FOR BUSIN E SS SU PPOR T & INTERNA TI ON A L I SA TI ON Understanding the value and benefits of cross-border L i v i n g L a b o ff e r s f o r S m a l l a n d M e d i u m E n t e r p r i s e s .
Written in a collaboration with the European Network of Living Labs, iMinds and ENoLL network members main editors: Zsuzsanna Bódi, Jokin Garatea, Ana García Robles, Dimitri Schuurman
This publication is realised in the framework of the ACE Accelerator programme as complementary content of the ACE guidebook (Accelerating International Growth: A Practical Guidebook for Business Support Organisations ) on Living Lab Services for Business Support and Internationalisation. ACE has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement number 610925. 1
copyrights This work is a product of the staff and members of the European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL).
should be addressed to: European Network of Living Labs, 9 Pleinlaan 1050 Brussels, Belgium T: +32 2 629 16 13 F: +32 2 629 17 00 E: email@example.com
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This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. ATTRIBUTION Please cite the work as follows: Bódi, Zsuzsanna Garatea, Jokin, García Robles, Ana, Schuurman, Dimitri Editors, 2015. Living Lab Services for Business Support and Internationalisation. ©ENoLL LICENSE Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial CC 4.0 IGO NONCOMMERCIAL You may not use this work for commercial purposes. TRANSLATIONS If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by ENoLL and should not be considered an official ENoLL translation. ENoLL shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. ADAPTATIONS If you create an adaptation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This is an adaptation of an original work by ENoLL. Responsibility for the views and opinions expressed in the adaptation rests solely with the author or authors of the adaptation and are not endorsed by ENoLL. THIRD-PARTY CONTENT ENoLL do not necessarily own each component of the content contained within the work. ENoLL therefore do not warrant that the use of any third-party-owned individual component or part contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of those third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. If you wish to re-use a component of the work, it is your responsibility to determine whether permission is needed for that re-use and to obtain permission from the copyright owner. Examples of components can include, but are not limited to, tables, figures, or images. All queries on rights and licenses
acknow足 ledgments This publication is a collaborative effort of several individuals representing the European Network of Living Labs and its network members.
The project was initiated and inspired by the ACE Accelerator programme and the demand of knowledge the SMEs and partners involved and serves as a complementary annex to the publication Accelerating International Growth: A Practical Guidebook for Business Support Organisations focusing on Living Lab services for Business Support and Internationalisation. The ACE Accelerator programme has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement number 610925.
The content of the case studies benefitted from contributors from Juan Bertolín (espaitec Living Lab), Lene Ulsted Carlsen (DoLL Living Lab), Jokin Garatea (Gaia, Bird Living Lab), Eric Legale (Issy-les-Moulineaux Medialand), Mikaël Mangyoku (Design Creative Living Lab - Cite du Design), Idoia Munoz (Gaia, Sportis Living Lab), Bram Lievens (iMinds), Matteo Satta (Issy-les-Moulineaux Medialand), Dimitri Schuurman (iMinds), Kaisa Sibelius (Helsinki Living Lab - Forum Virium Helsinki), Kaisa Spilling (Helsinki Living Lab - Forum Virium Helsinki) and Agnieszka Włodarczyk (Krakow Living Lab).
The core team leading this publication included Dimitri Schuurman from iMinds, Jokin Garatea from Gaia Living Lab (Bird and Sportis), Ana García Robles and Zsuzsanna Bódi from the European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL).
Special thanks goes to Lorna Stokes who proofread the manuscript.
contents FOREWORD About the publication
INTRODUCTION TO LIVING LABS FOR BUSINESS SUPPORT AND INTERNATIONALISATION Context: Living Labs for SMEs Levels of analysis of a Living Lab Maturity of the innovation
Benefit for SMEs and internationalisation
SHOWCASES 01. Agewell – iMinds & Helsinki Living Lab How to gain a year during your product development process thanks to Living Lab validation?
02. Djubble – iMinds Principles of cross-border validation in order to achieve comparable results
03. Logica – iMinds The way new and innovative products born through user involvement
04. Nordic Independent Living Challenge – Helsinki Living Lab Joint challenges: Make the next step in your product development by getting feedback from your target users
05. ObesiTIC – Sportis Living Lab And they lived healthier ever after
06. Monna – BIRD Living Lab Fly without borders and co-create new business opportunities
07. NFC Low Cost Classroom Intelligent controller – eLivingLab Today’s challenges of data privacy
08. Radical – Issy les Moulineaux Citizen driven innovation
09. Connecting innovative partners – DOLL Living Lab Enlightening solutions from Living Labs to multinational companies
10. Human Cities Crossroads – Design Creative City Living Lab Designing a better place to live
11. Motioncube – Krakow Living Lab An end to end Living Lab project serving the young generation’s needs
foreword THIS PUBLICATION AIMS TO BRING INTERNATIONAL LIVING LAB SERVICES AND BUSINESS SUPPORT TO STAKEHOLDERS AND POLICY MAKERS TO RAISE AWARENESS OF THE POTENTIALS AND BENEFITS RESULTING FROM CROSS-BORDER USER ENGAGEMENT, LIVING LAB VALIDATION AND THE SHOWCASING OF INTERNATIONAL OPEN INNOVATION BEST PRACTICES.
The ‘Living Lab’ philosophy is still in development thus still maturing and this booklet does not serve as a ‘cookbook’ on how to establish a Living Lab or how to execute a Living Lab project. It does however offer an overview of cases and projects that have resulted from this stream of Living Lab activity, curated and represented by ENoLL as a linking and overarching organisation. The study itself is similarly a result of cross-border collaboration between Living Lab experts and practitioners. The activity of creating the framework for the examples and collecting the cases highlighted the diversity and versatility of the internationalisation aspect interpretated by different individuals and organisations. This finding highlights the wealth of opportunities and the unexploited prospects of internationalisation in the context of Living Labs.
The overall aim of ACE was to deliver targeted cross border services to highly innovative entrepreneurs, start-ups and SMEs in the ICT sector in order to accelerate their growth.
In the following pages we will guide you through eleven case studies originating from the ENoLL Living Lab community. These cases offer a solid overview of the current Living Lab activity throughout Europe with contributions and actions from the following countries: UK, Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Spain, France, Italy and Poland. Content-wise, topics range from smart city-initiatives and applications, innovative mobile apps, to eHealth-projects and services and even a case regarding animal studies! This selection offers the reader a good insight into success stories, opportunities and benefits of Living Labs for internationalisation, but also sheds more light into the caveats and the potential threats. Therefore, this publication is of interest to practitioners as well as researchers interested or active in the domains of Open Innovation, User Innovation and Living Labs and also useful for policy makers and private companies themselves. The following pages illustrate the true power of co-creation and multistakeholder collaboration. In addition to the cases introduced in this publication we would like to mention three particular studies that serve as great examples of future international initiations and Living Lab services offered in a national context that are great basis of upcoming cross-border collaborations: “A Generative City Commons Approach to Urban Participatory Sensing” 1 provided by Caroline Hassan (Bristol Living Lab - KWest Research LL), Sehrmobil 2 case by Johanna Meurer (Praxlabs) and LILA3 project with the participation of ENoLL members Promotech, Technoport and ENoLL partner EBN.
http://www.ideasfestival.co.uk/seasons/festival-future-city/ https://praxlabs.de/projekte/s-mobil-100/ 3 http://www.lilaproject.eu/ 1 2
This publication is linked to the ACE Accelerator project and was inspired by the collaboration and MOU between ENoLL and EBN. The ACE programme committed to deliver targeted cross-border services to highly innovative ICT entrepreneurs, start-ups and SMEs with the potential to rapidly grow their businesses in international markets. Building on a mapping analysis of existing/ emerging good practices in internationalisation and cross border venturing in Europe, a group of ICT clusters, incubators and accelerators collaborated in the development and pilot testing of the Accelerate Cross-border Engagement (ACE) operational programme. The ACE Programme, a tailored-made acceleration programme, was launched in September 2013 with 12 incubators from 11 countries: UK, Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Finland, Sweden and the Czech Republic. The ACE Programme is coordinated by the European Business and Innovation Centre Network (EBN), Europe’s largest network of innovation-based incubators. Partners in ACE project are: EBN; WESTBIC; SPI; ENoLL; CUE; Dublin BIC; TECHNOPORT; JIC; CAP DIGITAL; iMINDS; IPN; FORUM VIRIUM HELSINKI; LU Open‑Cluster 55; META; bwcon Building on a mapping analysis of existing/emerging good practices in internationalisation and cross border venturing in Europe, a group of ICT clusters, incubators and accelerators collaborated in the development and pilot testing of the Accelerate Cross-border Engagement (ACE) operational programme.
