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Issue 19: Winter 2017/2018

The case for the defence

A reprieve for lead in ESS is needed The lessons of 2017 And prospects for the year ahead ... ESJ quizzes 10 top players

Lead versus lithium White paper reveals positive role for lead acid in project ESS

Flow battery profile A tipping point arrives for vanadium redox as RedT moves forward

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THE CASE FOR THE DEFENCE OF LEAD Lead, not guilty as charged ... the case for the accused 


The case against lithium 


For the last five years energy storage systems have steadfastly turned to lithium ion batteries as their chemistry of choice. The logic hasn’t been perfect — but the hype around the subject has! But given rapid and massive improvements in lead battery technology perhaps it’s time to re-evaluate what should go where:

A recent paper demonstrates how lead acid batteries provide a viable, sustainable and cheaper resource for large scale static energy storage systems, It provides an overview of the performance of lead batteries in energy storage applications and highlights how they have been adapted for this application in recent developments. The demonization of lead: a short history

Making the defence case… 16


The tale of the life and times of Thomas Midgley Junior, inventor, genius chemist and creator of tetra-ethyl-lead present a quick snapshot into a world that distrusts lead far, far more than was ever necessary



Gridtential appoints Barton as CEO, Gruenstern joins technical board • Battery veteran Shep Wolsky passes aged 91 • Martin Milani appointed CEO of Sunverge Energy • Four industry figures join Navigant’s global energy practice • Fludder becomes CEO of NEC Energy Solutions


Milani new Sunverge CEO



35GW of new US storage to be installed by 2025 predicts ESA • 1MW hybrid microgrid proves cost effective for New Zealand utility • US grid modernization: momentum builds in third quarter, likelihood of regulatory changes in the offing • LADWP turns to 20MW battery storage to meet renewables target Strategic alliance aims to deliver microgrid based energy-as-a-service • Schneider Electric, NGK sign MoU for sodium sulfur system • Australia’s largest private sector ESS, solar project closes first funding round • UK government backs cloud-based virtual power plant and smart energy systems • World’s first hybrid supercapacitor, flywheels and LAES system to test EFR, FFR capability • Duke develops 5MW military microgrid storage and substation project • ESS installation costs set to fall by at least 50% by 2030 • VRFB research project to test energy storage potential for Ireland’s future grid Daimler to ‘live store’ EV batteries in a German 17.4MWh ESS • Eaton launches data centre UPSAARto aid grid frequency management • India tender closes with firm offering 28MWh BESS project of just $46m … Will India’s solar penetration boom pave the way for world’s next big ESS market?







Extract from white paper details examples of lead based ESS project work


Energy Storage Journal invited 10 of the industry’s executives and insiders, between them knowledgeable across the spectrum of deployments; utility, commercial & industrial, residential and off-grid; both sides of the meter, and spanning expertize from all areas — integration to software development — to tell us what they think the year ahead has in store.

Vanadium redox to flourish in deep energy storage — RedT’s Stuart McGregor explains why he believes his firm, and others, are poised to capitalize on a the new tipping point for the price of renewable energy.

Our comprehensive round-up of energy storage conferences, exhibitions, workshops and meetings for the six months ahead.

Features writer: Jim Smith Advertising manager: Jade Beevor jade@energystoragejournal,com +44 1 243 792 467

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Let cool heads prevail

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McGregor: flow battery success38

Research editor: Jane Simpson Design: Antony Parselle aparselledesign@me.con International advertising representation: The contents of this publication are protected by copyright. No unauthorized translation or reproduction is permitted. Every effort has been made to ensure that all the information in this publication is correct, the publisher will accept no responsibility for any errors, or opinion expressed, or omissions, for any loss or damage, cosequential or otherwise, suffered as a result of any material published. Any warranty to the correctness and actuality of this publication cannot be assumed. © 2017 HHA Limited UK company no: 09123491 Working with

The lead-lithium storage debate steps up a notch The new titan of lead The CEO interview

Ecoult’s UltraBattery, Anil Srivastava and ready to take lithium Leclanché’s bid for on, head-to-head

market dominance

Next gen integrators Coming soon to a smart grid near you, the ideal middle man

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 1

Merry Christmas &

Engineered additive solutions for the future of energy storage.

a Happy New Year mmond a H t A e n o y r e v From E

For the challenges ahead...

