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Re-activating interior space

Design for the real world.




24H is the third publication by INSIDE, the Master’s programme in Interior Architecture at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague. INSIDE targets the Real World. A world that is changing. These changes, like the current situation of large amounts of empty office spaces, call for a metamorphosis in the disciplines of spatial design.

24Hofpoort Superstudio



Student Projects


Joanne Smith + Qing Liao - SunDial Yogi Tea Bar


Yin Jianjiang + Klinphaka Keawcharoen + Yuting Guan - Super Lucky Mall


By Hans Venhuizen

Nan Ni + Ewelina Borowiecka - The Moving Wall


Head of INSIDE

Ipek Akgöz - Memory of the City


Anna Prohorenko - New Chances for Mobile Spaces


Graduation Candidates


Minsun Kim - Home for a Moment


Wei-Hsun Chen - Sky Market & Kitchen


Photini Mermiga - Downloadable Space


INSIDE Programme


INSIDE Teachers: ZUS - Studio Urban SHIFT - Studio Space Jan Konings - Studio Inter Jan Jongert - Flows Louise Schouwenberg + Anne Hoogewoning - Theory Various Guest Teachers - Skills Hans Venhuizen - Head of INSIDE - Travel Marja van der Burgh - Coordinator of INSIDE - Propaganda Erik Jutten - Studio Assistant


INSIDE Mentors 2012/2013: Tom Franzen - Frantzen et al Lieke van Hooijdonk - Lillith Ronner van Hooijdonk Rianne Makkink - Studio Makkink & Bey


Next Years Programme




Contact INSIDE


With pride, I would like to introduce the third publication of INSIDE, the Master’s programme in Interior Architecture at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague. INSIDE targets the Real World. A world that is changing. One of the changes, the current trend for privatizing public space on a large scale, calls for a metamorphosis in the disciplines of spatial design. Now the primary focus is no longer on the processes of change and growth as it used to be, but on people as users and ‘experiencers’ of the new, large-scale public interiors. People’s interaction with their physical and social environment. Interpersonal relationships, between one individual and ‘the other’. And the interaction between people and all objects and signals they encounter in that environment. The confusion of interactions that an authentic ‘public’ space entails gives credence to a new, unifying position for the interior architect. He/she has not yet been trained to design on that level of scale and complexity, but is supremely capable of ‘reading’ space and shaping it from the human perspective and experience. Human beings, in their complexity, not (solely) in their limited and limiting capacity as intended consumers, or desired ideal citizens. With their specialization in the use of the surroundings, the interior architects can develop into key figures within the processes of spatial change, be they private-public, public-public, or private-private. The interior architect of the future needs to relate to any assignment context, from inside. He/she is not merely the interior decorator of the architectural house, nor the ‘lubricant’ of commercial success, and certainly not a lifestyle stylist. The interior architect reads, identifies and steers the public interior from inside, based on his own observations, on thorough research of the cultural, economic and political context, on sociological and urban design perspectives, on his own artistic vision. As an architect working from the inside out, in all respects, at all levels. Not as a political idealist or activist, but bringing into play a well-developed awareness of the Real World.

Foreword - Hans Venhuizen



Table of content 4

Foreword - Hans Venhuizen

Furthermore this publication shows profiles of this year’s INSIDE teachers and mentors and an introduction of next year’s programme. One project shown in this publication, on the page next to this introduction, is not by an INSIDE student or teacher but by the ‘garbage-architects’ of REFUNC. The camera trapped INSIDE students taking a peek in the future house of one of the REFUNC designers in September at a moment this still was and looked like a silo for agricultural use. Over the past year, the students had the chance to monitor the way REFUNC turned this silo into a house by using local resources and craftsmanship and developing seemingly strange but actually very practical solutions. It is the clear inventiveness, the courage, initiative and entrepreneurship that you can sense in this photo that made the students pick this image as their favourite to present what INSIDE is about. Hans Venhuizen The Hague, June 2013



In the academic year 2012/2013 INSIDE researched two notable empty office buildings from a wide perspective. By researching the political, economic, social, spatial and cultural conditions that caused this situation we aimed at spatial designers establishing possibilities for improvement. The research results were translated into spatial design by undertaking research by design and design by research. During the first semester we looked at the 50.000 square metre Ministry of Interior Affairs in The Hague, that was about to be vacated when the Ministry moved to a newly built high-rise next door. In the second semester we looked closely at the 24-storey former SHELL office building in the centre of Rotterdam. A building 80% empty for over a decade. Based on the qualities of the building itself, the direct urban surroundings and the dynamics that characterize the city of Rotterdam, re-use possibilities were designed by the INSIDE students. Ultimately, the materials and skills necessary to realize the developed spatial designs were as diverse as the conditions considered in the first place. In June 2013 the INSIDE students presented their proposals in the building itself at the Rotterdam Day of Architecture event 24Hofpoort. On the ninth floor Minsun Kim presented her ‘Home for a moment’ participatory performance space and on the eighth floor Yin Jianjiang and Klinphaka Keawcharoen realized their ‘Lucky Mall’ concept. Amongst others a ‘Sundial Bar’ was presented as

well as the ‘Downloadable Spaces’ approach to future residential design. These and other projects are presented in this publication. Some of them have been developed by our first INSIDE graduation candidates that, only after this publication has been finished, will face their final graduation review.

Foreword - Hans Venhuizen

This year the INSIDE programme have focussed on empty office buildings. It seems a logical choice for a Master’s programme of Interior Architecture to work on offices. Indeed they need to be designed for the future users be they companies, governments or NGO’s. Clients you can easily find in the Real World. Around INSIDE however a new Real World situation gradually reveals itself that is more urgently in need of new perspectives from the world of interior architecture. All around The Netherlands you can find empty offices that are unoccupied by companies, governments or NGO’s and are likely to stay empty for an unforeseeable period of time. These buildings, up to millions and millions of square meters, have been left behind because companies have built new buildings and could not find new tenants. Or due to fewer employees and, with that, the need for office space. Or failed real estate speculation meant the buildings were never used at all. This empty office building situation urgently calls for new views and concepts from the design world that goes beyond mere spatial design.

Photo: Jan Körbes, REFUNC

24Hofpoort Rotterdam INSIDE: SuperStudio

Image: ZUS– Zones Urbaines Sensibles

24Hofpoort Rotterdam

The SuperStudio has researched and designed new ways of appropriating space, creating an indoor-city on a 24h bases. Using the time-frame of a movie and the technique of scripting and creating sceneries the Studio stretched from object to structure, from small-scale prop development to basic organizing principles of a space. Because Hofpoort is a product of the 70’s this time frame in architectural history has been chosen as a reservoir of inspiration, with all its utopia and (ir)rationalities.



