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NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG

伟人,是谁他不会失去他的孩子的心脏。 THE GREAT MAN IS HE WHO DOES NOT LOSE HIS CHILD’S-HEART. Mengzi (孟子), 372 – 289 BCE

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Comissió de Política Industrial i Innovació Tecnològica del Col·legi d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya

Equip de redacció: Alfonso Auguet, Joaquim Calsina, Sergi Escorihuela, Albert Ferrari, Irene Fiol, Ricard Granados, Jordi Guix, Joan Maurel, i Carles Palomo, amb la col·laboració d’ACC10 de la Generalitat de Catalunya, de Casa Àsia de Barcelona, Martha Hobart d’AiB Traductors i Intèrprets.

Maquetació i Disseny Gràfic: Carles Ivanco

Difusió del NEWS: Aquesta edició del NEWS està a l’abast de més de 10.000 enginyers i s’envia per correu electrònic a tots els/les enginyers/res que hagin manifestat el seu interès a rebre’l; a tots els/les assistents/tes de les jornades que s’han organitzat i a les empreses que s’han instal·lat a la Xina i ens donin la corresponent autorització. També es fa difusió als 35.000 ex-alumnes de la UPC a través d’UPCALUMNI. En tot cas, d’acord amb la Llei 15/1999, de 13 de desembre, de Protecció de Dades de Caràcter Personal, t’informem que les teves dades personals s’incorporaran als fitxers del Col·legi Oficial i de l’Associació d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya, amb domicili a la Via Laietana, 39, de Barcelona. Les dades seran usades per a les finalitats pròpies de les entitats com ara l’enviament d’informació, prestació de serveis, celebració de jornades, cursos i altres activitats que puguin ser

del teu interès, per la qual cosa podran ser comunicades a terceres entitats per al compliment de les finalitats esmentades. Entenem que les dades personals facilitades són veraces i et sol·licitem que ens comuniquis qualsevol modificació. Pots exercitar els teus drets d’accés, oposició, rectificació i cancel·lació de les dades personals de forma gratuïta remetent sol·licitud expressa, juntament amb una còpia del teu DNI, per un dels mitjans següents: per correu electrònic a lopd@eic.cat, per fax amb la ref. LOPD al 933 100 681 i per escrit, també amb la ref. LOPD, adreçat al Col·legi Oficial i l’Associació d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya, a Via Laietana, 39, 08003 Barcelona. El Col·legi i l’Associació d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya tenen interès que aquest NEWS

funcioni amb eficàcia i acompleixi les finalitats per les quals s’ha creat, però no es fa responsable del contingut, exactitud i actualització de la informació que prové d’altres persones físiques o jurídiques, ni es fa responsable ni s’identifica amb els comentaris i opinions inclosos en els articles d’opinió. Pots enviar comentaris, suggeriments, subscripcions o la indicació de no voler rebre el NEWS per correu electrònic a l’adreça següent:

xina@mail.eic.cat

Col·legi d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya · c/ Via Laietana 39 08003 Barcelona Tel. 933 192 300 / 935 572 049 · www.eic.cat


SUMARI NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG

04 CORRESPONSALS

20 NOTÍCIES

06 EDITORIAL

24 BORSA DE TREBALL

08 INFORMACIÓ I ARTICLES D’OPINIÓ

28 LINKS D’INTERÈS

18 HISTÒRIA

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CORRESPONSALS ENGINYERS A LA XINA

Coordinadors Enginyers Xina dels “Chapters”

Shanghai Beijing

Jiaxing Suzhou

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Hong Kong Guangzhou

Jiangmen Kaiping

Shenzhen


SHANGHAI

Alexis Roig

Irene Fiol

Eduard Carreira

Joan Piera

Guillem Pagès

Alexis Lago

Gil Serra

Cristina Castillo

BEIJING

John Waller

JIAXING

Josep Gayolà

SUZHOU

Santi Codina

Javier Ycobalzeta

HONG KONG

Raül Guerra

GUANGZHOU

Miquel Monrós

JIANGMEN

Girbal Balart

Andrés Martin

KAIPING

Albert Ferrari

SHENZHEN

Xavier de Vicente

Marc Boix

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EDITORIAL Xina, a la recerca de talent i innovació per transformar la seva indústria China, in pursuit of talent and innovation to transform its industry Jordi Renom President de l’Associació d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya

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l govern xinès vol canviar el model de producció a costos baixos, que l’ha convertit en la fàbrica del món, per un altre de major valor afegit. Fa pocs dies l’Econòmic del Punt Avui publicava les recents declaracions del primer ministre Li Keqiang durant la presentació del pla anomenat Made in China 2025: “Buscarem el desenvolupament impulsat per la innovació, aplicarem tecnologia intel·ligent, enfortirem els fonaments, cercarem el progrés ecològic i redoblarem els nostres esforços per fer que la Xina passi de ser un productor de quantitat a un de qualitat”. En aquest nou context, l’estratègia de les autoritats xineses ja no és la de gestionar l’abundància empresarial com fins ara, en aquests moments busca estimular i facilitar l’accés a aquest gran mercat per atreure empreses que encaixin en el nou plantejament.

