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Our four models for the magazine front cover: Matilde Flores from Portugal, JosĂŠ Antonio RodrĂ­guez Morales from Spain, Katerina Galani from Greece and Wojtek Gierosz from Poland. Cover photo: Eurico Cavaco (Portugal) Cover photo editing: Ana Isabel Vieira (Portugal) Cover design and magazine layout: Anna Gatkowska (Poland)

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Lifelong Learning Programme Comenius Multilateral School Partnership 2011-2013 “Our lives in the limelight� The project aimed at promoting a better understanding of various ways of European life. Participating teenagers used their own experience, observed different fields of life, wrote articles, took photos, drew pictures, made animations and videos. In the first year of the project they shared information about lifestyles (family, food, music, sport, holidays, hobbies, religion), school systems, school life and their hometowns. Teachers cooperated in a practical and theoretical way, using modern technologies to communicate and different teaching methods . During the visits students and teachers participated in multi-cultural group work such as painting, dancing, singing, designing CD cover, writing articles on different topics, photo sessions, editing videos and presentations. They also had the opportunity to take part in various events such as trips to places of historical importance, folk dance shows, school ceremonies. In this magazine you can find all information we gathered and shared in the first year of the project. The magazine is accompanied by the CD with presentations and movies. To find out more about the project you are welcome to visit the magazine website: www.ourlivesinthelimelight.weebly.com THANK YOU FOR YOUR HARD WORK! Anna Gatkowska - Project Coordinator 3


Contents Comenius teams ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6 First meeting in Portugal ………….………………………………………………………………. 8 Second meeting in Greece ……………………………………………………………………….. 13 Comenius experience and curiosities – Portugal ………………………………………. 18 Comenius experience and curiosities – Greece ………………………………………… 22 Dressed to kill ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 How do teens dress in Poland ?………………………………………………………………… 28 Different occasions different styles …………………………………………………………. 29 The way I dress ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 Brand clothes and the Polish ……………………………………………………………………. 31 Brand clothes and the Greeks ………………………………………………………………….. 32 Brand clothes and the Spanish …………………………………………………………………. 34 Apples or pears? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 35 Thin or fat ? It doesn’t matter ………………………………………………………………….. 36 How to look better being petite or tall? …………………………………………………… 37 Fashion in the 60’s ………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 The time of crazy 80’s……………………………………………………………………………….. 39 How fashion has changed throughout the years? …………………………………… 40 Food and seasons in the south of Spain……………………………………………………. 41 Greek traditional dishes……………………………………………………………………………. 42 Specialties of Greater Poland……………………………………………………………………. 43 A Portuguese traditional menu…………………………………………………………………. 44 Eating habits of students in Kraszewice ……………………………………………………. 46

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Vegetables or hamburgers ?…………………………………………………………………….. 46 We are what we eat ………………………………………………………………………………… 47 Ten ways to be keep fit in Greece …………………………………………………………… 48 Keeping fit in Spain …………………………………………………………………………………. 49 There is no excuse……………………………………………………………………………………. 51 Ten ways to keep fit in Kraszewice …………………………………………………………… 52 Greek school rules ………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 School rules of Junior High School in Kraszewice …………………………………….. 54 National holidays in Greece …………………………………………………………………….. 55 Holidays in Spain …………………………………………………………………………………….. 56 Typical Polish holidays …………………………………………………………………………….. 58 Traditional music and dances in Greece ………………………………………………….. 59 Folk music and dance in Poland ………………………………………………………………. 61 Music and dance in Spain ……………………………………………………………………….. 62 Polish etiquette ………………………………………………………………………………………. 64 Savoir vivre in Greece ……………………………………………………………………………… 65 Lifestyle in Spain ……………………………………………………………………………………..

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Gimnazjum im. Polskich Olimpijczyk贸w Kraszewice, Poland

Gymnasio Neas Artakis, Nea Artaki, Greece

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Escola Bรกsica Integrada Fernando Casimiro Pereira da Silva, Rio Maior, Portugal

Intituto de Education Secundaria "La Arboleda", Lepe, Spain

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Comenius meeting in Portugal 14 - 20 November 2011

Tuesday, 15th November, 2011 Dear Diary, Finally all the partners met at Portuguese school! Students were all very excited to host their European friends and were here at last! We welcomed everyone in our school and our 6th graders played the anthem of European Union in their flutes. Comenius teams got together for the 1st work session; each student’s team presented their country, city and school for everyone. After the morning snack, it was teachers’ time to present their countries’ education systems.

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Wednesday, 16th November, 2011 Dear Diary, For the second day of this meeting Portuguese partners were prepared to go on with project work but were also anxious to show them a lot. So after our morning work session in which we analyzed the logos from each school and chose the one we liked, we also decided on the title for our magazine. At lunchtime we had “Bacalhau à Braz”, a traditional Portuguese recipe cooked by students in a vocational course in our school and offered to all teachers and students in Comenius team. In the afternoon we visited the Sports Training Centre Complex, in which a lot of Portuguese and foreign teams and athletes prepare themselves to competition and also the Saltmarshes and the Eolic park. This was opportunities to show our colleagues how we are concerned with renewable energies, natural resources or ways to stay fit which are topics to develop in the articles for our magazine online. After all that we had the opportunity to know more from the Portuguese culture and from our hosting families.

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Thursday, 17th November, 2011 Dear Diary, Today was the third day together and we learned a lot about ourselves as learners, ways to work together in the same project and a bunch of different tools we can use: we had a brainstorming on learning styles and another one on cooperative learning. After lunch we had an afternoon to know about main Portuguese religion and visited Fátima’s sanctuary, in the centre of Portugal, not far from Rio Maior, and also visited Mira d’Aire Caves where we could admire the beauty of the interior of a mountain crossed by water.

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Friday, 18th November, 2011 Dear Diary, “Sightseeing Portugal Tour” (teachers, partner students and hosting students): all day sightseeing… showing our friends the beauty, the monuments, the wonders of our country! We left Rio Maior at 8.30 am. 1st stop: Óbidos village – guided tour through a medieval village, churches and castle; 2nd stop: Roca Cape (important Cape related to Discoveries and Europe’s most western place); 3rd stop: Cascais city (important beach resort near Lisbon); 1.00pm – Lunch/Free time 4th stop – Lisbon – Parque das Nações (place for the 1998’s World Exhibition) and guided visit to Oceanário (centerpiece of the XXth Century's last World Fair, themed "The Oceans, a Heritage for the Future"); 18.30pm- Return to Rio Maior 20.00pm – Final Informal Dinner (school) offered by parents and Portuguese school (Presents and Certificate’s Delivery)

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Saturday, 19th November, 2011 This was the last day together! Everyone had to say goodbye to host families, the school, the city… but we had one last activity in Lisbon; so we headed to the capital. We went to Diário de Notícias building, one of the oldest newspapers in Portugal. Comenius group attending the meeting were present at the MEDIALAB activity developed by the staff there to schools: students had the opportunity to learn a lot about the development of the written press in our country (and this newspaper in particular); also all the students (Portuguese and partner ones worked in bilingual pairs (as the application in use there was only available in Portuguese) and wrote a different 1st page that everyone took home in printed version.

On Sunday, everyone returned home and, we hope, enriched by this experience in Portugal!!

Anabela Brígida Comenius Coordinatorat EBI Fernando Casimiro Pereira da Silva 12


Comenius meeting in Greece 18 - 24 March 2012 Sunday, 18th March 2012 Arrival of the participants in Nea Artaki. Meeting the host families. Monday, 19th March 2012 Welcome at the Junior High School of Nea Artaki Introduction of the participants / Comenius experience Brief presentation of the Greek traditional system Teachers evaluation of the first part of the magazine related to lifestyle.

Activities of the students 1. Music activity for the students with the music teacher of our school. It helped the students get acquainted and become a multi-cultural team from the first moments. 2. ICT activity in the computer lab on the cover of the first CD attached to the magazine. The students were divided into groups and they designed different covers for the 1 st CD of the magazine.

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In the afternoon there was a visit at the Home of Knowledge in Halkida where the university professor of Astronomy Mr Antonis Antoniou gave a lecture on the Evripus phenomenon (tide) which is unique all over the world.

Tuesday 20th March 2012 Discussing the paper versions of the magazine. (cover, content, layout, preface etc) as well as the 2 attached CDs. The cover of the paper version of the magazine was made. It was a photo of 4 students, one of each country looking up with their hands stretched upwards. Discussion of the progress report handed in at the end of the year and a plan of what to include in it.

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Activity of the students Art activity for the students with the art teacher of the school. The students painted one of the pillars of the school to remind everyone that they had been there. Wednesday 21st March 2012 A whole day trip to Delfi, Arahova and the Monastery of Osios Loukas.

All the participants had the chance to visit Delfi (the belly button of the world) and they were guided to the archaeological museum and site by an archaeologist who gave us very significant information about the admirable ancient Greek civilization. Afterwards they paid a visit to Arahova, a traditional Greek village where they tasted traditional Greek food (as presented in one of the articles) and The Monastery of Osios Loukas, a very old Orthodox church with wonderful mosaics. Thursday 22nd March 2012 Evaluation of the first year of the project. Discussing the rest of the tasks to needed to be finished until May. Developing the evaluation questionnaire (for teachers and students). Participation of students in this activity (what they gained from the Comenius experience). Discussion of the project work for the next school year. Planning the next meeting in Spain. 15


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At night there was the official dinner with a presentation of traditional Greek dances by the traditional dancing group of Nea Artaki. All the partners together became a big team and had a great time. These were wonderful moments we will always remember. Friday 23rd March 2012 Attendance of the festivities of the Greek National Holiday at school. All the participants attended the celebration and had the opportunity to see how a Greek National Holiday is celebrated in our country. Some of the students of our school played music and others danced traditional Greek dances (there is a relevant article in the magazine). Later we all visited the museum of Acropolis in Athens where we admired all the unique exhibits excavated in the area of Acropolis and the Parthenon, the temple of the Goddess Athena symbolizing the ancient Greek spirit and art. We also visited the Greek National Agency and got useful information about Comenius and other European programmes.

Saturday 24th March 2012 Departure of participants. Stavroula Boskovits Comenius Coordinator at Gymnasio Neas Artakis, Nea Artaki, Greece 17


COMENIUS EXPERIENCE IN PORTUGAL Here are a few accounts of how and what students remember from the first meeting. People in Portugal eat soup before each meal and their traditional dish is the cod which is cooked in many different and sometimes unusual ways. They have a early in the morning and kids go to school without drying their hair. At school the way classes take place is different from Greece. There are some ladies who take care of the children during the break and they do other kinds of things too, like cleaning. Olga –Greece While being in Portugal I discovered many differences between the host country and Poland. The first thing I noticed was the amount of food the Portuguese eat every day. I think they eat much more than the Polish, their meals last longer and finish very late in the evening. What’s more, the cuisine is very healthy. In Poland people eat a lot of red meat (especially pork) whereas Portuguese meals are dominated by fish, mainly cod. I also liked the weather which is a lot hotter and sunnier. The Portuguese turned out to be very warm and friendly. I was surprised by the way they greet a newly met person, their openness and spontaneity of expressing their emotions. Polish people are more reserved. What’s more, I really enjoyed the relaxed atmosphere of lessons in the Portuguese school. All activities and trips that the host school organized for us were very interesting. It was an unforgettable experience for me to be the part of the international team and to discover Portugal.

The children in Portugal were like us and we had many things in common. Of course there were some differences like the fact that they had meals at specific times day. At school there was no bell ringing but the kids knew where they had to go every time. During the break there were no teachers in the courtyard looking after the students. Another thing was that there was no central heating at school. Marina – Greece.