InnovatIon award wInner


Gridtential appoints Barton as CEO, Gruenstern joins technical board Gridtential Energy, the bipolar lead battery start-up, has appointed John Barton, former president of global asset management for SunEdison, as its new chief executive. And also, in an announcement on October 24, named JCI’s Bob Gruenstern as a technology advisory board member. Barton, takes over from Christiaan Beekhuis, who has been with Gridtential since 2011. Gruenstern was formerly global vice president for product and advanced engineering for Johnson Controls. Gruenstern joined JCI as an engineer in 1982. Gridtential said Barton’s

experience in the sustainable energy sector and across global supply chains, and Gruenstern’s engineering knowledge were reasons for the appointments. The appointments follow the closing of it $11 million Series ‘B’ financing round in September Barton said: “After my two decades of product development, high-volume manufacturing and solar, I believe we’re seeing the same intersection of technology advances, increases in performance, and cost reductions in energy storage that catapulted those industries to the next level,” said “This convergence is al-

Bob Gruenstern joins advisory board

ready transforming existing markets and enabling new ones, like the shift from 12 volts to 48 volts in hybrid cars.” Ray Kubis, chairman of Gridtential, said: “Barton’s operations experience will help our battery partners

move to high volume manufacturing of our silicon joule technology.” Gruenstern said: “Gridtential’s architecture breakthrough leverages new material advances that didn’t exist until now, and that positions it, along with its growing roster of lead battery manufacturers, to satisfy the market pull we’re seeing for high voltage applications like electric-hybrid vehicles. “These types of technology are a substantial extension of lead, giving it new capabilities to compete with lithium batteries on performance, while retaining key advantages in safety, recyclability and cost.”

Battery veteran Shep Wolsky passes aged 91 Sumner ‘Shep’ Wolsky, the founder of the International Battery Seminar, passed away on November 12 at the age of 91. Wolsky was the inspiration behind the annual seminars, which will mark their 35th year next March in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. “Wolsky was one of a generation of a batterymen that we need to cherish while they are still with us — immensely knowledgeable, excitingly entrepreneurial and full of ideas,” an associate said. Wolsky’s experience in the battery industry goes back to the 1950s, when he quit the US Navy to work as a researcher into transistors for Bell Labs. In 1962, he joined the then legendary firm of PR Mallory — now Duracell — where he became vice president of research and development. There he helped to introduce Li-metal, Li-sulfur dioxide and Li-thionyl chloride batteries. He also helped Sony when it introduced the lithium-ion battery, obtaining

4 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

the first US government approval for their transport. But in 1980 now a vice president at Duracell, in an age when the letters VP meant something, Wolsky had enough of corporate America and decided that he “wanted to have some fun and make some money — it seemed a time when to do both things were possible”. He took six months off and then decided to quit Duracell. Wolsky wrote more than 100 technical papers and consulted on the development of batteries with clients all over the world. But it is the international battery seminars for which Wolsky will be remembered, and in recognition of his contributions to the field, the annual battery innovator award given out each year at the seminars will be named the Shep Wolsky Battery Innovator Award. “Working on the international battery seminar until his passing, his passion and impact on the worldwide battery community was profound and he will be deeply

missed,” said Phillips Kuhl, president of the conference organizer Cambridge Enertech. Also after a lifetime in the industry Wolsky knows, or has known, most of the best known names in the business. And, equally he’s helped many of them at some stage in their careers — think of the set up of Maccor, for example. Or his early help with Menahem Anderman with the AABC events. And many others. In Lexington he grew New England Rose Society award winning roses and was elected Town Meeting Member. He was a Bostonian sports fan, a lover of Gilbert and Sullivan, and a proud “Cape Codder” (Lexington is a handful of miles from Cape Cod.) He contributed to a history book about Franklin Park, published short stories and was a produced playwright. “He will be sorely missed — and not just for his work on the seminars,” a former colleague said. “He was well loved and well liked by an industry that he devoted his life to.” A celebration of his life took place on November 19.