24Hofpoort Rotterdam

In the second semester 2012/2013 INSIDE, combined the studios URBAN, INTER, the Research Group FLOWS and the programmes THEORY, SKILLS and TRAVEL to form a SuperStudio in order to get acquainted with integral working methods and to focus on one individual or collective end result. The home base for this studio, called ’24Hofpoort’, was the former Shell Tower at Hofplein in Rotterdam. It has been predominantly vacant for the last 15 years. Due to crisis, high booking values and an unattractive context from 24 floors 20 are waiting to be rediscovered, reimagined and re-appropriated. For the National Architecture Day that took place on the longest day of the year, on June 21, Hofpoort was chosen as main focal point with the theme of 24h architecture addressing the increasing speed with which cities and buildings seem to be programmed and longing for a 24/7 spectacle.

Studio INTER by Jan Konings People nowadays are changing homes at least 7 times during their lives, whereas their predecessors only moved 2-3 times. Car-use is rapidly becoming old-fashioned, because sharing is the new owning. Being online is considered more important than owning a car. Big static companies are suffering from new ways of working where people no longer stick to one certain workplace or office. Working happens per hour instead of in life-span contracts. Organizing your life happens through Apps which manage your contacts, car-use, space sharing, buying stuff etc. Moreover, 33% of mankind is migrating because of increasing globalization and mobilization. We’re witnessing an evolution of a new generation, which is Social, Local and Mobile (SoloMo), or could be called Society 3.0. How should architecture and more general the organization of space be considered to react? What if the management of space becomes more a question of time? Not how, but when is the question? Buildings increasingly have to become adaptable to short-stay instead of longstay. Only buildings that are flexible enough to change from house to office to shop remain.


24Hofpoort Rotterdam

Space: Re-activate Studio SPACE by Kristian Koreman (ZUS) Europe is suffering from a real estate debris which is caused by an immense overvalued real estatedriven urban development. Partly because of the new and more fluid uses of spaces, static, largescale towers remain empty because they don’t facilitate or address the needs of the new citydweller. Hofpoort, the former Shell Tower is vacant since 15 years, but is nevertheless well kept. Its precise and rational layout makes it an ultimate test bed for utopian installations that on a 24h bases can engage the audience (actors) in new forms of interior architecture.

Louise Schouwenberg and Anne Hoogewoning. As the Shell Tower is a representative of the 60’s and 70’s rational and utopian fantasies it is relevant to look back at the context of this era. The history of today’s crisis lies in an ongoing struggle for freedom. One of its founding moments leads back to the 70’s of last century. After decades of war and reconstruction Europe avant-garde was up to rethinking the way our society should be organized. Through art and architecture many new perspectives were created that ultimately can be found back, for better or for worse, in the current neoliberal and post-modern society. There’s a common intuition that now, facing crisis and rapid changes in society, new ways of living, organizing space and politics are needed. Therefore we did no less than re-entering utopian thinking in order to develop new perspectives that fit current trends and issues in society.


From these starting points the students developed new approaches and aesthetics fitting with the society 3.0 in the making. The result were life-size interventions in Hofpoort during the Architecture Day in Rotterdam in June 2013, performing all together as a scenography of the 24h animation of this vacant, concrete dinosaur. Photos of these life-size interventions were taken by students in the building during the Architecture Day.

The following projects were built by INSIDE Master Students in Hofpoort: On the 20th. Floor: The SunDial Yogi Tea Bar, project by Qing Liao and Joanne Smith. On the 9th. Floor: Home for a Moment, project by Minsun Kim, and Memory of the City. Vacant Buildings: as Black Holes in Society’s Memory, by Ipek Akgöz. On the 8th. Floor: Super Lucky Mall, project by Yuting Guan, Jianjiang Yin and Klinphaka Keawcharoen. On the 7th. Floor: The Moving Wall, project by Ewelina Borowiecka, Photini Mermiga and Nan Ni Elevators: New Chances for Mobile Spaces by Anna Prohorenko.

24Hofpoort Rotterdam

Time: Ultra-Temp

Re-enter Utopia: THEORY


SuperStudio Briefs

24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar

24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar



24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar

24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar



24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar

24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar



24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar

24Hofpoort - Sundial Yogi Tea Bar



24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall

24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall



24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall

24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall



24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall

24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall



24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall

24Hofpoort - Super Lucky Mall



24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall

24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall





24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall

24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall

Photo: Ossip van Duivenbode

24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall

24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall



24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall

24Hofpoort - The Moving Wall



24Hofpoort - Memory of the City

24Hofpoort - Memory of the City



24Hofpoort - Memory of the City

24Hofpoort - Memory of the City



24Hofpoort - New chances for mobile spaces

24Hofpoort - New chances for mobile spaces



24Hofpoort - New chances for mobile spaces

24Hofpoort - New chances for mobile spaces




Graduation candidates

Wei Hsun Chen Photini Mermiga



Minsun Kim


In general we might say that every home reflects the personal identity of it’s dweller, who at least should have some sense of ‘belonging’ to the space. This means that the feeling of ‘home’ will most likely be created by the dweller’s choices of things and furniture items, that are somehow linked to his or her memories. These choices can range from for instance small notes, one made in elementary school, or a piece of furniture, which reminds of childhood. Every home is occupied by many objects. By placing these objects within the space according to personal preferences, the space becomes an intimate space. A home. Home is a stage that is filled with a personal history and the pattern of a personal life, which brings us warmth and familiarity. At the same time, personal memories also occupy public areas, be it an office, a school, a café or a street. Even though the personal memory represents personal life itself, it also belongs to the city. The city as a collective memory is a community map of personal stories. No matter what, when or how someone experienced something within the city, the memory will become part of the city’s fabric, where it represents part of who he or she is. For 15 years the Shell Building in Rotterdam has been a vacant office building. One floor of the building will be re-created as a memory container, by the people who visit the space. As they will be invited to play with objects, they will create personal memories, and consequently a personal intimacy, which will for a moment inhabit the Shell Building.

Minsun Kim

Minsun Kim



Minsun Kim

With this Graduation project I wish to answer the following question: How can a neutral, anonymous space become a specific space, a memory container, in which somebody feels at home?

Minsun Kim

Minsun Kim



Minsun Kim

Minsun Kim



Minsun Kim

Minsun Kim



Minsun Kim

Minsun Kim




Could you explain how you chose the topic for your graduation? It started from nonsense, a house key, obtained from Germany by a previous tenant. Then, I started to observe myself living as a stranger in this city. Even though I have lived here for three years, the meaning of ‘Home’ was quite unfamiliar to me. In the meantime, ‘home’ has come to mean an ideal space where I can imagine whatever I want to. So then, the theme Home came to be the main topic.

Interview with Minsun Kim by Klinphaka Keawcharoen What’s the name of your graduation project? Home for a Moment.