introduction 1. CONTEXT: LIVING LABS FOR SMES Todays organisations are struggling with the practical implementation of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;distributed innovationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, or the fact that organisations need to reach outside their boundaries to tap into distributed sources of knowledge to enhance their innovation processes (Bogers & West, 2012). Living Labs are a specific approach, promoted and supported by the European Commission, trying to facilitating and managing distributed innovation processes through a Public-Private-People partnership with a central role for the enduser (Schuurman et al., 2014). Following Almirall & Wareham (2011) and Leminen et al. (2014), Living Labs are an organised approach (as opposed to an ad hoc approach) to innovation consisting of reallife experimentation and active user involvement by means of different methods involving multiple stakeholders, as is implied in the Public-Private-People character of Living Labs. From a theoretical perspective, Living Labs are an emanation of both Open Innovation
(as Living Labs consist of actors exchanging knowledge) and User Innovation (as Living Labs actively involve end-users in the innovation development process), although there are only few references to these literature streams in current Living Lab literature (Schuurman, 2015). The first premise of Open Innovation is that from the perspective of a single firm, the usual level of analysis in Open Innovation research, opening the internal innovation process of a firm yields extra value (Chesbrough et al., 2006). According to Chesbrough and Bogers (2014), the critical conceptual distinction between the previous literature on spillovers in innovation is that Open Innovation transforms these spill overs into inflows and outflows of knowledge that can and should be purposively managed. Enkel et al. (2009) conclude that the future of innovation processes lies in an appropriate balance between open and closed innovation approaches, as too much openness can lead to a negative impact on companiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; long-term innovation success, loss of control and loss of core competences, while a too closed innovation approach does not serve the demands of increasingly shorter innovation cycles and reduced time-to-market. However, there seems to be a gap between theory and practice as multiple studies have indicated that a lot of companies struggle with implementing Open Innovation practices (Lichtenthaler, 2008; van de Vrande et al., 2009), and that there are major differences between different firms and organisations (Laursen & Salter,
2006). A specific group of organisations that remained under researched within the Open Innovation literature (van de Vrande et al., 2006), but that recently have gained more attention from the research community (see e.g. Brunswicker & Vanhaverbeke, 2013; Lee et al., 2010; van de Vrande et al., 2009; Zeng et al., 2010) are SMEs. It is argued by van de Vrande et al. (2009) that the Open Innovation model recognizes that smaller firms play an increasingly important role in the contemporary innovation landscape, and that because of their lack of resources and smallness, they are more reliant on their networks to find missing resources. Gans and Stern (2003) state that small start-up firms and entrepreneurs have to deal with specific management challenges. The fact that SMEs cannot cover all innovation activities required to successfully realise an innovation is ascribed to their smallness and resource constraints (Brunswicker & Vanhaverbeke, 2013). However, this also holds opportunities, as SMEs are usually more flexible, less formalised and quicker to make decisions (Lee et al., 2010). As Living Labs offer a structured way of implementing Open and User Innovation in organisations, and are regarded as being specifically beneficial for start-ups and SMEs (Pallot et al., 2010), research into the value of Living Labs for SMEs offers the opportunity to advance the knowledge of both Open Innovation and Living Labs. In the different cases, we will structure our analysis regarding two variables: 1. the different levels of analysis of a Living Lab, and 2. the maturity of the innovation.
Levels of analysis of a Living Lab In order to further evolve Living Labs as a concept and to allow a better conceptualisation, Schuurman (2015) developed a three-layered model, consisting of a macro level (the Living Lab constellation), the meso level (consisting of a Living Lab innovation project) and the micro level (consisting of the different methodological research steps). Open Innovation concepts can be used to analyse the macro level, whereas the User Innovation literature could be used on the micro level. Through co-creation, both levels merge on the meso level, resulting in useful contributions to the innovation in development. Within this publication, we will use this model to differentiate between the different levels within the cases that are presented.
Living Lab constellation
Open Innovation: knowledge
consisting of organized
Living Lab innovation project
Open & User Innovation:
real-life experimentation, active user involvement, multi-method and multistakeholder
Living Lab methodology
User Innovation: user
consisting of different research
involvement & contribution for
Table 1 Three-layered Living Lab model
Maturity of the innovation A second variable that we will use is the maturity of the innovation. We discerned between the following stages, based on Jespersen (2008): idea (the innovation is still an idea and does not exist in any material form yet) – concept (the innovation idea has developed into an innovation concept that explains how the innovation will function) – prototype (the innovation has materialised in some kind of prototype which demonstrates the basic functionalities) – pre-launch (the innovation has been developed in the form of a Minimum Viable Product, but has idea
not been launched on the market) – launch (the innovation is launched in the market) – post-launch (the innovation is already on the market). We recoded the project into three categories, which are also used to describe the type of Living Lab projects: exploration (indicating a project where the innovation starts at the idea or concept stage and end in the idea or concept stage) – experimental (a project that includes the prototype stage) – evaluation (projects that start at the pre-launch stage or later). The following table summarizes the three project types. pre-launch
exploration experimental evaluation Table 2 Stages in NPD process
2. BENEFIT FOR SMES AND INTERNATIONALISATION
Living Labs are open ecosystems that enable business and societal innovation which offer an open-innovation space for co-creation, testing and validation of products and services like scaling up of products and services to new markets. Among Living Labs’ stakeholders we can find regional and national authorities, public agencies Users/ Citizens, citizen and user associations, various service and product providers, Universities and research institutes, NGOs, and even other Living Labs. Service and product providers, and especially SMEs, are one of the stake holders, which can benefit from Living Lab’s services: • • • • •
Increased innovation power User-centric methods Meeting with university and other industry Public visibility and branding New knowledge about users and markets
In the actual scenario of economic crisis, SMEs need now to strengthen their innovation capacity in order to mitigate local economic problems. Furthermore, since domestic demand has fallen in numerous economies, this makes more necessary to look at foreign markets. This is especially important for small companies and SMEs, which usually have less resources, personnel and financial capacity to internationalise their activity. Moreover, traditional mechanisms used to raise awareness and help SMEs to do so seem to be, in some cases, not very effective.
Therefore, there is a clear need of innovative ways to help SMEs to direct and extend their activities to international markets. This is a key issue to improve their competitiveness. To reach this goal, especially for SMEs, Open Innovation driven business cooperation led by Living Labs can play a key role. For this business cooperation, Living Labs are innovative mechanisms that can be used by SMEs to get access to global markets, offering a window for companies from the same or other countries to SMEs from its ecosystem and allowing new ways of boosting SMEs internationalisation, supporting validation of products and services in other markets through Living Labs’ cooperation and market consultancy. Furthermore, Living Labs can offer innovative and new methodologies to raise awareness of the importance of internationalisation among SME managers, and also innovative and new methodologies that can be applied to change SMEs mind-sets and address the internal changes needed in companies for internationalisation. Regarding internationalisation, during the collection of case studies we realised how different the interpretation of this notion can be for different actors and stakeholders. Besides the most common understanding: entering to a foreign market, realising cross-border agreements between companies, even Wikipedia confirms there is no agreed definition existing and there are multiple theories trying to explain this activity. By cross-border activity we also mean and include networking activities and as such, European projects are relevant platforms to initiate and enforce international collaborations. ENoLL acknowledges all similar type of actions, collaborative projects and events that help and harness internationalisation. ENoLL is resolute to build and strengthen a European Open Innovation ecosystem that enables the internationalisation of SMEs creating a pan-European experimentation environment and prototyping for new markets, based on Digital Single Market. However, in order to do so, Living Labs need to advance in the standardisation and inter-lab protocol, to offer a standardised set of services following excellence criteria. This is one of the objectives pursued by ENoLL. In order for Living Labs to offer this cross-cutting and excellence of services for internationalisation of SMEs, not only validation and certification of services is required but also training and skills and capacity building of the Living Labs’ professionals.
introduction to living labs for business support and international足 isation cases
In this section, we will provide the reader with some real implementation examples in the form of cases from the ENoLL Living Lab community, extending the knowledge created under the framework of the ACE project. These cases are used to illustrate the added value a Living Lab and Living Lab projects have in supporting SMEs to innovate. On a macro level we also have to highlight the strengths of Living Labs as collaborative permanent structures and the importance of the networkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ENoLL - enabling force to help SMEs enter and easily reach international markets, and developing pan-European and cross-border prototyping and experimentation environments based on Digital Single Market. We pay important attention to the internationalisation aspect, as in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s increasingly digital and global economy, an innovation rarely focuses on one specific local market exclusively. We first introduce the different cases we selected and analysed by means of a standardised template that includes the background of the cases, indication the Living Lab methodology used during the project and the maturity level of innovation of the product or service. For each case, we propose a set of main lessons learned. This allows to abstract the main benefits of a Living Lab approach, but also to identify the main barriers and challenges that need to be overcome in order to realise the full potential of Living Labs for business support and internationalisation. Within this publication, we have compiled a selection of Living Lab cases from the ENoLL community of Living Labs that on the one hand illustrate the wide variety of approaches and projects that take place within Living Lab organisations worldwide, and on the other demonstrate the added value Living Labs can bring for SMEs in general and for internationalisation purposes in particular. Living Labs can act as knowledge brokers, innovation matchmakers, research organisations or physical environments,
but they all propose co-creation, stakeholder and end-user involvement as essential characteristics in successful and sustainable innovation development. Therefore, Living Labs propose their own take on innovation, rooted in collaboration and social responsibility, where society plays an essential role in innovation development. The specific findings and lessons learned are going to be discussed when presenting the cases, but in general we can conclude that Living Labs and Living Lab projects have specific characteristics that facilitate value creation for the innovation processes for SMEs and enable internationalisation activities. The cases presented introduce some best practices and success stories that illustrate that the Living Lab movement succeeds in delivering value to its stakeholders and to society as a whole, but they also raise some challenges and lessons learned that call for future research and experimentation. The way forward is to continue sharing experiences and to carefully analyse and iterate our own approaches and methodologies.