Fludder becomes CEO of NEC Energy Solutions NEC Energy Solutions appointed Steve Fludder, as its new chief executive,

in early November. Fludder takes over from Hiro Ezawa, who is chairman of

Fludder: new NEC chief exec

the firm and was CEO on a temporary basis. Fludder has substantial global experience, including 15 years based in Korea, China, Indonesia, Hong Kong and the UAE. He was most recently the CEO of Alpha-En Corporation, a publicly traded New York based clean energy company. Before that, he spent four years as a senior executive officer with the Samsung Group as chief marketing and sales officer of Samsung Engineering. He also led Samsung Engineering’s US operation as president and CEO based in Houston, Texas. Fludder started his career at GE as an engineer for GE

Aircraft Engines. He spent 27 years with the company including five years as a vice president and corporate officer. He led GE’s companywide Ecomagination environmental business initiative which grew to $18 billion during this time. Before that he was responsible for several GE technology-based businesses across Asia, particularly as president and CEO of GE Energy China in Beijing, where he grew revenue 10-fold to over $1 billion in three years. Hiro Ezawa said: “his outstanding experience scaling and growing energy related businesses, executing transformational strategies and driving operational excellence, we couldn’t have a better executive leading us through this period of significant growth.”

The International Flow Battery Forum


IFBF 2018 10

to 12th July SwissTech Convention Centre at EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland th


The leading international conference for all aspects of flow battery research, development, technology, manufacturing, commercialisation and deployment of flow batteries. The ninth conference in the series includes a visit to EPFL’s flow battery in Martigny. “Excellent opportunity to network, interact “Good insight of new technical and exchange experiences and share ideas” and commercial developments” “Blend of commercial and technical presentations was superb” “Exciting to see new trends in the flow battery industry”

“Several business opportunities emerged from the conference”

“Introductory seminar was a useful tool for someone with limited understanding in the field”

The call for papers is now open. For further information, exhibition, registration and sponsorship opportunities visit: or emai:

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 5


Martin Milani appointed CEO of Sunverge Energy

Milani: to lead development of cloud and edge software platform

Sunverge Energy, a developer of residential energy storage systems and virtual power plant (VPP) software, has appointed Martin Milani as its new chief executive. He takes over from co-founder and CEO Ken Munson. Milani has been chief operating officer and chief technology officer for Sunverge since December 2016. His background of over 25 years in technology, including experience in grid services and modernization, position him well to lead the company into its next phase of growth. Milani will lead the development of Sunverge’s cloud and edge software platform for managing distributed energy resources and smart home devices — including

Four industry figures join Navigant’s global energy practice Navigant announced on November 7 that Mike Bianco, Jan-Willem Bode, Chip Wood, Bertil Heerink had joined the company’s global energy practice. Bianco has 26 years’ experience in information and operational technology solutions engineering, program management, and systems integration. He was previously vice president of Bridge Energy Group’s grid operations practice. Navigant says: “He will lead utility clients in developing solutions to deliver a distributed, and more sustainable power grid. This includes supporting the development and delivery of largescale, transformational

programs for utility grid modernization, distributed energy resources, and renewables. Jan-Willem Bode becomes a director based in London. Bode will work on markets in Europe and the Middle East and head the region’s strategy and technology team. Bode previously worked for Ecofys, a Navigant company. He also was the co-founder and CEO of Mongoose Energy, a community energy company in the UK that financed more than £100 million ($133 million) of communityowned renewable assets. He is a former investment banker with SocGen. Chip Wood becomes a

6 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

director based in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has spent over 30 with Duke Energy, most recently as vice president, business development for its renewables business. Bertil Heerink becomes a director based in Brussels and Utrecht in the Benelux. He previously worked for the Dutch government’s environment ministry as head of European Union affairs, and as a counsellor of embassy in the permanent representation to the EU. He was also a member of the European Commission’s climate change negotiating team, responsible for the political contacts with the US and Japan.

energy storage, residential and commercial PV and smart thermostats The Sunverge platform allows utilities and third parties to connect multiple energy storage units, other distributed energy resources (DERs) and home energy management systems to operate in unison as a VPP. The VPP platform provides benefits along the entire energy value chain, from consumer to market, delivering energy efficiency, bill savings, peak shifting and other essential reliability benefits, across an entire community or service area. Before joining Sunverge, Milani was CTO and general manager of Nexant, a provider of technologies focused on the next generation intelligent grid, distributed energy resources, and the digital customer experience. Previous positions include: CTO of Tidal Software (acquired by Cisco Systems); CEO and CTO of Intersperse, a provider of monitoring and management solutions for the service-oriented enterprise; CTO of iBuilding, a web services process-flow management and orchestration company; and chief internet technologist at Times Mirror Corporation. Before joining Times Mirror, Milani held senior-level technology and management positions at Wells Fargo, IBM, Retix, and Locus Computing. During former CEO Ken Munson’s tenure, Sunverge grew into a market leader in the distributed storage space. It consistently earned recognition as a Global CleanTech 100 company, and achieved commercial success in North America, Australia and Japan.