Hello, I am Minsun Kim and a graduation candidate at INSIDE this year. I was born in 1982, Seoul, South Korea and started my studies at INSIDE in 2011. Before coming to the Netherlands in 2011, I worked for three years as an Interior Architect in Korea on the interiors of cafes, retail shops and private houses. After studying here, my view has expanded from a space to an urban life, and I am quite sure it will always give me a promising perspective.

Why do you want to study how to create intimate space in an unfamiliar location? Since I came to study here, I have moved five times. Whenever I moved to a new place, it was really exhausting. Then I thought why should I always move to a home, why not let the home come to me? Also I felt that, on the first day of moving, home was not immediately familiar, even though all the belongings were mine. The more time goes by, the more the space becomes mine. Then, I wondered how space could change to become a familiar space. As a city dweller, we always move from one place to another for studying, working, travelling, living or for no reason. Whenever we move to a new place, we are always confronted by a new situation; it can be a culture, a group, a community or even nature. Or we may not even know what is behind our neighbour’s door. However, people who can assume their position as soon as possible will adjust to society. It means their identity can be related to urban life. I suffered from this process quite a lot in the new country. And as we all know, it is not only foreigners but also local residents who can suffer when relocating in their own country. With this study I would like to understand how people perceive intimate space. It will enable me to be able to help other communities with this project.

What is your intention from this project? Well, to be honest, I want to clarify for myself my position in this field after graduation and I believe that small interventions can make people and/or their urban life rich. So, this project is the first stage in testing interactions between people.

Minsun Kim

Could you explain more about what are you going to do on ‘The Architecure Day’? I will be the host of a space, and will introduce myself to visitors who want to join at the entrance. There are some steps to follow the process from the entrance. (1. Choose one land 2. Choose one object box) Then, I will guide them to take a seat in the space. After sitting on the carpets, I will ask people ‘Where do you most feel at home?’ It could be their own house, a corner of their home, an imagined ideal space, an existing space elsewhere or an object. During our conversation, they will create a space with miniature objects creating a home environment for themselves. My role? I will help them feel relaxed or stimulate their memory.



Minsun Kim

Could you explain your design process? How do you obtain information? For the graduation project, it was first made by text; then I tried to make it visible in a design. Most information is often obtained nowadays from the internet but I realized the best information usually comes from books and daily living. In the end, I will use ‘The Architecture Day’ as the research element and then go on to propose a conclusion on the intimacy of space.

After you have information from visitors, what are you going to do with that information? How can you process all the information and create your final design? First, I hope to gather 80 homes from visitors. Then, I will make a documentary with this information including a scale drawing, pictures and video. Even though the question seems be about Home, a private space, the result of the research will be used for intimacy in a (semi)public space. In the end, I will draw a conclusion about the elements of intimacy in (semi)public space by gender, age (generation) or cultural background as an info-graphic.

Because your research is about feeling at home, do you think that information from different people and different cultures will influence your final design? Yes. I need to make groups for commonly occurring categories. For instance, if many people who have different cultural backgrounds come to the day, I can categorize according to culture.

How is your project related to urban Interior? As I said above, the question is: where do you most feel at home? It appears to ask about private space, but it is more about how you can make people feel at home in (semi)public space. Finally, the result will be related to the urban interior.

What is your expectation from the graduation project? I guess that I can use this project to develop my work further after graduation. If the site changes, the result will also change. Then, I can see potential from the graduation project, whether it works or not, for the interaction with people by playing with miniature objects and carpets.

What is your ambition after you have graduated from INSIDE? Initially I was very ambitious. Now I am less ambitious but it doesn’t mean that I don’t care. It means that if I can contribute in a small community as an interior architect, that’s fine. I was inspired by a documentary which is about an architect, Ki-Yong Jung, from Korea. He was not a fashionable architect but a communicative architect. When he developed a municipality in a suburban area, he asked opinions of local people who were mainly in their 60s to 80s.They wanted to have a ‘Sauna’ in their town. Then, he added the Sauna in the building design – the first time ever.

Minsun Kim

Minsun Kim



You have spent 2 years studying for your Master’s, do you think that this education has changed your attitude or your life or not? If yes, how? Yes, actually I am now so clear about my viewpoint and my life. I do not know yet when other things come to me again. I did not like the design practice in Korea: I had to simply copy and paste and could not create new things. Most of my work consisted of making something look good and it was a different world of interior design than the one that I have studied here. What I learned during my studies at INSIDE: Trust yourself and The Real World is the same everywhere!

Sky Market & Kitchen

In our daily life, we are constantly in pursuit of efficiency and functionality, and looking for a simpler and clearer way to define our perception of the real world, in architecture as well. However, instead of rapidly dividing a space into inside and outside, nature and culture, I prefer to discover the rich gradations and possibilities in between. With this attempt, I am looking for architectural inspirations which relate to forms and relations of space from the natural environment and fleeting phenomena in surroundings to explore new possibilities and meanings of architectural spaces beyond the level of mere functionality, the “in-between architecture”. Therefore, I started thinking about the ambiguousness and flexibility of architectural spaces, and it led me to some artworks with particular qualities of chance, produced by Dada and Surreal artists. In those works, the force of chance influenced their creation process and brought unexpected results. It excited my interest to explore the relation between indeterminacy and architecture, and also led me to the question: how far can the force of chance influence a spatial design process? Shell Tower, one of Rotterdam’s landmarks, has been vacant for more than a decade. Now Rotterdam’s urban planners and architects are looking for new possibilities to reactivate it and its surroundings. With the current city developing, the surrounding green area will be transformed into a park and urban agricultural field. Wouldn’t it be good to open up the building to the public and invite them in to experience this space beyond the conventions of contemporary society?

Wei-Hsun Chen

Wei-Hsun Chen



Wei-Hsun Chen

On the highest floor of the building, the Sky Market & Kitchen has been created, a program in which chance has played a major role during the design process. Here people can become inspired by the surprises this new architectural context affords them, and be aware of both the changing clouds in the sky and the vibrant city life of Rotterdam.

Wei-Hsun Chen

Wei-Hsun Chen



Wei-Hsun Chen

Wei-Hsun Chen



Wei-Hsun Chen

Wei-Hsun Chen



INTERVIEW Interview with Wei-Hsun Chen by Nan Ni

My name is Wei-Hsun Chen and I am graduation candidate at INSIDE. I was born in 1979 in Taiwan and trained as an Architect. Before starting at INSIDE in 2011, I worked for several years in an architectural practice and in an interior design company in Taiwan. This 2 year study has been a starting point for me to integrate that whole experience and thinking process, and to create a new perspective to face and react to the future.