Living Labs are resolute to build and strengthen the European Open Innovation ecosystem that enables the internationalisation of SMEs creating a pan-European experimentation environment supporting the realisation of the European Digital Single Market. Through the experiment of collecting the case studies our conclusion is that further investment and collaborative experiment will be necessary at European and International level to realise this.
Agewell International collaboration between Living Labs enables cross-border validation for SMEs. Although there were slight differences in the methodologies employed by the different Living Labs, the two projects did foster relevant and actionable user feedback that enabled the SME to iterate and fine-tune the innovation, also because the SME was heavily involved during the set-up and execution of the cross-border trials.
Background AgeWell Biometrics, a UK based start-up, has developed the Equilibrium™ application, a mobile software balance assessment application that allows healthcare professionals to quickly evaluate postural stability. Equilibrium™ is revolutionizing the way seniors are monitored for signs of musculoskeletal, neurological and vestibular dysfunction. Agewell’s business model was to provide a B2C product disrupting the £1.5billion falls detector market and ultimately to offer a platform as a service for clinicians and care providers. As a part of the ACE accelerator project, Agewell Biometrics applied for Living Lab validation services that were carried out by two ENoLL members: iMinds and Helsinki Living Lab. The parallel tests and trials with user groups coming from the different countries and cultures, provided an extensive analyses and gave deep insight into the user needs for the producer, before entering to a particular foreign market. This cross-border collaboration of Living Labs was not only beneficial for Agewell Biometrics, but also for the participating Living Labs by changing experiences and best practices, due to the fact that they all use slightly different methodologies.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation The Living Lab exercise mainly focused on technical testing to standardize and calibrate the application based on the collected cases. The case study introduced calibrating tests in Helsinki Living Lab (Forum Virium Helsinki) for a mobile application in prototype phase and targeted to collect 30 real use cases and users feedback about the testing experience. The target group were elderly people who are living independently and have not had major falls in their history. The test was simple: the test person kept the mobile device in his/her hand near the body and walked few meters straight ahead and came back. The test and filling in the related questionnaire took about 20 minutes per person. The tests carried out by iMinds were following the same principle, as the expert team phased: “the Living Lab played an important ‘translation’ role in which they tried to map the companies local market or system set-up to the Living Lab’s context”. Based on the feedback from the Living Lab exercises, the entrepreneur made a good progress in launching the first working application and guaranteed a safer entry to the market.
More precisely the feedback of the CEO was: “The Living Lab support has been instrumental in Agewell’s success as it provided scientific evidence validating Agewell’s product as well as user feedback from elderly individuals. The research done by the Living Labs was carried out in an extremely efficient and timely manner, which would have been a considerably protracted process if carried out with traditional means. Without our participation in ACE, Agewell would be at least a year behind where we are now.”
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect There were two main observations in setting up a Living Lab test for Agewell in Flanders: context and communication. Since the context differs in each country, therefore it requires a good contextualisation and briefing on the local setting. If not, there can be a lot of (implicit) assumptions from both parties, which are not common and therefore cause misinterpretations. Besides the user experience, contextual information could also be gathered on the perception of people with regard to the service. Although it was not in the initial scope the experts could provide user feedback with regard to elements like trust, privacy and perceived value. Regarding communication, although various online tools have been used, the iMinds team noticed that it would have been beneficial to have a physical meeting with the Agewell team, in order to change more information and explain a few details. In
an international context the interaction with the partner/client is less than what normally would be the case in a local Living Lab trial. In case of Finland a pre-meeting between the product owner and the person who carried out the testing exercise facilitated significantly the whole process. A highlight from the Finnish case was the ease to get access to the key users, as relatively often Living Labs find it challenging to reach out the end-users and motivate them in participating in tests. In case of Helsinki the chosen day centre is run by the city of Helsinki and there was no need to get any official permission to realise the test in the centre. The reason for that is because visitors do not have any customer relationship to the city. As for the motivation part, the people were asked personally if they were interested to participate and they have been awarded with a lunch voucher (10€). Highlights from the iMinds and Forum Virium Helsinki. “To raise awareness of Living Labs among SMEs there are two main elements to address. First of all SMEs need to be aware of Living Labs, what they do and which added value that they can bring. Second, the expectations related to that, should also be clear from the start. What can an SME expect from this Living Lab, what kind of results or outcomes can it generate?” “ It’s good to have backup e.g. about test results just in case something goes wrong during the analyze phase. Other point is the company should be also prepared to change the plans if needed.”
Due to the fact that the testing exercise and the exact goal of the experiment was clear and well prepared by the client, the cross-border testing went smoothly, without facing major challenges. The availability of the survey in advance ensured the consistent feedback from all countries and could be easily evaluated. Agewell had identified the US market as the initial target but it was the results of participation in ACE that enabled them to move more rapidly with the results of 2 Living Labs to back up their product claims. They now have clients in the US and have developed links with the Washington DC Office on Aging.
The Living Lab validation has been realized by iMinds and Helsinki Living Lab (Please find their references after the following cases). The Agewell case won the ACE special Living Lab award as inspiring example of companies that have achieved significant international growth through their uptake of ACEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Living Lab training services4. You can find further information about this case in the Accelerating International Growth: A Practical Guidebook for Business Support Organisations guidebook. http://europeanace.eu/index.php/guides 4
TAKEAWAY a major success factor for SME projects is the direct and continuous involvement of the project instigator with the Living Lab researchers.
Djubble International Living Lab testing offers a critical view on the innovatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own, sometimes implicit, assumptions.
Background Djubble is a smartphone application that allows people to spontaneously bring friends together. Hereby simplicity is a crucial element of the application. Djubble enables users to send out event invites without the hassle of setting up contact groups and sending multiple text messages. Instead, it allows users to create event invites on the fly and instantly send invitations, which recipients can easily RSVP with a swipe. In March 2014, Djubble sought the expertise of iMinds Living Labs for the involvement of end-users in its application design.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation Through ENoLL, Haaga-Helia recently got in touch with iMinds Living Labs, asking for a spontaneous collaboration in an active Living Lab project. As Djubble is a social app, it seemed interesting to do a joint field trial to understand how culture and social context would influence usability. Apart from making the research more
extensive, the collaboration also provides iMinds Living Lab with a good opportunity to validate the Living Lab methodology and improve it further. In Flanders, a survey, co-creation session, field trial and multiple interaction moments during the trial were held. In Finland, a cocreation session, a small field trial and a survey were held. Djubble moved from prototype towards launch stage (beta) during the project. However, the multi-method research project with active user involvement and a real-life field trial also demonstrated that in its current outlook, Djubble did not succeed in generating enough repeated usage and attracting a large enough user base. Therefore, Djubble is now iterating and redeveloping its application.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect Two elements were crucial in the case of the start-up Djubble. First of all, its value promise declares simplicity as the crucial element of the application. Second, these types of social applications, that have no clear business model yet and that are
heavily subject to network externalities, require a large user base and repeat usage of the application. Therefore, a Living Lab project was set-up with an initial focus on the Flemish market, as Djubble is also a Flemish start-up. During the project, that lasted more than a year, the Djubble app evolved from clickable mock-up to a Mimimum Viable Product in beta. The main results of the Flemish research steps were that the app was perceived as useful and the willingness-to-test was high. However, during the tests, the usage dropped and a lot of testers became defectors (= users that stop using). In parallel with the Flemish project, a smaller pilot test was held in Helsinki, Finland together with Haaga-Helia. Although the test was smaller in scope and did not include all three stages, some valuable feedback was captured by placing the application in another country and cultural context. It appeared that some cultural differences had an impact on the app (e.g. the Finnish were more concerned with their privacy than the Flemish users) and that the app was not self-explanatory, as the test-users who did not receive an extensive briefing (as was the case in Flanders) did not succeed in using Djubble in the way it was supposed to be used.
At this moment, Djubble is taking into account the feedback from the Living Lab project to redesign the app. As main lessons learned from this case, we can conclude that the multi-method approach and reallife testing allowed to uncover crucial differences between the value proposition of the app, which appealed to the users, and the actual experience the users had with the app. This prevented Djubble from launching too soon. The international aspect of the Living Lab project also indicated that an international launch should carefully take into account the local context of the countries in which the app is to be launched. However, the results from the Finnish and Flemish pilot are difficult to compare, as the Finnish pilot did not include all research steps. Therefore, international cross-border testing is promising, but requires aligning the methodology and research steps, and also requires direct involvement of the instigator of the project in the local country.
iMinds Living Labs had developed some services and operations that could be put to productive use within these small scale projects. These include the yearly Digimeter-studies with additional panel recruitment (cf.supra), and the development of the LLADA system for panel management (soon to be replaced by an improved version named PanelKit). www.iminds.be/en @iMinds
HAAGA-HELIA is part of the Finnish public educational system. It is privately run but steered and co-funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture. Haaga-Helia prepares professionals for business and services. HAAGA-HELIA offers for the students a versatile choice of studies, great opportunities for specialisation, high-quality education in Finnish and English, and wide business networks even during the studies. www.haaga-helia.fi @HAAGAHELIAamk
TAKEAWAY In terms of methodology, similar standards and protocols need to be in place in the different countries or cities to allow meaningful comparisons between the countries.
