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Social and Cultural Challenges in Interior Architecture


Master Interior Architecture Royal Academy of Art, the hague

2014/2015 Social and Cultural Challenges in Interior Architecture


index

inside magazine

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index

inside magazine

06 Foreword 08 12 14

Controlled space Interview Brigitte van der Sande Photo essay

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Essay Elena Conrad

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Studio URBAN Photo essay

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Essay Sisi Li

34 Studio Space I 36 Photo essay 38

Essay Yuiko Yokota

44 46 52 58 64

Graduation projects Zacharias Antoniades Junyuan Chen Emilija Juodyte Elide Mozzorecchi

70 Studio Space II 72 Interview Nelleke Strijkers 74 Photo essay 76

Essay Hegiasri Hutaries

82 Studio INTER 84 Interview Fokke Moerel 86 Timeline 88 Photo essay 90 92

Travel Photo essay

96 Information 98 Turors and lecturers 2014/2015 105 Colophon


FOREWoRD

HANS VENHUIZEN

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HANS VENHUIZEN

FOREWoRD

Cultural and Social Challenges in Interior Architecture With great pride, I would like to introduce the sixth edition of INSIDE magazine from the Master of Interior Architecture, the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague. This magazine offers a selection of programme results and presents the third group of INSIDE architects, graduating this year. INSIDE’S academic year 2014/2015 began with a joint workshop with the Art School of Palestine, Ramallah. Together we researched the influence exerted by controlling space. We immediately encountered fascinating differences in perspectives on the control of space. Where Palestinian students associated controlled spaces with checkpoints and full body scans, some INSIDE students connected these to their domestic environment and a strangling family control. Although seemingly miles apart, the students discovered through the workshop the relevance of these opposite view points and came up with joint proposals. For instance by disarming the phenomena of control by turning them into ‘fun-elements’ in public space through the use for play or theatrical performance of cameras, barricades and even police cars.

This workshop combining the experiences of armed control with family control was the beginning of a year filled with impressions from encounters, assignments and travels for first year students. This culminated in a presentation at the Berlin Design Fair DMY in June 2015. After their first year at INSIDE, most students return to their country of origin for the holidays. Looking at familiar places from new perspectives gathered, students discover challenges that they can develop into their graduation projects. The group of students presented in this magazine have seized the opportunity to graduate on issues in their countries of origin. With ambitious but promising projects concerning the ruralisation of China or the transition of Soviet style school buildings in Lithuania, the graduating students demonstrate responsibility for the urgencies and challenges of contemporary society that INSIDE cares about. The power of INSIDE lies in the energy and inventiveness of the students combined with the inspiration of teachers and the ability to share experiences. This year we welcomed MVRDV to

enrich our team of studio teachers consisting of (interior) architects from Superuse Studios, OMA and DoepelStrijkers. This magazine can be enjoyed thanks to the commitment of four INSIDE students responsible for the interviews and image research, coordinator Marja van der Burgh and theory tutor Anne Hoogewoning. Many thanks to the third year students of the graphic department of the Royal Academy who succeeded in bringing the various projects together in this graphically appealing magazine. In one of our travels this year we visited the BAUHAUS in Dessau, where we were invited for a workshop on the ‘household of the future’. We were hosted for a week in the original studio building designed by Walter Gropius in 1925. For the workshop, the Bauhaus offered us the opportunity to work in one of the master houses also designed by Gropius. This example of modernist architecture, especially developed for the Bauhaus teachers including ideal studio spaces for the masters, puzzled the INSIDE students. In

here they felt isolation instead of the worldliness they expected. Hence, they decided not to work inside but to work in the public domain and open their laptops in local bars, libraries and the original studio spaces for the Bauhaus students. And in doing so, positioning themselves much closer to contemporary society and its urgencies and social and cultural challenges.

Hans Venhuizen Head of INSIDE, leads the TRAVEL programme and curates the SKILLS programme The Hague, June 2015


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ANNE HOOGEWONING

CONTROLLED SPACE

Controlled space A workshop in collaboration with art centre Stroom Den Haag and the International Academy of Art, Palestine, (Ramallah), 15-19 September 2014

The themes we are currently working on at INSIDE concentrate on issues that designers, clients, residents and users of spaces are faced with. This year the introduction theme is ‘controlled space’ in which the increasing tendency of our current society to empower and control (semi-) public space is explored. Hence, we started with investigating controlling mechanisms in the city of The Hague through a workshop together with the International Academy of Art, Palestine. In collaboration with 6 Palestinian students ,14 students from INSIDE

conducted some field research and interviews, and experienced and explored the spatial implications of control in the city. Besides these active collaborations, the workshop consisted of group discussions, excursions and lectures from experts such as Jacob Voorthuis, David Hamers, Malkit Shoshan and Sander Veenhof. The workshop is part of an initiative called ‘See you in The Hague’ organized by Stroom which aims at bringing a shard of the Palestinian reality


CONTROLLED SPACE

ANNE HOOGEWONING

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ANNE HOOGEWONING

CONTROLLED SPACE

“...designers must become acquainted with public space where conflicts can take place and tension between friction and freedom is common...” into a Dutch context. ‘See you in The Hague’ the Palestinians yell threateningly at Israeli border guards who act improperly. At the same time it is also the slogan heading The Hague’s city marketing brochure to draw tourists to this attractive city full of greenery by the sea. Especially in The Hague as a centre of global administration of justice hosting 160 institutions concerned with international crime, the question of how space is controlled, is extremely appropriate. Evidently, in Palestine control and restrictions are deeply rooted in society. Controlled space is the status quo: Palestinians have hardly any freedom of movement.

surveillance systems. According to Arnold Reijndorp and Maarten Hajer, both researchers in the field of public space, this culmination of control in Western society has positive implications because people experience cameras also as reassuring. In their view designers must become acquainted with public space as places where conflicts can take place and tension between friction and freedom is common. They call on designers and artists to implement their ideas in such a way that (semi) public space become places where people meet and join, prevents conflicts and, contrarily, invites people to be confronted with the unfamiliar.

Even in Western society, though far less threatening than in Palestine, it is widely accepted that we are watched over by cameras in train stations, airports, museums, shopping malls and hospitals. However we are less aware of our public space also becoming overregulated by cameras and

What are the characteristics, appearances and mechanisms of controlled spaces in the city of The Hague? What are their effects and implications on the physical environment? Do they affect the behaviour of its citizens? Are they actually aware of being observed by cameras and surveillance sys-

tems? These questions, and others, were explored by five mixed teams resulting on the fifth day of the workshop in some hilarious presentations, among others, about the ‘hidden’ surveillance system of the Royal Academy of Art (!) itself and about the unexpected playfulness of controlling mechanisms in The Hague such as movable stop signs, to be seen at: http://www.enterinside.nl/blog/workshop-controlled-space/. In the following pages you will find some images of the field research done by the students. Besides that there is an interview with curator Brigitte van der Sande and a selection of theses written by some first year students about all kind of controlled spaces in different places in the world*. The theses are part of the theory and writing programme in which the theme of controlled space was further examined in order to stimulate discussions, reflections and analyses on social issues with relevance for future interior architects such as tolerance,

power, democracy, segregation, privatisation, exclusion, social interaction, affordance, et cetera. What better way to start this research than with their fellow students from Palestine! *For the readability of the texts we left out the bibliography and the notes. All theses, including their bibliography, can be consulted at the Master Interior Architecture Department.

Anne Hoogewoning Tutor Theory and Writing


CONTROLLED SPACE

interview

Brigitte van der Sande In the workshop Controlled Space students from INSIDE collaborated with students from the Ramallah Art School of Palestine in researching the impact of control on (public) space. At the start of the study year the workshop was organized together with Stroom Den Haag as part of their project “See you in The Hague” curated by Brigitte van der Sande. Interview by Yuiko Yokota and João Moreira First year students

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interview

Why did you choose a Palestinian Art School and INSIDE to work together on the theme of “controlled space”? I visited Palestine in 2008 for the first time and I saw the people there experienced severe physical control in their everyday lives, such as their belongings being checked at checkpoints. Palestine was the most controlled space I had ever seen. On the other hand in The Hague, the city was under heavy security and control to host participants from all over the world for The Nuclear Security Summit in 2014, including president Obama. I wanted to connect these two different controlled spaces in the project “See you in The Hague” at Stroom. I proposed to Hans Venhuizen, Head of INSIDE, to hold this joint workshop with Palestine students and the students of INSIDE. I thought it would be interesting to collaborate with the INSIDE department because here students think about design as a process.

What was the most surprising element of the workshop? It was interesting to see that almost all students presented their results inside, although the workshop initially was about the implications of control on our public space. Also, the Palestinian students and I were surprised to discover that in the Royal Academy of Art security cameras were all over the building, both inside and outside; the students and teachers are constantly being monitored, in sharp contrast to the situation of the Palestinians at home. There the strict physical controls are everywhere in society, but they are not within in their own Academy.