Chair of the Catalan Association of Industrial Engineers

Fa pocs mesos varem entrevistar-nos amb representants del districte de Wuqing de la ciutat de Tianjin, a través del programa de la Unió Europea CETREGIO, que promou la col·laboració entre la Xina i Europa. Estan buscant inversió i intercanvi en un àrea industrial high-tech, alhora centre de desenvolupament tecnològic i econòmic a nivell d’Estat, cap a sectors de més valor afegit com la indústria farmacèutica (reactius de diagnòstic, medicaments genèrics...), matèries bio-farmacèutiques, electrònica, matèries eficients energèticament i ambientalment segures. De fet, algunes ciutats xineses ja fa temps que estan desplegant aquest sistema. Ciutats que han quedat al marge de la industrialització i que en aquest moment busquen una oportunitat a raser de les noves fites d’innovació, disseny i sostenibilitat mediambiental. El cas és que estant cercant a Europa tot allò que els manca: bons

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enginyers, patens innovadores, indústria puntera i centres de recerca. Necessiten portar els intangibles que té Europa cap a la Xina. Xina té molt per aprendre d’Europa en urbanització sostenible com a principal àrea de cooperació, amb l’objectiu de fomentar el consum intern i créixer d’una manera més equilibrada. Preveu accelerar el procés d’urbanització en els pròxims deu anys, augmentant la seva taxa d’urbanització una mica més del 50% i vora un 70% cap al 2050, amb inversions en projectes de desenvolupament urbà, transport públic, recollida i tractament de residus, clavegueram, eficiència energètica en edificis residencials, energies renovables i la voluntat de ser respectuosos al màxim amb el medi ambient. Aquesta fita els ha portat a posar en el punt de mira les empreses que proveeixen solucions ambientals. Mostren interès en la producció del sector del metall, l’auxiliar de l’automòbil, la indús-


tria del teixit i en els centres de disseny i centres tecnològics. És aquí on les empreses catalanes i els nostres enginyers tenen una oportunitat. El Grup Xina permet acostar els enginyers d’ambdós territoris, ajudant a entendre millor els models de negoci, la cul-

tura, i oferint noves possibilitats de col·laboració entre tots aquells que hi participen. Amb la convicció què l’èxit dels nostres professionals depèn de les seves iniciatives, l’Associació d’Enginyers dóna suport al Grup d’Enginyers de Xina amb l’objectiu d’ajudar als nostres professionals a aconse-

guir els seus propis objectius. Seguim estant presents en els principals òrgans de decisió, seguim treballant per a la bona praxi de la professió, generant i impulsant coneixement i seguim sent escoltats. Per això, volem estar presents allà on l’economia i la indústria es mouen.

English Version The Chinese government wants to change its low cost production model, which has made it the world’s factory, into a more value added model. A few days ago, Catalan newspaper El Punt Avui’s magazine l’Econòmic published Prime Minister Li Keqiang’s recent statements made at the presentation of the Made in China 2025 plan: “We will seek development driven by innovation, apply smart technology, strengthen the foundations, strive for environmental progress, and redouble our efforts to take China from being a quantity to a quality manufacturer.” In this new context, the Chinese authorities’ strategy is no longer to manage its business abundance as it has done before. Now it is looking to encourage and facilitate access to this huge market to attract companies that fit in with this new approach. A few months ago, we met with representatives of the Wuqing district in Tianjin city as part of the European Union’s CETREGIO programme to promote cooperation between China and Europe. They are looking for investment and exchange in a high-tech industrial area, which is

also the national hub of technological and economic development, to move towards higher value added sectors such as the pharmaceutical industry (diagnostic reagents, generic drugs, etc.), biopharmaceuticals, electronics, and energyefficient and environmentally-safe materials. In fact, some Chinese cities have been deploying this system for some time now, particularly those that have been left by the wayside of industrialisation and are now seeking an opportunity to attain the new milestones of innovation, design and environmental sustainability. The fact is, they are looking to Europe to fill their gaps: good engineers, innovative patents, leading industry and research centres. They need to take Europe’s intangibles to China. China has much to learn from Europe on sustainable urban development, as the main sphere of cooperation, with a view to boosting domestic consumption and achieving more balanced growth. Plans are underway to speed up urbanisation in the coming ten years, increasing the urbanisation rate by just over 50% and around 70% by 2050, by investing in ur-

ban development projects, public transport, waste collection and treatment, sewers, energy efficiency in residential buildings, renewable energies, and a commitment to being as environmentally friendly as possible. This target has put them in the spotlight of companies that provide environmental solutions. China is showing interest in manufacturing in the metal, automotive supply and textile industries, as well as in design centres and technology centres. Herein lies the opportunity for Catalan companies and our engineers. The China Group brings engineers from both countries together, contributing to a better understanding of business and culture, and offering new cooperation possibilities for those involved. With the firm belief that our professionals’ success relies on their own initiatives, the Catalan Association of Engineers supports the China Engineers Group, to help our professionals achieve their goals. We continue to be present in the main decision-making bodies and continue working towards good practice in the profession, generating and pushing forward knowledge, and we continue to be heard. This is why we seek to be present wherever the economy and industry are on the move.

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INFORMACIÓ I ARTICLES D’OPINIÓ

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The ICT market in China

Isabel Gimeno Asia-Pacific – Consultant ACCIO

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ince 2000, the Ministry of Science and Technology has been supporting the Chinese ICT industry as a major national priority. The ICT sector is also one of the most important sector in the Chinese National 12th Five Year Plan. According this plan, the government will further encourage the construction of the next generation national information infrastructure. The key areas include next generation Internet, convergence of three networks (Internet, Telecomm and TV Broadcasting), the IoT (Internet of Things), cloud computing, new display equipment, high-end software, highend servers and information services. In the telecommunication sector, the policy of local innovation has brought significant progress to the development of TD-LTE (Time Division Long Term Evolution), which paved way for the global next-generation mobile LTE system. The China National Broadband Plan announced that China will build the next generation information infrastructure to satisfy the increasing demands for data throughput. By 2015, to complete broadband coverage in both urban and rural areas, the penetration rate of fixed-line broadband will reach 50%, and users of 3G and LTE will reach 32.5% of the total mobile users. The gap of broadband infrastructure between China and developed countries will be decreased significantly by 2020. On the other hand, the Chinese central government has given support to ICT cluster development, such as providing favourable land/tax policies, enhancing local infrastructures, establishing industrial parks and trading places, organizing trade fairs, supporting technology upgrade of enterprises, and coordinating the link between industry and research.