Logica The cross-border piloting of a given innovation requires adaptation to the local context. This process of adaptation and translation is able to generate novel knowledge and insights, which in turn can foster out-of-the-box, innovative thinking and can lead to novel solutions and use cases.
Background The case was part of the European Apollon-project and consisted of the company Logica Netherlands that transformed its ‘Guardian Angel’ application (for the Dutch market) to the ‘Apollon I Can Help’ application (for the Belgian market). The Guardian Angel service is a paid service aimed at utilising mobile communication technology and a wide network of volunteers to link people with a direct need for some small but acute need for assistance and people nearby who are able to provide this assistance. A group of people who is limited in their abilities, often due to old age or a handicap is provided with specifically designed mobile alarm equipment (GSM, GPS and GPRS) that enables them to send requests for help. By activating of the alarm the equipment makes contact with the an emergency helpdesk. Social Emergency aid is provided by volunteers who together form a network (10,000 volunteers). For the development Achmea and Logica collaborated in the Dutch pilot of the project. Logica, a large multinational IT solutions provider developed the Guardian Angel service for the Dutch insurance company Achmea.
The service is designed and developed in close collaboration with the Dutch Red Cross. Later on this service will be adjusted to other countries needs by other partners. One of the first instalments of the Guardian Angel project is the “Apollon I Can Help” application as piloted in the Netherlands. The underlying idea behind this application is that emergency services can be stretched from time to time. As lots of people have first aid experience or have a medical/healthcare related background, they could help in case of an emergency. The ‘I can help application’ can be downloaded as an app on the smartphone of the voluntary helpers. These helpers have to register their level of experience. This means that all healthcare professionals in the Netherlands have to be registered in the BIG-register on behalf of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. This register provides clarity and certainty regarding the care provider’s qualifications and entitlements to practice. When someone has an accident they, or someone on their behalf, will call the emergency services. The call handler/dispatcher will then be able to see where the accident is, how many registered ‘helpers’ are within a certain radius around the accident, and what type of incident they are capable of handling. Therefore it was key that the voluntary helpers had to registered their level of experience.
The dispatcher will then be able to send an alert to the appropriate ‘helpers’. A ‘someone needs help’ message will appear on the smartphone, asking if the voluntary helper can help. Using the navigational functionalities of the smartphone, a map shows the quickest route to the emergency. It will also provide the location of the nearest emergency equipment around the city, for example defibrillator and oxygen. The helper can respond to the call center/ dispatcher with the ‘I can help’ message.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation Netherlands – Belgium: Next to the predefined experiments, an additional experiment was executed, as a result of the network activities of the project. This experiment transferred the “I Can Help” service, a social emergency service, developed by Logica Netherlands, a large enterprise, to the Belgian market. iMinds Living Labs facilitated this process by searching for the appropriate partners and establishing the ecosystem. The project consisted of the transfer of a Dutch location based (social) emergency service (iOs application) developed by the multinational Logica. In the Netherlands, the application was
originally focused on volunteers with a medical background that were united in an existing network, so this required a specific expertise and profile. Moreover, the app also required mobile internet. As in Belgium this type of network did not exist and the mobile Internet penetration was much lower than in the Netherlands, the app needed to be redefined and put into the Flemish context. In Belgium, the app was targeted towards voluntary drivers within Less Mobile Service (social public welfare organisation). They received an alert when a less mobile person needs transport. This alert was also sent via SMS. As an unexpected outcome, the idea for the app was translated into a whereabouts application for Dutch sportsmen, as the idea to combine location information with time information fit perfectly with the need for sportsmen to provide their whereabouts to the controlling instances in the battle against illegal drugs and doping in sports. The original app was in in pre-launch stage in the Netherlands, was redeveloped and ended up also in pre-launch stage in Flanders, and eventually a new idea was born after the Living Lab project.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect In the Logica case, a similar technology was tested simultaneously in the Netherlands and in Flanders. By putting the innovation in a different context required the developers to adapt and iterate the use case of the technology. The developers needed to think about the key aspects of the innovation and translate this to a local context, which was very different in The Netherlands and in Flanders. This made them reflect on the technological differentiation, which brought them to the aspect of location, and eventually led to a very different use case. Compared to the Djubble case (cf. supra), the involvement of the instigator, Logica, was much higher in the crossborder pilot. This enabled them to iterate the application and translate it into the local Flemish context. However, the main outcome of the project was the creation of a totally new application: the where足 abouts app. By taking the innovation out of its original context, new ideas and use cases arise, as the developers need to think literally outside-the-box.
iMinds iMinds Living Labs had developed some services and operations that could be put to productive use within these small scale projects. These include the yearly Digimeter-studies with additional panel recruitment (cf. supra), and the development of the LLADA system for panel management (soon to be replaced by an improved version named PanelKit). www.iminds.be/en @iMinds
TAKEAWAY Cross-border validation not only leads to local market introduction strategies, but can also foster radical innovation ideas.
Nordic Independent Living Challenge A Living Lab approach is compatible with other Open Innovation activities and can reinforce these activities. Moreover, when international Living Labs join forces, this also provides a fertile ground for cross-border validation.
Background The Nordic Independent Living Challenge is a competition organised by Nordic Innovation. The challenge competition was launched and run together with the Nordic capital cities, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo, Reykjavik and Stockholm. The Nordic Independent Living Challenge seeks new problem solvers that can increase the quality of life for the frail elderly and people with disabilities and enable them to live active and independent lives. In this challenge the Nordic capital cities serve as living labs that provide a platform for co-creating and testing the solutions of the innovators. So far, the cities have been active by providing end-user perspectives, mentoring, and validating the concepts. In the last phase of the challenge competition, the five finalists will test their solutions/prototypes together with the cities. Furthermore this Nordic collaboration project sees the potential to create a more integrated Nordic health and social care market with enhanced collaboration across borders and disciplines. The approach of the competition also provides new means for the cities to work with the innovators.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation Before the start of the challenge competition, research on the needs of the Nordic capitals was conducted. Based on this work, an inspirational material of ten different themes personalised as ten fictional personas was produced, describing the needs of the different user groups. The themes have a set of â&#x20AC;&#x153;design driversâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; drivers that can help and inspire design for a new technology solution. (graphic A) The competition itself consists of four stages. (graphic B) The first selection round called for ideas. Each city had their own launch event with information on the competition and workshops with inspirational material on the user needs of the elderly and disabled. The first phase of the competition gathered a total of 414 proposals from the Nordics. At the second stage, the best 75 ideas, were invited to start the second round at Nordic matchmaking event in Copenhagen for inspiration, knowledge exchange and for finding potential collaborators for working further with their concepts.
frail elderly people
people with variety of disabilities
people who work with care and cure
service centres with
(health centres, private clinics, home nursing etc.)
organisations and volunteers
Graphic A Independent living is supported by a well functioning network (User needs analysis)
JANUARY 2015 national launch events
5 FEBRUARY 2015 opening for applications
18 MARCH 2015 submission of ideas
• solution sketch • target group • needs targeted • desired outcome
27 MAY 2015 submission of concept
4-5 MAY 2015 nordic matchmaking event
criteria: • fit and originality
10 APRIL 2015 selection of participants
content: • concept sketch new criteria:
• needs analysis • expected outcome
10 JUNE 2015
• design and functionality
• usability consider-
selection of participants
• potential outcome
BUSINESS PLAN DEVELOPMENT
DECEMBER 2015 submission of further developed concept
• nordic DNA
content: • detailed description
SPRING 2016 final submission
• benefits to end-users
• cost savings
JANUARY 2016 selection of finalists
• pilot test results • test plan • draft business plan
content: • evaluation new criteria:
of test results • potential impact • implementation and business plan
selection of winners
• measured and potential impact • measured usability • implementation plan • business potential
Graphic B Stages of the Nordic Independent Living Challenge competition
SUMMER 2016 AWARD CELEBRATION
GO TO THE MARKET
For the third stage, 25 teams were chosen to work on an intensive business development phase on their concepts, business plans and preparation for testing on real users. This stage was kicked off with a three-day workshop where the 25 Nordic teams performed three-minute pitches of their solutions to the cities, experts and mentors who were there to challenge and guide the teams with their projects.
Finnish oral eHealth MobiDent was happy with the feedback received from the workshop. ”Based on the feedback there is a totally new drive in our development work. We are gathering a multidisciplinary team of professionals and the end-users are also involved in the process. We are also expecting for confirmation of an international partner”, summarises Teija Rautiola from MobiDent team.
The participants received master classes on themes of their interest e.g. user centred design, prototyping, intellectual property rights, financing, sensors, robotics. In addition this stage allowed the selected teams to touch base with the different cities with info sessions and possibilities to reach the end-users in order to validate their concepts.