CONTROLLED SPACE

Why do you think “control” is an important issue? And what role can designers play in this issue? In the Netherlands, we have a full set of control mechanisms around us, like security cameras, smart phones, electric cards for transportation tracking our behavior anywhere and anytime. However, most of us don’t care about it and rather believe “control brings us a safer and better society”, which I don’t agree with. I believe designers and artists have a responsibility to raise questions and doubts to the public and suggest alternative solutions. And in particular interior architects can deal with the relationship of public and private space and reveal that we no longer have privacy in our lives.

Do you think designers should address more political and social issues? Yes I do. Since our society is already completely filled with objects, both beautiful and ugly, designers who only add more objects with little social/political focus are very old-fashioned and no longer necessary. What designers should focus more on is design awareness and raising questions in the public domain and suggesting alternative interventions. Of course society won’t change through the work of a single designer, however, he/ she can trigger a small change in our minds, which may potentially lead to a greater shift in society.


CONTROLLED SPACE

PHOTO essay

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student essay

elena conrad

Reclaim Your City Controlled Space and Public Participation in West Berlin Twenty-five years ago on 9 November 1989, the wall that had divided East and West Germany for 28 years came down. The celebrations in Berlin and the 25th anniversary of this historic day flooded the news and brought to mind recent history. Thinking about East and West Germany, it is always the East that comes to mind when talking about controlled space. The history of the ‘Stasi’ spying on citizens, repressing any opposition is an example extreme control. Located in the middle of East Germany, West Berlin was a political enclave, a “free city“ surrounded by the Soviet Union administered German Democratic Republic. Cheap rents and the new university system contributed to a changing population, forming a new generation who “held critical and anti-establishment views.“ Essay by Elena Conrad

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elena conrad

A new building policy aimed at the renewal of the city, changed West Berlin from the 1960s. After the construction of the wall in 1961 physically separating the city, the senate instigated a radical remediation area to make Berlin more attractive and form a „new start“ for the city‘s development. Instead of renovating old buildings, new large-scale projects outside the city centre popped up and whole building blocks were demolished. After some initial protests from citizens, the Senate changed the focus from city expansion to modernizing and reconstruction in inner-city areas. This remedial action was largely subsidised by West Germany. House owners received financial aid either for the modernisation of old buildings or the demolition and reconstruction. The latter provided a safe income as rents could be increased, but also planning and execution of new construction and maintenance of buildings was easier and more sustainable. Therefore, owners deliberately neglected houses

student essay

for these to be downgraded for demolition and then granted the highest subsidy resulting in increased demolitions, derelict buildings, evictions, rising rents and vacant spaces. This tense housing situation triggered protests from activists and organisations, centred on a squatting movement peaking in the beginning of the 1980s. In this paper I intend to research the significance of the population‘s involvement in West Berlin’s urban planning, with its roots in the squatting movement. Using two case studies, the Block 103 in 1987 and the referendum 100% Tempelhofer Feld in 2014, I will investigate how public participation can contribute to shaping the urban environment. By comparing these two examples through analysing plans, literature and my own experience as a neighbour of the Tempelhofer Feld, I want to trace the line from the IBA 1987 directly resulting from the squatting movement to the public‘s control over space today. Reclaiming Space “By taking control over space, the squatters were implicitly (and often explicitly) criticizing the presence of Western Allies, chiefly the United States, in West Berlin and to some degree in West Germany as a whole. Through their actions the squatters very effectively raised the question of who has the power to occupy, use or alter the urban space.“ The first squatting in Berlin started in the 1970s as anti-establishment movements and as projects for a new form of collective living. In 1979 an initiative called BI so 36 formed as a reaction to the senate‘s destructive building policy. Their main goal was to maintain and refurbish the derelict buildings in order to reconstruct residential space and achieve their re-rental potential. The squatting in Berlin was subsequently known as “Instandbesetzung”, combining the words instandsetzen (maintain) and besetzen (occupy/squat). This term literally demonstrates that activists not


student essay

elena conrad

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only claimed buildings but also maintained and repaired the derelict houses. Squatters started to establish squatting councils that tried to negotiate with the government in order to legalise the squats and stop the demolition of cheap living space. Following the BI so36‘s example more and more squatting followed. In early1981 more than 100 buildings were occupied. This movement was actually a critique of the radical construction of a New Berlin, without taking the city‘s history into consideration. Reclaiming the nineteenth-century architecture, the squatters made their point about defining the city‘s past and how this might affect present and future developments. In the beginning of 1981 a group of squatters occupied a house in Manteuffelstrasse, Kreuzberg, which they soon transformed into a Bauhof (building yard). There, they provided tools and building materials in order to promote the self-maintenance of occupied buildings in the area. By then, the movement had reached its peak with 165 houses squatted, 85 of them in Kreuzberg. This increase lead to the “Berlin line of reason”, a policy formulated by the newly-elected Senate that permitted forced police evictions within 24 hours of new squats, resulting in violent clashes between activists and authorities. Block 103 Hardt-Waltherr Hämer, architect and professor, reacted to this rising protest by researching the affected areas and incorporated them into his curriculum. His work provided important impulses to the International Building exhibition (IBA) 1984/1987, to which he was appointed director with focus on careful urban renewal. The IBA was a direct result of the population‘s resentment of the radical building policy. It was divided into two programs, the IBA neubau and the IBA altbau. Similar to the Interbau 1958, the IBA neubau was carried out in the context of a competition, focusing on critical reconstruction of new buildings and construction

of whole housing blocks. Notable architects such as Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas and Álvaro Siza realised projects throughout Berlin. The IBA altbau however, was an addition mainly in the Kreuzberg area, intended to repair and modernise existing buildings. In March 1983 the Berlin Senate passed the “12 principles of careful urban renewal“ that formed the new guidelines for building policy and sealed the end of radical remediation. In collaboration with inhabitants, squatters and the IBA altbau, a plan was formulated for the reconstruction of Block 103 in Kreuzberg. Block 103 consisted of 12 houses, including the Bauhof in Manteuffelstrasse, with 200 tenants. Central elements of this plan were the preservation of the building fabric, tenant involvement and consideration of social structure. The perimeter block development was kept but the technical infrastructure and living

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elena conrad

student essay


student essay

elena conrad

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elena conrad

for the 100% Tempelhofer Feld initiative to preserve the unique public park with wide green space used for kiting, skating, running, cycling, and as an urban garden and picnic area.

conditions were improved by introducing biotopes and ecological systems to reduce environmental pollution. This pilot project was a prime example of preserving existing architecture in the long struggle of the post-war building policy and functioned as a model for future ecological urban reconstruction in Berlin. 100% Tempelhofer Feld Two years after the completion of the IBA 1987, the wall came down and moved the peripheral IBA areas from the shadow of the wall into the centre of the city. Hence this functioned as a guide for sustainable urban planning in the unified Berlin. The squatting movement of the 80s can be taken as a case study in the shaping of Berlin‘s urban landscape. Today Berlin is still dealing with a tense housing situation, large-scale projects, speculators and rising rents, resulting in public opposition. In 2008 the airport Berlin Tempelhof on the edge of

Kreuzberg was closed to air traffic. The hangars of the former inner city airport were subsequently used as premises for events and fairs. From 2010 the former large airfield was opened to the public as a new inner-city park called “Tempelhofer Freiheit”. The Berlin Senate however, saw great potential in this vast central area. The master plan was to integrate residential buildings, parking lots, industrial real estate and a central library on the edges of the 300 ha arsenal, reducing public space to 180 ha. In 2011 the “Bürger-initiative 100% Tempelhofer Feld” called for a petition to preserve the unique inner-city open space as a significant habitat for wildlife conservation. In order to be granted a referendum, the initiative collected more than 30,000 signatures. This considerable number showed that people wished to retain public space and objected to private investment. In May 2014, 64% of Berlin citizens voted against the senate‘s master plan and

Conclusion These two examples of public involvement in urban planning demonstrate that master plans can be altered and thus change or save the cityscape. The squatting movement of the 1970s and 1980s was more than just a counter culture. It marked the start for ordinary people demanding their voice be heard and speaking out on policies they disagree with. Reclaiming space exposed the failure in building policy and actively contributed to the building environment. Many of the former squatted houses were transformed from dilapidated buildings to respectable apartments. The occupation of buildings by squatters during the early 1980s resulted in legal contracts in nearly half the cases, which is indicative of the ambition to reclaim inner-city living space. Especially today when central space is scarce, it is important to investigate the possibilities of redevelopment with regard to the present urban landscape. The Block 103 in the scope of the IBA 1987 was a pilot project to restore a housing block according to ecological factors. Restoration of the Block provided green inner courtyards to reduce environmental pollution and offer better and affordable living conditions, setting an example for future buildings in East Berlin. The Tempelhofer Feld referendum case study shows that large-scale urban development is still a controversial topic in West Berlin. Public involvement can still achieve goals. By preserving the Tempelhofer Feld as an open space, the initiative prevented the destruction of biotopes and climate supporting terrain and ensured the continuance of a wholly public domain. Taking the quality of existing space and urban structures into consideration is a common goal in both case studies. Rather than destroying and giving the domain to investors and

student essay

speculators, the urban landscape should be shaped in collaboration with inhabitants. Another advantage of public participation in urban planning is the social factor. Through their involvement residents can identify with their surroundings, not just the built environment but with their neighbours and community. Controlling space does not necessarily have a bad connotation. Urban space should be controlled by citizens and government through communication in equal measure.