35GW of new US storage to be installed by 2025 predicts ESA The path to a more resilient US grid has been laid out in a new white paper published on November 6 by the Energy Storage Association developed in conjunction with Navigant Research. The report — 35x25: A Vision for Energy Storage — details the way to drive the deployment of more than 35GW of new energy storage systems in the US by 2025 and, in turn, move the country towards a disruption-proof grid. The creation of such a grid will require, the report says, the continued evolution of the way policymakers, operators and other stakeholders think about the grid. Kelly Speakes-Backman, chief executive of ESA, said: “Energy storage is the key to creating a powerful energy ecosystem whose backbone is an efficient, resilient, affordable, and sustainable grid. The ESA vision will require a great deal of collaboration and commitment from all parties.” That collaboration and commitment includes utilities breaking down the silos of their long term planning, and regulators using up-to-date modelling that includes how storage technologies can help to  modernize the grid “This can be done in a collaborative effort with utilities, stakeholders, and consumer advocates, and legislators should look at the potential impacts of energy storage, which will take studies, and should include all stakeholders,” an ESA official told Energy Storage Journal. The ESA believes there are three areas where public policy regulation reforms could unlock the potential of energy storage.

“First, there needs to be signal of value for the services storage provides, be it in market designs, programs, or rates,” says the association. “Second, there needs to be inclusion of storage in all planning and procurement processes as a regular part of business. “Third, there needs to be access for storage to interconnect with the grid and operate in a flexible manner, including under a variety of business models. Both regulators and legislators have work to do on these counts.” By building more on-demand capacity, responsive balancing capability, as well as energy storage technologies will help address grid vulnerabilities and make modern grids more resilient, sustainable, efficient and affordable. More specifically, the ESA believes, it will need to be bi-directional; controlled at

a granular, sub-hourly level; increasingly decarbonized; use central generation, distributed energy resources, energy efficiency and demand response, and energy storage to balance and optimize the operations. “Storage plays a central role in that modern, resilient grid for two reasons,” says the ESA. “One, by decoupling supply and demand, it provides enormous flexibility to grid operations, which not only improves the utilization of all other grid assets — generation, demand reso urces, and wires infrastructure — but also imbues the system with greater resilience. “Two, it opens the path for transformation of the electric system to new architectures or grid mixes, which will be increasingly necessary as we electrify and integrate more parts of our economy with the grid.” This all means that post

2020, the relationship between end-users and utilities will increasingly see customers become prosumers as well as consumers as their awareness of how, when and what energy sources they use grows with their use of tools such as smart grid, EVs, storage, and solar. “The most forwardthinking utilities are systematically procuring grid services from customer-sited resources, and we expect that trend to continue,” says the ESA. Power outages, surges and spikes cost the US economy between $70 billion and $150 billion each year and as an increasing number of EVs, data centres and renewable energy generation is brought on line this is set to increase. In 2017, the US had around 500MW of installed energy storage, deployed in retail and wholesale markets.

1MW hybrid microgrid proves cost effective for New Zealand utility A hybrid, off-grid renewable energy system is being deployed by New Zealand electricity distributor Powerco as a cost effective alternative to installing 2km of transmission infrastructure to connect rural customers to the grid. The base power units will act as microgrids, with the all-in-one system generating power from solar panels, storing excess energy in batteries, and will have a diesel generator to provide back-up power in emergencies. Powerco had been

trialling the base power units for five years with other batteries, before deciding on SimpliPhi’s LiFePO4 Phi 3.4 batteries for the all-in-one system, which aims to give remote customers a secure power supply in areas where infrastructure upgrades were not cost effective. Powerco has initially approved 20 new units over the next 12 months. The base power units range from 13kWh to 54kWh, with the initial deployment set to be up to 1.08MW of storage, if all 20 units are installed with

their maximum storage capacity. Energy storage firm SimpliPhi Power’s systems were chosen following year long trials of its technology, the company announced October 3. SimpliPhi CEO Catherine Von Burg said: “The utility calculated that off-grid distributed and renewable assets combined with storage is more cost effective than extending the reach of the grid by two kilometres, or having to repair the transmission lines of approximately 20 poles.