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English Version

The ICT sector is always driven by new, leading technologies. The technologies of cloud computing, smart terminal, 4G LTE and 3D printing have made great progress. Cloud computing made a breakthrough with the rapid growth of the IoT. Smart terminals can easily access all information by connecting the mobile services. 4G is a successor to the third generation standards and it brings faster speed connection and better user experience. ICT is quite a broad sector. With limited resources, SMEs have to focus on a specific niche market in which they have the know-how, the expertise, or that special product or service which makes them stand out in the market. In this sense, some of the opportunities for foreign companies that have competitive advantage can be found in the following niche markets: Mobile application: with over a quarter of the Chinese population accessing the Internet through mobile phones, the demand for mobile apps is huge. According to data collected by a Chinese mobile advertising firm, 48% of IPhone users and 36% of Android users spend two hours or more using apps per day. Those apps include online games, marketing tools for retail business, city navigators, e-commerce, news readers, etc.. IT outsourcing: China’s efforts in becoming a future IT outsourcing powerhouse are supported by central and local governments. Many science parks were built in different cities with a focus on outsourcing services. Within these parks, both foreign and Chinese companies can enjoy favourable policies. In addition, for well-established foreign companies in China, who need to outsource part of their business process, the parks also provide a great market potential.


Enterprise private clouds: large companies in China are increasingly seeking enhancement of their management information systems through the construction of enterprise private cloud. As cloud computing technology matures and the rate of user acceptance increases, the technology of enterprise private clouds will be a key field for large companies in the next few years, which provides great opportunities for SMEs with technology advantages in this field. 4G LTE: the Chinese government aims to grant 4G LTE license by the end of 2013. Although large companies will occupy a big market share, in particular for equipment procurement, SMEs will still have opportunities to provide small equipment, components, software and other supporting systems. Internet of things (IoT): the concept of sustainable development has greatly influenced the policy-making of the Chinese government. In the IoT field, the Chinese government has realized the huge potential benefits of energy efficiency trough smart metering, which offers a special opportunity for the foreign SMEs. Such applications are characterized by network embedded systems, for example application specific microprocessors. Green ICT: ICT infrastructures have been identified as key element in global strategies for sustainability across society. Green ICT goes on to address how the use of smart technology could make many other processes more efficient. According to forecasts from McKinsey, smart technology and application could reduce 15% of carbon emissions, which is very important for China’s sustainable development in the future. Green ICT technologies and products (smart meter, smart grid, smart sensors, etc.) will have a great potential in the next years.

Although the Chinese ICT market is very attractive to SMEs, the challenges and difficulties faced by foreign businesses entering it should be underestimated. Many companies decide to expand their business in China without doing much market research. However, the difficulties are greatly reduced once the company puts enough effort in to understanding the market. To approach the Chinese ITC market, the companies have to be in the market, which means they have to visit China several times per year at least and talk with the main players in the market like industrial associations, potential partners, customers, competitors, investors, research firms, etc. In this way they can collect first-hand information and have a full understanding on the market at the macro-level as well as micro-level. Finally, considering the dynamic environment in the Chinese ITC market (regulations, technologies advancement, standards, etc.), the foreign companies usually need to partner with industrial leaders in order to invest in the right direction in terms of future trends of technology development. In the Chinese ICT market, although the major standards and core technologies are dominated by international players, more and more local players are becoming industrial leaders in the domestic market, and even in international markets. Partnerships with local Chinese industry leaders are very helpful for foreign SMEs to really understand the market and develop unique competencies in the industrial value chain.

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The Gateway to Southern Europe

Juan Dedeu China Representative Port de Barcelona

English Version

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n early February 2015, three members of the Port of Barcelona attended the 7th WCA Worldwide Conference in Hong Kong. Mrs Rosa Puig, Director of the Port of Barcelona, Mr Carles Mayol, Sales Manager and Mr Joan Dedeu, the Port of Barcelona’s Delegate for China, were in Hong Kong to promote the Port to forwarders and many other professionals related to the shipping industry. The delegation’s primary interest was to strengthen and multiply relations with the Asian market, now its principal partner. Barcelona’s geo-strategic location means that the shipping routes to and from Asia are optimised and easy access to Southern Europe and North Africa put the Port in a privileged position. The Port of Barcelona has been honing relations with China for some time now and, since 1999, has established relations with Chinese companies, such as COSCO IBERIA and China Shipping (Spain) Agency. In May 2006, the Port of Barcelona awarded a concession to Hutchinson Port Holdings and Grupo Mestre for the construction and operation of a new container terminal, Muelle Prat, as part of the new phase of development of the Port of Barcelona. In November 2006, Hutchison Port Holdings (since 2011 the only remaining investor), initiated construction of the Muelle Prat terminal. In 2012, the terminal was officially named Barcelona Europe South Terminal (BEST) and entered a new phase of testing. BEST was officially inaugurated on 27 September 2012.

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Reference: Barcelona Europe South Terminal (BEST) Google +

Barcelona Europe South Terminal (BEST) is the first semi-automated container terminal developed by Hutchison Port Holdings. It has one of the most modern entry/exit gate complexes in Europe and one of the largest rail terminals in a container port, with an eight-track railway facility connecting it daily to many different destinations in Spain and Southern Europe. For all these reasons, the Port of Barcelona has been chosen again and again by industry alliances and other maritime shipping companies opening new sea routes. The 2M alliance, between Maersk Line and Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC), the world’s first and second most important shipping companies, started operations in Barcelona in early 2015. Its Condor/AE9 service, connecting Barcelona


directly with Asia, made Barcelona the first European port of call on this route, following a 23 day sail from Shanghai to Barcelona. 2M also services other lines through Barcelona: The Jade/AE11 and the Dragon/AE20 connect Europe with the Far East. These alliances, jointly with the existing alliances such G6 (APL, OOCL, Hyuandai, MOL, NYK, Hapag-Lloyd) and CYHKE (COSCO, YangMing, Hanjin, K-Line, Everegreen) have helped to increase connectivity as well as shortening transit times with Asia. Another alliance which has located its base of operations in Barcelona is Ocean Three (O3), formed by CMA CGM, the world’s third largest shipping company, and by China Shipping and UASC. Its Middle East-Indian Subcontinent-North America (MINA)/ MAX2 line, from India to North America now also has a stopover in Barcelona. These alliances have helped to increase connectivity as well as shortening transit times with Asia. This is a major advantage for companies needing shorter delivery times for fast-moving consumer goods.