PHOTO IMPRESSION

Brigitte van der sande

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assignment

studio urban

Studio Urban The BincafÊ Studio assignment: Design and build a space for an enterprise, which can be easily dismantled and relocated. Location: an empty building situated in the Binckhorst, an industrial area in city of The Hague. The enterprise should turn local organic waste streams into valuable products for the local market. The next pages contain a photo essay showing the growing of the mushrooms from coffee waste, the presentation of the product at a local fair, and the building of a flexible sales space. With Superuse Studios – Jan Jongert and Lizanne Dirkx


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PHOTO essay

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studio urban


studio urban

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studio urban


student essay

SISI LI

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Homeless in the Library Wash Your Hands before Reading As a public institution, the library plays an important role in our daily life. It has many functions such as book collecting, sorting, processing, scientific storing and it serves the public who borrow and read books. Ideally, libraries also play a major role in social education. From a historical point of view, the library changed from a book collection pavilion to a modern institute: from simple to complex, and from a closed to an open institute. Due to social factors, such as the improvement of people’s living standards and new demands of public space, the concept and design of the library has become more complicated. Essay by Sisi Li

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SISI LI

In its original function, the library was a place conveying equality and openness to all people. In my opinion, nobody should be refused the enjoyment of library services. However, homeless people are sometimes refused entrance to a library. This varies in different countries. My interest is to investigate how libraries in the Netherlands and China deal with the homeless who would like to visit as potential readers. For this research, I have investigated the Hangzhou Library in China and the Rotterdam Central Library. How do these two libraries deal with homeless people? What kind of mechanisms do they use to control the homeless entering the library? How is this conveyed in their layout and design? Do these mechanisms of control deter the behavior of their visitors, especially homeless

student essay

people? If so, how? Through analyzing this phenomenon and the spatial design of both libraries, I hope to gain a better understanding and to give recommendations for future library design. I will start with an introduction to the Hangzhou library through reading some sources such as an interview and an article written by a Hangzhou architect. For the Rotterdam Library, I will refer to some online information and a graduation research from Maarten Tenten (a student at the Rotterdam Academy of Architecture and Urban Design) about the library as a homeless centre. Finally I also visited the library in Rotterdam. Hangzhou Library Hu Chen is one of the homeless people of Hangzhou. He used to live in Chongqing but


student essay

SISI LI

he left the city and tried to find a job in Hangzhou. Because of his low education and dialect problem, he could not find a job and became homeless. Everyday he is on his way to some residential areas for collecting rubbish nearby his ‘home’ —which is on the stairs in front of a 24 hours bank. Since the Hangzhou Library opened for homeless people, every afternoon you can find Hu Chen’s here enjoying his most happy and relaxing time: he reads books and newspapers, and writes down his thoughts. In the evening, he returns to his temporary ‘home’ again. Hu Chen: “I want to learn something before going back to Chongqing. Maybe later I can run a factory in my hometown using what I have learned in the library”. In an interview the management of the

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library states that they cannot refuse the homeless: “The only restriction is that they wash their hands before reading”. Since 2003, the Hangzhou Library has been accessible to the public, especially to homeless people for free. They can use the television, air-conditioner, computer and hot water. Some visitors felt uncomfortable because of the bad smell, they complained about it, but the director of the library kept the rule that homelessness can enter the library. The Chinese libraries generally have a regulation that people have to be dressed properly. Security at the gate can refuse people to enter the library, but the Hangzhou library is an exception: here all visitors only need to cover their upper body. After 2008, the Hangzhou Library moved to the Hangzhou Civic Center where it is part

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SISI LI

of a commercial district and living area. The entrances of the new library increased from 1 to 3. Unlike other libraries in the China, it canceled the rule that people need a library card. Citizens only need to bring their personal ID card to borrow books or use the infrastructure. The building is divided in four L-shaped buildings. The Hangzhou library is located in the northwest part. The entrances differ from other libraries in China where a security room is located next to the entrance. In the Hangzhou library there is no security room, visitors only need to pass through a detector machine. The library has more then 2300 seats and 90 of the space is open for readers and the homeless people. On the second floor of the Hangzhou library is the reading room and a room for individual studies. Here the homeless mainly stay, also here you can find many toilets where hands can be washed before reading. If homeless people tend to sleep in the library, the management tells them it is forbidden. Rotterdam Central Library In 2010, there were more than 33,000 homeless people in the Netherlands, 2% of the Dutch population. There were 3,000 registered homeless people in Rotterdam. Also in the Netherlands, Public libraries play an important role in providing shelter and services to the homeless. This includes the Rotterdam Central Library, one of the largest libraries in the Netherlands. Like the new Hangzhou library, it is located in the city centre surrounded by many tourist attractions and crowded areas like the Rotterdam Blaak station, the Cubic Houses and The Market Hall. The Rotterdam Central Library is known as one of the most convenient public buildings of Rotterdam. The building has 7 floors, including a reading area, an exhibition area, an audio- and

student essay


student essay

SISI LI

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video area, and public activity area. It has one main entrance, facing the Hoogstraat, visitors enter the library through this entrance, passing through a detector machine. In a one-day observation, I noticed that many homeless people use the building and that most of the visitors were old people. Some of them had finished shopping, reading with their shopping bag on their lap. Some of them were only reading newspapers or searching for information through the computer. Especially the chess area and a piano playing area on the first floor were quite popular as a gathering place for homeless people. Generally speaking, it seems to me that the library is not only a place for reading and learning, but also a place for relaxing and social communication. Unlike the Hangzhou library, there are no rules about the dress code. I felt that management accepts the homeless. However in comparison with the cost-free Hangzhou library, readers in Rotterdam must pay for a library card. Conclusions Analyzing the way the Hangzhou Library deals with the homelessness problem, I believe that people are prevented from entering the library by asking them to cover their upper body. However, the Hangzhou Library has abandoned the security room, which gave people a feeling they were being watched; especially the homeless are more sensitive about this. Also, the Hangzhou Library is free and the homeless only need to bring their ID card. Compared to China where it was major news that the library opened to the homeless, it seems that people in Rotterdam are used to the homeless using the library. Also there there are no particular rules or dress code for the homeless; if they wish, they can stay there the whole day. Those who would like to find a temporary shelter can stay on the first floor, though it is a pity that

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SISI LI

some areas are only accessible with a membership card. This means that homeless people who want to consult the library resources cannot really use them. It would be better if the Rotterdam Library consider this situation and set some special rules for homeless people. Nowadays more Chinese libraries open their doors to the homeless and they have started to address this by setting some rules. Due to this, the attitude towards homelessness people has changed the use of public space, which is a good thing. In my view it is important to keep a good balance between the homeless and other visitors in libraries, for example by setting guidelines and by trying to create a special area for the homeless. In my opinion, libraries are not only a shelter for homeless people, but also an important space for them to improve themselves. Homeless people can learn something from reading and use these skills to get a job. Through reading, the homeless feel they are not being excluded. They are encouraged to face the difficult period of their life. I believe that libraries will play a key role in helping the urban homeless in the future.

student essay


studio space I photo impression PHOTO IMPRESSION Brigitte van der sande

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assignment

studio space 1

Studio SPACE I Learning from Ken Adam Studio assignment: The objective of the studio is to concentrate on design and design research, without performing extensive research on general subjects and site analyses. The task is to design a specific space in the spirit of the many spaces Ken Adam designed for James Bond movies and that could have been used in one of the movies. The project can be located anywhere in the Royal Academy of Art. With OMA – Chris van Duijn and Mark Veldman


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student essay

YUIKO YOKOTA

Designing for Social Inclusion A Search into Optimal Interventions for Homelessness In nearly every city in the world there are people living in public spaces day and night because they do not have a home or a shelter. They are called homeless people and commonly considered a social problem. Local authorities have several approaches toward homelessness ranging from exclusion by physical and legal means to trying to reduce the problem by providing various support systems. An example of the first approach is a type of design called ‘defensive design’, known as anti-homeless spikes. Essay by Yuiko Yokota