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 7


US grid modernization: momentum builds in third quarter, likelihood of regulatory changes in the offing The North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center released its Q3 2017 edition of The 50 States of Grid Modernization on November 1. The quarterly series looks at US state regulatory and legislative discussions and actions on grid modernization, utility business model and rate reforms, energy storage, microgrids, and demand response. The overall picture is that momentum behind the transition away from a carbon based energy economy into one that incorporates renewables and energy storage is picking up — if, as perhaps should be expected, in a disparate and occasionally faltering rate between states. The report finds that 33 states and Washington DC took some type of action on grid modernization during Q3 2017. Specifically, the report found that: • 38 state or utility proposals in 21 states to imple-

ment demand response programs or deploy advanced metering infrastructure, smart grid technologies, microgrids, or energy storage were pending or decided. • 20 states considered or enacted changes to policies related to grid modernization, including energy storage targets and clean peak standards. • 19 states plus Washington DC took action to study or investigate grid modernization, energy storage, demand response, or rate reform. • 15 states plus four regional transmission organizations considered changes to utility planning processes or rules enabling market access. • 12 states plus Washington DC took action related to utility business model or rate reforms. • Seven states considered adopting new incentives or making changes to existing incentives for en-

ergy storage and microgrids. “Energy storage and other distributed energy resources are playing a large role in grid modernization efforts,” said Autumn Proudlove, lead author of the report and manager of policy research at the centre. “Distributed energy resources are being increasingly viewed as a potential solution, rather than simply a challenge.” Of the 33 states taking action on grid modernization during the quarter, 26 took actions specifically related to energy storage policies and deployment. Overall, the most common actions of the quarter related to advanced metering infrastructure, smart grid, and energy storage deployment, followed by grid modernization investigations. A total of 184 state and utility-level actions related to grid modernization were proposed, pending, or enacted in Q3 2017. The report says the top

LADWP turns to 20MW battery storage to meet renewables target The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power has turned to a 20MW battery storage project at its California Beacon Solar Plant as it looks to increase renewables generation and expand its storage capacity portfolio to 50MW, it was announced on November 13. LADWP is ramping up its integration of renewables like solar energy, and consequently its utility-scale energy storage deployment, in response to the Aliso Can-

yon Natural Gas Storage Facility leak in 2015. The Beacon Battery Energy Storage System Phase 1 project will be owned and operated by LADWP. The new storage project, located at LADWP’s 250MW Beacon solar farm and wind turbines in the Mojave Desert, will integrate solar power into the grid to help LADWP meet its target of 178MW of new energy storage by 2021. Construction started in the summer, and once com-

8 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

plete the project will provide LADWP’s grid with regulation, frequency response, and load following capacity. LADWP plan to accelerate the development of a 30MW Phase 2 Battery Energy Storage System expansion at the site for a total of 50MW before 2021. In addition to the Beacon BESS, LADWP is assessing how to use multiple battery energy storage system projects and has preliminarily identified 145MW of new energy storage pro-

five policy developments of Q3 2017 were: • Regulatory commissions in New Mexico and Washington amending integrated resource planning rules to require full evaluation of energy storage options; • Oregon initiating a broad investigation into grid modernization and utility business models; • The Texas Public Utilities Commission considering an ALJ’s proposal for decision that would allow AEP Texas North to own battery storage assets; • California’s state legislature enacting a bill requiring utilities to consider the role of storage and other DERs to meet peak demand as part of the integrated resource planning process; and • The Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection’s recommendation to open an expansive grid modernization proceeding. jects to date. LADWP has previously worked with customers to assist them in installing 12MW of battery storage in California.  Korean energy storage firm Doosan Gridtech will supply the storage system, which uses 13 SMA Sunny Central Storage invertors. Doosan Gridtech was formed in 2016 when the South Korean industrial conglomerate acquired Seattle-based 1Energy Systems to gain a foothold in the North American distributed energy markets. The renamed firm is a subsidiary of Doosan Heavy Industries.