Barcelona now has five regular lines to Hong Kong (four for carrying containers and one transporting cars), and connects with other Chinese ports, such as Shekou, Ningbo, Shanghai, Chiwan, Yantian and Xiamen. Barcelona is located in a region with a high consumption rate. In addition, the city and its metropolitan area are one of the most important industrial production zones for both the chemical and automotive sectors. These conditions create substantial import and export flows, making Barcelona a highly valued logistics hub. Barcelona continues to improve and consolidate its shipping industry and services as well as increasing its commercial relations with China. Moreover, the Port of Barcelona is also profiting from its attraction as a cruise ship port, the first in the Mediterranean, through which the city welcomes many Chinese tourists. This is a new challenge and one which we are confident will continue to grow and give the Port of Barcelona deserved international repute.

A CITY THAT BRINGS OUT THE BEST IN YOU. As a new day begins in Barcelona, so do thousands of projects and hopes. A motivational climate, vibrant people, attractive light and a seductive lifestyle... When you enjoy the city, there are many reasons that inspire you to find the best in yourself, to experience everything intensely, both personally and professionally. This is the secret to being chosen as the best European city to live and work in.

EUROPEAN CITY WITH THE BEST QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES. Source:European Cities Monitor, Cushman & Wakefield 2011.

www.barcelona.cat NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG | 13


Draft of the new foreign investment law in the PRC

Juan Calvo-Rubio Lawyer Hong Kong office NET CRAMAN ABOGADOS

English Version

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n 19 January 2015, the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (“MOFCOM”) published the Draft of the new Foreign Investment Law (FIE). Once the Draft is passed into Law, it will substitute the long-standing Three Laws on Foreign Investment –the Law on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, the Law on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises and the Law on Chinese-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures– (FIE Laws, promulgated in 1979). The obsolescence of the current Foreign Investment regime, scattered and inconsistent between national and local laws and regulations, together with China’s effort to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime along with prevailing international standards, require this further legislative step. The National People’s Congress will probably provide with a timeline regarding its approval on its annual general Meeting (March 5th to 13th) but it’s uncertain to date when it will be officially enacted. The aim of the Draft is to adapt the Chinese foreign investment legal system to today’s needs, reducing barriers to foreign investors whilst strengthening MOFCOM’s scrutiny on foreigners who try to dodge the regulations on restricted industries. The major prospective changes that the Draft would introduce can be set out as follows: 1.

Implementation of a “negative list” and elimination/reduction of the current case-

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by-case basis approval. Foreign investment Industries in China are currently categorized by the Industry Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investments as “encouraged”, “permitted”, “restricted” and “prohibited”. Upon the implementation of the new “negative list” (which has already been rehearsed in the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone), those industries under the “encouraged” and “permitted” categories will no longer have to apply for approval, receiving pre-entry national treatment. Thus, with the negative list, “prohibited” and “restricted” categories for foreign investment will be specifically listed in the new catalogue, and remaining industries will be fully open to foreign investment. 2.

New concept of foreign investor. Under the existing Law, foreign investors are those who are incorporated outside the People’s Republic of China (PRC), irrespective of their source of capital or of who does hold the effective control of the company. However, the Draft stipulates that only a domestic enterprise, established in China but controlled by a foreign investor, would be deemed to be a Foreign-Invested Enterprise. With the new Law, whether a company is foreign-invested or not will be determined by the nationality of the ultimate beneficiary (ies) rather than that of the direct shareholder. “Control” is understood


in the Draft as: a) more than 50% of shares; b) voting power; c) significant influence over decision-making power; among others. In resume, if the ultimate beneficiary (ies) is Chinese, the company will be treated as domestic. 3.

Corporate governance structure. In order to comply with the new Draft, in case it is passed into law, many foreign-invested enterprises would have to amend their constitutional documents.

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National Security Review. Article 48 FIL, establishes that “any foreign investment that harms or likely endanger the national security” will be likely to be reviewed.

Regarding the situation of Foreign Law Firms (FLF) in the Asian country, China’s accession to

the World Trade Organization (2001) brought a liberalization of the domestic legal services market, allowing foreign law firms to provide with legal services on matters relating to Chinese Law. However, with the new FIL, this activity is shifted from restricted to prohibited, what may hinder the Foreign Law Firm’s aim to settle down and carry out their professional practice in Mainland China (this rules will not be applied in the Shanghai Free Trade Zone). This measure is probably bound to take more control in the legal sector and force Foreign Law Firms to associate with local firms. In conclusion, the Draft of the new Foreign Investment Law is an important first step in the global modernization process through Mainland China is going. It not only reflects China’s desire to adapts its Foreign Investor rules system to market needs but also further opens China to and advances foreign investment.