Portugal is different from Poland in many ways. First of all, Portuguese student have much more freedom at school. They don’t wear school uniforms and there is not even a bell at school. I was surprised by seeing young people smoking in front of the school building. What is more, Portuguese students seem to be much more opened and straightforward than pupils at my school. They are not so shy and make friends easily. I noticed mosaic on the walls which were really beautiful but I think Polish people prefer more modern style.

Janek Zabiegała—Poland

Patrycja Fiłka, Poland

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When I found out that I go to Portugal I was very happy and a little bit worried at the same time. However, I wanted to visit this country and make new friends. On the first day I met my host family. At first we didn’t talk too much, but soon we were able to talk about everything. My host family was very friendly. They were so kind that I felt at home with them. At school I was treated as an old friend. I made a few friends in Portugal and we still keep in touch. The Comenius project let me visit lots of interesting and beautiful places. When the time of leaving came I was so sad that I was crying. It was hard to say goodbye to my new friends and family. It was a great experience and I will never forget the time I spent there. Julia Chowaoska, Poland

At school there was no bell ringing for the break or when classes start. All the boys had a certain type of haircut which was long and untidy hair. Another different was their starter which was always a delicious soup. Alexandros – Greece.

In Portugal I met a lot of interesting people and I liked them straight away. The Portuguese made a very good impression on me. They are nice, friendly and lead an active social life. I will keep the memories of this remarkably hospitable country for a long time. The time I spent in Portugal was one of the best in my life. It was a great opportunity for all young people to overcome their barriers to communication and develop friendship with students from other cultures and backgrounds. Damian Kurowski, Poland

Children don’t have any homework after school and they don’t go to language centres. Children eat healthily and the number of obese kids is minimal. People have baths in the morning. Pavlos – Greece

In Portugal they have lunch and dinner very early. The way of kissing is different because they kiss from the left to the right. Most of the children have a bath in the morning and they don’t dry their hair even in the winter. Furthermore, they sit down on the floor wherever they want..

Kyriaki – Greece.

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HOSTING AN EUROPEAN FRIEND

Best Experience Ever! Comenius hosting family was the best experience ever! I liked every activity and all the students from other countries. I think that this kind of projects are very important for students’ lives because we can learn and know more about other cultures, people and countries and practice other languages. It’s a great way of learning and a very enriching experience from which we can get a lot of new knowledge. Also the friendship bonds we create are very significant too. We felt like a family, a big family and it was very bad when the end of the week came and we had to say goodbye. I MISS EVERYONE but I keep in touch with some of them. I hosted a Polish girl in my home, Julia. She was an amazing person, really. I enjoyed talking and getting to know her. She showed me photos of Poland and told me about her country. It looks very pretty. I felt a great pleasure when I showed her some parts of our city, introduced her to some of my friends, my school, what I usually do, the food and so on… It’s a little bit strange, at first, but when we created a connection that I want to keep for all my life. That’s the most important, those connections we made, and the most rewarding, too. For more words that I use, I can never describe perfectly what I felt with this fantastic experience and what it meant to me. It’s a pity that just a small part of the students had the opportunity to participate because it’s a very rewarding activity. Beatriz Ferreira, Portugal

More than anything, I consider myself very lucky for participating in "Our Lives in the Limelight" project.

I have nothing to point out wrong about the whole week we were together. The activities were always fun and interesting for both Portuguese and foreign students and they also helped us, the hosts, to know more about our For me it was more than just an ex- own country. change project; it was a way of knowing other cultures, learning to coexist with them and, About the foreign people, all I have to most of all, making new friends. say is that in only one week they really touched 20


all our hearts in a very special way and made us week, we're still in touch with each others, miss them a lot. I believe that I speak for all of which makes me believe that we now are us when I say that while they were with us we a BIG FAMILY! had the chance to create amazing bonds with Matilde Flores, 9ºB, Portugal each other. The students from all the four countries, in my opinion, got along very well. Besides all of this, the Comenius project also helped us training the English and Spanish languages and we also got the chance to be in contact with the Greek and the Polish languages, which were also great. In the end, and even after this amazing

English is, after all, important! The Comenius project is a school exchange project that is designed to promote the contact between schools of different European countries. The purpose of this project is to make it possible for students and teachers in different countries getting to know each others’ culture

by working together for a period of two school years. As far as I’m concerned, Comenius has been a great experience. Apart from practicing our English we were able to interact with other people from different countries and show them our own. My Comenius partner was very nice. Her name is Kiriaki, she is Greek and she was interested in our culture and keen to learn to learn. She was very polite and always smiling! Our guests, in general, liked what they visited in Portugal. But what I liked the most... the greatest fun was to be able to speak and understand what the others were saying and to be able to begin a new friendship! In this exchange we welcomed students from three countries: Poland, Spain and Greece. Our activities were organized by teachers Anabela Brígida and Ana Isabel Vieira. All of them were interesting and even I learned new things. This is a definitely a project I would like to take part again in the future not only because it’s great fun but also because it showed me that my English is, after all, important! This I haven’t realized yet!! Carolina Freitas, 9ºA, Portugal

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COMENIUS EXPERIENCE & CURIOSITIES - GREECE Comenius students – Comenius friends The Comenius Project is a teachers and students Exchange Project. I took part in it both as a host for a foreign student and as a visitor to that same student later on. She was Greek. Both situations are awesome experiences. Our trip to Greece was very nice. Our first two days there were spent in Athens, the capital of the country. Matilde and Beatriz, my two partners in the program and myself, along with our teachers all stayed in a hostel and got to know a bit of Athens. We saw the market, Monuments and took walks all together. It was great fun. When the time came to go to our hosts houses we all were a bit nervous. Although I already knew Kiriaki I would now meet her parents, her school and I would be speaking English all the time. It all went very well. Her parents were very nice and she has a younger brother that is very sweet. Even though her mother and her brother didn’t speak almost no English at all we managed to get along just fine and understand each other. I loved my host family! I visited her school and met a lot of her colleagues. All of them were very nice and I actually made a lot of new friends. The activities we took part in were great fun I loved the whole experience and I would do it again. Saying goodbye, in the, was the hardest part but it had to be done. It was very nice to be with our teachers outside our normal school routine. They are fun people to be with.

I will try to keep the contact and the friends I made in this program. I am curious to learn more details about other countries. We saw that their habits are quite different from ours. On the one hand in Greece people are more “relaxed” about the law. For instance, few people riding bikes wore helmets. On the other hand they all seem to be in a rush all the time. It was a very good experience and anyone that has the chance of doing an exchange program should do it. Carolina Freitas, Portugal

I was a guest in Greece! I really loved being in Greece! It was an amazing experience! It was very strange in the beginning because I didn’t know the family who I was going to stay with, but then I felt as if I was home. The family was always very friendly and careful to me; they often tried to talk with me in English, which was very nice. I really felt like I was part of the family. I enjoyed knowing so many people from other countries, with many different cultures and other ways of living. They taught me many things, for example, the Greeks taught me a dance from their country. It was very funny! The food was fantastic and just so good! Souvlakis, Gyros, yogurts and salads were my favourite. And of course the country is very beautiful. All de Greek art and buildings, the sea, the mountains… It’s everything amazing and very attractive. I miss Greece, I absolutely loved being there! Beatriz Ferreira, Portugal 22


I was a guest in Greece and I loved it! One of the best experiences of my life was going to Greece as an exchange student in the Comenius project. I had already participated in Comenius, and loved it, but this was a completely different reality.

during that time, but every time I arrived

I didn't have to get used to a new reality - except, of course, that I had a guest at my house. In Greece, though, it wasn't quite like that: it wasn't a simple week as a tourist, it was a week as an exchange student, and many things changed. However, it was great in so many ways!

And besides that family, I have many more in my heart. I believe that I made friendships for life. We'll always keep in touch!

home I felt like I was in my own house. I am truly grateful, because now I can say that I left two sisters, a mom and a dad in Greece!

The people were amazing, and very nice to all of us. Everyone in Greece was so welcoming! Not only the Comenius students, but also the people we had contact with every day…

First of all, I had the chance to meet the country: the capital, Athens, and later, other cities. I loved going to all those places, because Greece is a country with a lot of history and, most of all, was one of the countries I most wanted to visit.

Aside from the emotional part we also have the wonderful Greek culture. It was amazing to see that everyone there is so proud of their culture and rich history, and we could notice everywhere that the streets are still filled with History, they still preserve what they've built so Then, of course, we had the family I stayed many years ago. with. Many things were different and strange I’m really thankful for being so lucky… I loved Greece! Matilde Flores, Portugal 23


When I was in Greece I met very interesting people, I got to know Greek culture and traditions. The school was different than the schools in my country. In Poland the corridors aren’t in the open-air, and trees don’t grow in the school yard. I was also surprised by the toilets at school. It was the first time when I saw mandarin, lemon and orange trees . I also loved my host family, especially my host sister. Everyone was so welcoming and kind. Although I was a little homesick at first, my host family made me feel at home. I loved the trips to the Acropolis and Delphi and I was very happy to learn a lot about the Greek history. Thanks to Comenius I not only improved my knowledge of English, but also learned a few words in other languages (Spanish, Greek and Portuguese). It was an unforgettable experience for me. Ewelina Nowicka, Poland In Greece I was hosted by the girl Olga. She and her family were very kind and hospitable. In their house I felt very well. All the people I met were very happy. In Poland I rarely meet so cheerful people. Greece is a very beautiful country. I liked the combination of the mountains and sea. I'd never seen anything like that before I came there. I liked oranges and lemons on the trees. I want to come back there in the future. Sylwia Bachor, Poland I met a fantastic Greek family, which showed me how people live in this country. I could compare life in Poland to Greek life. Now I know that Greek people are more easy-going than Poles. The trip to Greece gave me the possibility to see how students spend their time at school. I was surprised that they have so many private lessons after school and that almost all of them learn to dance. If I had a chance to chose a school, I would go to a Greek school, because I think life there is easier than in my country . I also liked orange and lemon trees in the streets and sunny weather. There were a lot of fantastic ancient buildings. My favourite sights were the Acropol and Parthenon, of course. If I have a possibility I will definitely go back to Greece one day. Agata Cegiełka, Poland

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I noticed a lot of differences between Poland and the host country. The weather was warmer and sunnier so the plants were very different, too. In Poland you can’t see an orange tree when you walk on the streets. But I like these differences. The Greek cuisine and traditional foods were different, too but they tasted delicious. It was one of the best time in my life. I lived with a great host family and I hope that Nikos Spiropoulos will be my friend forever . I loved being there! Everyone in Greece was very nice and helpful. That trip will remain deep in my heart. Wojtek Gierosz, Poland

In Greece we experienced friendly atmosphere and great hospitality of the hosts. Welcoming the Polish group at the airport by the Greek coordinator and the headteacher was a nice surprise. Breathtaking landscapes, the sapphire sea, olive trees, vineyards, mountaintops covered with snow, rich culture of the country and their ancient buildings in Delphs and Athens made an enormous impression on us. We were surprised by the length and abundance of Greek meals and that they don’t drink tea which is the most popular hot beverage in Poland. Maria Ciołek & Maria Sobieraj, Poland 25


One project, a part of me This project has been one of the best things I have done in my life. It was an unforgettable experience full of surprises, laughter, incredible moments, friendships that we are going to remember always, tears, etc. Also it has been a new form of learn cultures and more languages. My experience was in Greece with a lovely girl, Asimina. When I saw her for first time, I never imagined that it would be the beginning of a strong friendship, and because of this I'm very grateful to the project, because they made me have a family in another part of the world. Apart of Asimina, I met more people from Greece, Poland, Portugal and I can´t say which of them are the best because all of they are people with a big heart. The truth is that is impossible describe this experience, so if you have an opportunity like that, accept it, YOU WILL NOT REGRET! Naza