The contact with the capital cities during the business development stage included workshop sessions where the local and visiting teams presented their concept and products to a citywide audience. End-users were also invited to provide direct feedback. The workshops helped the participants to understand the needs of the cities on a deeper level. The city sessions also included master classes. For example in Oslo, the city representatives talked about public procurement processes and in Helsinki, the participants had chosen the theme of crowd funding. User testing was new to many teams and they needed support to realise why and how it should be done. Meeting with the experts, care professionals and users proved very beneficial information for the teams and enabled them to focus their solutions better on the needs of the end-users.
Finally, the semi-finalists pitched for the jury in December 2015. The top five will run field tests with the capital cities during the first half of 2016. From these five, one team will be chosen as the winner of the challenge competition in June 2016. The winning team will receive the main prize of 1 million NOK (approx. 120.000 EUR). In addition, there will be a 200.000 NOK cross-Nordic collaboration award and a 100.000 NOK student award.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect The Nordic Independent Living Challenge is a platform for creating a new understanding of joint challenges and needs, and serves as a platform to find solutions on a Nordic level, as well as in close cooperation between the demand and the supply side. The Nordic Independent Living Challenge is also a new innovation tool aiming to boost innovation in the Nordic health and welfare sector and at the same time provides access to a joint Nordic market for both established and new problem solvers. The Nordic collaboration and co-creation with cities has not only provided true benefits, but also inspired the companies participating. The aim is to ensure focus upon the end-user during the whole journey.
“We spoke with some of the design experts and other participants, and it made us look at our product in a different way”, said Ingvild Vik from Norway, whose team ended up with brand new design sketch for their MultiPuff solution during the workshop. In terms of internationalisation, the fourth stage of the competition will allow the finalists to test their products or services together with the capital cities. Finalists of the competition are given an introduction to Living Lab test practices and a package of vouchers from which they can select the most beneficial regarding their needs. The Living Lab package will consist of 2-3 mandatory and 5-10 supplementary vouchers for different kinds of tests opportunities.
TAKEAWAY Combining an international competition-based approach with a user-centered Living Lab approach generates innovation in specific areas that is tailored towards both the cities’ and the citizens’ needs.
Nordic Independent Living Challenge The competition is organized by Nordic Innovation and each Nordic capital cities run the local living lab activities.. In Helsinki, Forum Virium Helsinki coordinates the challenge competition together with the City of Helsinki, as responsible of the living lab activities. Forum Virium Helsinki is an innovation unit within the Helsinki City organisation playing a key role in implementing Helsinki’s Smart and Open City strategy. FVH is also an active member of Enoll. www.forumvirium.fi/en @ForumVirium The following individuals also contributed to this case: • Mona Truelsen, Nordic Innovation • Gunhild Sander Garsdal, Væksthuset, Copenhagen • Anne-Mari Sandell, Forum Virium Helsinki
• Anne Romsaas, City of Oslo • Þórhildur Egilsdóttir, City of Reykjavík • Maria Kleine, City of Stockholm
ObesiTIC A local Living Lab project is able to activate an international community of citizens in various initiatives against obesity. The community was formed by means of gamification aspects that triggered the competitive nature of citizens from different cities, whereas SMEs could later tap into these communities with the local Living Labs as entry points.
Background SPORTIS Living Lab (SPORTIS LL), one of the first ENoLL Living Labs on sports, focuses on innovating in the wellbeing and sports sector, supporting the adoption of new communication and information technologies in a sector that seems to easily and quickly integrating them. The main objectives of the SPORTIS LL are: •
To improve quality of life by tackling important societal challenges through the use of ICTs using sports as a facilitator element To support definition of action lines, potential and needs of industry, technology centers, universities, sports organisations, etc. in the innovation environment of sports and wellbeing.
To create a community of knowledge in sports and wellbeing, Contribute to social and economic improvement of the Basque and European society.
Nowadays, SPORTIS LL is particularly focused on involving women and children in different initiatives and projects, among which we can highlight the ObesiTIC project. The aim of ObesiTIC project was to design a new ICT tool specifically for children and teenagers, in order to build healthy lifestyles, promoting physical activity and avoiding health and social problems associated with obesity and being overweight. The tool was co-designed and validated with children and teens following the SPORTIS Living Lab approach. The ObesiTIC project developed an innovative solution that
would enable health related behavioural changes, increase motivation, promote physical activity and reduce continual sedentary time in users, thanks to persuasive and ubiquitous computing techniques.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation Following SPORTIS Living Labâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aim to involve society in the whole innovation process, ObesiTIC was validated by end-users (children and teenagers) in parallel with the development of the application and final product released in order to suit and respect all needs and aspects of the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirements. All along the project a Living Lab methodology with different activities and research steps was implemented throughout the
different phases of the project integrating Exploring, Co-design, and Testing methods. ObesiTIC project has now evolved in different cross-border and local activities, like the People Olympics Initiative and Aktibili Plan (an initiative led by the Basque Government to stimulate regular physical activity and to reduce sedentary time among the Basque population in order to improve their health and quality of life).
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect By tackling important societal challenges (obesity) with economical impact (public health related costs) ObesiTICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development got visibility and recognition, lowering the barrier
for user groups and public administration involvement in the different cities involved (Bilbao, St. Etienne, Rome, Belfast, Coventry, etc). Thanks to the involvement of SPORTIS Living Lab within ENoLL network, SMEs are now benefiting from the opportunity to enter other European countries validating their products and services through different Living Labs. In any case, different challenges have been experienced at the moment: â&#x20AC;˘
the different level of impact on users depending on their level of engagement, independently of the market nature. the need of unification and standardisation in the Living Labs on the internationalisation of the SMEs participating in order to secure a harmonized validation of the product to be tested in the different markets.
Sportis Living Lab is a Living Lab focused on applying communication and information technologies to the sports and wellbeing world, which is a sector that easily and quickly assimilates new technologies. www.netsportis.net
TAKEAWAY Living Labs and Living Lab projects are able to foster (international) communities on certain topics.
Monna A Living Lab constellation of actors focused on a certain topic linked to a spatial locality is able to create its own ecosystem that fosters value generation and value capture among its core actors. This also leads to specific knowledge generation and allows interaction and connection with similar ecosystems worldwide.
Background Bird Living Lab (Bird LL), situated in the Biosphere Reserve of Urdaibai (Basque Country), is the local, national and European hub in developing technology for nature monitoring with the aim of adopting effective public policies in environmental management and biodiversity, and in smart communities’ specialisation. Bird LL’s mission is to: • Lead a network of exchange of goods and services in the field of ornithology and derivate tourism. • Co-create, test and validate ICT products for environmental management and derivate services and scale them up to new markets. • Create a community of knowledge in nature monitoring, environmental management and smart communities. • Generate a dynamic launching of innovation and new business structures in this area, allowing the generation of an emerging sector in which Europe can be leader.
Despite Urdaibai´s territory economic development possible limitations, its location had some great hidden opportunities for research activities. These activities developed by the Bird Living Lab and linked to the potential application of new technologies, gave European entities of Aquitaine and the Basque Region the chance to investigate entrepreneurial discovery possibilities. MONNA project combined technological development for the analysis of bird migrations through European-based emerging technologies in the field of geo positioning in addition to the research and development of a bird monitoring platform for the exploitation of useful data in public science, technology and academic fields, helping to influence the design of public policies on environment issues. In addition to research activities, Bird Living Lab contributed to generate returns in smart economy and social terms, by running related activities: •
One of the projects, which has benefited from Bird Living Lab is MONNA project. What is more, the MONNA project and Bird Living Lab is a best in class example of the potential entrepreneurial smart discoveries that can occur from a combination of a territory’s assets and opportunities at local and international level.
Frontline research in the field of ecology, climate change and biodiversity. Training and education on the environment and biology (ornithology). Testing of technologies that are convergent with scientific, technological and economic uses and potentially commercialised.
Generation of innovation projects based on technologies applicable in global value chains and EU networks such as POCTEFA, ENoLL, EURING, ARTEMIS etc. Tourism, of a selective nature and with high purchasing power, linked to researchers who stay at Urdaibai Bird Center.
The case of MONNA has lead to a clear example of an entrepreneurial discovery that responds to the underlying idea of territorial smart specialisation with a clear benefit for the participating SMEs: •
It involves prioritisation around a specialisation pattern for the Urdaibai area, towards knowledge-intensive activities in attracting high level SME participation. It contributes to the diversification of a rural area towards new and very specialised activities that arise from hybridisation of the Center’s technologies developed together with SMEs, and related activities. It involves a channel to global networks, giving Urdaibai a global dimension in economic, social and environmental terms in opening new markets for SMEs.
Bird Living Lab contributed to the project with the definition and establishment of a Living Lab approach and methodology to speed and strengthen the project development, as well as for prototyping of the ideas and products, as well as for final users involvement in the process: •
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation At the moment, the high tech products developed (the new bird tracking devices and the platform) are oriented towards ornithologists, biologists, environmentalists, amateurs and governments. Whereas the mobile app developed in the project is currently available for free download and is aimed at enhancing Urdaibai’s touristic potential. What is more: • Specific “virtual enterprises” have been identified where business SMEs and partners of Bird Living Lab participated
and cooperated to commercialise the “spin-off” solutions (more than 5). A case study about the entrepreneurial story behind Urdaibai Bird Center and its implications in terms of smart specialization strategies for less developed regions has been developed. The project outcomes have also lead to international collaborative projects helping to scale the initiative.