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student essay

In their statistics, some countries show that the number of homeless people in their country is decreasing. However, it is known that numerous homeless people are not counted because of the narrow definition of homelessness and the undefined methodologies. Legal interventions might merely succeed in excluding the homeless from public areas and make them invisible rather than finding a solution to the actual problem. In this article, I would like to explore how introducing design interventions for homeless people can improve the situation. Firstly, I examine the current situation in relation to homelessness through a design and spatial context. In the second part I will introduce examples of positive design interventions for homelessness and identify their advantages and limitations. Finally, I give some suggestions for a future design. Current Situation of Homelessness Since many societies see homelessness as an unwelcome phenomenon, the authorities have introduced measurements to exclude the homeless from public space in both implicit and explicit ways. An example of implicit intervention in public space is the defensive design, which is intended to prevent sitting and lying down for long periods. Defensive designs make users feel uncomfortable and sometimes they are even quite cruel, such as spikes in London, which were removed after protests by some inhabitants. There are also numerous legal controlling systems relating to homelessness such as privatization of public space and criminalization of homelessness. Writer and journalist Anna Minton recently raised an alert about the over-control in ‘private-public spaces’ such as shopping malls, business districts and gated communities. According to her, the cleaning-up of private-public places simply displaces social problems and stimulates problems in ghettoized areas. Due to the increasing number of defensive

designs and legal restrictions, I feel homeless people are becoming more marginalized and excluded from society. The following case study will explain how this process occurs in reality. Case Study: Tokyo The Tokyo government reported in recent statistics that the number of homeless people in their city declined to 1697 in 2014, 146 less than 2013. According to the government, support to the homeless by municipalities has contributed to this decrease. However, some raised doubts about the accuracy of the figure. Tenohashi, an NPO supporting homeless people in Tokyo, pointed out


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example ‘public art’ in the centre of Tokyo. The city claims that it is merely a work of art, though it has succeeded in keeping the homeless away. Positive Interventions for Homelessness What can be a positive and supportive intervention for homelessness, instead of excluding them from public space? The American philosopher John Abbarno discusses the necessity of a shelter in his book ‘The Ethics of Homelessness’ with a reference to Hannah Arendt. According to him, all human beings need a house to protect them from nature (cold, hot, dirty, windy, wet) and from someone else’s eyes when we conduct our daily private activities such as sleeping, bathing and urinating. Our home is a place for our private life; this is a precondition for working and participating in society. Taking these components into account, I chose three designs, which are intended to support homeless people.

that only those who live outdoors, on the streets, parks and riverside were included and the people staying in overnight facilities such as Internet-Cafes were excluded. In Japan, these people are called ‘Net-cafe refugees’. Some of these ‘temporary hostels’ provide basic amenities including a shower and blankets, and in some cases, even allow users to register there as an official address. In this way the Internet-cafe functions, ironically enough, as a quasi social security service for those who drop out of any official welfare systems. Furthermore, there are a number of interventions to exclude homelessness from public space, for

ParaSITE by Michael Rakowitz The Iraqi-American artist Michael Rakowitz designed a portable shelter for street dwellers. It is made of plastic bags and therefore waterproof, and easy and cheap to produce. The most innovative feature of this design is the use of the exhaust from ventilation systems of buildings in order to keep the shelter warm. Each paraSITE is designed for a specific user. For instance, a shelter was designed to deal with the anti-tent law by the New York City administration: any structure taller than 3.5 feet in the street would be considered an illegal encampment. Rakowitz designed this low level shelter to comply with the law, as it was not designed as ‘a tent’. Mobile Homeless Shelter by Paul Elkins The American designer Paul Elkins, an autodidact, designed a mobile homeless shelter for street dwellers. Although the size of the shelter is only

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1.81m2 it contains a bed, a cooking stove, a sink, a toilet bucket, shelves and a rain collecting system on the roof. In my opinion this shelter is a more rigorous structure that enables dwellers to protect them from external influences. However, the question remains whether it is a legal to park this shelter in a public space. These shelters may improve the daily live of homeless people and contribute to raising social awareness of the issue. However, they give little support to the ultimate goal of the homeless, which in most of cases is to have a proper house and return to participating society. In my opinion, a true intervention provides affordable houses for homeless people so that they are more likely to have job opportunities and receive appropriate support. Below I introduce a case study, which I feel meets this demand the best. The Common Ground is a non-profit organization dedicated to developing and maintaining affordable housing for homeless people in New York City. They ‘create safe, secure housing, with essential on-site support services to help them address the psychosocial, mental and physical health problems that are obstacles to independent living’. According to their website, they have helped more than 5000 people overcome homelessness since 1990. The innovative aspect of their project is that they create residences for homeless people in renovated historical buildings, such as the Prince George Hotel, once one of New York City’s premier hotels. After many years of neglect, it was renovated and reopened in 1999 to provide 416 units of affordable housing for low-income and formerly homeless people living with HIV/AIDS. The organisation owns a number of renovated buildings with the following advantages: cost effectiveness instead of creating a new building, preservation of historical buildings and fostering a sense of identity for residents they hardly experienced when living on the street.

Conclusion Through exploring the supportive interventions for homeless people both as a mobile shelters and a shelter in renovated old buildings, I realized that that the first category cannot be an effective solution for homelessness. Of course it can improve their lives and can contribute to raising awareness of citizens for this issue due to the unique appearances of the shelters. But for me the ideal intervention for the homeless is to offer them a fixed dwelling in order to give them a home address as a bridge to the welfare system and job opportunities. In terms of cost, labour and sustainability, the renovation of abandoned buildings into facilities for homeless people seems the most efficient way. However a supportive attitude from both national and local government is needed. Also stakeholders and citizens must contribute to make this idea work. According to recent research, there are sufficient vacant buildings in Europe to give all the homeless in the EU a proper home. It demonstrates that it is not impossible to tackle a major urban problem, but only if society is determined to solve this issue.

student essay


GRADUATES 2015

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

GRADUATion projects

Graduation projects After the first year at INSIDE most students return to their country of origin for the holidays filled with impressions from encounters, research, assignments and travels. Looking at their familiar places from the new perspectives they have gathered, students discover the challenges that they can develop into their graduation projects. On the following pages the graduate students introduce their projects with a short description and with images, collages and renderings as part of their graduation.

Graduation projects by: Zacharias Antoniades Junyuan Chen Emilija Juodyte Elide Mozzorecchi


GRADUATion projects

Zacharias antoniades

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Zacharias antoniades

GRADUATion projects

Since 1974, Cyprus has

Zacharias Antoniades Breaking the Walls

been divided in two parts, separating the two major ethnicities of the island (Greeks and Turks).  In between these northern and southern parts lies the well-known Cyprus Buffer zone that, to this day, expresses the realities of the armed conflict that took place there only four decades ago. As a Cypriot designer I felt the need to come up with an appropriate project that would improve the current situation and promote communication and deeper understanding between these two communities. My project is the renovation of a derelict building in the middle of the walled buffer zone. The building will become the New Cyprus Library, with an emphasis on a cultural and social programme that offers various opportunities for interactions between the visitors coming from both sides of the divided city. 


GRADUATion projects

Zacharias antoniades

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Zacharias antoniades

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

Zacharias antoniades

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Zacharias antoniades

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

Junyuan Chen

Junyuan Chen

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Junyuan Chen

GRADUATion projects

My research started from my personal interest in a recent design phenomena in China: the new generation of Chinese architects have started to participate in the regeneration of rural areas throughout the country.

Future Ruralization in Longshang Village, China

Through an intensive field research in Longshang village, a small village located in Southwest China, I found that this revival of the rural has many side effects, for example concerning tourism. For that reason, in Longshang village a paper museum was designed by a young well-known architectural office to promote the traditional handicraft paper making of the villagers. Combining this forced top-down policy of the government and mental bottom-up needs of the villagers, I propose a multifunctional public space with a leisure function, facilities for the paper making site and a water cleaning system. In this way I hope to create a Paper Temple for the villagers by replacing the demolished temple and contribute to a sustainable rural process in the village.


GRADUATion projects

Junyuan Chen

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Junyuan Chen

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

Junyuan Chen

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Junyuan Chen

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

Emilija Juodyte

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Emilija Juodyte

GRADUATion projects

Education shapes society and society’s social-political issues influence

Emilija Juodyte Unbind the School

education. By taking an extreme case of a Post-Soviet neighbourhood in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, I analyze how the monotonous school buildings in these mono-functional parts of the city can be spatially freed from leftovers of the Soviet system. How can these school buildings become part of today’s society? How can they spatially and architecturally correspond with today’s changing education system? And how can the renewed Soviet schools challenge existing learning methods and evoke new learning habits? Starting from the analysis of some renowned propitious learning environments all over the world, I come up with some generic requirements of today’s school buildings. By relating innovative educational theories to a particular Soviet-style building I demonstrate the clash of incorporated ideas. My project finally leads to the renovation of one school building with the goal to transform it to an open, flexible and varied learning environment.


GRADUATion projects

Emilija Juodyte

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Emilija Juodyte

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

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Emilija Juodyte

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

Elide Mozzorecchi

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Elide Mozzorecchi

GRADUATion projects

From daily routine to daily

Elide Mozzorecchi

rituals starts from a personal assumption: the domestic environment has lost importance. The meaning given to the daily actions of people at home has almost disappeared. Home 2.0 is a statement on the

A Home 2.0

meaning and the importance of the link between domestic activities and spaces. With this project, I try to understand how human existence and human actions are shaped to a large extent by the domestic space, and vice versa: how human rituals can shape the domestic space we inhabit. Starting from a personal analysis of my own daily routine within my home environment, the ambition of this project is to raise awareness of the feelings, ideas and consequences that hide behind every daily gesture. The final objective of this project is to design my ideal house, in which my daily activities, the routine, become rituals, which shape the spatial context.