When I was in Greece I saw and discovered many funny things. Now I am going to talk about my experience. At first, I wasn't very happy, but that was changing when I knew people there. I discovered amazing things, as the culture and rules of the study. I met a lot of people that I consider like friends now, I also visited very nice places. Excursions were very funny. We were people of different countries together learning new things in each place, and we even dared to speak in different languages. We did many things that we liked there, like shopping, playing basketball or football, singing (not very well). These were the good things, now the bad: I believe that anyone can have a bad opinion of this experience ,we were together every day, we had good families and friends, but for me, the worst was mathematics in Greek classes because I did not understand anything. I ca not tell you anything more, to know how it is, you have to live it. Manu

My experience with Comenius Project was unforgettable, I would go back again to Greece with my eyes close. My family was very charming with me. Cristina CardeĂąas

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Greece was awesome! That journey made me feel excited and it was an experience that I will never forget, for sure. Things that I will remember l my life was my host family, how they live, and how people live in Nea Artaki. There was some other details I won't forget like there are clothes and mobiles very expensive. In general, my travel to Greece was fantastic and complete! Blanca New friends, new countries, new foods, new experiences, new cultures: I would repeat it again Comenius Project for sure!!!! I miss so much my Greek sister. Sara Borrero

My experience in Greece with Alex was unforgettable I could not imagine that I will live a experience like that one. When I arrived I was very nervous, I was afraid but my Greek family was the perfect family and I felt very comfortable living in his house. When I saw the Greek people I knew that they would be good people and good friends. That was the reason why I was always laughing and smiling soI am not going to forget the moment that we had to say goodbye. It was a bittersweet memory. José Antonio Last March I had the great chance to visit Greece thanks to this Comenius Project. For me, it was very special, not only for travelling abroad but also for the people I met there, the students I could know deeper and the Spanish teachers who made me laugh so much. I had never thought that Greek people were so charming, generous and humble, that the Polish worked so hard or that our Portuguese neighbours were so similar to us. I have learnt a lot from them, and every single one has added to my life a new point of view, a new way of tasting life, even a new way of enjoying my job. And the land, what a wonderful and astonishing land: Greece. How much I enjoyed her views, her history and stories, the variety of food, the dancing and the good talk. It has been a honour, and a pleasure, to live and work there during that spring week, when the gods and goddesses like playing with nature and humanity. Yes, I could feel them all the time, around us, just watching and…I loved it! Mª del Rocío Torres Sánchez, English teacher at La Arboleda High School, Lepe (Spain) 27


Dressed to kill? One of the most important things for the teenagers today is their style. With their style they show their personality and their emotions. First, girls are more worried about their appearance than boys, here the important thing it’s being in style. Nowadays in normal days, for example to go to school, girls dress in a comfortable way but always cute with a handkerchief or a bracelet. However boys only look for their comfort and they only dress with jeans and a sweater or simply with a tracksuit.

Then, we have the special occasions: the parties. Here it is when teenagers’ appearance change completely. It’s sometimes difficult to recognise a girl in a celebration, they normally make up a lot and they use shorts dresses and very high heels. Boys sometimes change a little bit their clothes for a suit with a shirt but in their case, they can be recognized.

At weekends, girls change their normal jeans for a beautiful skirt and heels.

Taking into account that we can change our clothes twice a day, shopping is a common activity in Spain, principally for girls. They normally go with the mothers because they don’t manage money. Mothers usually advice girls about what to buy and do not let them buy certain clothes they think are not very appropriate. Definitely, the clothes mark each moment of our life, especially for girls. And now Their propose is to impress boys, but it’s time to change your clothes and go out to not always it is effective. Boys don’t care so hunt… much about how dress at weekends. They wear the same clothes than at school, maybe they can change the sweat for a pull.

How do teens dress in Poland?

Polish teens like various clothes. Girls try to wear appropriately for the occasion. Boys do not care so much about appearance and even on special events wear casual clothes. However, young people often model on celebrities and keep up to date with the latest trends. On a normal day all students have to wear uniforms. They are navy blue sweatshirts 28


(the same for boys and girls) with a round school emblem, which is sewn on the chest and orange T-shirts with the name of the school. The lower part of the uniform can consist of anything ( jeans, skirts, and leggings). Our students usually choose skinny jeans in different colours. From time to time ‘a colourful day’ is organized when everyone may go to school in normal clothes. It is always the last Friday of the month.

pean countries. However, the clothes they wear highly depend on the weather conditions, individual style, occasions, and their school rules. Agata Cegiełka, Sylwia Bachor, Anna Karkoszka

Different occasions different styles At school celebrations elegant and simple clothes are required. Girls should wear white blouses and black or navy blue trousers or skirts to the knees. The shoes may be on low heels. Boys wear white shirts and ties and elegant black trousers. For these clothes cleaned shoes are a must.

Choosing what to wear can be stressful and difficult for everyone, but it is especially hard when you are a teenager and you want to reflect your personality and style at the same time. Teenagers are in a period of time, when they try to get into a group or a club and it is very important for them to create a good opiAt school disco and for an evening out nion to their friends. with friends teens wear loose and cool clothes. The most popular clothes among girls are jeans, SCHOOL skirts or dresses, T-shirts and jackets. Shoes can Clothes express our personality, our stybe low-heeled or high-heeled but above all, they must be comfortable. Girls pay attention le and our mood. Teens wear different clothes to accessories which make them look stylish. on each occasion. If they go to a private school, Necklaces, earrings, bracelets are very popular they wear uniforms with their school’s logo, but among them. Sometimes they carry bags which if they go to a public school they wear their cacontain the most necessary things. Boys, on sual clothes. At school boys usually wear wide the other hand, do not care so much about the jeans with a T-shirt and girls wear narrow jeans appearance and usually wear jeans, checked in different colors with a T- shirt or a blouse. At national celebrations, students parade and they shirts or plain T-shirts and sneakers. wear a special uniform which is chosen by each All in all, Polish teenagers dress comschool. In our school girls wear black skirts, whifortably and choose fashionable and trendy te shirts with red scarves and black shoes. clothes which are also popular in other Euro29


Boys wear black trousers, white shirts with red hair and they like changing their style. The boys ties and black shoes. don’t care so much about their appearance and they usually wear jeans and sweaters or T-shirts but they want their hair to look good and they spend too much gel to fix

SPORTS CLOTHES When we have gymnastics at school we wear comfortable clothes. In the winter both girls and boys wear tracksuits and trainers. In the summer girls like to wear short shorts and T -shirts and boys like wearing long shorts and wide T-shirts. Many students take part in competitions and win medals. Moreover, our school organizes volleyball, basketball and football tournaments. WEDDING & BAPTISM

Teenagers wear specific brands of clothes such as DC, WESC, VOLCOM, ONEIL, AL STAR, VANS etc… Sometimes they need too much money to buy these brands of clothes, since they want to have all the same style. To conclude teenagers are very sensitive about their appearance just because they want to impress their friends and to express their personality at the same time.

Alexandros Kokopipis, Mary Pachi, Even on special occasion like a wedding, Eygenia Pastira, Vaso Vourdanou, Greece teens don’t wear very formal clothes, but something more comfortable. Boys wear a black blazer with a pair of jeans or they wear a pair of The way I dress black trousers with a modern shirt. Girls wear dresses which come in many styles, colors and My style is very classic I suppose. I love can be worn over leggings with sandals, flats or heels. Sometimes they wear a simple black simple things, light colors, everything very calm and peaceful. And I really like fashion, that’s dress in cotton that is more casual. true MEETING WITH FRIENDS

Teenagers meet with friends in café, in friends’ houses or in the park. Girls wear jeans with impressive blouses or dresses and high heeled shoes. Moreover they use accessories like earrings, bracelets and necklaces. They spend too much time in front of the mirror to do their 30


In my closet I have a lot of shirts and blouses; I prefer the ones with some details or golden/silver buttons and transparent fabric, so I have to use them with a bandeau in white or some neutral color. I really like that kind of cloth, very classic and simple at the same time. But I have many t-shirts too, the most typically teen clothing. I love them with floral patterns, stripes, triangles, feathers, birds, bows, with messages and lace t-shirts too. They always match with almost every type of jeans and skirts and they’re very practical too. But in the winter I can’t use t-shirts so I normally wear a wool sweater, a sweatshirt or something hotter, of course. I don’t like jackets but I have to wear them, so I chose some coat or a blazer (which I prefer) and that’s it. When it’s colder I use saddest colors, like brown, soft grey, black and white. For the bottom I just love denim shorts with an old and vintage appearance, preferably waisted ones or a skirt. I like lace skirts, waisted skirts, with a floral pattern or simple ones. Normally I wear skirts with soft colors like pink and blue or black ones. But like every teenager I have a lot of jeans since light blue to dark blue. They’re very comfortable to use in school and match with everything. I like the skinny ones. They’re really an important garment in everyone’s closet. Other garments that I absolutely love are dresses. They’re very feminine and elegant. I like those flowing ones that make me feel like a princess. To complete the look I always use sneakers, only in the summer I use some sandals occasionally. Sneakers are my passion, I have a collection of them and my favorites are vans. I have them in white (the big part of them), purple, blue, gray and black. Oh, and I can’t live without accessories like earrings, rings, sunglasses, necklaces, watches and bracelets. I like to match them all in a simple and practical way.

Brand clothes and the Polish Are Polish teenagers interested in fashion and do they follow world’s trends? Do they wear brand clothes to look trendy? What’s the reason for buying them? Are they better from the other ones? In January 2012 we surveyed a hundred students (58 boys and 42 girls) from our school to find the answers to the above questions. In this article we want to present and discuss the results of our survey. Generally, Polish students are interested in fashion (71%) and try to keep up to date with the latest trends. What’s more, almost the same percentage of the students think that they look trendy and fashionable. Only 24 per cent of those questioned (mainly boys) do not care about what to wear. Do the students in our school buy brand clothes? When we take a look at the pie chart which shows students’ answers we can easily notice that brand clothes are worn by a lot of teenagers. However, they are not bought on regular basis. Only 36 per cent of those questioned often buy such clothes. Sixteen out of a hundred respondents never buy any kind of brand clothes. Most of the teenagers buy brand clothes from time to time.

Why do students choose brand clothes? For the boys, good quality is the main reason. Some of them want to look like their favourite sports stars. As far as girls are concerned, first Beatriz Ferreira, Portugal of all they pay attention to design, quality 31


comes second. They do not often model on their idols (musicians, models, TV stars). What’s interesting, more boys than girls, choose brand clothing mainly because it makes them feel better and boosts their confidence.

I like buying brand clothes because…? As far as shopping is concerned, almost 82 per cent of the students in our school buy brand clothes in traditional shops, 14 per cent of them buy clothes on the Internet and only 4 per cent go to second-hand shops where they can find cheap and unique garments.

We were also curious why some students never buy brand clothes. In their answers they underlined that they all look the same which ‘kills one’s individual style’. Moreover, those who don’t buy them claim that their qua lity is comparable to no-name clothes which are a lot cheaper. They also frequently mentioned that the price of such clothes is far too The outcomes of the survey show that high. Brand clothes are expensive in Poland teenagers in our school are interested in fashtherefore only a small number of teens can afion and they want to look trendy. They do not ford to buy them regularly. wear only brand clothes to feel fashionable. However, the majority thinks that brand clothes I don’t like buying brand clothes are characterized by good quality. Young peobecause…? ple buy brand clothes provided that they don’t cost too much. There are only few students who do not care about clothes and fashion at all. Klaudia Zalewska, Klaudia Bednarz, Jadwiga Sip Daria Idzikowska, Jan Zabiegała, Paweł Żuberek,

When the students buy brand clothes they mostly purchase shoes. The minority chooses trousers, T-shirts, dresses and jackets. Such choice of clothes can be easily explained. Students in our school wear school uniforms almost every day. Therefore, only their shoes make them look a bit different.