Co-design of the solutions: implementing a cross border user involvement methodology for the design of all the technical developments (bird track devices, platform and mobile app “urdaibai birding”). Due to the Living Lab methodology implemented Urdaibai Bird Center participated as end-user since the very beginning in all the process together with the technical partners involved in the project. Exploration: Bird Living Lab participated in the definition of the exploitation plan and internationalisation strategy, discovering emerging uses where traceability and monitoring are key and market opportunities such as security, defence, logistics and transport, aerospace, tourism and health (tech hybridisation). Experimentation and evaluation: Bird Living Lab also supported Urdaibai Bird Center and the rest of the partners in the implementation of the scenarios (Urdaibai estuary) and the definition and implementation of the testing and evaluation process which was again a continuous and collaborative process in order to make the interventions and improvements as quick and effective as possible.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect The added value and benefit for the SMEs and rest of partners with whom Bird LL collaborated comes from a threefold perspective: •
In economic terms, the Living Lab acted as a technical and research hub that allowed the testing of latest generation of ICT solutions developed by the partners. These solutions, applied to monitoring regional unique biodiversity, created externalities in fields like logistics, security, aerospace, etc in other regions. In social terms, the Living Lab contributed to the creation of a node capable of attracting international talent from other areas, which in turn contributed to connecting the territory in an open perspective. For this reason, the project development provided the creation of new activities based on tourism, education and environmental education and training. Lastly, in environmental terms, the Living Lab is contributing to ensure the maintenance of the natural character, the landscape, the ecology and biodiversity of Urdaibai Reserve, offering the possibility to be replicated at internationally in other areas.
climate change and biodiversity to training and education, the development of hybrid technologies and innovation initiatives, and scientific tourism. Finally, thanks to the cross border Living Lab approach implemented, the ICT tracking for bird monitoring has been successfully applied to other technological domains (tech hybridisation) with a user centric approach and commercialised internationally through participating SMEs. Also, due to the market potential and ability for market entry of the different products developed, opportunities of international collaboration with new potential end-users and other rural areas in Europe (i.e, Portugal, Extremadura) have emerged, leading to collaborative projects to scale the different outcomes up. In the other hand, some challenges were also experienced, specially oriented towards the lack of Living Lab culture in some SMEs and research centres, and the difficulties of engaging SMEs from other sectors in Living Lab experimentation. In the other hand, some challenges were also experienced, specially oriented towards the lack of Living Lab culture in some SMEs and research centres, and the difficulties of engaging SMEs from other sectors in Living Lab experimentation.
Furthermore, Bird Living Lab has provided a new way of thinking, not just within the project methodology, but also within the project outcomes and potential, re-thinking about the technology developed, giving new uses and expanding their potential market to new sectors and countries, generating new business opportunities. In fact: •
The project innovations have been scaled up to other markets: • Africa (Tunisia, Senegal) • Eastern Europe (Hungary) • Northern Europe Bird LL has provided support on the creation of a European Network of Bird Centres for knowledge transfer, promotion, specialised tourism, education, etc.
Bird Living Lab, situated in the Biosphere Reserve of Urdaibai (Basque Country), is the local, national and European hub in developing technology for nature monitoring with the aim of adopting effective public policies in environmental management and biodiversity, and in smart communities’ specialization. www.beingbird.com
Bird Living Lab contributed also within the project to turn Urdaibai Bird Center’s and its surroundings’ constraints into strengths, by also exposing the area of Urdaibai to international audiences and making it a major centre for international research. This has finally led to linking its frontline research in the fields of ecology,
TAKEAWAY The concept of ‘territory’ can be essential in Living Labs, leading to knowledge creation and innovation potential. Linking of these ‘places’ and replication of their ecosystems fosters international learning and ‘smart specialisation’ activities. 41
NFC Low Cost Classroom Intelligent controller Innovation mostly originates in a specific need from a specific target user group within a specific environment. Living Lab projects help to find possible solutions and give the target user groups an active role in the co-creation and adaptation of these solutions in the given environment, increasing the product-market fit.
Background eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;LivingLab has been created by a Science and Technology Park to foster the hybridisation amongst multiple public and private stakeholders and the users in an open innovation environment and not to limit that only the interaction between companies and clients. The creation of an environment where different companies and R&D groups (from the University and from companies as well) are designing and developing products with the co-creation user support sparks the interaction among all of them to generate more extreme innovation in the point of time where new synergies are created. As of today, eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;LivingLab is running under several overlapping stages:
01. On the one hand, it has built the infrastructure required to design the first sixteen projects (part of the Phase 1 of e’LivingLab): for instance, high-speed network (1Gb) to ease the development of new services and products and hightechnology devices. 02. Development of a Living Lab methodology to be applied to all the projects running at the e’LivingLab that will help to establish Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that will support the positive impact of the LL in the society (local, regional, national and international level) 03. In parallel to stage 1, all the companies are designing their products based on the requirements of the clients of the e’LivingLab. 04. As a second stage, some R&D groups from the University Jaume that have been linked to e’LivingLab with their cocreation and collaborative projects in Engineering Design, Psychology, videogames, and eco-efficient housing.
One of those 16 projects has been NFC Low Cost Classroom Intelligent controller, which consisted of the design and implementation of NFC Low cost access control devices for classrooms at the University, aiming to reduce power and heating consumption during the class activities.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation The NFC Low Cost Classroom Intelligent controller project started as an idea to solve a specific problem of high energy consumption at the classrooms and laboratories, which currently is in launch stage, being used by more than 500 professors.
The following activities have been led by e’LivingLab throughout the project: •
Analysed student passport system (that incorporates NFC) with different NFC readers Testing done with Samsung readers, Arduinos, Raspberry Pi. Design Device box with the feedback from users in order to be friendly and easy to be used. Testing the functionality in all the situations, adapting the device based on the user feedback.
Thanks to the Living Lab methodology applied within the project, the company owning the technology has already started to commercialise the solution in different universities and institutions where access control to rooms is important from the saving energy saving resources perspective.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect The main challenge when confronting national and international markets was, in all cases, the reluctance of users to be observed during their academic activities, which lead to the modification of the initial design of the purpose of the project to reduce users reluctance, improve their adherence and demonstrate the product as an opportunity to improve their teaching activities.
ESPAITEC is the scientific, technological and business park of Jaume I University in Castellón, Spain for the purpose of offering quantitative and recognised contribution to both socio-economic development in the province of Castellón and the diversification of its industrial fabric. www.espaitec.uji.es @espaitec
TAKEAWAY International expansion requires international context validation, iteration and implementation, as differences in context might foster different needs which impact the solution.
Radical By providing the citizens an active role in the shaping and development of the use cases of ICT technologies, this will lead to solutions tailored at their specific needs that might differ based on the local context which might also foster unforeseen outcomes and application domains.
Background Issy-les-Moulineaux is a medium-sized city situated on the outskirts of Paris. In the last few years, Issy has successfully developed and implemented a proactive strategy of innovation to build a local Information Society, which is open to all. The City is supported by the semi-public company Issy Média that serves as a task force for implementing the city’s ICT strategy. With 66,000 inhabitants and 72,000 jobs, Issy stands out because of its particularly dynamic economic fabric. A true Medialand, the city has based its economic development strategy on creative industries in the communications and media sector. Issy is one of the major hubs of the French IT revolution. Issy-les-Moulineaux, through Issy Média, is involved in the European Project RADICAL. This project aims to open new horizons in the development and deployment of interoperable social networking and IoT services in Smart Cities, creating a novel ICT platform which gathers services that could be flexibly and successfully customised and replicated across multiple cities. Thanks to Radical, twelve applications have already been developed in five cities, Aarhus (Denmark), Athens (Greece), Genoa
(Italy), Santander (Spain), Issy-les-Moulineaux (France) and in one region, Cantabria (Spain). Issy Media is one of the smart cities of the consortium, where the RADICAL pilot services have been deployed, validated and evaluated through the Living Lab Community of Issy-les-Moulineaux. Two services have been implemented, tested and adopted by the City through four iterations: 1. AN AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATION The first application has been gone through a first iteration related to user requirements and it has been developed and validated through three testing iterations. To make possible the testing iterations possible, a regular event has been launched: “The Time Machine to travel in the past finally comes true – Digital Paths”. This event has been implemented in the local Cultural Facility (“Le Temps des Cerises”) and promoted by the City of Issy via activities linked to the history of Fort d’Issy. Around 500 test-users have been able to experience this history through an unusual touristic guide, NAO The Robot (developed by a local SME,
Alderaban Robotics), the use of a pair of Google Glasses showing a multimedia experience on the Fort, QR Codes to be flashed with info on the Fort and some multimedia contents (such as a video on the Fort) are displayed on a wide screen. Afterwards, the users were able to provide feedback based on their experience. This led to the removal of some bugs in the system and to the inclusion of improvements such as GPS localisation, which increased the product-market fit of the application.
application is now fully adopted by the City. The app is now regularly used by citizens to report problems, provide suggestions and even congratulate the city services for decisions or activities! This has fostered an enhanced engagement of citizens with the city services and allowed the city to detect citizens’ needs and wants faster and better.