GRADUATion projects

Elide Mozzorecchi

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Elide Mozzorecchi

GRADUATion projects


GRADUATion projects

Elide Mozzorecchi

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Elide Mozzorecchi

GRADUATion projects


studio space II Nelleke strijker PHOTO IMPRESSION Brigitte van der sande

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assignment

Studio Space II

Studio SPACE II SPRMRKT - Rethinking Retail Studio assignment: Design a new typology for a futureproof fashion concept store. Case study is the SPRMRKT shop in Amsterdam, owned by Nelleke Strijkers. The project should be presented with a conceptual brand manual and movie showing the design suitable for an international roll out. On the next pages you find an interview with the client and a photo essay of the student projects. With DOEPELSTRIJKERS – Eline Strijkers


Studio Space II

interview

Nelleke Strijkers Nelleke Strijkers is the owner of SPRMRKT, a fashion concept store located in Amsterdam. Nelleke was the client for the STUDIO SPACE assignment in the first semester for the first year students, supervised by Eline Strijkers. The brief was to create a new and inspiring design concept for the store in Amsterdam, as well as in other cities such as New York and in Ibiza. Interview by Yuiko Yokota and João Moreira First year students

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What surprised you most in the collaboration with INSIDE? Overall I was surprised by the innovative ideas of all the students showing many inspiring possibilities for the store. Also, I did not expect that one of the students would come up with a design which I really like and would love to implement immediately in the store in Amsterdam. Unfortunately we do not currently have the funds to construct it (it will cost around 60,000 euro). The design is from Elena Conrad; it consists of one long curved and movable metal rails on which the clothes are shown; hence customers can see our collection passing by without moving. A very inspiring idea! Besides this idea, there were some other designs that really touched me, for example one of the students, Anique van Helden, used a 3d printer to gradually build all shop furniture, making it into an event. Another student, Camilla Casiccia, had this wonderful idea of creating little hills with several levels, something I had been thinking of myself but not in this poetic way. And last but not least, I was flattered by how the students reacted to me; they listened well and showed a lot of interest in my wishes

Can interior architecture influence fashion, and the other way around? For sure there is a strong connection between architecture and fashion, both ways. Hussein Chalayan and Rad Hourani are two fashion designers whose work is much inspired by the idiom of architecture, for example by its shape, structure, color, mix of materials and the use of fabrics. The same can be said about the other way around: Zaha Hadid’s work seems to be much inspired by fashion.

Studio Space II

How do you see the potential of collaborations between fashion and other creative fields (music, art, design, performance etc.)? To me, the only way I would like to work is collaborating inter-disciplinarily. SPRMRKT is a concept store and from day one we have been fusing the different disciplines because only in this way, do I think you can offer something special. It is my strong belief that SPRMRKT is special and successful due the mix of fashion, design, architecture, music and art. For example, we change the design of our store every now and then to stimulate people to enter. We are lucky to have a space to organize exhibitions and performances, fashion presentations and other art projects. But even if my store would be very small, I still would like to present this mix. Besides this mix, we ask DJs and musicians to make tapes with different sound compositions.

We, as the students, were impressed by your power and strength. What is the source of your power? My inner strength is to be very intuitive in my taste and in my decisions. I started to work in this way years ago already, and it works out for me very well.


Studio Space II

Photo essay

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student essay

HEGIASRI HUTARIES

Living inside the Gate A Positive Control Mechanism? According to the Canadian anthropologist Jill Grant, a gated community is a housing development on private roads, closed to general traffic by a gate across the primary access. Fences, walls or other natural barriers that further limit public access may surround the development. In my view gates symbolize boundaries. Boundaries determine membership; someone must be inside and someone must be outside. The people inhabiting gated communities have socially, relationally, and the most important: spatially, excluded themselves by choosing to live exclusively. Essay by Hegiasri Hutaries

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For my research, I selected two gated communities. One in my home country, Indonesia, and another in the country where I currently live: The Netherlands. Why did I choose them? Because I am acquainted with both and apparently the case study in The Netherlands is the only prominent example of a gated community in the country. The gated community in Jakarta is called Kalibata City. Having been there a couple of times, I still have a clear memory of the place. Located in the middle of a dense area in Southern Jakarta, it is a complex of residential apartments blocks surrounded by gates and fences, equipped with security systems. The second case study, called Haverleij, is located in a southern province in the Netherlands. It is a newly built neighborhood close to the medium-sized city of Den Bosch. I spent one Saturday there to observe the community and gain as much as possible information. It features nine castle-like apartment blocks, consisting of several gated residential areas grouped together.

student essay

Both cases share the same idea of a controlling mechanism: gates. In order to understand this mechanism, my research is focused on its socio-spatial characteristics, since they represent the elements that support the idea of security in gated communities. There are four elements according to Grant, Ghonimi, Blakely and Snyder: the boundary physical barriers, the street network patterns, land use type, and housing type pattern. By taking these two examples as a reference point for my research, the following questions are raised: How are the four socio-spatial characteristics shown in both cases? What are the distinguishing spatial factors? In which way do these factors effect the idea of security? And how can the spatial design of the housing blocks contribute to social interaction as part of a (positive) controlling mechanism? The goal of this research is to find the answers to those questions, for thereby the conclusion will be drawn.


student essay

HEGIASRI HUTARIES

The Four Socio-Spatial Characteristics of Gated Communities. Boundary Physical Barriers: boundary physical barriers around communities serve several functions; they create visual screening, permit privacy, define property, and limit access. Street Network Patterns: the street network patterns that are most commonly used in gated communities is inward oriented, especially culde-sac. This pattern offers a dendrite structure, as it reduces the number of through roads and, consequently, the corresponding number of entries and exits to be controlled. Cul-de-sac pattern consists of two types: the bulb-like type and the dead-end type. Land Use Type: Grant argued that mixed uses rarely occur in gated communities. Gated communities explicitly resist difference and rely on single land use type, mostly residential.

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House Type Pattern: developers always seek to separate different housing types from each other so as to control services, amenities and maintenance. These features reflect the design goal to benefit control and privacy. KALIBATA CITY “Looking back at my memories, I remember how different the area is from its surroundings. it is a kind of a place that you notice from far: 17 apartment towers with a total of 12 hectares, like a jungle of concrete blocks.� Boundary Physical Barriers Kalibata City is located immediately next to an arterial street of South Jakarta. Surrounded by steel fences and rows of trees, Kalibata City has three prominent entrance gates. The fence and trees surrounding the neighborhood keep strangers out of the area. In my opinion, the fence gives the impression of transparency but not in a completely visible way. As you enter the complex, you will find the high-rise -19 floors vertically- apartment walls that create another effect of a strong inner-barrier. Street Network Patterns The main inner streets are in a linear, grid-like pattern, with some branches to access each apartment block. These branches end in a dead-end type or cul-de-sac pattern. This automatically limits the traffic in each block, exclusive for the residents. The main inner streets are accessible by cars, motorcycles, and pedestrians. Land Use Type All apartment blocks are residential but on the ground floor various food vendors and other small service companies can be found. Each apartment block has an inner court which turns the ground floor into a lively place for social exchange between residents. There are also shared facilities such as a swimming pool, a jogging track, a

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HEGIASRI HUTARIES

student essay


student essay

HEGIASRI HUTARIES

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children’s playground, and a fitness center, all exclusive to the residents. Housing Type Patterns Together, all apartment blocks create a dense spatial configuration in the form of a grid. In terms of housing categories, there are two types: seven towers are quite luxurious for the upper class, while ten towers have a more basic design for the middle class. The differences can be seen in the shape of the buildings: the luxurious apartments are designed in a T-shape; the others are designed in U-shape. HAVERLEIJ “The first impression I had when I entered Haverleij was: “this place is so extensive!”. no wonder, since only 10 percent of 225 hectares is used. the rest is a vast landscape of meadows, rows of trees, water features and a golf course.” Boundary Physical Barriers The entrance to Haverleij is located more than two kilometers away from the main streets, which makes it difficult for pedestrians to reach the area without transport. I assume that such a distance creates a spatial barrier for the neighborhood itself. Haverleij consists of nine castle-like apartment blocks. Extra ‘buffers’ such as water, green plantation, fences, or bridges make it difficult to enter a block and they add an extra layer of control by playing with the sense that “nobody belongs here except the residents”. The apartment blocks have one or two entrances each. All buildings are at maximum five floors high. Street Network Patterns The streets inside the blocks are designed in an organic pattern in accordance with the greenery and the canals. The street has crossroads to each castle ending in a bulb-like type of cul-de-sac pattern inside the castles. I faced some difficulties