Net Craman es una firma de abogados y asesores fiscales con gran experiencia en planificación internacional de la actividad empresarial. Gracias a nuestra red de oficinas propias en Barcelona, Guangzhou (china) y Hong Kong, acompañamos a nuestros clientes en todo el proceso de expansión en Asia y viceversa. NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG | 15


The Chinese Students Association of UPC celebrated the first Academic Forum

Ting Ting An Shen UPC Student

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his past March 6th, it was held at Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) the first academic forum of the Association of Chinese Students of UPC (UPC-AECH), where 8 students presented their projects on current topics in technological research. UPC-AECH is an association created by and for the Chinese students that study in UPC. It has the main objective of giving academic support for its members, at the same time promoting exchange of ideas. One of the actions that UPC-AECH takes to achieve such targets is by organizing academic forums, which aim to provide a platform for knowledge exchange as well as to enhance the collaboration between Spain and China in the fields of science and technology. All the presented projects were elabo-

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English Version

rated by Chinese students that study in UPC and all the students that had been involved in international exchange programs with Chinese universities. The forum received support from the Chinese Ambassador in Spain, the International and Corporate Relations Bureau of UPC, the Association of Industrial Engineers of Catalonia (COEIC), and News Enginyers Xina magazine also from COIEC. At the end of the project presentation session, a team of experts on the related topics, formed by members of COEIC, members of News Enginyers Xina and professors of UPC, evaluated the complexity of each project and awarded 5 prizes, which titles are listed as follows, ordered by the names of the authors:


Economic comparison of earthquake-resistant design of reinforced concrete frame structures in moderate seismic hazard zones by using Chinese code and European code, Joan Bergas Massó Investigación sobre la resistencia a cortante y coste económico de muros estructurales de hormigón con encofrado perdido tipo dipy, Xianfeng Cheng Automatic removal of unused code for software testing, Jing Lin

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Experimental analysis of plasma assisted combustion for removal of VOCs, Mireia Martínez Marker-less motion capture for biomechanical analysis using the Kinect sensor, Tingting Shen

UPC-AECH will keep on organizing academic forums and hope to receive more projects in the future editions.

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HISTÒRIA The seismometer

David Martínez-Robles

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

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ne of the most astounding marvels of the history of techniques and sciences in China was the invention of the seismometer, a machine created by Zhang Heng, a reputed scholar of the Later Han Dynasty (25-220 CE). A cosmopolitan and refined empire, and considered to be one of the golden ages of Chinese history, the Han was the first Chinese state with clear expansionist tendencies. It not only consolidated the territorial basis inherited from the Qin empire - the brief but powerful kingdom which for the first time in history unified all Chinese territories under its aegis in 221 BCE - but also began the Westward advance of Chinese culture. The Han installed a series of military garrisons north and south of the Taklamakan oasis, which for the first time enabled cross-cultural interactions between central Asia and China. As a result, ideas, beliefs, culture, products and people circulated all over the pathways that crossed the steppes, deserts and high mountains which separated the Chinese world from Western Asian cultures. In order to control such a vast empire, the Han administration attached particular importance to com-

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English Version

munications. News from all provinces reached the capital in just a few days by means of an effective system of posts. In this context, a device that could almost immediately determine where an earthquake had taken place and could therefore contribute to reacting faster in sending troops and supplies to the affected regions was considered to be an important invention. According to the History of Later Han, a register of historical events compiled after the end of the dynasty, as was the case with all official histories, Zhang Heng presented his seismograph to the court in 132 CE. Zhang Heng’s invention was able to indicate the approximate location of an earthquake through a system of cranks, levers and a pendulum that comprised a simple but amazingly efficient mechanism. The seismometer was cast in bronze and was formed by a central urn, which housed the machinery, and a series of eight dragon-shaped bars that supported a bronze ball in their jaws. In an earthquake, the high sensitivity of the pendulum activated the device, which triggered a lever and released one of the eight bronze balls from the dragon’s mouth. The ball fell into the mouth of a


bronze frog and roughly determined the direction of the earthquake. According to available historical sources, Zhang’s seismometer was unexpectedly triggered on one occasion in 134 CE, even though no tremors were felt in the Han capital. It was only after several days that the first reports of an earthquake in the northwest - about five hundred kilometers from the capital - reached the court. The news confirmed that Zhang’s device had determined the approximate location of the calamity,which contemporary scientists have estimated was magnitude 7 on the Richter scale. After the fall of the Later Han dynasty, the Chinese subcontinent entered a long period of divisions. Zhang’s seismometer did not survive the wars and political turmoil, but it was reconstructed for the first time in the sixth and seventh centuries following ancient descriptions of the machine. Scholars consider that Zhang Heng’s seismometer is one of the most impressive inventions of Chinese history. However, it was not Zhang’s only remarkable

contribution to the history of science. In recognition of his achievements as a mathematician, astronomer, engineer, cartographer and geographer, he entered the Han administrative system as Chief Astronomer of the court. While in the court, Zhang carried out a number of studies and experiments. For instance, he provided a calculation of the value of pi as 3.1466, a figure that was the most accurate Chinese estimate of pi for more than a century. He also designed a rotating armillary sphere activated by hydraulic power that shows the early understanding of hydraulic dynamics in China. He was the creator of the first odometer designed in China - in global terms this invention is usually attributed to Archimedes (287-212 BCE), three centuries before Zhang. According to Chinese texts, Zhang applied a device to a chariot that struck a wooden drum every 500 meters and a metallic drum every 5,000 meters. He also invented a chariot with a mechanical instrument that always pointed south, not using magnetic principles but rather a system of differential gears. All of these examples suggest that Zhang Heng was an extraordinary scholar and scientist who deserves a place in the engineering Hall of Fame.