2. AN OBJECT DRIVEN DATA JOURNALISM APPLICATION
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation
For the Object Driven Data Journalism application, the City has chosen an iterative approach with a gradual rollout: •
A first iteration on user requirements that involved around 15 people. • A second iteration for a first internal testing with 10 City employees that tested the application for real for a period of 2 months. • A third iteration including Community Centers (Maisons de Quartier) which involved around 20 people to make further testing and started the inclusion of the application in the City Management system. • In the final phase, the application was launched to Citizens, through social networks, local websites and local newspapers. During the “Forum de Rentrée” (Local Event involving all local Associations), the City had a stand promoting the chance to test the application. This enabled Issy citizens to test the new service and provide feedback. Participation has currently reached around 200 people and the
The two applications followed the Issy-les-Moulineaux Living Lab approach consisting of the following stages: Connect: presentation of the services, communication, networking and dissemination activities and assessment of the potential of the application Plan & engage: search and selection of local partners, description of the current situation, selection of test-users Support & govern: test of the application during three phases lasting 2-3 months each through two different methods: • Workshops focused on training and motivating activities, mainly with schools and local associations • Recruiting, motivating and training activities during local events (Futur en Seine 2014, Heritage Days 2014-2015, Associations’ Forum 2014 et 2015) These two services have been adopted by the city in the
framework of this project and the related Living Lab activity. On one side, the city has now a new service about Augmented Reality, involving a local association (called CLAVIM) that organises entertainment activities with local schools and associations about local history with the help of this application. On the other side, the administration has introduced an object driven data journalism application, TellMyCity, that is now fully adopted by the City. Thanks to this new app, Issyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s citizens are now able to report a problem, make suggestions or even congratulate the city services for a good decision or the provision of a new service.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect The user requirements let the city and the SMEs better define the needs of the city, mainly on the Object Driven Data Journalism application. This information is key to all involved. Additionally, various bugs or technological/contextual issues related to the use of the application have been detected. Moreover, in the beginning the service that should have been introduced was quite different, to the end product, as Issy was supposed to introduce an application on pure data journalism (citizens posting their articles and news) but the city changed its strategy thanks to the collaboration with other cities (mainly Santander) and the results of user requirements iterations. This made it possible to understand that the citizens were keen to have an application which would permit them to report information to city on its management, which was more important than just simply posting their own articles on, as an example, events. To this end, the city changed its strategy and Living Lab planning and subsequently the experience of other cities who were already working on application for reporting to the city (i.e. Santander).
Issy-les-Moulineaux Medialand is a mediumÂ sized city situated on the outskirts of Paris. During the last years, Issy has successfully developed and implemented a proactive strategy of innovation to build a local Information Society which is open to all. www.issy.com @MSatta78 @elegale
Thanks to these Living Lab activities and the relations with other cities conducting their Living Labs, it has also been possible to identify new services that in the future might be introduced, such as a cycling safety applications used in Aarhus.
cycling safety improvement
products carbon footprint management
augmented reality in points of interest
object-driven data journalism
modeling propagation of eco-consciousness
TAKEAWAY International Living Lab projects with pilots in local cities foster contextual shaping of ICT solutions and generate different use cases.
Connecting innovative partners A local Living Lab constellation consisting of different actors organized around a specific innovation domain that generate interesting showcases is able to attract commercial actors worldwide in the given innovation domain. This enables matchmaking and cross-border collaboration.
Background DOLL (est. in 2012) is a new platform for developing future LEDlighting and Smart City-solutions and is founded as a consortium of Albertslund Municipality, the Danish Technical University (DTU) and Gate 21 (a partner organisation of 70 municipalities, companies and research institutions working with green transition and growth). Companies, municipalities and scientists come together in DOLL Living Lab to develop solutions for the future Smart City based on the outdoor lighting infrastructure. The Living Lab is supported by the two scientific labs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Quality Lab (est. in 2013) and Virtual Lab (est. in 2015) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; at DTU to ensure valid measurements of the products and show 3D innovation at an early stage of development.
At DOLL Living Lab intelligent urban lighting solutions and other Smart City technologies are tested and demonstrated in full scale in a live urban environment. The DOLL Labs are supported by the Danish Energy Agency, two Danish regions and through substantial private company contributions in terms of rental contracts and partnership agreements. The main aim of DOLL and the DOLL Living Lab is to create energy efficiency and future-proof intelligent outdoor lighting solutions, and to generate jobs. Through external funding and partner contributions it is the plan that the Living Lab will be a permanent testing and demonstration facility for LEDlighting, control systems and Smart City-solutions.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation DOLL Living Lab functions mostly as a matchmaker and innovation broker between different actors (municipalities, decision makers, large companies, SMEs) with its ‘showroom of technologies’ as a main asset. DOLL facilitates the interaction between the involved companies and stakeholders around the topic of outdoor lightning, thus offering an ‘innovative playground’. DOLL also facilitates many innovative projects that are funded externally.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect The DOLL Living Lab employs cross-border activities with a number of players, typically with companies from Europe, the US, and Asia (China, Taiwan, Singapore and Korea). This enables cross-border activities with cities from the same geographical scope, who visit the lab at a regularly basis. Two success stories:
Global partner Cisco team up with a Danish SME who install Cisco IOT in luminaires together with sensors.
The Danish SME, S-Light, is an innovative, small company that produces its own intelligent street lamps. S-Light contracted one road-section in the Living Lab to show and demonstrate the product. At the same time, CISCO became a partner and installed a City Wifi and router network throughout the Living Lab. The two parties met in DOLL and a dialogue was established. This led to an agreement and contract between the Danish SME and the global giant, which has resulted in the development, adaption and installation of CISCO communication nodes and router facilities in the S-Light luminaires. •
Two SME’s team up and develop a new combined Smart Mast and Lighting solution based on a new design.
Holscher Architects was planning a path for pedestrians for the municipality of Gladsaxe in an area with high crime rates and vandalism. They asked DOLL for help to make lighting a tool to make the pedestrian path safer. DOLL conducted a process with several municipalities and housing companies all over Denmark, who shared and understood the topic. We invited some lighting
companies for this process, which led to
01. A brand new luminaiere and mast design by Holscher Architects 02. A contract between Danish luminaire manufacturer Riegens, Holscher architects and mast manufacturer Priess, bringing the design, materials and competencies of the architects together with electronics, optics and luminaire expertise and solutions from Riegens, putting those elements in the hands of mast manufacturer Priess. The brand new lamp – mast and luminaiere integrated – was named after the neighbourhood and municipality of Gladsaxe ‘The Vaerloese Lamp’. It is now marketed by Priess and Riegens and implemented in the social housing complex.
DOLL Living Lab is a new platform for developing future LED-lighting and Smart City-solutions. DOLL consists of three laboratories: Living Lab, Quality Lab and Virtual Lab. www.lightinglab.dk/UK
TAKEAWAY A Living Lab that proves its thematic excellence can serve as an international matchmaker and knowledge broker in the innovation domain.
Human Cities Crossroads 2015 An international collaboration between design experts, where Living Labs are becoming facilitators by providing the physical platform for innovation. Living Lab methodology transforms producers and visionaries into end-users through a co-creative process.
Background The Design Creative City Living Lab overcomes systemic failures in the innovation process by involving users at an early stage of the development phase, and by creating a trusted environment where small as well as large business stakeholders can meet to test out innovative products, services and business models. It also provides a platform for constructive technology assessment and for exploring societal and policy goals related to ICT and Human Adapted Design innovation in an urban context. The Human Cities project is led by Design Creative City Living Lab within the CitĂŠ du design. The Human Cities platform is a
place of interdisciplinary exchanges for a European network where participants are exploring the way in which inhabitants reclaim the constantly evolving contemporary city. Initiatives include experiments in urban spaces of ways to (re)invent city life, especially looking at wellbeing and quality of life. The CROSSROADS 2015 workshop was a mix of experimentations and reflections of the 12 partners representing the project HUMAN CITIES, designers from the UNESCO Design Creative Cities and International Committee, People Olympics and European Living Labs invited to the 2015 Biennale Internationale Design event in Saint-Etienne.
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation Workshop participants had to assess the conversion of vacant shops and ground floor premises in the Jacquard district in Saint-Etienne, France. Shops in towns are actually impacted by the cities structural changes, and this one of the fields of Human Cities project. It brought together local stakeholders, designers and international networks. It was organized by CitĂŠ du design animated by the Carton Plein association, which occupied B.E.A.U, (temporary urban action office), during the month of the Biennial. The aim of the scheme was to stimulate the emergence of new services and new ways of inhabiting places, to get a district moving and to bring life to its streets. The Human Cities Crossroads
workshop brought international input to the whole initiative and debate amongst the local shopkeepers, creators and economic and institutional stakeholders. During two days, the international guests built scenarios, prototypes and gave ideas to enrich the whole work on the Jacquard district. The B.E.A.U one-month experiment started from an ideation phase and ended at a prototype stage. Prototypes of urban furniture and scenarios for the re-use of vacant spaces were given as practical implementable concepts to the Urban Agency in charge of the renovation of the district. This workshop has created the conditions for an innovative and generous project, reconnecting urban design with the city and its users, enriched with a quest for beauty, usefulness and sustainability.