Brand Clothes and the Greeks Do teenagers wear brand name clothing? What’s the reason for choosing brand clothes and not “plain” ones? To answer these questions a survey was carried out in our school with the title ‘’Are brand clothes better?” To

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support our arguments and views, but also to we can say that the selections “better demake them easily understood we have used sign”and “better quality”can only be an excuse. some bar charts and have made some comOn the other hand, 51% of the boys prements. After a research, based on a sample of fer buying brand clothes because they also be85 students of our school we have come to some very interesting results. To start with, on a daily basis in Greece, both boys and girls wear tracksuits, because they find them very comfortable and practical. When girls were asked if they prefer brand clothes to the other ones and why, 72% of the girls answered positively because they think that they are of a better quality and design.

lieve that they have better design, in contrast to the girls who choose them mainly out of quality matters. However, there are also boys, who don’t buy brands mainly because they think that they are far too expensive and that their design doesn’t have any difference from the other ones.

But there were also children, who answered “no” for two main reasons. Firstly, because in their opinion, their design doesn’t have something special or impressive and secondly because they want to be different and dress in a way that represents their character. However, if someone spent a month in Greece he would be able to understand that the main reason that teenagers wear brand clothes is that they want to be accepted as a part of the clique. So,

The most popular brands among both boys and girls are Nike and Puma, which are mainly athletic brands. More than 47% of the girls buy brands less than 6 times a year and spend around 200€ a month on clothes while boys also buy brands less than 6 times a year but they spend only 100€ a month. The general result of this survey is that girls are more addicted to buying brands than boys, who seem to think that clothes should express the personality of a person

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prefer Nike and girls Adidas, but finally Adidas is Furthermore, we can say that generally the most popular. neither the boys nor the girls asked, in our Most people, 58, think that brand school, have a fashion icon. (a person who is clothes are not important but some of them admired for his way of clothing and people feel better when they wear them. want to dress like him/her) Another interesting question is who or In conclusion, we can notice that the opinions about if brand clothes are better differ. According to the majority of the girls, they are better because they have better quality and according to the boys they do not differ from the “nameless” clothes.

what influences people to wear brand clothes. The results are very equalized but the most chosen answer is their friends.

Brand clothes and the Spanish

Nowadays, there are three types of teenagers. The first that love brand clothes because it makes them feel better; the second that don’t like so much, but they use it sometimes; and the third that hate brand clothes because they think that brand clothes are something superficial.

Among teeangers, if one of them wears some brand clothes, in Spain his/her friends want to have the same clothes. Apart from this, Alexandris Alexandros, Almeta Emily,, Avlonitou it is very important the influence of TV, films Olga, Bourou Matoula, Galani Katerina, Lamias and Media in general. They make us believe Angela that if we wear brand clothes we feel better, and this can be seen in the boys and girls´ answers.

The brand clothes are very important for young people nowadays, so we have done a survey to 67 teenagers to demostrate it.

Clothes defines your personality. The people who wear brand clothes feel they are The brand clothes are expensive. more important and this fact can be seen in our survey. The survey has been done to 67 teenag- It is true that brand clothes have a superior ers. quality but the companies abuse of that and When we ask the people if they like establish very high prices. brand clothes, 63 of them asnwer yes, but 55 of We believe that consumers are responthem do not agree with the price, however they sible of the high prices because we continue buy them, a because 39 think that the brand buying them in spite of its very high prices. If clothes has a better quality. we didn’t buy them the price would go down. 41 teenagers sometimes buy brand clothes, and, the others buy rarely. They usually buy them in small shops. The brand clothes that the teenagers use are sportive and 39 boys and girls buy them. The others buy casual brand clothes, 22 buy of them. The rest, 6, buy elegant brand clothes only for special occassions. Another thing is a polemic question, which of these two famous international brands do you prefer, Nike orAdidas?.In general, boys 34


And what about apple shaped bodies? In this case we find people with wide waist and wide trunk with thin extremities. For example, Kate Winslet and Sylvester Stallone, have got an apple shaped body. Just like them, you should take advantage of your thin legs with miniIn conclusion, we must buy the clothes skirts, and hide your hips by wearing loose and we can afford and with which we feel better, long shirts. don’t think if it is brand clothes or not. (Don't forget dark colours on the top and light colours on the bottom). Carolina Morales and Sara Muriel

APPLES OR PEARS? How many times have we dreamed to have a 90-60-90 body? There is not a body prototype both for men and women. In fact, there are many body types, such as the hourglass, inverted triangle, oval, rectangle... However nature has wanted most of us to be shaped in apple and pear bodies.

Even though designers try to show a perfect body based on thinness, perfection does not exist and each person has to feel comfortable with herself or himself. Even if you are thin or fat, you have to find a way to look good. Each person is free to use any kind of clothes and can or cannot follow the standards imBut, what is a pear shaped body? posed by fashion wearing clothes that make People with broad hips and broad legs and you feel good. whose busts and shoulders are narrow. Just remember: WE ARE WHO WE ARE, For instance, Beyoncé and Michael Phelps are SO LOVE YOURSELF! clear examples of this type of body. So if you LINKS want to look an elegant breast and reduce your 1) www.guioteca.com/mujer/mujer-pera-o-mujer-manzanasize, use V neck or wear skirt or straight trou- 2)medtempus.com/archives/los-hombres-son-mazanas-las-mujeressers to hide your hips! Moreover, light colours peras/ on the top and dark colours below will improve 3)http://www.hagodieta.com/2009/08/trucos-para-adelgazar.htm l your style. Sara Borrero Walaf (16), Cristina Cardeñas (16), Spain 35


Thin or fat? It doesn’t matter

around your neck rather than contrasting a thick shawl with thin arms. Wooden bracelets will make your wrists look bulkier and less tiny. The way we dress plays an important Fashion tips for fat women role in how we look. Not only do we look more professional, trendy, and relaxed, but we can also look slimmer than we actually are. Some genetically inherited things cannot be changed, but the right clothes can do wonders. Whether you are thin or fat don’t worry, we’ve prepared some fashion tips for fat and thin girls to achieve a confident, gorgeous result when lookIn order not to look fat wear clothes and ing in the mirror. accessories that have vertical lines to makes Fashion tips for thin women you taller and slimmer. You could also use jewYour body has to have the right curves. ellery, bright or patterned scarves or colorful So you should wear very tight close cuts or shoes to certain parts of the body. For example, longer, bigger cuts to make you look wider. If draw attention to the top half of your body by you do that your body will be able to look howwearing dark or neutral pants with colorful ever you want to. Except for that, the right blouses. Don’t wear clothes that are too large. colour is a very creative way to elect your body. You will look bigger than you are. The A-line If you want to look wider you can wear bright skirts will make you look slimmer and taller. It is colours (red or yellow) or even neutral or light necessary to wear straight leg jeans or pants so colours and play with contrast. It is essential to as to give your body a continuous vertical line wear horizontal stripes if you are tall. and make you appear slimmer. It is essential to pay attention when you choose accessories and shoes. Shoes with heels of at least one inch can lengthen your body. Long necklaces and scarves around the neck contribute to a slimming vertical line. Whatever your body type, use in a proper way your best features and emphasize those you don’t love quite as much. Dress to show your body shape, but don’t try too hard The right fabric is an important key for because you don’t want to look like a person your body. Thick fabrics, soft and flexible are without taste and personality. the best for you. For example team a silk blouse Marina Kontou and Kyriak Batzali, Greece with jeans or a plain cotton t-shirt with linen trousers or a satin skirt. The right accessories can highlight your slim figure, elegant neck and lean legs and add volume if they have horizontal lines. Apart from necklaces you can wear wide belts so as to stress your body. If you have very thin arms, wear a little scarf knotted 36


How to look better being

For some women their height is their best attribute which allows them to make a career in petite or tall? fashion industry. Nevertheless, there are still some girls who don’t like being in the spotlight because of being very tall. Some clever tips can Nowadays almost all people in the world help them look shorter. pay attention to appearance and the way they look and dress. They improve their appearance in various ways. They go to beauticians, hairdressers and even have special diets. Both men and women do exercises or go to the gym to keep fit. What’s more, they even decide to undergo plastic surgeries. However, clothes are still the most accessible and popular form of making people look better. Wearing the right outfit may increase one’s confidence, influence the mood and help to express one’s identity and most importantly it can accentuate best features and minimize the areas that one wants to de-emphasize. This article will give petite and Tips for tall girls very tall women some simple fashion tips on You will look great in wide dressing for their figure. belts. A wide belt around A petite body shape means being short. your waist will keep the However, it can also mean that you are slight all proportions of your body. over. Luckily there is a wide choice of clothes available for petite women nowadays. But still Long legs look great in leggings or skinny jeans. This they should keep in mind the following rules. can make other girls envy of Tips for petite women your look. Wear straight-legged trousers or jeans. They Avoid wearing the same will elongate your body and make you look colour top and bottom. This draws attention to slimmer and thinner at the same time. your size. Don’t wear clothes from thick fabric. It always Try not to wear baggy clothes or clothes with adds extra weight. straight lines. They make you look longer. If you Monochromatic clothes will make you look want to wear a baggy top - team it with skintaller. nies; and if you like wide trousers, wear them Don’t wear too much jewellery and too many with a fitted top - never wear baggy top and bottom! accessories. Knowing these simple rules and followDon’t wear long skirts which make your legs ing them can make your life easier and happier. look shorter You will definitely feel better when you look the Add inches with a pair of heels but don’t way you want despite some imperfections. exaggerate. Patrycja Fiłka, Ewelina Nowicka, Julia Chowaoska, Poland 37


Fashion in the 60's The 60 were the years in which the adolescents expressed themselves freely. Known by his political activities of big changes in many countries of the world, the decade of 60 not only influenced the political and cultural scenery, but also the way of dressing up to today. In the decade of 60 the main feature of fashion was its variety in styles man. That is why an enormous group of subcultures were generated. At the beginning of this decade, fashion was strongly influenced by the movies with beach subject-matters. This new approach of the culture of surfing is reflected on the popu-

With his anti war philosophy and his ideology of a Utopian society, the hippies turned into a basic element of the fashion of the 60s. The bell bottom jeans, dyed T-shirts or flares came on vogue. The incredible thing is that this outfit has turned into the basic clothes of daily use of the majority of people worldwide, of course, with his variants and adaptations. The 60s had a big impact mainly in the USA, with his protests against the war of Vietnam and the laws of segregation in this country, but this revolutionary spirit became everlasting in the field of fashion and without a doubt, on the minds of the people.

larity of the bikinis and T-shirts. Also thanks to this, the mini-skirt arose at the end of the 60s and nowadays it is still very popular. The emergence of the Beatles also had a big influence on the fashion, specially due to their dressed up aspect and their hairstyle. The 60s were the years when the rock and roll became very popular and the aspect of the members of these bands had a big impact on fashion. The bands of psychedelic rock of San FranIn conclusion, the fashion of the 60 with cisco were very influential. the current one differs that earlier was a freer style there was not mattering the form in which 38


you were dressing whereas now only you look ual style they were matched up with loose you belong to a group partner outsider does jumpers and sweatshirts, and in formal style not feel. they were worn with sequin dresses and tunics. The leggings were in different colours and patManuel Antonio Morgado Martín ,José Antonio Rodríguez terns - plain, glittering, striped, leopard spotted Morales, Spain or polka-dotted. A tight body, which looked like a swimsuit, was also put on.