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20 | NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG


NOTÍCIES Selecció del butlletí d’economia de Casa Àsia La empresa pública Chinalight se instala en España para facilitar la exportación al mercado chino La empresa gubernamental china Chinalight (Corporación Nacional de Importación y Exportación de Industria Ligera) ha entrado en el mercado español para impulsar la exportación de productos españoles de alta calidad, a través de una alianza con las empresas Xianxing Spain y Barcelona Development Business (BDB), ambas con sede en Barcelona. Informació: lavanguardia.com El yuan ya es la quinta divisa más usada del mundo La divisa de China, el yuan, se ha convertido en la quinta moneda más utilizada en pagos a nivel mundial, superando en aceptación a los dólares canadiense y australiano, según la Sociedad para las Comunicaciones Financieras Interbancarias Internacionales. El organismo afirmó que actualmente el yuan chino se encuentra por detrás del dólar estadounidense, el euro, la libra esterlina y el yen japonés. Informació: straitstimes.com cnbc.com Los sectores farmacéutico y biotecnológico en China Informe de Interchina Consulting sobre los sectores farmacéutico y biotecnológico en China, cuyo valor nacional ha aumentado con respecto a 2013,

pese a que también ha sufrido una caída en las operaciones transfronterizas entrantes. Las empresas de ambos sectores tienen unos niveles de incertidumbre y competencia cada vez mayor en China, y fuertes demandas de innovación si quieren conseguir ventajas competitivas a largo plazo. Informació: interchinaconsulting.com Asia Sourcing Guide 2015 En esta edición la guía explica cómo está cambiando y por qué el mercado de abastecimiento de Asia, se comparan los gastos generales de salarios, y dónde se fabrican y exportan ciertos tipos de productos. Se discute el impacto de los Tratados de Libre Comercio de la ASEAN con China y la India, y pone de relieve las opciones disponibles para el establecimiento de un modelo de abastecimiento en tres lugares: Vietnam, China y la India. Informació: asiabriefing.com Guía de incentivos a la implantación en China En esta guía elaborada por la Oficina Económica y Comercial de España en Pekín están incluidas las principales instituciones que existen en China para fomentar las inversiones y los distintos incentivos de carácter fiscal, laboral, sectorial o regional potenciados por los gobiernos para atraer la inversión exterior. Informació: icex.es

Fusiones y adquisiciones en China Muchas empresas multinacionales han utilizado fusiones y adquisiciones para establecer su presencia o expandir sus operaciones en la segunda economía más grande del mundo. Pero muchas más no tienen, especialmente en los últimos años. Según Thomson Reuters, las transacciones de entrada representan sólo 75 millones de dólares de los 287.000 millones de dólares en total de fusiones y volumen en China en los primeros tres trimestres de 2014. Informació: bcgperspectives.com El tren de mercancías entre España y China parte de regreso a Asia desde Madrid El tren de mercancías de la ruta “Yixinou”, que une China y España, ha partido desde la terminal madrileña de El Abroñigal de vuelta hacia la ciudad de Yiwu. El transporte mercante, que llegó a Madrid el 9 de diciembre pasado, tardará unos 20 días en regresar cargado de productos alimentarios españoles en contenedores especiales calefactados para soportar las bajas temperaturas del largo trayecto. Informació: elmundo.es El crecimiento de ingresos fiscales de China se desacelera a su nivel más bajo en 23 años El crecimiento de los ingresos fiscales anuales de China se desaceleró al 8,6 por ciento en 2014 para situarse en

NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG | 21


14,04 billones de yuanes (2,02 billones de euros), cifra que representa el nivel más bajo de los últimos 23 años. Estos resultados están relacionados con el mal comportamiento de la producción industrial, el consumo, la inversión y los beneficios empresariales, así como la disminución de los precios al productor. Informació: bloomberg.com lavanguardia.com La actividad manufacturera de China se contrae en enero por segundo mes consecutivo La actividad del sector manufacturero de China se contrajo por segundo mes consecutivo en enero, dando otra señal de que la desaceleración del gigante asiático se prolongará. El índice de gerentes de compras (PMI) elaborado por HSBC/Markit cayó a 49,7, por debajo del umbral de 50 puntos que separa el crecimiento de la contracción sobre una base mensual. El índice se situó ligeramente por debajo de la estimación inicial de 49,8 y una décima por encima de la lectura de diciembre (49,6). Informació: theguardian.com eleconomista.es ¿Qué debería hacer China ante la desaceleración de su crecimiento económico? La economía china se está desacelerando a un ritmo vertiginoso en los últimos años: datos recientes muestran que su PIB creció un 7,4% en 2014, la tasa más baja en 24 años. Desde la oficina de McKinsey en Shanghai recomiendan un cambio en el modelo de crecimiento chino: de uno impulsado por la inversión a uno dirigido por la productividad. Informació: mckinseychina.com China se convierte en el primer mercado de la compañía catalana Simon La compañía catalana de material eléctrico logró en el 2014 más ingresos de China, que superó a España como primer mercado con el 30% de la facturación frente al 28%, respectivamente. Pese a que las ventas en España han crecido un 4%, el mercado chino ha crecido con mucha más intensidad al registrar un aumento de la facturación del 10% el año pasado, a través de las más de 2.000 tiendas con

marca Simon en el gigante asiático, que se incrementaron en 100 más recientemente. Informació: eleconomista.es La inflación de China cae en enero al 0,8%, su mínimo en cinco años La tasa interanual de inflación de China se situó en enero en el 0,8%, frente al 1,5% del mes anterior, lo que supone la lectura más baja del indicador en los últimos cinco años, según reflejan los datos publicados por la Oficina de Estadística de China. Los precios registraron un alza interanual del 0,8% en las ciudades y del 0,6% en las zonas rurales. El precio de los alimentos aumentó un 1,1% interanual, mientras que los productos no alimentarios subieron un 0,6%. Informació: theguardian.com invertia.com iConsumers en China 2015 Encuesta de McKinsey&Company que analiza los comportamientos de 630 millones de usuarios de Internet en China en diferentes ciudades y zonas rurales. La investigación muestra un sólido crecimiento en el comercio electrónico social, una tendencia hacia la transformación de los minoristas físicos en meros ‘showrooms’, entre otros temas. El estudio muestra que los consumidores digitales chinos están entre los más avanzados en el mundo, y exigen más experiencias innovadoras de compra en línea a un ritmo acelerado. Informació: mckinseychina.com La Inversión Extranjera Directa en China crece en enero a su mayor ritmo en cuatro años La inversión extranjera directa en China aumentó un 29,4 % en enero respecto al mismo mes del año anterior, su mayor incremento desde febrero de 2011, y alcanzó un total de 12.195 millones de euros. Por otro lado, la inversión de China en el exterior ascendió a 8.910 millones de euros, con un aumento del 40,6 % respecto a enero de 2014. Estos datos no incluyen los flujos entrantes y salientes en el sector financiero. Los crecimientos del envío y la recepción de inversión también se deben al efecto estacional del Año Nuevo Chino. Informació: lat.wsj.com forbes.com