Strategic alliance aims to deliver microgrid based energy-as-a-service Dynamic Energy Networks has secured a strategic alliance with Schneider Electric and The Carlyle Group to drive deployment of its energy-as-a-service platform, the firm announced on November 6. The US company’s platform allows organizations and institutions — from campuses to hospitals and the military — to make use of microgrids and distributed energy resources for their power supply, via a third party. Target projects will involve the installation of ESSs — which primarily consists of a base load generator such as CHP or fuel cells, PV, wind, energy storage, load control and a microgrid controller —

that is owned and operated by a third party, with power sold as it is consumed by the end user. John Westerman, vice president for technical solutions at DEN, told Energy Storage Journal: “This is the microgrid as a service business model. In the energy storage benefits stack, the storage system may be used to prevent export of excess PV generation to the grid and store for later use by the facility for peak demand management or evening energy requirements. “Other functions include supporting CHP generation to force operation at higher efficiency operating points, maintain grid stability from intermittent renewables, energy arbitrage,

power quality improvement, demand response, and ancillary services to the grid.” The business model allows for the sale of excess energy to the grid when there is an economic benefit. However, said Westerman, in most energy markets, a behind the meter microgrid solution provides energy to a facility to offset retail energy costs, and compensation for selling back to the grid is typically at an energy wholesale price which is much lower. “In many cases, ancillary services do not require export to support the grid. Load modification (through DER operations) can be used to realize volt-

Schneider Electric, NGK sign MoU for sodium sulfur system French firm Schneider Electric and Japanese company NGK Insulators signed a memorandum of understanding to market sodium sulfur (NaS) energy storage systems on November 8. In November 2016, NGK and Schneider Electric conducted integration testing of the interface between the NAS battery and ES Box at NGK’s factory in Komaki City, Aichi Prefecture in central Japan. The Conext Core XC ES is a series of central inverters designed for high efficiency and flexibility for batterybased energy storage systems. NGK has been providing NaS battery systems for load levelling and emergency power supply since 2002. According to the Energy Storage Association, NaS battery technology has

been demonstrated at over 190 sites in Japan. More than 270MW of stored energy suitable for six hours of daily peak shaving have been installed. The largest NaS installation is a 34MW,

245MWh unit for wind stabilization in Northern Japan. The demand for NaS batteries as an effective means of stabilizing renewable energy output and providing

age support, value at risk support, peak demand, and congestion support for the local utility where the microgrid can be compensated for these services.” A report in July by market research firm Navigant Research forecast the energy-as-a-service industry could grow into a $221 billion global business by 2026. The company defines energy-as-a-service as the management of one or more aspects of a customer’s energy portfolio — including strategy, program management, energy supply, energy use, and asset management — by applying new products, services, financing instruments, and technology solutions. ancillary services is expanding. US utilities have deployed 9MW for peak shaving, backup power, firming wind capacity, and other applications. Projections, say the ESA, indicate that development of an additional 9 MW is in-progress. In general NaS cells are highly efficient (typically 89%).

Nidec, Corsica Sole sign MoU for four PV projects Nidec Industrial Solutions and Corsica Sole, project developer and independent power producer have signed a memorandum of understanding for the turn-key construction and maintenance of four photovoltaic projects with battery storage which are part of the 13MWp pipeline project won by Corsica Sole awarded under the French CRE ZNI tender. NIS and Corsica Sole recently finalized and signed an EPC contract, related to

one of these projects, with a capacity of 4.78MWp (PV) and 7.5MWh (BESS), located near Bastia, one of the biggest electricity consumer areas in Corsica. “This project, and those to come next, demonstrate that it is already technologically possible, economically feasible and socially beneficial today to achieve 100% renewable energy mix,” says Michael Coudyser, chief executive of Corsica Sole. The NIS scope of work

includes an EPC and two years of maintenance including supplying NIS manufacturing product, namely a 1.5 kV inverter, ARTICS Smart Energy, Nidec’s Power Management System for smart microgrids and energy storage, in addition to design, construction, installation and commissioning. The plant should be fully operational by April 2018. The construction of the other three projects, will start in 2018.

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 9


Australia’s largest private sector ESS, solar project closes first funding round Commissioning of a solar plus 10MW energy storage project in Australia has been scheduled for late 2018 after Singapore-based energy project company Nexif Energy announced it had secured financing for the first round of the project on November 13. Once completed, the Lincoln Gap Wind Farm project near Port Augusta in South Australia, will include a battery — to be upgraded to 30MW in the future — connected to 59 wind turbines. The system will be connect-

ed to a 275kV grid line managed by ElectraNet The project is set to be one of Australia’s largest private sector-initiated and owned grid battery systems not underwritten by a government contract or funded by

government grants, the company said. The Clean Energy Finance Corporation will act as financier, lending up to A$150 million ($115 million) for construction of the first stage of the wind farm and In-

The project is set to be one of Australia’s largest private sector-initiated and owned grid battery systems not underwritten by a government contract or funded by government grants

vestec has provided facilities totalling A$39 million for working capital and letters of credit. Construction of the project should take 12-18 months and be in operation for more than 25 years. Nexif Energy was formed in August 2015 by Nexif, a Singapore-based independent power management company, and Denham Capital, an energy-focused private equity firm. The move is only the latest in the state’s adoption of energy storage.