Why did you study Dadaism during your graduation research? I am fascinated and inspired by certain ways of creating ideas. The Dadaists brought indeterminacy into working processes and presented the force of chance in their results. They wished to liberate themselves from the traditional painting tools and technologies, as well as rational control. I wished to explore whether I could break down the boundaries of logical thinking and create new possibilities by merging the randomization and indeterminacy into a spatial design process.

You told us about the new possibility of spaces; do you think a new trend is being created? Yes, I do. When I was discussing in-between architecture, I was thinking about the ambiguousness and continuity of architecture. We are living with dynamic and multiple life styles in contemporary society, and many things are no longer defined in a dualistic way. As an architect or spatial designer, how should we react to that? I am interested in new possibilities which can present a particularity of ambiguousness in spatial relationships.

What is your main goal in your final project? When you were working on your graduation project, did you consider yourself as an artist or an architect? I do see architecture as a specialization somewhere between nature and culture. Most of the time, nature suggests ideas related to some fundamental relationships between living behavior and the environment. As for culture, or you could say art, it is about how to re-think and re-present the observation or definition from the real world. I was trained to think and act as an architect, but in this project I quite enjoyed exploring new possibilities of space from an artistic perspective during the design process.

Which one would you prefer in your future? Or do you want to be both? I think that architecture is a complex subject, which always evokes people’s reactions or behavior inside or outside the space. It is not only a transformation of a concept, but also how users or viewers perceive and conceive it. All of these elements make it more complicated and more challenging. I would love to be an architect. However, sometimes I would also like to think about and discuss the artistic or poetic qualities in the architectural or spatial field.

What is your expectation from the graduation project? I expected to liberate my thinking and build a new perspective to develop myself further and explore more possibilities in the near future.

Then, how can you use your perspective of seeing or feeling space in design? If I become fascinated by a site or space, I try to retain this particular feeling purely and vividly, and start to look for an abstract transformation between the user’s behavior and spatial perception.

You have spent 2 years studying at INSIDE, do you think that this education has changed your attitude or your life? If yes, how? It did not change my attitude, but it helped me develop a new perspective to observe and react to the real world. It is a place which is full of fresh ingredients, and you need to have some ‘recipes’ or have enthusiasm for trying out a new way of blending ideas to integrate all of these. I am not sure this is a question I can fully answer now – only later on will it become clear how much this 2 year study has changed my life. But I think I have become clearer about what kind of architect or designer I would like to be.

Wei-Hsun Chen

How do you see and feel space at first sight? It is difficult to define. Sometimes people’s behavior and reaction to space influence me strongly, and sometimes I am influenced by the environment at a given moment, even a gentle breeze blowing across one’s face.

What is your ambition after you have graduated from INSIDE? I would like to start my own studio and bring all of those thinking and enthusiastic processes into practice, to explore and create new experiences for the living environment in a contemporary society.



Wei-Hsun Chen

Could you explain how you chose the topic for your graduation research? I am looking for a free way of thinking and reacting to the architectural design field, and trying to explore and realize the connection between intuition and an existing situation and then to transform this into a design process.

The Third Life is the real world “re-launched” after the excessive time spent on the virtual one. Third Life users can meet and interact with each other, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, explore the world, create and trade properties and services with one another. But how is that different from the real/first life? The first life was a life unaware of the Internet and its impact. Including the times that the Internet was already created but was still a place explicitly for researchers and computer nerds. The complexity of that early net would not allow access to everyone. So even if personal computers were there and sometimes networked, still the time spent online was incomparable to the time-spent offline. Moreover the amount of data uploaded by then, was insignificant to the data in the physical world. In the years that followed a well-known development took place and caused radical changes. The Internet became fast, cheap and simplified; thus accessible to everyone in the north global digital part of the world (according to the division between developed and developing countries in regards to access to computing and information resources such as the Internet and the opportunities derived from such access). Almost all users had a personal e- mail address, while gradually creating a My Space, a Facebook and then a Twitter account. They might join Second Life, play games online, visit the virtual casino and create a YouTube channel. The more activities he or she got engaged into online, the more symbiotic the user became with his computer. At the same time architecture has stick to the traditional form of a built, physical space. Yet, it cannot simply be static, open only for experiences in the physical space. After all, a traditional space will not charm the distracted user back. He has already seen it. How can architecture be re-organized as a merging of worlds in which both gain more importance? How can the architectural space and the organization of objects within that space become more than a blurred connection of these two worlds, the virtual space and the physical space?

Chapter 1: Before and after the internet, an exploration into the experience of various realities. The constant interdependency of man and the web mentioned above inevitably led to a transformation of his everyday life. Everything had to be archived online, thus everything became recorded or recordable. Information also had to be easily traceable, and possibly editable. With Soon an invisible algorithmic editing and filtering of this personal search results led to a more personalized Internet on our own keystrokes and wants. Everything has become so accessible with a notion of being addressed to us that nowadays the user can communicate, learn, travel, consume and entertain himself without leaving his chair/(bed/floor). At the same time this individual space, whether it is in the home or working space or in a crowded square, has become more public than ever. Regardless of whether the user remains in an interior or an exterior, he is always inside a public space. In his essay ‘Of Other Spaces’ (1967), the French philosopher Michel Foucault concerns himself, predominantly, with the historical shifts in space. He points out the theoretical de-sanctification of space and the lack of a practical one. Our lives are governed by inviolable oppositions between private space and public space, between family space and social space, between the space of leisure and that of work. It would be interesting though to rethink the shifts in space, now that the Internet and its many manifestations have given rise to a whole new experience regarding our relation to space. Are the oppositions of Foucault still governing our life? The Internet and our activity there blurred the boundaries between spaces. Instead of concrete and tangible spaces we can move between realms with the click of a mouse. Yet we have to do this while being in our physical space. So the boundaries between virtual and physical space were the first ones that became blurred. Something, which started as a tool to reflect the real world, now has developed a world of its own. A few years ago, artist Marisa Olson introduced

Photini Mermiga

Photini Mermiga

Enter Third Life



Photini Mermiga

Downloadable space

In times of less advanced or no personalized Internet most activities were taking place offline. This would mean that someone had to move in between and inside different spaces and with that moving body we experienced different scales and witnessed various images of spaces in their actual dimensions and real context. With the miniaturization of the screen and by uploading almost everything on the Internet the human body miniaturized itself too, being left only with the movements of the palms and fingers. While spaces were built for the human body to move in, now focus shifts to screens or surfaces. They need to be designed to interact with the user and specifically with his hands. Everything fits in a screen and responds to our new hand-language.