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Visión general sobre la contratación legal de empleados en China Artículo elaborado por la oficina de Garrigues Shanghái que explica de una manera somera cuál es el régimen legal aplicable en la República Popular China en materia de normativa laboral en la contratación de trabajadores. El artículo se divide principalmente en dos partes: la contratación de empleados locales y la contratación de empleados extranjeros. Informació: casaasia.es China se convertirá en el mayor mercado minorista En los próximos tres años, el país oriental superará a EE.UU. con un crecimiento del 7,9% de las ventas detallistas en 2018, según un estudio de PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) y The Economist Intelligence Unit . Por detrás se sitúan India, Filipinas y Vietnam. Aunque el ritmo de crecimiento del comercio al por menor se ha ralentizado, no es comparable con las tasas inferiores del 2,6% de Estados Unidos o la del 3,4% de media mundial, según los autores del estudio. Informació: cnbc.com Las nuevas rutas chinas de la seda Amplio reportaje de El País sobre las nuevas vías comerciales que unen Oriente y Occidente, fruto del ambicioso proyecto que Pekín ha convertido en una de las grandes prioridades de su política exterior: la formación de extensas redes de transporte, comunicaciones e infraestructuras que partan de China y, por vía terrestre y marítima, lleguen a Europa. Informació: internacional.elpais.com AB-Biotics se asocia con la empresa asiática Derbycare para vender en China un probiótico pedriático La biotecnológica catalana AB-Biotics ha llegado a un acuerdo con Derbycare, perteneciente al grupo asiático Hutchinson Whampoa Limited, para comercializar en China un probiótico en el ámbito de la salud gastropediátrica. Con este acuerdo Derbycare lanzará el producto durante el primer semestre de 2015 bajo el nombre comercial AB-Kolicare. Ambas compañías colaborarán también en la investigación y desarrollo de nuevas fórmulas para comercializar en China y otros mercados. Informació: abc.es


China encabeza la clasificación mundial de solicitudes de patentes China encabeza por cuarto año consecutivo la clasificación mundial de solicitudes de patentes, según los datos de la Oficina Estatal de Protección Intelectual. El gigante asiático registró el pasado año 928.000 peticiones de patentes de invención, lo que supone un aumento del 12,5% respecto del año anterior. De ellas, más de la mitad (485.000) provenían de compañías, universidades e institutos de investigación. Al frente de la clasificación está Huawei, líder mundial en equipos de telecomunicaciones, con 2.409 patentes. Informació: chinadaily.com.cn economictimes.indiatimes.com El sector servicios de Shanghái capta la mayoría de los capitales extranjeros Según informa la agencia oficial de noticias Xinhua, la inversión extranjera directa (IED) captada por la ciudad se dirige en su casi totalidad al sector servicios con un 90% de los flujos, mientras que la inversión foránea en la metrópoli china representa casi el 15% de las entradas totales de capital en el gigante asiático. En 2014 el rubro terciario de la gran urbe atrajo 16.400 millones de dólares (14.512 millones de euros) de IED, lo que supone un incremento del 20,8% sobre el año anterior. Informació: icex.es news.xinhuanet.com

Selecció Infocentre Acord de Govern de la Generalitat de Catalunya per intensificar les relacions en innovació i promoció comercial amb la Xina El Consell Executiu ha ratificat la signatura d’un memoràndum d’entesa d’ACCIÓ, amb Consell Xinès per a la Promoció del Comerç Internacional (CCPIT) de Tianjin. Tianjin és un dels centres industrials més grans i desenvolupats de la regió nord de la Xina. En aquest sentit, es poden generar sinergies en sectors com ara l’automoció, la química, la biotecnologia, el tèxtil i les noves energies, entre d’altres. Informació: www.govern.cat Nova planta de l’empresa catalana d’automoció Zanini a la Xina L’empresa, dedicada a la producció d’embellidors de roda i altres components, ha invertit 6,3M€ en la posada en marxa de la fàbrica a Changzhou. Informació: www.acc10.cat

Cobertura integral del 100% dels riscos Informa-te’n trucant a La Mútua dels Enginyers, telèfons 932 954 300 / 662 991 085, per fax al 933 100 638, o enviant un correu electrònic a l’adreça: xina@mutua-enginyers.com


BORSA DE TREBALL Electronics Technical Leader infojobs.net

Applus+ Certificación China, China (China) Salario no disponible Experiencia mínima: más de 10 años Tipo de oferta: jornada completa.

WE OFFER

DESCRIPTION • We are looking for a Senior Electronics Engineer for our Client (an American company) located in China. The candidate shall lead the Electrical & Electronics team made up by Chinese and foreign engineers and technicians. The target of the project is to finalize the development and bring to production an existing prototype. The duration of the project is at least 6 Month (could be prolonged) on site (China). The candidate must have good technical background and enjoy dealing with all different electrical & electronics technical aspects.