The time of crazy 80’s Fashion changes every season and brings novelties. However, fashion designers often tend to draw inspiration from previous trends. In this season we can spot plenty of garments which resemble the 80’s look. This article will focus on that period and explore its style.

Accessories, that were worn in excess, played an enormous part. Huge bows and bracelets were very popular. Sequin belts, wide headbands, colorful gloves and varnished bags and shoes were often worn. The whole appearance was emphasized by expressive make-up, backcombed hairstyle and plastic jewellery.

The fashion of the 80’s inspires presentday fashion designers. Clothes, which are less eccentric are the base of style for a lot of people. For example, leggings and skinny jeans have been fashionable for a few seasons. Sweatshirts and bat jumpers, which were designed in the 80’s, are very popular nowadays. Moreover, the accessories from that period appear nearly each year among the newest trends. As you can see, the 80’s have introGeometrical patterns, printed designs duced a lot of novelties to fashion and many and excessive accessories dominated fashion. trends exist up to this day. Leggings were the base of most outfits. In casJulia Chowaoska, Poland The fashion of the 80’s is mainly associated with kitsch and exaggeration. It is sometimes called ‘the time of crazy 80’s’. Clothes were sparkling and colorful, hairstyle and makeup attracted attention. The style of the 80’s was closely connected with disco music. The icons of the style were Madonna and Michael Jackson, who were famous for their eccentric outward appearance.

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How fashion has changed

impressive colours and shiny fabrics.

throughout the years

Late 60’s

Fashion was from ancient times an element of culture of different countries. In the past each country had its own fashion unlike the present days where fashion is common for countries all over the world, with a small presence of tradition. Fashion changes all the time with each decade having its own characteristics. Let’s have a look…

By 1968, the androgynous hippie look was in style. Both men and women wore frayed bell-bottomed jeans, tie-dyed shirts, work shirts, headbands and sandals. Another popular look for women which lasted into the early 1970s was the suede mini-skirt worn with a French polo-neck top and square-toed boots. Long coats appeared at the close of the decade. Animal prints were also popular for women in 1969.

Early to Mid 70’s Early 60’s The decade began with a continuation In the early 60’s women preferred to of the hippie look. In addition to the mini skirt, wear suits, usually in pastel colors, with short mid-calf-length dresses called “midis” and anboxy jackets, and over-sized buttons. Simple, kle-length dresses called “maxis” were also geometric dresses, known as shifts, were also in worn in 1970 and 1971, offering women three style. Formal clothing that period consisted of different skirt lengths. In 1971, extremely brief, tight-fitting shorts, called hot pants, were a fasfull-skirted gowns. Concerning the casual clothes, women really liked calf-length trousers hion craze for young women. and Stiletto-heeled shoes. Late 70’s Mid 60’s After the introduction of mini-skirts in 1964, fashion changed forever. Every stylish woman of mid 60’s had to wear mini skirt. In Styles and fashion was influenced by the whole 1964 the “space look” was introduced, with trodisco thing. Men had a habit of wearing threeuser suits, white boots, goggles, and boxpiece suits whose characteristics were wide lashaped dresses. These were mainly designed in pels, flared trousers, and high-rise waistcoats. 40


The zippered jumpsuit was popular with both men and women, and clothing inspired by modern dance also became common. In 1978, there was a strong craze for trousers made of plastic. Designer jeans with straight, cigarette-legs, and painters’ pants then came into style.

WINTER HABAS CON CHOCOS

80’s decade In the early 1980s both men and women began to wear looser shirts and tight, closefitting trousers. Men wore power suits as a result of the greater tendency for people to display their wealth. Men also grew moustaches due to the influence of television. Mediumlength hair was common for men. However, very long hair for men became fashionable in the late 1980s due to the influence of Heavy Metal music.. Brand names became increasingly important in this decade, making Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein household names, among others.

Who can resist a delicious dish of beans with cuttle fish made with ingredients from our gastronomy? This dish is very typical of our culture because these are local products from our land and our sea. On a cold winter day there is nothing better than eating this fantastic food whilst sat around a warm fireplace with friends and family. With its great taste, this dish attracts many young people and one that you can cook at any time without any difficulty.

The preparation is quite simple, just a Alexandris Apostolos Alexander, Asimakopoulos Vasilis , little salt, bay leaf, garlic, olive oil, white wine Vogiatzoglou Natalie, Greece and of course beans and cuttlefish. We can also say that it is healthy because it is high in energy that will help us in our growth. My grandmother every time she makes this meal always Food and seasons in the says:

south of Spain

“Recipes are not exact, you should improvise and adapt them to one another”

Traditional Spanish cuisine is very extensive. Due to our southern location we will focus on typical dishes that the Andalucía region offers. As we know the year has 4 seasons and it is clear that during these four seasons we don’t eat the same food, therefore, we will present two typical dishes from Huelva and Cordoba, two provinces in Andalucía.

SUMMER

SALMOREJO 41


Sumers in Spain are very hot, especially in the parts that are not on the coast, but because we live by the sea in Lepe we have the advantage of going to the beach to cool down. Many tourists come to this part of Spain to visit the marvelous beaches and additionally to eat some of the wonderful food we offer. Salmorejo is a typical Andalucía cold soup which is made from garlic, tomatoes, breadcrumbs and oil and on top slices of egg and ham. It is a very refreshing dish which is perfect to eat in such hot weather conditions. It can be said that in Andalucia there are a vast number of different dishes. However, if you are still not satisfied with our suggestion, you can try one of our delicious typical puddings, ‘Torrijas’. If Torrijas don’t do it for you then you’ll have to come here to see for yourself.

Greek traditional dishes

The people in Greece look forward to this fascinating celebration since they know that they will taste these delicious sugared buns. This sweet is not difficult but if someone wants to cook them, they should have some cooking skills to become delicious. Sugared buns consist of simple materials which anyone has at his\her house such as sugar, flour, butter, almonds etc. When sugared buns are made by someone, he/she should have much time and good mood!

EASTER This celebration is not as happy as the Christmas period but anyway it is an important celebration for our religion … The cold night of RESURRECTION we go to the church and after that we go back home. There, we eat a hot Greek soup called “MAGEIRITSA”.

GREEK SOUP “MAGEIRITSA” Traditional Greek cuisine has got a variety of healthy dishes. In the two of the most important religious celebrations (Christmas and Easter) we cook and eat different dishes.

CHRISTMAS In this period of the year we make speThis separate dish is very tasty, but it is cific recipes and we cook many traditional not so popular with small children as it is made sweets such as… of a special meat “lamb intestines”. Furthermore it consists of lettuce, onion, rice, eggs, Sugared buns: lemons, oil etc. It is difficult to make and it needs a lot of time to prepare although the materials are used easily. However, all the Greeks eat this delicious dish this day!

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So we can understand that you don’ t need savory ones such as sour cream, cottage cheese many ingredients to cook these delicious dishes or sweet ones such as sugar or honey. but the main and the most important secret to have a successful dish, is to cook it with care and love. Generally in these religious festivals friends and family gather to eat and have fun. All Mediterranean people have this custom and in other continents too! This gathering of friends and family is part of our tradition since ancient years and we have to be proud of conAnother flagship dish of Wielkopolska is tinuing it! ‘pyry z gzikiem’ . There is no person who would Batzali Kyriaki, Milioti Athena, Ntegianni Asimina, not have tasted it. This dish is prepared from Pachi Mary, Pastira Eugenia, Greece boiled jacked potatoes and cottage cheese mixed with sour cream. You can add chopped Specialties of Greater Poland chives and radish. It is served hot with an addition of some butter and salt. What is interest(Wielkopolska) ing, jacked potatoes with cheese are traditionPolish cuisine is very diverse and ally eaten only with the use of a hand and a each region of Poland has its own specialty. knife. Greater Poland (in Polish Wielkopolska) is on the west of Poland. There is the largest number of farms and the region is famous for food production, especially potatoes, which has a strong impact on the region’s cuisine. The most popular dishes in Wielkopolska are made from potatoes. We can recommend potato pancakes which can be eaten for dinner . Their preparation doesn’t require good culinary skills. To make them you need a kilo of potatoes ( or more if you are very hungry), two eggs, four tablespoons of flour, some salt and oil for frying. First peel the potatoes and the onion. Then grate them, add the eggs, flour and a pinch of salt. Finally, mix all ingredients. Drop the potato mixture onto the frying pan and then flatten with a spatula. Fry the pancakes for 3 to 4 minutes on each side until they brown. Serve them hot with different toppings:

These are just some examples of a very rich cuisine from this region which is characterized by its simplicity and the use of the local products. However, entering a Polish home, you will be greeted with sumptuous meal which will combine not only local dishes but also foods including ingredients that foreigners may find rather exotic such as dried mushroom, sour cabbage and cucumber, cereals, curdled milk or sour rye. Here everyone can find something for himself or herself and each meal can be a real treat for the palate.. Smacznego! Sylwia Bachor, Agata Cegiełka, Kinga Kubera, Marlena Miller, Poland

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A PORTUGUESE TRADITIONAL MENU Starter

Codfish bullets How to Prepare:

1.In a pan boil the potatoes in water with a pinch of salt. Once cooked, remove the potatoes and mash them. 2. In another pan with water also boil the cod. After it's cooked, remove it to a plate and let it cool. When cold, clean the bones and skins and shred it. 3. In a saucepan, cook the mixture of onion and garlic in olive oil. Let it cook slightly, just to brown without burning. After a while add the cod to the sautĂŠ onion and cook slowly until the cod get totally shredded. Stir occasionally to help cod to shred. 4. Add the cod and parsley to potato puree. Add pepper and nutmeg as you like and mix well. Add one egg at a time to cod and puree mixture and stir everything well. The dough should be well connected and consistent. 6. Have 2 tablespoons through olive oil and take a spoonful of dough. Pass the spoons to scoop the dough until it is in the best shape. 7. Fry in hot oil. Turn the cakes to fry on both sides. Once fried, place on a plate with absorbent paper. You may eat them hot or cold.

Soup

Green soup How to Prepare:

1. In a saucepan with 2 liters of water place the potatoes, onion, garlic cloves, half the olive oil and zest with salt. 2. Cook for 30 minutes to get everything well done. After everything is cooked smash it all with the magic wand. 3. Add the thin sliced cabbage and let it cook for 20 minutes. Meanwhile cut the smoked pork sausage into slices. 4. Finally, add the remaining olive oil and sliced smoked sausage. 5. Let it boil for 2 minutes and it’s ready to serve. 44


Main Course

Codfish Bullets How to Prepare:

1.

In a saucepan of boiling water,

place the cod and cook for 10 minutes. Once cooked, place the cod on a plate and let it cool. Clean the cod bones and skin and shred it. 2. In a large pan, put the oil and lightly fry the onions (without burning). Halfway through the stew add the chopped garlic and bay leaves. Let cook. 3. When the onion starts to become transparent add the cod and mix it with the onions. 4. Meanwhile, break the eggs, beat them a little and add a pinch of salt and pepper. 5. After a while add the cod and let it fry a little. Then add the potato straws and mix. Let it warm up a little and add the eggs. 6. Keep the heat low to avoid burning the bottom and the eggs are not far past. Wrap it up and add the chopped parsley and a few olives. Allow 30 to 45 seconds. 7. Finally, put in a platter and garnish with olives and a little chopped parsley to serve.

Dessert

Sweet Rice How to Prepare:

1.

In a saucepan, bring water to boil and the rice.