Photini Mermiga

Time In terms of time perception the Internet led to radical changes as well. In a non-digital world, and when it comes to practical issues, one needs to keep up with analogue working hours. This distinction of time is flattened on the Internet. Working from home or shopping online means that one

Social life Writing emails, Skyping and chatting means that someone is being very public at that moment. Two or more people in totally different parts of the world can very easily talk while looking at each other, or better: at their images on the screen. Two people, or a group of people, who have never met in real life, can virtually meet and talk on a social media environment, a forum, a website. People that share interests, concerns or needs, can have a discussion without ever meeting each other in real life, or before they meet outside the Internet. This phenomenon has also led to less discussions offline. After all, the image of people focused on their screen and not on the person next to them has become very common. This list of digital versus physical experiences could go on for long, yet these examples attempt to show the powerful presence of the Internet in our every day lives. With our activities performed and our days spent online more and more, significant parts of our lives will be uploaded. Now that our constants are placed on the virtual world it is unlikely that the physical one can still be attractive with the means of the past.

vidual sphere in the physical public realm. The screen can be transferred everywhere. Moreover, the internet is demanding an extreme level of focus from us. As a result the virtual public space is present and has all our attention in both former private and former public contexts. Being most of the time within the new public space, even while being in the private interior, has led to a blur of the different realms and their borders. We could say that it is impossible to think again of the private space without considering the public, virtual experiences.

Chapter 3: What has the internet taught me in everyday life? After decades of existence and years of extreme use, the Internet is now a tool affecting and reshaping its creator. Considering it during the design process is not a matter of choice; instead its study and observation is essential. In order to identify the processes needed to draw attention back, one needs to realize what makes the screen so attractive. If one seeks to link the two sides of the blurred border, one needs to design and construct the intermediate space. This is the space in between

the public of our screen and the cocoon created by our constant focus on it. During the process I had to use metaphors relating the virtual world with the analogue one. The main focus is the different “scales” of communication online. From the anonymous search to the public share of information thereis an interim communication taking place. This is identified in groups, forums, chat rooms etc. Here the metaphor helps me envision the new house of the user with the common point of reference being the intermediate scale, since the house is now neither private nor public. What is the cause and motive that starts the online dialogue? In order for online discussion to be initiated, it must involve two-directional communication, cover topics of shared interest, and be motivated by a mutually shared commitment in what is discoursed. Most of the time the topic can be recognized immediately by using specific titles or strong images, while text restrictions make the discussion more direct. With these elements a degree of reciprocity is provided, which helps in connecting participants, rather than reproduce fragmented spheres of conversation. Therefore, such qualities are important to engage the user back to participate in an activity.

Chapter 2: The new public space, the new private space The thought that the public sphere is intruding into the private one is as old as the mass media. As defined by the architect of the concept, the German philosopher Jurgen Habermas, the public sphere presents “a realm of our social life, in which something approaching public opinion can be formed”. So, more obviously today, the public sphere is traced in every spot of our former private space. If the television brought the public sphere into the private and created a core in the house, the Internet with our mobile devices broke down this core into individualized ones. Every member of the family or the shared house forms a separate sphere for itself and its social network. In parallel it is equally possible to create the indi-

Photini Mermiga


can adjust the working hours independently or not having to rely on opening hours, respectively. Having chosen, or been forced to work, shop, arrange practical matters from home, makes one the manager of his own daily program.


the term Post-Internet, not to describe the time to come after the Internet, but the time, or condition, that the Internet is undoubtedly imbricated in our everyday experience. It is present even if the person is offline, thus affecting our culture in ways both subtle and radical. In an effort to identify the new realities arising out of the Internet dominance it is useful to make a comparison with the previous realities. We might start the analysis with the individual’s relationships with his or her surroundings. In “The Ecstasy of Communication” (1987), Jean Baudrillard worries that our grip on the tangible is thinning. With “no longer a system of objects,” our the impression that everything is contained online the only thing we had to do is to look for the right places to find it. Language of signs is changing and “simultaneously it is disappearing”. Our relationships to the objects around us are giving way “to a screen and a network”. With his examples on new media Baudrillard worries about the intangible space where the object only functions on a surface level: “the smooth and functional surface of communication”.

What has internet taught me - The interior architect In pre-Internet times designers could witness and observe rich conditions in the physical world. Observing the living conditions of the user the designers were able to see the latter moving and interacting in a living space. They could see the users during leisure time and working, during family and social time. Now from homes to streets the image of the person and the screen is repeating itself. The possibility to distinguish between the different activities has faded away. At the same time the user is very capable of creating his or her very personalized space, built by his or her absorption in the screen Consequently, the designer now has a far more difficult role. Instead of sheltering the user in a space, we need to tie down the data of the user. That means that the space to be created must provide a constant to the user for all the data of his modern life. It is not only his privacy that needs to be taken care of, but also the intermediate scales and the ways privacy and publicness are merged, as mentioned above. In this graduation project the intermediate space creates the conditions within the living space, for the user to be engaged in both physical and virtual activities.

the new public space that intruded the house. For this to happen, the apartment is adjusted to the new needs. Thus, the living spaces are redesigned taking into account the residents’ dependence on the virtual realities. The Shell Building is the test site for this new apartment building. The building is reprogrammed with housing for the Internet user. The dweller is a nomad in his own house moving along with his screen, working, socializing, travelling etc. Therefore, its design is different to the traditional that we are used to.

Photini Mermiga

The visioning of the future has always been given shape in the form of the future house from the Eameses in 1944 to the Smithsons in 1956. In periods of crucial change or development, designers often start to rethink domestic design. Likewise in times of crisis, like today, the domestic needs to be once more revisited. Society is being transformed by the passage from the “solid” to the “liquid” phases of modernity, in which all social forms melt faster than new ones can be cast. They are not given enough time to solidify and cannot serve as the frame of reference for human actions and long-term life-strategies. Their allegedly short life expectation undermines efforts to develop a strategy that would require the consistent fulfillment of a “life-project.” (Bauman, 205, p.303) The aim of “the house of the present” is to draw the attention of its residents. This project tries to bridge the two extreme ends that are found to coexist in most houses. To create the intermediate space between the private capsule of the user and



Photini Mermiga

Chapter 4: The house of the present

Photini Mermiga

Photini Mermiga



INTERVIEW Interview with Photini Mermiga with Yuting Guan

My name is Photini Mermiga. I am a second year student at INSIDE. I was born in Greece where I have been educated as a Civil Engineer and worked for two years as an Assistant in Civil Engineering and Architectural Projects in Greece before coming to the Netherlands in 2011.

What means downloadable room? Imagine that different rooms can be delivered in your space that fast that you don’t have to store them if you don’t use them. They are stored in a bigger storage cloud. That means that you can have many options to choose from and not stick with one.

You said the room will go out of sight when not needed, where will it be? These rooms, or better parts of the rooms are sent back to the storage space outside your house and can be downloaded by someone else. In an apartment block this room-storage-space fills the corridors and shares facilities outside your starting house.