Develop an international career in one of the most exciting technical fields for future mobility. Attractive salary according to experience and technical background of the candidate. Nice challenges and possibility of growing inside the company.

Experiencia mínima: Más de 10 años Imprescindible residente en: No Requerido Requisitos mínimos: Electronics, Telecommunications, Automotive or similar engineering degree. At least 10+ year proven experience in Electrical & Electronics (Automotive experiences is a plus).

Background in some of the following disciplines: Tipo de industria de la oferta Servicios de asesoría y auditoría

• •

• • • •

Categoría Ingenieros y técnicos: Electrónica Departamento: EMC Nivel: Empleado Personal a cargo: 0 Número de vacantes: 1

• • •

REQUISITOS •

24 | NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG

Estudios mínimos: Ingeniero Técnico

• •

Battery ecosystem. Electronics specification design process. System Functional distribution. Electronics validation process. Electronics Units integration. Electronics architecture and communication (CAN Bus). SW architecture. Knowledge of industrial process (design to production).


NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG | 25


Industrial Manager Jefe de Planta (Matricería) binternational.net

Kunshan, China (China) Publicada Salario: 78.000€ - 82.000€ bruto/año Experiencia mínima: más de 5 años Tipo de oferta: de duración determinada, jornada completa

• DESCRIPTION The candidate will be held responsible of the management and coordination of all areas of the production plant: HH.RR, Manufacturing department, Finance department, Technical department, etc. He will participate actively in designing the strategy of the company together with the Manager Director of the Company and must ensure the compliance with the Management Plan.

workers; to propose wage increases within the current wages policy. To Monitor the Organization?s financial situation and make the necessary decisions with up-to-date information. Report to Manager Director of the company about the level achievement of the factory goals.

Experiencia mínima: Más de 5 años

CONOCIMIENTOS NECESARIOS • • • • • •

Access English Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Word SAP

TRAINING COMPETENCIAS The candidate will get training during the adaptation process, sharing knowledge and professional experience about our company, our business, processes, policies, etc. During one month with the current Industrial Manager (15 days in Spain, 15 days in Kunshan) Tipo de industria de la oferta Servicios de RRHH

• • • • • • • • •

OTHER

Leadership Initiative Autonomy Teamwork capacity Focused on results Customer focus Technical skills Project Management Sheet Metal Knowledge

RESPONSIBILITIES •

Customer relations: Represent the company before clients.: to prepare and to trade offers. Production management and productivity improvement: to invest in production resources, coordinate the support areas (purchasing, quality, manufacturing, etc)effectively and efficiently. People Management: to promote the empowerment and development of the

• • • •

Categoría: Ingenieros y técnicos - Industrial Nivel: Empleado Número de vacantes: 1 Duración del contrato: 3-5 años Salario: 78.000€ - 82.000€ Bruto/año

REQUISITOS •

26 | NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG

Estudios mínimos: Ingeniero Técnico - Industrial, especialidad en Mecánica

• •

University degree. Engineering. English (C2), Other languages as Spanish or Chinese are also appreciated. Experience: 5 years (in similar position as Industrial Manager) Computer Skills: Use Microsoft Office Programs: Word, Excel, Access, PowertPoint, etc. Is appreciated knowledge of SAP.


Mechanical engineer / Materials engineer www.spanishchamber.com. hk

European automotive supplier is looking for a Mechanical engineer / Materials engineer: •

• •

Language skills: native chinese, fluent english or/and Spanish Highly interested in automotive technology and industrial production Entry level position or Junior Location: first one/two years based in Spain - Barcelona for training, later to be based in China (Wuhu, Anhui probably)

If you are interested please send your CV to borsatreball@eic.cat

NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG | 27


LINKS D’INTERÈS Centre d’Internacionalització Empresarial ACC1Ó www.acc10.cat

BARCELONA-SHANGHAI WOMEN BRIDGE www.bswomenb.com

Casa Àsia www.casaasia.es

CHINA IMPORT AND EXPORT FAIR. Canton Fair Online http://www.cantonfair.org.cn/en/

China International Machine Tool www.cimtshow.com

ACC10 Invest in Catalonia www.investincatalonia.com

ICEX (Instituto Español de Comercio Exterior) www.icex.es

China Association for Science and Technology www.cast.org.cn

China Daily www.chinadaily.com.cn

ROCA JUNYENT Departament Asian Desk www.rocajunyent.com

Casa de España . Shanghai casaespanashanghai.com

Portal del Centre de Certificació de la Xina CQC: China Quality Certification Centre www.cqc.com.cn/english/index.htm

Sinalunya www.sinalunya.com Casal Català de Shanghai www.wix.com/casalshanghai/ccshanghai# Institut Confuci (Barcelona) www.confuciobarcelona.es China Yiwu International Machinery Industry Fair www.jixie-expo.com CHINE PLUS. La revue de presse www.chine-plus.com Federació de la Indústria de la Maquinària a la Xina jjw.mei.gov.cn/english/index.html cmif.mei.gov.cn CHINA BRIEFING. Magazine and Daily News Service www.china-briefing.com

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Net-Craman www.net-craman.com China – CSR MAP (Responsabilitat social corporativa) www.chinacsrmap.org/index_EN.asp Observatorio de la Política China www.politica-china.org Export to China www.e-to-china.com/ Centre europeu per a PIME’s www.eusmecentre.org.cn/ Trader China Directory www.trader-china.com


Amb el patrocini de:

Amb la col路laboraci贸 i el suport de:

NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG | 29


NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG

Col·legi d’Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya c/ Via Laietana 39 08003 Barcelona Tel. 933 192 300 / 935 572 049 · www.eic.cat

30 | NEWS ENGINYERS XINA 2015 // ABRIL - MAIG

News Enginyers Xina - Abril - Maig 2015  

La revista internacional dels Enginyers Industrials de Catalunya.

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