Zest with a little salt and cook until water dries. 2. When all the water has evaporated, add the butter, lemon peels, milk and cinnamon sticks. Stir and cook for 30 minutes. Stir occasionally not to grab to the bottom. 3. After 30 minutes add the sugar and stir. 4. Dissolve the yolks with a cup of milk. While stirring, add the egg yolks to the rice and when it starts to bubble turn off the heat. 5. Fill dessert bowls with it and take it for a while into the fridge. When cold, sprinkle with cinnamon and it is ready to serve.

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teen are homemade and they conEating habits of students tain everything a teen’s body needs. in Kraszewice What’s more, they are cheap and cost Teenagers need a lot of energy to study as much as two and cope with everyday tasks and activities sweet rolls . both at school and home. What’s even more Eating habits of the students are also important, they still grow and their bodies change rapidly. For this reason, they require a influenced by the menu of a fast-food restaugood diet which is a balance of fats, proteins rant in our village. A lot of pupils from our and carbohydrates. But do they really eat what school spend their free time there. They meet is good for them? In this article we will examine friends, relax and eat something. They can oreating habits of middle school students from der hamburgers, hot-dogs or casseroles. The food there is yummy, but is it healthy? Kraszewice. Some students in our school eat good quality products which can be easily spotted by looking at what they have in their lunch boxes. Healthy sandwiches and fruit can be fund there. Unfortunately, there is a large number of pupils who don’t mind eating junk food. They usually have unhealthy snacks such as crisps and sweets (especially chocolate bars). And for breakfast they choose sweet rolls or doughnuts. To make the matter worse, a students’ shop in our school offers only sweets, fizzy drinks and crisps. There isn’t any healthy food such as fresh fruit or fruit drinks.

To sum up, in our school and in the fast food restaurant we can only buy caloric snacks which don’t have any vitamins. Fortunately, the canteen offers hot and healthy lunches for students. It is very important to choose foods that contain a lot of vitamins and other nutrients. In this way we can grow well, avoid health problems in the future and stay fit and slim. Daria Idzikowska, Agata Cegiełka, Sylwia Bachor, Poland

Vegetables or hamburgers?

Over the last decade it has been one of the most controversial issues. But what is really On the other hand, lunches at school are meant by healthy and junk food? What should very healthy and tasty so everyone can find we consider as the best? And why? something delicious for himself or herself. We By saying healthy food we mean food which have only one course lunch and something to contains a large amount of vitamins, trace mindrink. But lunches offered by the school can- erals, iron, calcium and generally the food 46


which is on the base of the food pyramid. Some examples are fruits, vegetables, cereals, dairy products etc. The consumption of this certain type of food is necessary for the human body, in order to be healthy and it must be on a daily basis.

unhealthy choice of junk food. Especially here in Greece, there is a traditional type junk food, giros and souvlaki. Every time people want to hang out with their friends for food, the cheapest choice is giros. For all these reasons Greek people hold the first place of obesity in Europe and one of the highest on an international By saying junk food we mean the food which contains large amounts of fat, lipids and level. cholesterol. As the human body cannot value To sum up, the battle between junk those fats, they are stored as extra fat and as a food and healthy food is a strong and contemresult we become heavier. Junk food is usually porary issue. Definitely healthy food is the best, the food served in fast food restaurants but nowadays people don’t seem to consider (hamburgers, sandwiches, pizzas) but it also in- that. They put pleasure and money in a higher cludes soft-drinks, crisps, sweets and so on. position than health and this has terrible results. The only solution would be a government campaign against junk food and a reduction in healthy food prices. Alexandros Alexandris, Emily Almeta Antzi Lamias, Natalia Vogiatzoglou, Greece

We are what we eat Needless to say that the best and healthiest choice is not junk food. As we have already mentioned the huge difference concerning the substances each type of food contains, is what determines the best. Maybe junk food is m0re delicious, maybe it is cheaper but we shouldn’t care about its price and its taste. Its nutritional value is what we should care about.

Salad or pizza? Chicken or hamburgers? Fruit or ice-cream? What do you prefer? Most people, especially young people, have a very clear answer…. The junk food! But, do you think this is the correct election?

Nowadays people know that it’s necessary to have good food habits in order to have a good health, but sometimes it’s impossible to Greeks are unfortunately great fans of follow a strict diet. Many people don´t have junk food , as you probably know. Lack of time time to prepare their own food because both and money is the reason Greeks are led to the men and women are working; they eat directly fast food and in many occasions this type of food becomes addictive. This happen in adults and in young people. For example, children in the school hardly never have breakfast but t they wear or buy 47


sweets to have during the break. It is very com- Food” What kind of person do you think you are mon to see in the schools children and teenag- or will be? ers eating snacks or fizzy drinks. It is very strange to see students eating for example a piece of fruit. 10 ways to keep fit At home it also happens the same; some parents give to their children pastries or tidbits People’s ambition was always to look without being conscious of the damage they are nice and thin in order to be attractive, so that causing in their children´s health. other people like them. Even though some things in external appearance are difficult to change, there are a few things people can do to keep fit. Take a look! Being "fit" essentially means being able to perform well in a wide variety of physically taxing circumstances. For some people, it also means being able to "fit" into their favorite clothes, while for others, it's just getting in shape. Either way, if you find yourself running out of breath when doing simple things like walking up a few stairs or playing catch, it's time to improve your physical condition. In the world there are many cases of obesity, for this bad habit. Very young children are 1. Get into the habit of thinking healthy. The obese and authorities in Spain are taking charge key to stay in shape is not to overindulge in eating foods, consuming drinks and doing of the matter. other activities that are not good. People take too much meat and sweet, and don’t eat fish or vegetables that are important 2. Eat slowly. The more slowly you eat, the less for a healthy diet as well as vegetables and fruit you consume. It takes a while until the brain which give you nutrients that reinforce your sends the message that you are full. defenses and prevent illnesses.

3. Vegetables and fruits are your friends. Okay this is a cliché; however, it is an important one to follow. They contain plenty of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibres whose deficiency can lead to plenty of illnesses and they are also useful for the right function of the digestive system.

4. Bread and starchy foods should be acquaintPeople should reflect on a phrase which says: ances. These foods, such as pasta and pota“We are what we eat” so if you often eat “Junk toes are a part of any good meal, but that’s 48


where they should stay. They can go directly to Determine how many hours of sleep you need in order to feel refreshed in the morning, then your belly if you overindulge. discipline yourself to wake up and go to bed at 5. Find healthier snacks than sweets. Candy is the same times on a daily basis. delicious. It is among the greatest tragedies of life that candy is also bad for you. An occaHope we have helped you with this advice! sional candy is fine; however, snacking on them is a terrible idea. There are plenty of alGalani Katerina, Avlonitou Olga ternatives, for example one wafer made of rice Asimakopoulos Vasilis, Bourdanou Vaso accompanied with cheese or carrot, cucumber Asimakopoulos Stephanos, Bourou Matoula, and celery with ½ cup of cottage cheese. Greece 6. Drink water. Human beings are mostly water. Water allows you to stay hydrated; it is much healthier for you than coffee or soda. Keeping fit in Spain Beyond that, it’s also very healthy when it comes to exercising. First time exercisers should be careful to drink plenty of water, but Nowadays, 2, 8 million people in the we should also drink at least 8 glasses a day. world die every year because of obesity. This is 7. Find an active hobby you enjoy. It doesn’t a big problem which is affecting more and more matter what it is, whether it’s hiking, yoga bik- people in the world. In Spain there is a new TV ing, dancing, playing football or basketball, program called “El Estirón” that helps parents there is something out there for you to enjoy who have children with problems of obesity to instead of sitting on the couch and playing watch their diet. Parents and people in general should take care of themselves not only to be video games or watching movies all day. attractive but above all to be healthy. Many 8. Walk to school, don’t drive. If you plan people think that to keep fit they have to do ahead of time, there is no reason why you hard trainings, follow strict diets and take many can’t take some extra time to walk to school. medications, but this is not true. It’s a good way to take off some calories and if you have company it is also a good way to To keep fit you only have to follow some easy instructions and to have the willpower to do it. have fun! 9. Keep track of your progress, and be proud of minor improvements. Don't be discouraged if you stop losing weight or if you have a few setbacks; remember that overall, you've put yourself on an upward trajectory and that's definitely something to be proud of. 10. Let your body rest. When you're giving your body a run for its money with varied physical activities, you also need to let it recover and renew by getting a sufficient amount of sleep.

These ways to keep fit are: 1. EAT HEALTHFULLY: You have to eat a varied diet with all kinds of food, not only the ones you like more. It is good to eat fish, vegetables, cereals, fruit… You must avoid eat junk food and bakery products. Another thing is that in the breakfast you must eat a price of fruit and you must have a little dinner.

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2. DRINK WATER:

awake, so we must sleep almost 8 hours every You day to have a good performance.

should drink a lot of water approximately two 6. RELAX: litters each day, but you should drink it reguYou don’t have to give so much importance to larly not all at once. small problems. You must deep breath to the 3. AVOID ALCOHOL AND SMOKE: conflicts. Also you can listen to relaxing music These are toxics for the organism and to keep to help you. fit you must to be healthy. If you are smokers, 7. THINK POSITIVE: you have to leave it or decrease their consumption, because if you smoke you lower your per- Think positive helps you to have a good attitude. Optimism can help you to improve your formance. health. If you think negatively you can attract 4. DO EXERCISE: losses. You have to do exercise every day. You can do a 8. LAUGH: Laughter is a natural medicine that reduces stress and benefits your health. Meet often with your family and friends, and have a good time together to improve your life. specific sport like football, tennis, basketball… or if you prefer you can practice aerobic and 9. GO TO THE TOILET REGULARLY: also walk for one hour every day. To be in harmony with your body you should go to the toilet regularly to remove toxins that 5. SLEEP WELL: your body doesn’t need. If you don’t go to the Sleep affects our physical and mental health. toilet regularly you can have a bad mood, it can Lack of sleep affects metabolism, mood, con- affect you negatively. centration, memory and motor skills. Sleep al- 10. CHECKUP: lows the body to heal repair and rejuvenate itGet to your doctor for your annual physical just self in a way it simply cannot when a person is 50


to make sure everything is as it should be. Get exams regularly even if you are healthy and when something is abnormal. If you follow these items you will get a better lifestyle. Remember, healthy body, healthy mind! Carolina Morales Coro (16) Sara Muriel Iglesias (16)

There is no excuse

ming pools: one very big to swim and another smaller to practice aerobic and other aquatic sports or activities such as waterpolo. These two swimming pools in Lepe are inside a sport centre where you can find a gym, a sauna and a room to practice different therapeutics activities. The public sport centre is the most important place to practice sport in Lepe. In it, there is a soccer field and athletics, basketball, tennis and paddle tracks. There are also taekwondo, karate, yoga and Pilate’s lessons and a sport doctor and a physical therapist at your service to advise you in any kind of doubt or questions could be emerged. In Lepe there are also some gyms where you can get and keep fit. There is a special gym only for women and two more for men and women. If you want to make use of these facilities you have to pay a certain quantity of money each month (50-80 euros).