What kind of house this would be? For one person or more? If for more than one person, how would you deal with time? We all need a bed at night. It is not about having one bed for more people or one kitchen for many families. The number of rooms is sufficient, so one can have the room he/she needs but has a selection to choose from. There is no scarcity of space available, instead there is no need to create a complete house.

Why this topic is so important for you? I am currently doubting whether it is a good topic or not. Yet it is very important for me. It started from a personal interest, as I am an obsessed Internet user myself. At the same time I always seek the connections with the physical environment.

How did you start your research? I did something that is very frequent to do online… I started stalking and observing the people around me.

When you started your research, did you have a idea about how it would end? No, not at all!

INSIDE is also about Urban Interior – How is your project related to urban Interior? Being most of the time within the new virtual public space, even while being in the private interior, has led to a blur of the different realms and their borders. We could say that it is impossible to think again of the private space without considering the public, virtual experiences.

Please shortly explain your graduation project. In the future the physical and digital worlds are merged. The more activities people get engaged into online, the more symbiotic they become with the computer. This has created new expectations from our living spaces as well. In this project the living space is adjusted to the new expectations and reactivated taking into account the residents’ dependence on the virtual realities. This produces a house of downloadable rooms that go out of sight when not in need.

Photini Mermiga

What is your expectation from the graduation project? I would like to work more with the idea of reshaping the physical space under the effect of our presence online.



Photini Mermiga

Could you please explain how you chose the topic for your graduation? It must start from a personal fascination and probably make it as specific as possible. That, kind of, guarantees that the research is going to be enjoyable. Then one should be open to probable turns the topic might take.

EDISNI Master Interior Architecture (MIA)


INSIDE - Information

At INSIDE, we will challenge and see the world from inside-out and become INSIDE-architects. The content of INSIDE is based on an annual theme and concentrates on issues that designers, clients, residents or users of interior architecture are faced with. Through research, conceptualization and spatial design, sustainable, humane solutions for real world problems are developed and presented. In 2012/2013 the annual theme was about empty office buildings.


The curriculum of the Master’s programme in Interior Architecture at the Royal Academy is based on two principles. Firstly, it is based on an analysis of research and design processes. Secondly, it builds on the principle of ‘learning by doing’. Combined, these two principles lead to a curriculum that is divided into phases that each deal with specific stadia of research and design processes: observing, gathering knowledge, planning, research, presentation, evaluation, design, and again presentation and evaluation. These aspects are addressed in all parts of the curriculum and form the criteria on the basis of which students’ work is assessed.

The total study load for the programme is 120 ECTS, equally spread over two years, which are divided into two semesters of 20 weeks each.

The programme comprises five parts. The heart of INSIDE is formed by the three studios – Inter, Urban and Space – which make up about 40% of the programme’s total study load. Apart from the studios, students participate in a longer research trajectory – INSIDEflows – about flows in contemporary interior architecture. In addition to this, the programme is supported by a theoretical backbone, which trains students in their reflection on and position in the field of interior architecture, as well as a SKILLS programme that offers students hands on experience through intensive technical workshops. Finally, the travel programme allows students to observe and reflect on the discipline, cultural phenomena and social themes.

First year The first year is focused on the student’s introduction to design for the real world. Through the studios, the research group, the travel and the theory and skills programmes, students will be familiarized with all stadia of researching and designing for the real world: gathering knowledge, planning, research, design, presentation and evaluation. Students choose one from the three studios for each semester. The other courses run throughout the year, but change their focus per semester or block.

Second year The first semester of the second year has the same structure as the first year, but focuses on mastering the skills introduced in the first year. In the fourth semester, the knowledge and skills acquired by students in the first three semesters culminate in a final presentation that integrates all the above-mentioned stadia of research and design.

INSIDE - Information

INSIDE is a two-year, English-taught Master’s Programme in Interior Architecture at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague, which targets the real world. A world that is changing: Large-scale interiors, the relationship between private and public space, sustainability and a greater demand for social cohesion are themes that call for new perspectives on interior architecture.





Elma van Boxel and Kristian Koreman

Oana Rades and Thijs Bijsterveldt



ZUS– Zones Urbaines Sensibles,,

Shift ArchitectureUrbanism

This studio concentrates on urban interiors, from agora to shopping mall and the changing relationship between public and private.

Oana Rades and Thijs Bijsterveldt lead the studio SPORT. They focus on sport as an integral part of our urban lifestyle deserving a prominent place in our city centres.

Programme tutors and lecturers 2012/2013

Head of INSIDE: Hans Venhuizen Coordinator: Marja van der Burgh Studio Assistant: Erik Jutten Stage Design for Wunderbaum, 2013. Photo by Danny Deelen Vertical Loft by Oana Rades and Harm Timmermans,

INSIDE - Tutors

INSIDE - Tutors

Royal Academy of Art INSIDE Master Interior Architecture Prinsessegracht 4 2514 AN The Hague

Elma van Boxel (b. 1975) and Kristian Koreman (b. 1978) both studied landscape architecture at Larenstein in Arnhem. In 2001 they founded ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles], a cross-disciplinary office for architecture, urbanism and landscape design. Realized projects include the landscape design of the Dutch Pavilion for the Shanghai World Expo 2010, the Central Park on the World Expo, the Printemps Park at Grand Bigard Brussels, and the Spiegelzee exhibition pavilion on the Dutch coast. In 2007 they won the Maaskant Prize for Young Architects. Current projects include their curatorship of the 2012 International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam and their Luchtsingel initiative that connects Rotterdam’s new central station with the Hofplein.

Oana Rades (middle, 1977) started studying architecture in Bucharest (RO) and graduated with honours in 2005 at the Technical University in Eindhoven (NL). In 2005 Oana Rades founded Shift Architecture Urbanism with Harm Timmermans (left, 1975). Thijs van Bijsterveldt (right, 1981) joint Shift as a partner in 2010. He graduated Cum Laude at the faculty of Architecture of the TU Eindhoven with the project ‘M3, Sculptural asphalt for the Western Garden Cities of Amsterdam’. Shift Architecture Urbanism is a Rotterdam based design office that focuses on the fields of architecture, urbanism and spatial planning. The office combines a broad engagement in space production with precise and project-specific design interventions. Oana Rades and Thijs van Bijsterveldt are teaching and lecturing at different universities and schools throughout the Netherlands.



Rotterdam, 2010-2012. Photo by René de Wit.

Jan Jongert

Louise Schouwenberg and Anne Hoogewoning

Hans Venhuizen





Superuse Studios,

National and international excursions, symposiums, lectures, interviews and studio visits stimulate the observations of and research on phenomena in spatial design.