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HEGIASRI HUTARIES

walking around the area, because the streets are designed only for cars and bikes. There are no sidewalks for pedestrians; in my opinion this deters strangers from walking through the blocks and loitering. On the other hand, it subtly persuades residents to remain inside their own apartment block. Walking around on a Saturday afternoon, I only met six people. Land Use Type The Haverleij blocks are used strictly for residential purposes. All amenities such as shops and restaurants are located in another area. The residents can reach these facilities either by bike or car. There is one school and some small offices inside the first building complex; also a children’s playground and a golf course are present, scattered around the neighborhood. Housing Type Patterns Each “castle” in Haverleij is designed by a different architect thus with a different style and different visual identities. The grouping of the houses is not clearly defined, since each block is located quite far away from each other. Inside the blocks, some housing units have their own garden (all ground floors in Haverleij are used for a residential purposes only). Conclusion Even though both gated communities have the same security amenities, each of them has its own lay out. The most distinguishing characteristic is the way their physical boundaries are designed: Kalibata City with its dense spatial configuration has visual boundaries for its defense mechanism and Haverleij - although it has inner gates - uses mainly distance with a loose configuration. Both ways, with their own socio-spatial characteristics, have the same goal: to provide a “safe feeling” and sense of inclusion for residents.

student essay

Personally, if I had to choose which to live in, I prefer Kalibata City. Despite being quite dense, it actually provides better opportunities to socialize with other residents, hence creating a stronger sense of community. Accordingly, I believe that a compact gated community with a strong sense of community provides a more “secure feeling” because neighbors can easily hear, see, and reach each other in case of an emergency. This is what I did not find in Haverleij, where I was rather insecure due to distances. However, Haverleij could be a good option for people seeking a quiet neighborhood with guaranteed privacy, and surrounded by a natural environment. To sum up, the findings of this paper can add to the existing research on gated communities. The spatial design of housing blocks can contribute to social interaction as a part of a positive control mechanism.


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Assignment

Studio INter

Studio INTER The Future of Living Trends and Beyond Studio assignment: Exploration of the Future of Living: make a Trend Book for The House of the Future, create an extreme scenario and an individual concept for the House of the Future. Finally collectively prepare an exhibition this year located at the DMY International Design Fair at Kraftwerk Mitte in Berlin (11 – 14 June) titled ‘Back to the Future’. On the next pages you find an interview with Fokke Moerel, head of the studio teachers team MVRDV, the 60’s timeline by the students and an impression of the presentation in Berlin. With MVRDV – Fokke Moerel, Mick van Gemert, Aser Giménez and Gijs Rikken


Studio INter

interview

Fokke Moerel An interview with Fokke Moerel, architect and project manager at the architecture firm MVRDV in Rotterdam. Fokke is the tutor of the INSIDE studio INTER together with Mick van Gameren, Aser Giménez and Gijs Rikken. In the Studio “The Future of Living. Trends and Beyond”, students had to explore the evolution of futuristic visions, current trends, extreme scenarios and promising futures. Interview by Yuiko Yokota and João Moreira First year students

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How important is it for you as an architect to think 50 years ahead instead of 5 years? Thinking about the way people live nowadays can change in the coming 5 years. These changes probably mostly relate to practical problems, whereas looking 50 years ahead designers are free from those practicalities belonging to the here and now and can create a vision of the future. I think it is important for designers and architects to be aware of the trends shaping the architecture of the future and deal with these trends. In this studio assignment about The House of the Future, the students had to reflect on futuristic visions about the living environment for the next 50 years by designing an extreme scenario of a house. The important lesson you can learn from this research is how to position yourself as a designer by looking at the future as a constantly changing phenomenon, influenced by various trends, which currently we can only speculate on.

What do you think will be the most important trend in 2065? Within the next half century I do hope we will have developed a method to design a living environment with more social coherency for each inhabitant. Currently there are many social networking services and other initiatives aiming at more cohesion within society but at the level of living, this concept is still in its infancy. We, as designers, have to think carefully and persistently about what kind of design can fit our future world 50 years ahead. By that time, designers must have also found solutions for using renewable resources such as solar energy and bio mass, since our resources are running out and the social sphere continues to expand all over the world.

interview

Studio INter

The number of women studying (interior) architecture is much more than men, but in the professional world they are in a minority. Why do you think this is the case and what do you expect from this trend in the future? At MVRDV we try to aim for an even balance; we think it is important to find this balance of men and women and bring them together in our firm. Remarkably, over the past years I have noticed a shift in projects I work on: just the other day I had a meeting where all participants (clients, advisers, local government officials, designers) were women. This is not a very desirable situation in itself, but it does indicate that the number of women is increasing in the architecture field, which used to be dominated by males.

Being an architect yourself, how would you describe the role and ideal collaboration with an interior architect? I studied both interior design and architecture, since I believe they are extensions of each other. The borderline between those two professions intrigues me greatly, although of course, they can easily be separated. I believe that you can never be a specialist in every design field. Therefore experts are much needed to bring in their particular expertise. At MVRDV we tend to cooperate with specialists in each project, for instance with façade specialists, light designers, carpenters, artists, social media experts, film makers, textile designers, landscape designers and interior designers. This joint venture will keep all of those involved in the process sharp and inspired, giving an enormous boost to the project.


Studio INter

Timeline

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Timeline

Studio INter


Studio INter

photo essay

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photo essay

Studio INter


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INTRODUCTION

travel

Travel At INSIDE the basis of every design lies in observing, researching and analysing a situation. The best attitude for doing that is to travel to places and thus experience ‘a tremendous sense of liberation and, at the same time, to be very aware of all the dangers and limitations that surround you’ (quote Lebbeus Woods in an interview with Jan Jongert). At INSIDE we aim to foster this state of mind through experiencing the real world in the TRAVEL Program. On the following pages an impression is given about the sites we visited during the past year, among others: Venice Biennial, Bauhaus in Dessau, Tempelhoferfeld Berlin, Ruhr area, Schieblock Rotterdam, the catholic south in the Netherlands.


Travel

PHOTO essay

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PHOTO essay

Travel


Travel

PHOTO essay

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PHOTO essay

Travel


INFORMATION

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INFORMATION

In addition a SKILLS programme offers students hands-on experience through intensive workshops. Finally, the TRAVEL programme allows students to observe and reflect on the discipline, cultural phenomena and social topics. Structure The total study load for the programme is 120 EC, distributed equally over two years, each of which is divided into two 20-week semesters.

INSIDE is a two-year, Master’s programme in Interior Architecture taught in English at the Royal Academy of Art (KABK) in The Hague. The programme targets the cultural and social challenges in Interior Architecture in a world that is constantly changing. Large-scale interiors, the relationship between private and public space, sustainability and a greater demand for social cohesion are all topics that call for new perspectives on interior architecture. At INSIDE, we challenge and view the world from inside out, in order to become INSIDE architects. The content of INSIDE is based on issues that confront designers, clients and users of interior architecture. Through research, conceptualisation

and spatial design, sustainable, humane solutions for real-world problems are developed and presented. Description of the study programme The curriculum of the Master’s programme in Interior Architecture at the KABK is based on two principles. First, it is based on the analysis of research and design processes. Second, it builds on the principle of ‘learning by doing’. Taken together, these two principles produce a curriculum divided into phases, each addressing specific phases of research and design processes: observation, knowledge gathering, planning, research by design, conceptualisation, design and repeated presentation and evaluation. These aspects are addressed in all parts of the curriculum and they form the criteria according to which students’ work is assessed. The study programme comprises five parts. The heart of INSIDE is formed by the three studios – INTER, URBAN and SPACE – which together account for about 40% of the programme’s study load. In connection with the studios, students participate in the research track FLOWS, involving flows in contemporary interior architecture. The STUDIO programme is further supported by THEORY, a theoretical backbone, which trains students with regard to their reflection on and position within the field of interior architecture.

Year 1 The first year focuses on introducing students to the INSIDE approach to interior architecture. Through working in the STUDIOS, FLOWS, TRAVEL, THEORY and SKILLS programmes, students become familiar with all phases of research and design for the changing world: observation, knowledge gathering, planning, research, design, presentation and evaluation. Students participate in all three STUDIO types tutored by research and design teams from architecture practices like OMA, Superuse, MVRDV and Doepel Strijkers during the first year. The other courses run throughout the year, changing their focus to connect to the STUDIOS for each semester or block. Year 2 The second year is completely focused on students’ graduation. During the first three months of the second year students participate in a GRADUATION STUDIO, during which they are coached by the INSIDE teachers to develop their personal graduation plans. Starting from the second half of the third semester, students work individually on the development of their graduation project guided and coached by the THEORY and FLOWS teachers and the STUDIO teacher of their choice. In the fourth semester, the knowledge and skills the students have acquired in the first three semesters culminate in a final presentation of their

personal graduation project that integrates all of the above-mentioned phases of research and design. Additional information Please visit the website: www.enterinside.nl For further questions, please contact: Royal Academy of Art INSIDE, MA in Interior Architecture info@enterinside.nl Head of the Master’s programme Hans Venhuizen hans@enterinside.nl Programme Coordinator Marja van der Burgh marja@enterinside.nl The team of internationally orientated architects, designers and theoreticians: - Superuse Studios: Jan Jongert and Lizanne Dirkx - OMA: Chris van Duijn and Mark Veldman - Doepel Strijkers: Eline Strijkers - MVRDV: Fokke Moerel, Aser Giménez-Ortega, ..Mick van Gemert and Gijs Rikken - Anne Hoogewoning and Louise Schouwenberg Other people involved in the programme: - ZUS (Kristian Koreman) - REFUNC (Denis Oudendijk and Jan Körbes) - Lucas Verweij - Gert Dumbar - Erik Jutten - Vincent de Rijk - Leeke Reinders - Jeroen van Mastrigt-Ide Please note this list is not exhaustive.


TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

Head of INSIDE: Hans Venhuizen Coordinator: Marja van der Burgh Royal Academy of Art INSIDE Master Interior Architecture Prinsessegracht 4 2514 AN The Hague www.kabk.nl www.enterinside.nl

HEAD of INSIDE + TRAVEL & SKILLS Hans Venhuizen www.hansvenhuizen.eu

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Hans Venhuizen first studied Urban Planning at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, but switched to Architectural Design and Monumental Art at the School of the Arts, Arnhem. In 1999 he set up Bureau Venhuizen, a project management and research bureau in the field of culture-based planning. In search of a more specific identity for cities and areas, Hans links the world of culture to that of space in different ways. His focus is always on the culture of spatial planning itself, and the game is his most important instrument. He developed various games, including the ‘Parquettry Landscape Game’, the debating game ‘The Making Of’ and ‘Life, the Game’. Recent projects include Koningsas, research for cultural / spatial projects in the Groningen-Assen region, and K*eiland, a research and design project in an urban regeneration area in Utrecht and also Autonia about the culture of the car.

TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

STUDIO SPACE II DOEPELSTRIJKERS www.doepelstrijkers.com Eline Strijkers

agricultural solutions in Maassluis. In April 2015 she realized a future-proof retail design for KPN. Eline’s other activities include participation in juries and commissions in the field of interior and architecture, and being a visiting critic and supervisor at Art Academies and Schools of Architecture. She regularly lectures and gives master classes and has participated in the working experience period for amendments to the Law regarding the Architect title and was involved as a teacher and field expert in the accreditation of some Master’s of Interior Architecture. STUDIO SPACE OMA www.oma.eu

Data Visualisation by AMO Service Design by Danielle Arets Grand Domestic Revolution Handbook by CASCO Data Research by Cloud Collective Graphic Design by Gert Dumbar Tangible Spatial Interpretations by Erik Jutten Gamification by Jeroen van Mastrigt Modelling by Vincent de Rijk Symbiosis in Development by Merel Segers Research by Entering by Leeke Reinders Presenting and Portfolio by Lucas Verweij

Eline Strijkers studied Design and Communication in Rotterdam and Interior Architecture at the Willem de Kooning Academy in Rotterdam. Having worked for MVRDV for five years, she set up Strijkers office, before founding DOEPEL STRIJKERS in 2007. Her office bridges the gap between art and science with intelligent design and strategic interventions. Driven by a fascination for aesthetics with substance, the office generates works which transcend the spatial by creating social, ecological and economic value. Giving form to the process and the financing are just as important as the design itself. She firmly believes that design can act as an agent for social renewal leading to strategies that contribute to a ‘circular’ and ‘inclusive’ economy. ‘Circular’ by closing energy, water, waste and material cycles. ‘Inclusive’ by creating implementation trajectories that empower people distanced

TRAVELS In 2014/2015 students went to Rotterdam Eindhoven - Venice - Verona - Ruhr Area - the Catholic South of NL - Utrecht - Den Haag Berlin - Dessau. See also p. 90-93.

from the labour market. This ambition impacts on the design criteria per project and adds an often hidden layer of meaning to the works. Examples of her most recent projects are SLEM, a renovated factory in Waalwijk hosting Education and Exhibition and the Lely Campus, center for sustainable

SKILLS The SKILLS programme me is taught by various guest lecturers. This year the SKILLS programme included:

Hans Venhuizen is the Head of INSIDE, curates the SKILLS programme and assembles the TRAVEL programme. National and international excursions, symposiums, lectures, interviews and studio visits stimulate the observations of and research on phenomena in spatial design. Students gather impressions and from these, they allow particular phenomena to emerge. Phenomena are more than mere descriptions of a situation. Phenomena can be anything that reveals the ‘truth’ of a situation: they are tools to frame a situation and accompany the student during the process of designing a spatial change.

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Chris van Duijn

Chris van Duijn joined OMA in 2000. OMA is a leading international partnership practicing contemporary architecture, urbanism, and cultural analysis with offices in Rotterdam, NY, Beijing, Hong Kong, Doha and Dubai. Chris is based in the Rotterdam office and has been involved in many of OMA’s most renowned projects including Universal Studios in Los Angeles, the Prada stores in New York and Los Angeles (2001), Casa da Musica in Porto (2005), CCTV Headquarters in Beijing (2012 and Fondazione Prada in Milan (2015). In


TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

addition to large-scale and complex projects, he has worked on interiors and small-scale projects including private houses, product design, and temporary structures such as the Prada Transformer in Seoul (2009). Currently he is overseeing the design of Axel Springer Campus in Berlin, as well several projects under construction including the Parc des Expositions in Toulouse, a house in Rotterdam, and product development projects. Chris van Duijn holds a Master of Architecture from the Technical University of Delft.

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moto (Atelier Bow-Wow) at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Mark Veldman completed his Masters in Architecture cum laude at Technical University Delft in 2001.

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TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

Lizanne Dirkx

STUDIO URBAN/FLOWS Superuse Studios www.superuse-studios.com, www.superuse.org Jan Jongert Lizanne Dirkx joined Superuse Studios in January 2013. Lizanne was educated at the University of Brighton after her Bachelor’s in Product Design at the Design Academy in Eindhoven. In addition to her work as a designer, researcher and design teacher, Lizanne works as a product developer and advisor for various clients. She specializes in sustainability, social design, materials & crafts and the circular economy.

Mark Veldman

the past seven years, Fokke has been a Project Manager at MVRDV, and has been working in the MVRDV studio for over 15 years. Founded in 1993 by Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries in Rotterdam, the international practice of MVRDV realizes exemplary, outspoken projects all over the world. Fokke Moerel’s experience includes working on notable projects such as the competition-winning Public Art Depot MVBV in Rotterdam, RockMagneten in Roskilde, Denmark and the recently-completed Book Mountain, Spijkenisse Public Library in the Netherlands. She lectures internationally in Europe, America and Asia, and has taught at Silpakorn University in Bangkok, as well as at Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, MA, with MVRDV Director Nathalie de Vries. Mick van Gemert

STUDIO INTER

Mark Veldman has been working for OMA Rotterdam since 2005. As a project architect Mark has been in charge of a variety of both master planning, architectural and research projects. His portfolio includes the mixed-use projects Coolsingel and Stadskantoor in Rotterdam, the master plans Oude Dokken in Gent and Binckhorst in The Hague and master planning proposals for the Floriade 2022 and Zeekracht, a sustainable approach for wind farming in the North Sea. Currently Mark is working on the proposal for the International Convention Center in Brussels, part of the NEO Master plan at the Heysel Plateau. Before joining OMA Mark worked for the architectural practice of Riken Yamamoto in Yokohama and was enrolled as a research fellow at the lab of Yoshiharu Tsuka-

Jan Jongert studied architecture at Delft University of Technology and the Academy of Architecture in Rotterdam, from where he graduated in 2003. In 1997 Jan Jongert founded 2012. Architecten together with Césare Peeren and became a pioneer in the field of sustainable design. In 2013 Jan Jongert transformed 2012Architecten into Superuse Studios. This Rotterdam-based office exploits and builds on the potential of the design context in terms of its environment, potential workforce, energy sources, waste materials and 12 other flows. Jongert has worked on various projects, ranging from Villa Welpeloo to redevelopment strategies for urban districts in Heerlen and Gouda. Jan Jongert regularly publishes in the Netherlands and abroad.

MVRDV www.mvrdv.nl Fokke Moerel

Mick van Gemert joined MVRDV in 2010. He completed his Master in Architecture at Delft Technical University in 2009. He is currently project leader of a master plan for the transformation of an ING office complex at the Haarlemmerweg in Amsterdam. Recently Mick has been leading a graduation studio at the chair of Complex Projects at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. Fokke Moerel holds a Masters in Architecture from the Academy of Architecture, Rotterdam. For


TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

Aser Giménez-Ortega

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is responsible for the planning and communication. Projects include ‘The glass farm’ in Schijndel, NL and the prize-winning competition Emmen Feldhauser in Emmen, NL. THEORY AND WRITING

Aser Giménez-Ortega is a Spanish architect and has been project leader at MVRDV since 2007. He studied at TU Eindhoven, the Netherlands and Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain and graduated with a Master in Architecture in 2005. He is currently leading the project for Hongqiao Central Business district and two office towers in Shanghai and the conversion of a former industrial district into an Art and Design Hub in Chongqing.