Living in Lepe or in La Antilla (a beach resort within the municipality of Lepe in the province of Huelva) and not being fit has no excuse. Its more than 300 sunny days a year makes Lepe an ideal place to practice any kind In summer, La Antilla, a beach located 6 kilomeof sport, especially outdoor sports. ters from Lepe, takes the chief role in. Beach There are four different places to practice sport volley, beach handball, beach football, kitesurf, in Lepe: the public swimming pool, the different windsurfs, canoeing and other water sports are schools in the town, the sport centre “José present in thousand of visitors´ daily rounds in Manuel Cortés de Medina” and some private La Antilla. gyms. Taking advantages of the daily sixteen daylight, Apart from the different sports you can practice people usually walk in the beach, breathe clean in these under cover sport facilities, Lepe is, un- air and relax, recharging their batteries to face doubtedly, a perfect place to exercise any kind the return to work in the best living conditions. of outdoor sports such as cycling, horse-riding, Finally, talking about sport facilities in Lepe, we trekking or simply walking but let´s see first should mention “Waingunga”, a fun camp lowhat sports can be done in each of these facilicated in the town of Lepe. Groups of people ties. usually visit this camp to carry on many sport The public swimming pool opens at 8 in the risky activities such as tirolina, climbing, throwmorning and closes at 22:00 in the evening ing with arch, etc… There are also some rooms from Monday to Friday. There are two swim- and a restaurant to spend the night in case you 51


are interested in.

4) You can go to the swimming pool. There are Taking into account all these offers, and living in slides, jacuzzis and saunas. However, it is a bit Lepe or in Islantilla, you do not have any ex- difficult because it is 25 km away from our village. cuses not to be fit, don´t you? 5) When it is warm, you can go to the football pitch and play football there. There are a lot of football pitches in our area. Matches are also often organized there and everyone can participate. 6) You can join people who do the Nordic walking. It's a very peaceful and safe area to do it. There are many pavements and routes, which we can use any time. Juan de Dios Ponce Coya (16), Daniel Ortiz (16), Spain

7) You can go rollerblading. There isn't much traffic in our village. We can rollerblade on safe roads and asphalt playgrounds.

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8) When it isn't so freezing you can go for a walk in a forest. The forest is very close to ways to keep fit where we live. You can breathe in fresh air, adNowadays there is a huge need to live in mire wild animals and rest among trees. a healthy way. Because of that, people in small 9) There are a lot of places to cycle where you villages like Kraszewice have to find their own can go with your friends or your family. There way to keep fit. In Kraszewice there are not as aren’t busy roads so it’s safe to cycle. In the many sports facilities as in bigger cities, but meantime, you can admire the countryside. there are a lot of places to exercise. 10) When it is cold you can go to an ice rink. You can rent skates, take your own and even Here are some tips you can follow: take part in skating lessons. 1) You can go to the gym and play team games When we do sport we care for not only health such as volleyball, basketball, handball, football and figure but also our mood and well-being. or do gymnastics there. There are various ways of keeping active life2) There is a team of runners in our school style in Kraszewice and for most of them you which you can join. When you take part in train- need only a bit of enthusiasm. ings later you can enter competitions or train just for yourself. Although trainings aren’t easy, they make you fit quickly. 3) You can sign up for a fitness club classes on Thursday afternoons. Doing aerobics gives you both great fun and slim body. 52

Patrycja Fiłka and Julia Chowaoka, Poland


GREEK SCHOOL RULES All people, in every educational system, (which means both students and teachers) are supposed to follow certain rules when they are in the school establishment. Rules existed from ancient times and until today they have changed a lot of times and in many ways. Below, you will read about the contemporary rule situation. Most of the rules concern students and they have to follow them either willingly or not. They must attend school regularly, arrive on time and present notes from their parents when they are missing. Students are also required to respect people in authority (including teachers) and follow their instructions. They must do their best for everything happening at school; attempt all tasks, participate in class discussions, study and do their homework and always be properly ready for lesson. We haven’t finished yet. Concerning their behaviour students have to behave in an appropriate, responsible and polite manner without yelling, swearing, bullying, harassing, discriminating and frightening other students.

Using violence is the worst way to solve your problems, can really harm others and students have to act in a normal and right way, with discussing as a solution. In addition, in the classroom they must raise hands when they need to talk, be quiet and pay attention to the teacher, don’t cheat and make dishonest acts (such as take other student’s belongings), not stand up during lessons unless their teachers ask to, not interrupt ANYONE and last but not least turn off their mobile phones. To finish with students rules, they also have to take care of school properties and not litter, damage, or destroy anything. But rules don’t exist only for students. Teachers are also supposed to follow some rules. They have to be punctual and mobile all time and have a clear understanding of school rules and procedures. Moreover, they have to be ready for everything and be alert for serious problems. They also should encourage fair play and report everything to the headmaster immediately. Finally a rule the students also have to follow is their mobile being turned off.

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Alexandris Alexandros, Almeta Emily Batzali Kyriaki, Kontou Marina, Sofroniou Pavlos


School rules of Polish Olympic Athletes Junior High School in Kraszewice School rules include students’ rights and responsibilities. The rules that were created in our school give us guidelines on acceptable behaviour and allow both students and teachers to develop in a well-managed and safe school environment. As far as responsibilities are concerned, most of the rules refer to appearance and general behaviour. Each student has to wear a school uniform, and he/ she should wear a white shirt, black / navy skirt or trousers at school ceremonies and final exams . Students are not allowed to dye hair, wear make-up, pierce their bodies and have their nails painted bright colours. What is more, they must attend classes every day, be on time and justify any absences by showing a note from a doctor or a parent. They cannot leave the school building during breaks. During lessons pupils must respect and follow teacher’s instructions, care about the beauty of mother tongue, be polite to others and behave in a safe way. Eating, drinking, chewing gum is not allowed. Pupils should make full use of the time spent in classes and represent the school community in subject and sports competitions. Furthermore, students must not consume alcohol and other intoxicants, smoke or destroy school property, participate in fights and bullying. Each student is not allowed to use and even bring a mobile phone to school.

Our students, however, have also a lot of rights which are known much better than their obligations. To begin with, they can have maximum three tests a week of which they are informed two weeks in advance. Students can be unprepared for a lesson twice a term. Everyday there is a lottery of a lucky number. The lucky number holder does not have to write any tests and be prepared for classes on that day. Furthermore, pupils can express opinions on school life and have the right to be treated fairly and with respect for their personal matters. They can share their problems with pedagogical staff and get help and support when it is needed. Moreover, students have the right to participate in extracurricular activities, have rest (no homework, written assignments) during weekends, breaks, summer and winter holidays. Students are provided with any additional help, especially when they cannot cope with the curriculum. Students are awarded for conscientious learning and social work, special achievements, exemplary behaviour and 100% attendance at school. Types of awards may differ in Polish schools but each student with excellent grades receives the end –of –year certificate with a red line on it. For not following school rules students can be punished by a written or oral reprimand, suspension of the right to participate in extracurricular activities, school discos, trips, represent the school, low mark for behaviour (unacceptable, inadmissible) or even relegation from school.

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bear living in slavery and united they decided to fight against the Turks. Thus, on the 25th of March all Greeks celebrate the reclamation of their freedom and the rebirth of their nation. There is a school parade in every town and village and a big armed forces parade in Athens, the capital of Greece. Although for some students the rules are hard to obey, they are fully accepted by our parents. They teach us responsibility and respect for others. Thanks to them we can grow up in a friendly and secure school environment.

May 1st

Dominika Osmalak, Poland

National holidays in Greece 25th March

May the 1st is a traditional spring holiday and is celebrated in Greece with excursions to nature. It is a day of happiness, relaxation and recreation for all people, young and old. All families collect flowers and make flower wreaths which are a tradition in our country. This ‘May Wreath’ as it is known, is carried to people’s houses and it is usually placed on their front door where it remains for the entire month of May.

The 1st of May is not only a recreation holiday but also a celebration of the international labour movement, the day when we remember th The 25 of March is a holiday which has and honor the struggles of the workers. Thus, a double meaning for all Greeks. It is both a the 1st of May is a landmark for the working Christian and a National holiday. It is celebrated class. in our Orthodox church as the Annunciation of the Theotokos. This is the day that the Archangel Gabriel announced to the Virgin Mary that she was going to give birth to the son of God. In Anna Alexiou, Virginia Darla, Antonia Katsouli, addition, it is the day which signifies the start of Artemis Kleidara, Sofia Kouroutzi the Greek revolution against the Ottoman Empire in 1821 after 400 years of occupation and oppression by the Turks. The Greeks couldn’t55


Holidays in Spain Have you ever heard something about holi- In Remedio’s neighbourhood there are a lot of booths and attractions. The first fair was in days in Spain? 1846. There are a lot of holidays in Spain but some are more important than others. Now you are going to know some of the most important holidays here. SAN FERMINES The San Fermines is a celebration that started in the medial age and it takes place every year in the Spanish city of Pamplona. It starts the 6th and finishes the 14th of July.

People usually eat typical Spanish food like Spanish ham, cheese, prawns , fried fish, etc…

One of the principal activities in Sanfermines is People wear flamenco dresses. People sing the “Encierros” that consists of a race in front and dance “Sevillanas”. In this fair it’s very of the bulls. The typical clothes people wear typical to see horses and carriages. are white trousers and a white t-shirt with a red handkerchief.

EL ROCIO It’s the biggest pilgrimage in Spain. It’s a religious party in honour to the Virgin Of Rocío that takes place the weekend of the Pentecost’s Sunday.

FERIA DE ABRIL This is a typical fiesta in Seville, during one week that depends on the date of the Passion Week.

It’s celebrate d in the Rocio’s village, in Almonte( Huelva). During one week there is a pilgrimage through Doñana in which thousands of pilgrims of all Spain go to Almonte. On Sunday people do the “Salto a la reja” to take out the Virgin in procession. People wear flamencos dresses and eat typical food too. 56


SEMANA SANTA It's the annual Christian commemoration of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The date is between 22 of March and 26 of April. It starts the Sunday of Ramos and finishes the Sunday of Resurrection. During that week there are different processions of religious scenes.

their own songs with current political problems. There are four different groups: “Chirigotas”, “Comparsas”, “Coros” and “Cuartetos”; each group is worn in a different way. Next day they do a parade in the street where all the people are disguised. FALLAS DE VALENCIA It is a fiesta in Valencia’s city that is celebrated from the 15th to 19th of March. They make some high sculptures and later they burn it. People wear the typical clothes of “Fallas”. And there are many pyrotechnics shows.

There are people that go with the procession and they wear typical clothes of “Semana Santa”.

LA TOMATINA It’s celebrated in Buñol (Valencia). People who participate throw tomatoes each other. It takes place the last Wednesday of August..

“PENITENTE”

“MANTILLA”

CARNAVALES DE CÁDIZ It is the most famous carnival in Spain. Every year during January and February it is celebrated in Manuel Fallas theatre. The contest is formed by different carnival groups that make

Carolina Morales Coro 1ºBach. C Estefanía Costa González 1ºBach. A 57


Typical Polish holidays Saint Andrew’s Day

Saint Andrew's Day is a traditional holiday celebrated in Poland on the 30th of November since the 13th century. It is not a nonworking day. However, in the evenings people have parties and foretell the future mainly by looking at the candle wax shape created by pouring melted wax through a keyhole into cold water. Unmarried young women can participate in another popular game. All participants line up their shoes one after the other starting at the back of the room. When all shoes are lined up the one that is at the back is moved to the front and so on. The game continues until someone’s shoe reaches the threshold of the room. It’s believed that the owner of that shoe will be the first to get married. Of course, the fortunes are rarely taken seriously but they give a great opportunity to have a good time with friends. Easter Monday Another typical Polish holiday is Easter Monday (the second day of Easter) also called Dyngus Day or Wet Monday. People pour water on each other which is believed to bring them health and fortune. Young boys and girls usually

pour buckets of water or throw plastic bags full of water on random passers-by. On that day they are soaking wet a few times and that is why they need to change their clothes many times. In villages in the southern part of Poland farmers sprinkle holy water on their fields on Monday morning . It’s a very happy and funny day which provides a lot of fun and entertainment.