Contemporary interiors increasingly depend on a complex of connecting flows. The research group INSIDEflows investigates the specifications and behaviour of these flows to support the development of sustainable design methods. Louise Schouwenberg


INSIDE - Tutors

Jan Konings (b. 1966) became a well-known Dutch designer when pieces of furniture he designed with Jurgen Bey debuted in the Droog collection in 1994. However, he considers himself a spatial designer rather than a product designer, and he operates along the boundaries separating urban planning, landscape design, art and ecology. With his designs he seeks to stimulate social cohesion in public space by making small changes or additions to existing situations. His projects include the design of a park on top of a former landfill in Haarlem, and Hotel Transvaal in the Transvaal redevelopment area in The Hague. Because of redevelopment, many buildings in this area lie empty and await either demolition or new tenants. In Hotel Transvaal, these vacant spaces were temporarily transformed into hotel rooms that varied from one to five stars.

Jan Jongert (b. 1971) studied architecture in Delft University of Technology and the Academy of Architecture in Rotterdam where he graduated in 2003. The Rotterdam-based office exploits and builds on the potential of the design context in terms of its environment, potential workforce, energy sources, wast materials and 12 other flows. Jongert has worked on various projects, ranging from Villa Welpeloo to redevelopment strategies for urban districts in Heerlen and Gouda. In 2013 Jan Jongert transformed 2012Architecten into Superuse Studios

INSIDEflows, Inside's Magazine #2, April 2013.

Three Stairs at Maasvlakte II, 2012 by Jan Konings

Anne Hoogewoning

The course links theoretical and intuitive insights of both theorists and students to practical case studies. In each semester the Theory Programme, together with the other programmes, focuses on a common case study, which will be worked on in separate assignments. Working on these shared case studies will familiarize students with both theoretical and practical concerns in spatial design. For the second semester 2013 Louise Schouwenberg invited Anne Hoogewoning for a series of seminars about Utopia. Louise Schouwenberg (b. 1954) studied psychology at the Radboud University Nijmegen, sculpture at the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam, and philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and the Erasmus University Rotterdam. After establishing her career as a visual artist, from 2000 onwards her primary focus has been on design theory. She regularly writes for (inter)national art and design magazines and has contributed to a range of books, the most recent being ‘Misfit’ (2011) a monogram of designer Hella Jongerius. Since 2000 Louise has been teaching at the Design Academy Eindhoven. In 2010 she started as Lector (Professor) Design Theory at the Design Academy. Recently, Louise was appointed Head of the Master course Material Utopias at Sandberg Institute. Anne Hoogwoning (b. 1961) studied Art History and Archaeology at the University of Amsterdam. She worked for more than ten years as Coordinator at the Fonds BKVB/ Creative Industries Fund. Anne Hoogewoning now works as an independent writer and advisor in the cultural field. Together with Louise Schouwenberg, Anne taught the Theory programme Re-enter Utopia in the second semester.

Hans Venhuizen (b. 1961) first studied Urban Planning at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, but switched to Architectural Design and Monumental Art at the School of the Arts Arnhem. In 1999 he set up Bureau Venhuizen, a projectmanagement and research bureau in the field of culture based planning. In search of a more specific identity for cities and areas, Hans links the worlds of culture and space to each other in different ways. His focus is always on the culture of spatial planning itself, and the game is his most important instrument. He developed various games, including the debating game ‘The Making Of’ and ‘Life, the Game’. Recent projects include Koningsas, a research for cultural/ spatial projects in the Groningen-Assen region, and K*eiland, a research and design project in an urban regeneration area in Utrecht.

The Parquettry Landscape game at Museum Paviljoens Almere, 2009. Photo: Gert Jan van Rooij

INSIDE - Tutors

Deals with the interaction between “somebody and the object, between somebody and the space, and between somebody and the city”. Studio themes in 2012/2013 are SOUND (First Semester) and TIME (Second Semester).


Jan Konings

Erik Jutten Marja van der Burgh

SKILLS is taught by various guest lecturers

Coordinator of INSIDE + propaganda


Studio Assistant

in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013:

This year the SKILLS Programme included workshops by:

Marja van der Burgh (b. 1960) studied French language and Literature at Leiden University with a Minor in Modern Architecture and Design. Before she joined INSIDE as Coordinator, she worked as Program Manager at the Berlage Institute, Postgraduate Laboratory of Architecture in Rotterdam, and as PR Manager at the Dutch architecture offices Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Neutelings Riedijk Architects and KCAP. Together with INSIDE students, Marja also works on the visibility and PR of INSIDE.

- Marianne Theunissen about spatial drawing - Vincent de Rijk about modeling - Frank Havermans about sketching with objects - Atze Boerstra about ‘Happy Building’ - Jan van Grunsven about concept theory - Herman Verkerk about eventarchitecture - Wessel de Jonge about redeveloping buildings - Eline Strijkers about sustainable interiors - Jeanne van Heeswijk about radicalizing the local - Alijd van Doorn about reading context - Lucas Verweij about the art of presentation - Jeroen van Mastrigt-Ide about the gamefication of urban space


Next to the theoretical development of the students and the design ‘on paper’ it is the ambition of INSIDE to stimulate the student-designers as ‘entrepreneurs’. That is also the reason why INSIDE has chosen the motto ‘design for the real world’. Students are asked to do research in the ‘real world’ and to do several tests on a 1 to 1 scale. Every semester INSIDE wants to do a public presentation of the projects in ‘a real world’-context and on a one to one scale. To realise this, studio assistant Erik Jutten works from the start until the end of the semester to develop the projects. Erik Jutten graduated in 2004 from the Fine Art department of the Royal Academy in The Hague. In his graduation project Erik Jutten devoted himself to connecting students & developing their projects. A role he has since he continued as initiator of and partner in diverse public space projects.

Thomas Bedaux, Bas van Beek, Pieke Bergmans, Mathijs de Boer, Atze Boerstra, Merijn Bolink, Lieven de Cauter, Simon Davies, Andre Dekker, Theo Deutinger, Matthijs van Dijk, Frank Feder, Fredie Floré, Job Floris, Aetzel Griffioen, Sven Grooten, Frank Havermans, Ronald Hooft, Birgit Jürgenhake, Chris Kabel, Gert van der Keuken, Krijn de Koning, Thomas A.P. van Leeuwen, Pierre Lhoas and Pablo Lhoas, John Lonsdale, Rianne Makkink, Wilma Marijnissen, Ernie Mellegers, Nels Nelson, Denis Oudendijk, Kyong Park, Mark Pimlott, Bertjan Pot, Eva van Regenmoortel, Vincent de Rijk, Lorenzo de Rita, Marc Schuilenburg, Marianne Theunissen, Ari Versluis, Peter Zuiderwijk.