UK government backs cloud-based virtual power plant and smart energy systems Moixa, a battery storage firm, secured £267,750 ($355,000) from the UK’s Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy’s Energy Entrepreneurs Fund to expand its virtual power plant system Gridshare, it was announced on November 10. The government funding will allow Moixa to develop its GridShare platform — a system that allows operators to manage the aggregation of distributed energy systems such as residential storage, electric vehicle and IoT batteries. Moixa’s GridShare is being trialled to gauge its ability to deliver services to the National Grid, local power

networks and utilities as system operators integrate distributed energy resources on to their systems. Simon Daniel, CEO of Moixa, said that by enabling the management of other manufacturers’ batteries the company would be able to offer utilities a one-stop shop for domestic battery aggregation. Moixa aims to aggregate 200MWh of battery capacity by 2020, which includes the installation of 50,000 batteries in UK homes and hopes to manage twice that number using its GridShare platform. Moixa unveiled a solarplus-storage package on October 4, 2016. The bat-

tery package, targeted at homeowners, housing associations and landlords, combined a 2kWh Moixa lithium iron phosphate smart battery with a 2kW, eight-panel solar photovoltaic system. Around the same time the company installed 20 energy systems in social housing across London thanks to the Technical Innovation Fund, part of a £26.2 million Health and Innovation Programme designed and administered by fuel poverty charity National Energy Action. This January, Moixa, UK power network Northern Powergrid and Energise Barnsley began trials

Energy storage moves across the Pacific The Green Climate Fund is providing a $12 million grant as additional financing to the Cook Islands Renewable Energy Sector Project, which will help the country transition to renewable energy. The project, co-financed by the Asian Development Bank, the European Un-

ion, and the Government of Cook Islands, was approved in October 2014, with the Global Environment Facility approving it in 2016. The project is designed to lower the Cook Islands’ reliance on fossil fuels under a plan to build solar-powered plants on

10 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

five of its islands. The additional assistance from GCF will provide funding for the installation of three units of a battery energy storage system with a preliminary capacity of 3MW and 12MWh, which will enable an additional 6MW of PV capacity to be connected to the grid.

to demonstrate its virtual power plants. The trial included 30 homes with solar PV panels plus 10 others without. The £250,000 trial looked at how a virtual power plant can reduce peak solar output on to the network sufficiently to enable panels to be installed on more homes using existing substations and cable networks. Moixa is also working with Oxford City Council on a two-year project which aims to tackle fuel poverty. It links smart batteries in 82 homes, a school and community centre with 300kWp of solar panels creating a virtual smart local energy grid allowing the community to maximise use of the free energy it generates. The company is also working with Hitachi on a £10.8 million project on the Scilly Isles to lay the foundations for the islands to cut electricity bills and boost renewable penetration on its grid by 40%. The project will develop platforms to enable residential storage and EVs to help balance the islands’ supply and demand.


World’s first hybrid supercapacitor, flywheels and LAES system to test EFR, FFR capability Energy storage company Highview will test the grid frequency service capabilities of the world’s first hybrid flywheel, supercapacitor and liquid air energy storage (LAES) system at its Viridor’s Pilsworth landfill gas plant in the UK, the firm announced on October 12. The project at Highview’s existing 5MW/15MWh LAES pre-commercial demonstrator looks at how the system can meet the requirements of the UK grid operator National Grid’s Enhanced Frequency Response and Firm Frequency Response services. The Pilsworth LAES plant will be commissioned in early 2018 and the hybrid system is due to be in full operation by next summer. The project will use a Siemens supplied flywheel system storing up to 4,000kJ, with the 2,950kJ supercapacitor coming from Maxwell Technologies. The power conversion element to control the transfer of energy to load banks, supercapacitors, flywheels and the grid will be provided by Siemens Sinamics S120. Vincent Morton, Siemens’ development manager for integrated drive systems, told Energy Storage Journal the technologies were chosen over lithium-ion because a flywheel and supercapacitor hybrid system was better suited to the requirements of delivering a large burst of energy for a relatively short time — high power, low energy — that suited the application. “From calculating many combinations to suit the particular parameter in this system (including but not limited to: energy, power, duty cycle, budget) this system was selected,” Morton said. “The combination of flywheel and supercapacitor also allows flexibility and a platform to innovate and

