakage through retaining wall construction joint.

Basement leakage showing early signs of corrosion.


Construction Engineering Australia • Oct/Nov 2018

The challenges of soil mechanics and groundwater conditions need to be considered during design stage and a site specific waterproofing system should be selected for the structure against ground water infiltration. There is a saying that ‘…100 steps backward are as good as 1000 steps forward’. (Busch, 2013). Suppose, a manager of a newly opened restaurant is suddenly given a task to takeaction to cause the restaurant business to fail. Key factors that could lead to the failure of the newly set-up venture? Some methods guaranteed to induce failure include serving rotten food in dirty chipped plates by non-professional staff, or the dining area is greasy and dirty. The end result would be the failure and closure of the restaurant. Now, if the restaurant needs to succeed, then working on the lessons learned from the backward approach, the manager would need to avoid the above failure factors. By inverting the process, the manager would recruit trained and qualified staff, use only good quality crockery, adopt the best hygiene practices and so on. Similarly, working backwards is the best approach to avoid basement leaks. In other words, it means injecting error proofing in waterproofing activity. Most contractors and engineers have a linear way of thinking to perform their tasks. Engineers appreciate rationality, consistency, the common sense, ‘…onestep-forward-at-a time approach’ (Busch, 2013) to perform site activities and it all makes good sense but at the same time reversing the order of one’s approach has its advantages too, as it challenges the brain to think in an unconventional way. Assume, if a project manager at a new construction site wants his basement to leak. It sounds weird, but the argument is what actions would lead to the failure of the basement? The answer is simple – the project manager on site would ensure they avoid using waterstops in construction joints, use poor quality concrete, select the wrong or a poor quality waterproofing membrane, omit pile head waterproofing, appoint inexperienced waterproofing installation companies and so on. The worst action is to use multiple suppliers for waterproofing that rules out a single point of responsibility. The project

manager can now self-question and develop a checklist of what factors need to be considered to have a leak-proof basement. This is possible by addressing and countering all the above pitfalls by adopting a working backward approach.

THE WAY FORWARD Water leaks can cause significant structural damage, inconvenience, trouble and litigation issues. Water leaks usually result from a combination of the above highlighted failure factors, rather than an individual element be liable for the failure. Most of the buildings that start showing early signs of deterioration during the first ten years of their service life, are alarming in this age where asset owners expect a longer maintenance free design life. Water leakage is the main culprit for the early initiation of corrosion and concrete deterioration in multi storey buildings and commercial towers. To help minimize leakage nuisance and potential hazard to life and property, robust construction practices should, therefore, be practiced during building planning, design and execution stages. It is also suggested a working backward approach be adopted as this leads to the adoption of ‘system based waterproofing approach’. It is important that the waterproofing in basements, roofs and wet areas, are not driven by waterproofing membranes only; rather it should be based on ‘a complete waterproofing system’. The designers and controlling authorities should further improve processes of building plans approvals, inspection of construction works, and quality control procedures regarding waterproofing aspects. A stitch in time, saves nine. Prevention using a backward approach is always better than cure.

References: Chew, M.Y.L., De Silva, N., and Tan, S.S., (2004), "Maintainability of wet areas of nonresidential buildings", Structural Survey, Vol. 22 Issue 1 pp. 39 – 52 Lo, Y.T., Leung, W.M., and Cui, H.Z., (2005), "Roof construction defects of medium-rise buildings in sub-tropical climates", Structural Survey, Vol. 23 Issue 3 pp. 203 – 209 Wong, J., and Hui, E., (2005),"Water seepage in multi-storey buildings", Facilities, Vol. 23 Issue 13/14 pp. 595 – 607

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Adelaide to host largest corrosion conference in the Southern Hemisphere In November, the Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) will present its annual Corrosion & Prevention (C&P 2018) conference and trade exhibition in the Adelaide Convention Centre. This major event showcases the latest advancements in corrosion mitigation, which costs industry and governments around the world billions of dollars each year to manage and repair. C&P2018 is a practical multi-day experience and gathering of world experts on corrosion mitigation staged on 11-14 November 2018. Featuring engaging presentations from leading Australian and international experts, the conference is an important source of the latest information concerning corrosion prevention and management. The conference comprises a program of keynote presentations and technical papers under a range of industry â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;streamsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, integrated with an exhibition that will showcase products


Construction Engineering Australia â&#x20AC;˘ Oct/Nov 2018

and services of the corrosion mitigation industry. More than 400 delegates are expected to attend from industries including protective coatings, water, defence, building and construction, mining, oil & gas, cathodic protection, power and more. Industry experts will deliver five plenary addresses - including the P F Thompson Lecture - and 80 papers across technical streams focusing on; concrete, steel corrosion, water infrastructure, oil & gas, asset management and high temperature corrosion/non-ferrous metal corrosion. These diverse technical streams will showcase the latest developments in corrosion prevention, management and mitigation. Plenary topics include corrosion management, microbiologically influenced corrosion, the circular economy from paint manufacturers point of view and the

performance of geomembrane materials in floating cover applications in Australia. The 2018 Thompson Memorial Lecture will be delivered by Professor Brian Kinsella, Deputy Director Applied Corrosion Research and Testing, Curtin Corrosion Engineering Industry Centre at Curtin University. His lecture will detail how to address several critical issues on the mechanism of CO2 corrosion and its inhibition. The Thompson Memorial Lecture commemorates the work of corrosion science pioneer, P F Thompson, and has been delivered every year at the ACA's annual conference since 1951. C&P2018 is set to be a premium networking event as well as a source for the latest information concerning corrosion mitigation. For further information and registration, please visit:

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Construction Engineering Australia V4.05 Oct/Nov 2018  

Australia’s premier construction, civil works and civil engineering publication.

Construction Engineering Australia V4.05 Oct/Nov 2018  

Australia’s premier construction, civil works and civil engineering publication.