Gijs Rikken

Many theoreticians, designers, (interior) architects, anthropologists and philosophers reflect on the field in which INSIDE specializes. Future designers should have knowledge of the most relevant theories within their specialism. Additionally, they should be able to rigorously research the complexity of commissions from various angles. Only then can substantive assessment fruitfully contribute to the design process. Vice versa, the design process can also positively influence reflection on the subject area. During the two-year theory programme the students acquire tools to link theory, critical reflection and analysis to their design process. In this way the programme provides a theoretical framework for the students’ assignments in the studios, which all deal with specific contexts and specific requirements. Besides acquiring knowledge, the students learn to analyze the subjects they deal with, and reflect on them, by means of writing theses, group discussions, oral presentations and individual feedback sessions. In all processes, research and critical reflection are key words.

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TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

Anne Hoogewoning studied Architecture History at the University of Amsterdam and Cultural Heritage at the Reinwardt Academy. After her studies, she worked at the Collection and Exhibition Department of the Netherlands Architecture Institute (now The New Institute) in Rotterdam and as a staff officer of Europan Nederland. During these years she was co-editor and co-author of 5 editions of the ‘Yearbook Architecture in the Netherlands’ (2000-2005). For more than twelve years Anne worked as a design and architecture coordinator at two cultural public foundations: from 2001-2011 at the Netherlands Foundation for Visual Arts, Design and Architecture and one year at the Creative Industries Fund NL. Since 2013 Anne has been active as an independent researcher, writer, tutor, advisor and fundraiser within the field of design and architecture. Additionally, she is a committee member for visual arts, design and architecture at the Council of Culture, and a member of the Board of the Van Doesburghuis Foundation, Meudon/Paris and ArchiNed (The Architecture Site of the Netherlands).

and design research and theory since 2000. She has also, incidently, been curating exhibitions on the cutting edge between art and design, including exhibitions for gallery Fons Welters Amsterdam (2012), Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen Rotterdam (2010), Utrecht Manifest (2009), and the Textile Museum Tilburg (2006). She writes for international art and design magazines and websites, and has contributed to a range of books, some of the latest being the publication Panorama on designer Konstantin Grcic (Vitra Design Museum, 2014), a monograph on artist Robert Zandvliet (Nai Publishers, 2012) and two monographs on designer Hella Jongerius (Phaidon Press, 2010 and 2003). Schouwenberg has been teaching at various art schools and universities, including KABK The Hague. From 2013 to June 2015 she was head of the temporary Master’s department Material Utopias (MFA/MDes) at the Sandberg Instituut, Amsterdam. Since 2010 she has lead the Master’s department Contextual Design at Design Academy, Eindhoven. Coordinator + PROPAGANDA

Louise Schouwenberg Marja van der Burgh

Anne Hoogewoning

In 2006 Gijs Rikken completed his Architecture Master’s at Eindhoven University while also obtaining a certificate in DDSS (Design Decision Support Systems). In 2007 he joined MVRDV. As project leader, he monitors the design process and

Louise Schouwenberg studied Psychology (Radboud University Nijmegen), Sculpture (Gerrit Rietveld Academie Amsterdam), and Philosophy (University of Amsterdam). After establishing a career as visual artist, her focus has been on art

Marja van der Burgh studied French Language and Literature at Leiden University with a minor in Modern Architecture and Design. Before she joined INSIDE as Coordinator, she worked as


TUTORS AND LECTURERS 2014/2015

Programme Manager at the Berlage Institute, Postgraduate Laboratory of Architecture in Rotterdam, and as PR Manager at the Dutch architecture offices: Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Neutelings Riedijk Architects and at KCAP. Marja has contributed to many publications in national and international magazines. As an independent image and text editor, she realized STRIP together with the photographer Hans Werlemann and book designer Irma Boom as well as “Wat een Gebouw” a book on architecture for children. In addition to her task as Coordinator, Marja works with the students on the visibility and PR of INSIDE. 1:1 INSIDE Erik Jutten

In addition to the theoretical development of the students and the design ‘on paper’, students are asked to conduct research in the ‘real world’ and to perform several tests on a 1 to 1 scale. Every year INSIDE presents the students’ projects in ‘a real world’-context and on a one-to-one scale. To realise this, Erik Jutten works with students to develop the projects. This year INSIDE is present at the DMY International Design Fair at Kraftwerk Mitte in Berlin (11-14 June) titled ‘Back to the Future’..Erik Jutten graduated in 2004 in Visual Arts at the Royal Academy of Art, The Hague. He works as initiator of and partner in art projects in public space. He is a founding member of

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foundation City Making, a foundation that redevelops ‘toxic’ housing in Rotterdam with artists and designers. Besides this he collaborates with the design collective Pink Pony Express, with urban makerspace Fabrique Urbaine in Rotterdam and the artist in residence Popps Packing in Detroit. VARIOUS GUEST LECTURERS in 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014 2014/2015 Arjen Aarnoudse, Emiel Arends, Danielle Arets, Thomas Bedaux, Bas van Beek, Pieke Bergmans, Guus Beumer, Frans Bevers, Miriam Bleeker, Mathijs de Boer, Atze Boerstra, Merijn Bolink, Lieven de Cauter, Simon Davies, Andre Dekker, Theo Deutinger, Matthijs van Dijk, Chris van Duijn, Frank Feder, Fredie Floré, Job Floris, Aetzel Griffioen, Sven Grooten, David Hamers, Cynthia Hathaway, Frank Havermans, Marie-José van Hee, Yolande van der Heide, Arne Hendriks, Willem van den Hoed, Ronald Hooft, Hans van Houwelingen, Jan Jongert, Birgit Jürgenhake, Chris Kabel, Gert van der Keuken, Kamiel Klaasse, Jan Knikker, Krijn de Koning, Kristian Koreman, Tylda Krzykowski, Thomas A.P. van Leeuwen, Pierre Lhoas and Pablo Lhoas, John Lonsdale, Rianne Makkink, Wilma Marijnissen, Ina Matt, Jeroen van Mechelen, Ernie Mellegers, Fokke Moerel, Nels Nelson, Henk Oosterling, Denis Oudendijk, Suzanne Oxenaar, Kyong Park, Niels Peteri, Mark Pimlott, Tijmen Ploeg, Bertjan Pot, Eva van Regenmoortel, Vincent de Rijk, Lorenzo de Rita, Rik Ruigrok, Michon van der Salm, Marc Schuilenburg, Iris Schutte, Christophe Seyferth, Malkit Shoshan, Jurriaan van Stigt, Eline Strijkers, Marianne Theunissen, Evelien van Veen, Herman Verkerk, Ari Versluis, Lucas Verweij, Philip Vierin, Frank Visser, Arie Voorburg, Jacob Voorthuis, Simone de Waart, Gilles van Wanrooij, Chris Willemsen, Peter Zuiderwijk.

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COLOPHON

INSIDE Magazine #6 is the sixth publication by INSIDE Master Interior Architecture 2014/2015 INSIDE Master Interior Architecture Royal Academy of Art Prinsessegracht 4 2514 AN The Hague www.kabk.nl www.enterinside.nl

Graduating students 2014/2015: Zacharias Antoniades Junyuan Chen Emilija Juodyte Elide Mozzorecchi

Editors: Hans Venhuizen Marja van der Burgh Anne Hoogewoning

First year students: David Benz Hegia Hutaries Camilla Casiccia Elena Conrad Anique van Helden Hee Jung Kim Sisi Li Helan Miao João Moreira Yuiko Yokota

Student editorial team: Sisi Li Helan Miao João Moreira Yuiko Yokota

Printing: Ecodrukkers, Nieuwkoop, 2015 All used components of this brochure as well as the printing process, are climate neutral. The inks are produced on a vegetable base.

Translation: Christine Willemsen

Copyright INSIDE, KABK The Hague/ The Netherlands, June 2015.

Graphic design: Caroline Langendoen Lisa Moret Amaya Hagelaar Royal Academy of Art (KABK)

Most photos were made by students and staff of INSIDE. Exceptions are the model photos on pages 88 and 89 made by Janina Steinmetz© and the portrait of Chris van Duijn on p. 99 made by Fred Ernst, OMA©. As it was not possible to find all the copyright holders of the photos in this publication, INSIDE invites interested parties to contact INSIDE.

Contributors: Hans Venhuizen (Head INSIDE) Anne Hoogewoning (Tutor THEORY programme) Marja van der Burgh (Coordinator INSIDE)


Royal Academy of Art, the hague www.enterinside.nl


INSIDE Magazine 2014/2015

INTER SPACE URBAN FLOWS Royal Academy of Art, the hague www.enterinside.nl

Inside magazine #6  

INSIDE Magazine #6 offers a selection of the 2014/2015 programme results of the first year students and presents the third group of INSIDE a...

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