INSIDE - Tutors

INSIDE - Tutors

- REFUNC about re-using old computer screens - Dieuwertje Komen about photography



Workshop INSIDE's work space (September 2011)

MENTORS Apart from the STUDIO, THEORY AND FLOWS tutors, Wei-Hsun Chen, Minsun Kim and Photini Mermiga are each guided by an individual guest mentor that fits their specific development. Wei-Hsun Chen is linked to Tom Frantzen, Minsun Kim to Rianne Makkink, Photini Mermiga to Lieke van Hooijdonk. We asked each mentor to select a favourite project from his/her own practice.

Tom Frantzen (FRANTZEN et al architects) Mentor of Wei-Hsun Chen. In 1995 Tom Frantzen (born 1971, Maastricht, the Netherlands) graduated Cum Laude at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the field of Architectural History and Theory on a thesis linking the creative strategies of the DADA movement to contemporary architecture.

He started as an independent architect after winning the Charlotte Köhler Prize in 1996 for a range of projects at the intersection of visual art and architecture. His office won several competitions and completed a number of high quality buildings. His project “De Keyzer” was awarded the Zuiderkerk 2011-award for being the best housing project of Amsterdam. Tom Frantzen has recently taken upon a more entrepreneurial role as an architect-developer. He founded “Lemniskade project development” in 2009 after winning the Sustainability Tender Amsterdam Buiksloterham with a highly innovative energy passive working-housing building completely constructed out of wood, including the 30m high main structure. He is the chairman of the Environmental Design committee Utrecht (‘Commissie Welstand en Monumenten’) and the chairman of the committee Activity programs Architecture, Design and E-culture at the Creative Industries Fund NL.



De Keyzer, Re-development housing block, Amsterdam, 2011. The courtyards are finished with extravagant three dimensional plaster, almost like a “Chesterfield” couch. The buttons used are the preserved rose and lily shaped cramps of the former building.

Mentors - Tom Frantzen

Right from the start of his career Tom Frantzen combined his independent practice with academic lectureships at numerous Academies of Architecture and the Delft and Eindhoven Universities of Technology.

Lieke van Hooijdonk

Rianne Makkink

(Lilith Ronner van Hooijdonk) Mentor of Minsun Kim

Rianne Makkink (Studio Makkink & Bey) Mentor of Photini Mermiga

Lilith Ronner van Hooijdonk was founded on the first of May 2010, on Labour Day, by Lilith van Assem (born 1980, Alkmaar), Lieke van Hooijdonk (born 1979, Alkmaar) and Elsbeth Ronner (born 1984, Oostzaan).

In 2002 design office Studio Makkink & Bey was founded by Rianne Makkink (1964) and Jurgen Bey (1965). In their eyes, urban planning, architecture, landscape architecture are inextricably connected to product design. The light bulb influenced architecture, the constructed house has formed the household interior and skyscrapers could have never existed without the elevator.

Lilith Ronner van Hooijdonk works on architectural projects in public space, and on the scale of a building. The projects vary from temporary to permanent structures and are on commission or initiated by the office itself.

In more than 200 projects, commissioned by museums, galleries, art or government organizations, companies and private commissioners, as well as in many lectures a design vision is delivered in which the form of a design follows from its context.


Temporary Pavilion, Schouwburgplein, Architecture Day 2011. Photo: Johannes van Assem

Lilith van Assem, Lieke van Hooijdonk and Elsbeth Ronner. Photo by Johannes van Assem.

Each time a design by Studio Makkink & Bey starts with constructing a story based on what already exists such as functions, structures and objects. Networking and systematic thinking allows to create connections between context, objects and functions. Through sharp analysis and programming, the potential of a district, a building or product is optimally put to use. The study repertoire includes the consumption of energy and raw materials, dualuse, food production, social and economic systems. An example is for instance the study of the informal economy that are present in India in order to find answers to economic problems in Europe.

Jurgen Bey en Rianne Makkink. Photo: Jeroen Hofman

The interior of MVRDV’s Balancing Barn, Suffolk, for Living Architecture by Studio Makkink & Bey, 2010. Photo by Katrin Wißkirchen.

WerkStadt Vienna for MAK, Austria, 2012 by Studio Makkink & Bey. Photo by Katrin Wißkirchen.

Mentors - Rianne Makkink

Mentors - Lieke van Hooijdonk

Context is crucial in architectonic design: we all live and work in a place generated by the faults, ideas and experiments of others. Many times a building does not perform the way it has been thought of. This illustrates the relation between the slowness of the built environment and the ephemeral of the usage. Then, what should be the role of architecture when it does not know yet who to serve? Only when the architecture is autonomous it will be able to formulate the answer to the assignment.

Studio Makkink & Bey develops products on a small scale, such as furniture and tableware, interiors of private houses, museums, offices and other public spaces. The larger scale of architecture and urbanism is addressed in the design of various pavilions, parks and studies into new ways to program areas.


In their view, the architectonic design follows from a question formulated by a commissioner or a broader sentiment, however the project is often questionable. It is therefore the task of a designer to reformulate this question into a realistic, buildable or in any case respondable question.

PROGRAMME 2013/2014 For 2013/2014 the overall theme will be "The Shopping Street". Caused by several developments the shopping street as we know it is about to change radically. Easy to reach shopping malls that pop up in the urban areas, internet shopping, development limitations of old city centres, failed real estate speculation are just some of the dynamics that will provoke these changes to the shopping streets. Slowly but gradually shops change into simple fitting rooms in a fun shop street resulting in low incomes for the entrepreneurs causing them to close down. In the INSIDE programme we will research the dynamics behind the urban interiors by doing field work and scale comparisons that will enable the students to study the relation between the human scale and the (urban) interiors in change. Students will research and test the relevance of the existing development models. With this, students use their architectural imagination to take a position and create alternatives.

The detailed programme and information about the tutors and guest lecturers at INSIDE for 2013/2014 will be published on in the Summer of 2013.



INSIDE - Programme 2013/2014

All parts of the programme are led by internationally orientated architects and theorists.

INSIDE 24H is the third publication by INSIDE Master Interior Architecture (MIA)

INSIDE Master Interior Architecture Royal Academy of Art Prinsessegracht 4 2514 AN The Hague

Editors: Hans Venhuizen Marja van der Burgh Kristian Koreman Jan Konings Louise Schouwenberg


Translation: Christine Willemsen Contributors: First year students: Ipek AkgĂśz Ewelina Borowiecka Klinphaka Keawcharoen Nan Ni Anna Prohorenko Liao Qing Joanne Smith Guan Yuting Jianjiang Yin Graduation Candidates: Wei-Hsun Chen Photini Mermyga Minsun Kim Printing: Ecodrukkers, Nieuwkoop, 2013 All used components of this brochure, as well as the printing process, are climate neutral. The inks are produced on a vegetable base. All photos were made by students and staff of INSIDE unless otherwise mentioned. Special thanx to Gert Dumbar who guided the students in the making of the posters at the 24Hofpoort presentation.



Š June 2013 INSIDE, KABK The Hague The Netherlands

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