Independence Day

Independence Day is celebrated on the 11th of November. In November 1918 Poland gained back independence after 123 years of captivity, being divided among three countries: Russia, Germany and Austria. This holiday is one of the most important national celebrations for Poles. Houses and buildings are decorated with Polish flags. All patriotic monuments are deco-

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rated with flowers. It is a public holiday, celebrated mostly by officials. The main national celebrations take place in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw. In our village main celebrations are held by the monument of Jozef Pilsudski in the local park. It is the time of contemplation and remembrance of the past.

Traditional music and dances in Greece Dance

21st March The first day of spring The first day of astronomical spring is a day of drowning Marzanna. It’s a straw figure which represents winter. At schools there are usually contests for the prettiest Marzanna. As soon as the best Marzanna is chosen, pupils go to the nearest river where it is first burnt and then drowned. Another famous tradition refers to playing truant on that day. However, those who decide to miss school must be careful not to get caught by police patrols.

Damian Kurowski, Piotr Kulig, Sebastian Cegiełka, Mateusz Cegiełka

Music and dance are an important part of each civilization. They are shaped over the years, through different influences and change over time, as people and human civilization develop. There is a very large variety of traditional Greek dances, because every area had its own unique dances, which have been influenced by different factors such as the climate, the way of living and historical factors. Dance is an inseparable part of these people’s lives. Through dancing they are able to express their feelings and to talk about war, peace, love and emigration. We have selected to present the 5 most important dances all over Greece. Syrtaki (Συρτάκι) It is probably the most commonly known Greek dance. This dance was created in 1964 for the film Zorbas the Greek. The most important characteristic is its rhythm, which is constantly getting quicker. It is named syrtaki, because dancers are supposed to drag their feet on the floor (syrtaki –ςέρνω– drag). Dancers put their arms on each other’s shoulders. Hasapikos (Χαςάπικοσ) This war dance has it roots in the Byzantine times, when it was danced in Istanbul mainly by butchers (χαςάπησ = butcher). 59


The purpose of this dance was to show each others weapons. However it lost this purpose over the years. It was very popular and each region, where it was danced, developed its own style.

it is an evolved version of an ancient Greek musical instrument, known as pandoura. The bouzouki plays a very important role in the early 20th century, when a new musical movement is made, known as rembetes

Zeibekikos (Ζεϊμπέκικοσ) It is a male dance only. It originates from Bursa and Aidini and was created in the period of the Turkish empire. This dance has no certain steps and so the man is free to create and dance his own figures and movements. It is danced slowly. Usual movements are The bouzouki jumping over tables, heaving a glass with wine from the floor with the mouth and drinking (unemployed people, prisoners, sailors). The etc. rembetika are a great part of Greek music, and Balos (Μπάλοσ) rembetika songs are still danced and listened to. However the bouzouki did not only help the It’s a traditional dance, which is danced rembetes produce their music, it is still an inin pairs and is usually danced on the Greek is- separable part of Greek music. lands. The purpose of this dance is to attract the other sex and to find a husband/wife. The dance is characterized by slow and elegant motions. Tsamikos (Τςάμικοσ) This dance has its origin in Εpeiros and got its name from a river there. It was danced by the thief’s (kleftes), who offered resistance against the Turkish, in the Riot of 25th March 1821.

Music There are many musical instruments which play an important role in Greek music. The two most important of them, however, are the bouzouki and the clarinet. The origin of the bouzouki is not exactly known. Some experts suggest that it derives from the Turkish tradition. Others believe that 60

The clarinet The clarinet made its appearance in North Greece, West-Macedonia and Epeiros. Together with the violin, they make the main instruments to play on weddings and feasts. This instrument introduces a new epoch for the folk songs and is also a representative instrument for Greek music. Avlonitou Olga, Lamia Antzy, Greece


Folk music and traditional dance in Poland

Polonaise

Poland has well-developed and rich folk culture which involves traditional music and dance. Although folk dances and songs differ depending on the region of origin, they are all filled with fire, intensity and passion reflecting Polish romanticism. There are a lot of folk dances which gained a national status in Poland. Polonaise is one of the best known dances performed at the Mazur is also a well-known dance from opening of various ceremonies such as proms the Masovia region. It is similar to a waltz but or junior high school graduation ceremony. It is with the accent put on the second beat (onemoderately paced and resembles grand proTWO-three). cessions of aristocracy. The partners do not face each other but walk to the music, forward, back, side and bow having the formal posture. Another popular dance is krakowiak (originated in Cracow –former capital of Poland). It’s a fast, rhythmic and circular dance whose steps imitate horse movements.

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As far as folk music is concerned, it is strongly related to dance and has its roots in the Slavic traditions. It has seen a recent revival in Poland. Contemporary artists merge traditional instrumentation and themes with modern beats. Folk bands have gained popularity as well, especially the groups from the mountainous southern part of Poland such as The Trebunia Family Band, Golec Orchestra or Zakopower. They use mainly wind instruments and string ones like violins and a cello. Band members wear traditional clothes and their lyrics focus on simple village life or highlander heroes. Moreover, in the villages across Poland there are a lot of folk bands spreading regional traditions and performing for the younger generation.

FOLK MUSIC IN SPAIN The traditional or folk music is the one that is transmitted orally from generation to generation and it is a part of people’s culture of the same nation or region. It has three main aspects: dances, instruments and songs. Here we will talk about the most typical music and dances of Spain: CANARIAS: ISAS. The origin of the Isas come from the meetings that hunters did in their caves. This dance is led by the captain of the dance and it begins with chains of humans forming figures. After the sound of the instruments, people start to dance at one time.

‘Zaprośnianki’ – a folk group from

GALICIA: MUÑEIRAS. Kraszewice

This dance can be dancing loose or with a partner. The girl makes movements to the rhythm Polish folk dance music was popularised across of the "castañuelas" and "gaita", typical SpanEurope by great pianists and composers such ish instruments and the man gives steps with as Chopin who wrote fifty-seven mazurkas and high mobility. sixteen polonaises or Stanislaw Moniuszko who used folk themes in his great opera ‘Halka’. By listening to these masterpieces everyone may feel the real Polish soul. Klaudia Zalewska, Wojtek Gierosz, Karol Golanowski, Jakub Białas, Poland 62


CASTILLA-LA MANCHA: BOLERO

PAIS VASCO: AURRESKU

It is a fun and original dance that takes place in the festivals of the town. At first it was danced in pairs, but then they started to dance in groups of more people. You can dance this with the arms extended while you are playing the "castañuelas"

It is a ceremonial and traditional dance where people participate with an intention of honorar to someone or something. It consists in four parts: challenge, handrails, "contrapas" and farewell, and it require a good strength and skill in the legs for the launches and the steps. CATALUÑA: SARDANA it is a collective dance. In this dance doesn´t mind the number of dancers. They have to dance holding hands and forming a circle. Nowadays, thanks to the support of institutions and intellectuals, it has become the national dance of Cataluña. ANDALUCIA: SEVILLANAS

ARAGON: JOTA ARAGONESA

These are the oldest. They have a fast rhythm and an elaborate choreography, in which dancers makes spectaculars jumps. In every one of these steps, called "batudas", their feet collide while the legs are raised.

CANTABRIA: PALOTEOS

Sevillanas is the most famous dance in Spain and it is a popular flamenco-style dance. In Lepe this dance is very important because we have a popular festival where the people spend the time singing and dancing Sevillanas. This festival is called Romeria. They usually dance in pairs but sometimes they dance in groups of three. There are four differents sevillanas which have: "paseíllos, pasadas, careos and remate" that are different steps. They are supported by people singing and playing the Spanish guitar.

The origins of this dance starts in the S.XVIII. Young people of the town, meet in the square and they dance with chopsticks, doing different figures with these. 63

Rocío Domínguez García & Nazaret Romero


Polish etiquette The rules of Polish savoir vivre are not particularly different from the rules in other European countries. However, some of them are typical only for Poland and rare among people of other nations.

Polish people are known for their hospitality. Guests usually bring small gifts for a hostess such as flowers, sweets or a bottle of wine. When they enter the house they take their shoes off. We do not start a meal without a host. Menu is often fat and caloric and we drink strong alcohol for toasts. It is the host who offers the first toast. The most common one is ‘na zdrowie’ which means ‘to your health’. Traditional family parties are organised at homes.

As far as greetings are concerned, when you meet someone you can just say good morning or hello. We sometimes shake our hands (usually among men). It is very kind when a man kisses a woman on her hand but There are some customs which are it is more common among older generation. considered as old-fashioned. Few people know We often welcome people with three kisses that if a man walks a woman, she should be on on their cheeks. his right side ( this rule is observed during official meetings or wedding ceremonies). There are still some gentlemen who give a hand to a woman when she gets off a car, give way at the door and open it or move a chair to help her sit down. With regard to elderly people, they are always treated with respect. It is common to give up a seat for the elderly in all types of public transport and buildings. What is more, when greeting you should always wait for the older person to extend his/her hand. If we address an 64


an older person, we always use titles or surDO’S: names. We should wait to be invited before -Do say ‘hello’: When you meet a neighbour. moving to first names. -Do say ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’: it is very good Polish rules of behavior may be considered as a manners to say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’. It is little bit out-of-date and formal . Nevertheless, considered rude if you don’t. Polish people are rather tolerant for other nations and they easily accept and understand -Do cover your mouth: When yawning or coughing, always cover your mouth with your different cultures. hand. Julia Chowaoska, Jadwiga Sip, Daria Kolioska

-Do shake hands: When you are first introduced to someone, shake their right hand with your right hand. -Do give up your seat on the bus to elderly people. -Do buy a present: When you are invited to someone’s house. DON’Ts; -Do not stare at anyone in public: Privacy in highly regarded. -Do not ask personal questions: Do not ask questions such as ‘How much money do you earn?’, ‘How much do you weigh?’ or ‘Why aren’t you married?’.

in Greece "Good manners" seems nowadays a joke from the time of our grandparents. Nevertheless, when we are at school, when we are in a public service, when we eat in a restaurant or when we attend meetings in our block of flats we cannot but wonder how much quality life would have if we brought manners back to memory and behavior.

-Do not say bad words to people. -Do not speak with your mouth full. -Do not eat with your hands. -Do not interrupt others when speaking.

To sum up the ways of good behavior are used by all the people in Greece but friends have a different code of conduct and behavior.... If someone visits Greece he/she must obAround the world there are different serve these rules and he/she will have a great ways of good behavior, this applies to Greece time. too. The ways of good behavior are used by Bairami Evi, Milioti Athina, Pachi Mar people to behave politely. Moreover, they help Pastira Eugenia, Tsoumani Georgia in the good organization. They are divided into two categories: 65


Lifestyle in Spain

If we have to define our lifestyle with only one word we could say that “Spain is wonderful”. First of all, here we have a different schedule compared to other countries, for example: we use to have lunch at half past two or maybe at three o’clock and in Poland, Greece or Portugal they use to do it at twelve or even before. If we talk about dinner, we use to eat at half past nine or ten o’clock. The rest of the countries have dinner at eight o’clock. . A common day in Spain, after having lunch, we use to sleep one hour and we call it “siesta”. After a few hours sleeping “siesta”, Spanish people practice a sport, normally football or basketball. In Spain, we all love sports. All the boys dream to be like Rafa Nadal, Fernando Alonso, Paul Gasol or Iker Casillas.

Specifically in Andalusia, we have like a folk dance and music different to other kinds of region in Spain. This is flamenco. People here have too much art inside. And talking about people, here we have some differences as regard other countries. To greet, we usually kiss twice in the other person’s two face sides. That is because Spanish people are more sociable and when we speak we are very expressive, as we talk we move our hands a lot. Moreover, we do not mind if we do not know one person, we are not normally shy, and we speak with everybody without any problem.

Fátima Villegas Cruz and Blanca Pérez Contreras

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