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect
In order to support the workshop, Carton Plein and B.E.A.U. established a blog where they gathered a long list of references and images of shops from around the world. They requested that people post and share pictures of these places as a means of imagining the perfect scenario for an agglomerated neighbourhood. The pictures posted, needed to adhere to the following requirements: Inspiring unexpected activity; Atypical storefront; Interesting activity; Surprising relationship to the public space; Amazing care brought to facades. The involvement of an international volunteer and passionate audience brought additional creative inspiration and a fresh scent to the designers’ work.
Design Creative Living Lab - Cite du Design Supported by the City of Saint-Etienne, the Saint-Etienne Metropole, the Rhone-Alps Region, and the State (Ministry of Culture), it is a platform of higher education, research, economic development and promotion of art and design. The principal missions of the Cité du Design are: The raising of public awareness of design; the development of innovation through design; design research; the organisation of major events such as the International Biennial of Design
of Saint-Etienne, or annual exhibitions both in Saint-Etienne and abroad. The DCC-LL, piloted by the Cité du design, is an original tool for methods of creation through design and uses. It draws on the support of the Laboratory of uses and practical innovation (LUPI®), an experimental project of the Cité du design. www.citedudesign.com @lacitedudesign
TAKEAWAY Achieving international contribution to your project without financial contribution can sound challenging. Nevertheless seeing the example of the CROSSROADS case, with a creative and smart attitude it is indeed feasible and can bring extra value to your results. 57
MotionCube Great example of a pure Living Lab project where the development starts from scratch - ideation innovation phase - ending up in a commercial and marketable product, laying down entirely on usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs.
Background Innovation initiatives such as Apps4Krk, Malopolska Information Technology Park (MPTI), Krakow Living Lab and Watify are examples of Smart City initiatives strengthening and enriching the Development Strategy of Krakow 2014-2020 and Regional City Strategy, with emphasis on Regional Innovation Strategy as the operational act. The Krakow Living Lab is hosted by Krakow Technology Park (KTP). KTP is a unit responsible for managing the special technology park and in scope of Malopolska Technology Park it provides the infrastructure, state-of-the-art labs, office space and a vaste range of trainings, information and consulting
opportunities for IT sector businesses, research units etc. Moreover KTP is focusing on the internationalisation of activities, especially when it comes to small businesses, which are supported by KTP along with medium and large companies. KTP plays a significant role as regional enabler and facilitator of an innovation driven approach to Smart City development. The main focus and strengths of Krakow LL are the development of innovative user centred and sustainable new public services for increasing the quality of life and wellbeing within different domains (people, living, mobility, e-governance, economy, environment), targeted to different user groups (elderly, children, students, unemployed people, NGOs and so on) and using potential of experience, know-how and
infrastructure of stakeholders: SMEs, administration, universities. Amongst multiple other Living Lab projects and activities supporting SME business development in Krakow LL, we can find the MotionCube educational solution. MotionCube is a new generation of interactive floor combining the advantages of traditional interactive floor (interaction by move) with features that are provided by interactive whiteboards (interaction with light pens). MotionCube, developed by LavaVision (http://www.lavavision.pl), is a 3-year Living Lab project (20142017) supported by the Krakow LL hosting organisation and integrating the City Centre of Art, the Krakow University of Technology and the Non-formal Education Association - MERITUM in the project development.
preparing and sharing the demo version of the interactive floor with 2 potential integrators/customers, user research activities: overview of educational children’s books, a review of educational games and puzzles and creating involving educational applications.
This educational device/solution has been developed based on user needs and requirements: children aged 2-7 years (the target group). The innovative part of the project is to prepare a multimedia solution that fills an identified gap (integrating/ teaching methods and learning patterns of children of that age) and it is intended to develop separate sets of educational applications tailored to the intellectual and emotional development of children, including children with some learning and behavioural disorders (such as autism, down syndrome, ADHD and others).
Living Lab methodology and maturity of innovation
The MotionCube is not just hardware and software captured in a single seat box, but it is developing an entire ecosystem. Five experiments with the interactive floor with its software base applications took place in (2015) during educational, commercial and social events in Poland and two purchase orders have been placed for interactive floor following these tests. By applying the Living Lab methodology MotionCube integrated new user requirements, improved application by identifying potential defects met new potential customer needs, gathered material for marketing purposes (media reports of the experiments, etc.) and has developed an experimentation environment that will allow the product to develop much further, opening new market opportunities and validating new business models.
MotionCube is being developed, tested and taking into the market in the context of a Living Lab project. The scope of the Living Lab project includes: • technical developments: preparing the interactive floor engine and software base applications, preparing the reference hardware device solution for interactive floor for testing and presentation purposes, • development of the experimentation and co-creation environment and user engagement activities: testing interactive floor during 5 events by different groups of users: children in age 4-7 years (play&fun applications) and adults (business applications, creating the experimental space for the interactive engines and applications together with volunteers from City Centre of Art, Krakow, Poland), • development of incubation and B2B collaboration activities:
Highlights and Lessons learned from the internationalisation aspect MotionCube has not gone international yet. As a member of the European Network of Living Labs, Krakow Living Lab has access to a network of labs so this application can be tested in different cultural and educational environments in order to tailor it to different international contexts, creating local markets (results of the local experiments) and at the same time expanding the ecosystem of developers and users worldwide.
Krakow Living Lab Krakow Technology Park is one of the key actors in co-creating and implementing the Regional Innovation Strategy and promoting smart specialization and user-driven innovation approaches in the region. www.kpt.krakow.pl
TAKEAWAY In Living Labs the customer relationship and business models are developed during the product and service co-creation, lowering adoption barriers. 61
references Agewell Case – iMinds & Helsinki Living Lab • http://agewellbiometrics.us/
Djubble Case - iMinds • The app is in the appstore: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/djubble/id899650763?mt=8 and also in the Android Playstore with more than 500 downloads and a rating of 4,7 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.djubble.client.forms • Djubble is also part of the iMinds iStart program at the moment to further develop the company and business model. • http://www.ugent.be/ps/communicatiewetenschappen/en/research/mict/current-projects/djubble-appthat-brings-friends-together • http://www.iminds.be/en/projects/2015/07/13/djubble • http://www.iminds.be/en/news/20150424_news_djubble Logica Case - iMinds • http://www.apollon-pilot.eu/SMEs/homecare/pilot-results • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUDIHnXipkI • https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/whereabouts/id473629650?mt=8 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAc_i4tjaYE • The original idea was shifted completely towards a focus on a mobile app that involved planning/ scheduling and location. A new market was found in the world of sports and • https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/whereabouts/id473629650?mt=8 The app is being used by around 300 Dutch sportsmen. Nordic Independent Living – Helsinki Living Lab • Challenge webpage: www.realchallenge.info • End-user needs analysis:http://www.realchallenge.info/pdf/end_user_needs_analysis.pdf • City needs analysis: http://www.realchallenge.info/pdf/city_needs_analysis.pdf • Personas: http://www.realchallenge.info/pdf/personas_all.pdf
Sportis Case – Sportis Living Lab • www.netsportis.net • “ObesiTIC. Collaborative design for health improvement through physical activity and sports”. Mr. Jokin Garatea, Mrs. Idoia Muñoz. IDeALL case study collection. • “e-Intelligent System for treatment and prevention of obesity in children and adolescents”. Mr. Jokin Garatea, Mrs. Idoia Muñoz. Holistic Perspectives in Gamification for Clinical Practice. • SPORTIS LL and ObesiTIC: Design for All Foundation Living Labs Finalist 2012. http://news.designforall.org/publico/index.php?opc=articulo&article=1691&idioma_article=en
Monna Case – BIRD Living Lab • http://www.monna-project.eu/en/ • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywc6uhqtwM8&feature=youtu.be • “Urdaibai Bird Center Smart Territory” (Monna project. Poctefa) • “Smart Specialization in the Basque Country: A case of entrepreneurial discovery” (Gaia and Infyde)
NFC Low Cost Classroom Intelligent controller - eLivingLab • Word Health Organization (WHO). Physical activity. Fact sheet N°385. February 2014 Radical - Issy les Moulineaux • www.radical-project.eu • www.issy.com • http://seineouestdigital.fr/ • https://www.youtube.com/user/ISSYMEDIA • http://www.issy.com/letempsdescerises
Connecting innovative partners - DOLL Living Lab • http://www.lightinglab.dk/UK/ • http://www.lightinglab.dk/UK/DOLL-news/Media-coverage/ • http://www.lightinglab.dk/Nyheder/Ekstern-medieomtale/
Human Cities Crossroads - Design Creative City Living Lab • http://humancities.eu/ Motioncube – Krakow Living Lab: • Project News: https://www.facebook.com/lavavision • MotionCube online store (in development): http://motioncube.io • LavaVision solutions: http://www.lavavision.pl/rozwiazania/
ACE has received funding from the European Unionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement number 610925. 1 http://europeanace.eu/ 2 http://europeanace.eu/index.php/guides