develop advanced control of power management between the different types of storage.” The LAES process is expected to ramp up to the declared output in a few seconds, with the energy storage system providing the balance of the declared output during this period. The Siemens Sinamics S120 power converters will control the flow of energy in and out of the flywheels by accelerating or decelerating the flywheel rotor. The S120 motor modules provide a variable voltage, variable frequency threephase supply to the flywheel stator and converts this to a steady DC voltage on the S120 DC-link. The Sinamics DCP controls the flow of energy in and out of the supercapacitors by increasing/ decreasing the DC voltage applied, while maintaining a constant DC voltage at the S120 DC link. The S120 active front end then converts this DC volt-

age from the DC link to a 50Hz grid compliant import/export to the grid via a Siemens GEAFOL transformer. The overall state of charge management of the storage devices and interaction with the Highview LAES will be controlled by a Siemens PCS7 Distributed Control System. Highview is working with a system integrator to develop the algorithms for this. Matthew Barnett, business development director at Highview said: “This is the world’s first hybridized LAES System that uses the best attributes of established components configured to deliver a smart liquid air battery plant, capable of delivering instantaneous power with long duration at utility scale. “This will provide valuable services to the grid and contribute to future-proofing our electrical infrastructure.” Highview was awarded

funding of £1.5 million ($2 million) for the project from Innovate UK, the UK’s innovation agency in August, with additional funding of more than £8 million coming from the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in 2014. Highview built the world’s first pilot plant (350kW/2.5MWh) in 2011, which was connected to the grid at UK distribution network operator Scottish and Southern Energy’s biomass plant in Slough until 2014. The hybrid LAES system will be added to the existing pre-commercial demonstration plant at project partner, Viridor’s, Pilsworth landfill gas plant in Bury, Greater Manchester, UK. On October 19 Highview named Colin Roy as its new executive chairman, taking over from Timothy Barker, who has been chairman for some 10 years. Roy has been a shareholder in Highview for almost a decade.

Duke develops 5MW military microgrid storage and substation project Duke Energy is planning to install battery storage equipment and solar panels that will operate as a microgrid at the Indiana National Guard’s Camp Atterbury training operation in Indiana in the US. As part of the development of the site, the North Carolina-headquartered utility and holding company will also install battery storage equipment at a substation in Nabb, Indiana. The storage battery with the microgrid system will have a capacity of 5MW, while the solar installation will have a generation capacity of 2MW. Before work can begin, plans for the project must

be approved by the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission. It would be the first microgrid installed at a National Guard facility in Indiana. Melody BirminghamByrd, Duke Energy Indiana state president said: “The project at Camp Atterbury will help us gain valuable operating experience and may help determine how best to expand the new technology to other areas.” The project follows Duke Energy’s installation of a 17MW solar power plant at Naval Support Activity Crane also in Indiana “Camp Atterbury, the Indiana National Guard and Duke Energy have worked

together on several projects over the years,” said John Silva, Camp Atterbury’s commanding officer. “This project will give us the ability to continue our mission-critical operations in the unlikely event of a large grid outage.” In September, Duke announced plans to invest around $30 million developing two utility-scale lithium-ion battery energy storage system (BESS) projects as part of the company’s Western Carolinas Modernization Plan. To date, Duke has deployed around 40MW of energy storage, across 15 projects serving 10 different applications.

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ESS installation costs set to fall by at least 50% by 2030 The installed costs for stationary battery energy storage systems will fall by more than 50% across the different chemistries and technologies by 2030, according to a report published on October 6 by the International Renewable Energy Agency. While 96% of global installed stationary power storage capacity will continue to come from pumped-hydro systems, economies of scale and technology breakthroughs should see the accelerated development and adoption of alternative storage technologies, such as lithium ion and flow batteries. The finding were published in IRENA’s  Electricity Storage and Renewables: Costs and Markets to 2030, which was launched during the ‘Innovation for Cool Earth Forum’ in Tokyo, Japan, which ran between

October 4-5. Michael Taylor, senior analyst, renewable energy cost status and outlook at IRENA, told Energy Storage Journal: “We see lower installation costs and decarbonization of energy as interlinked. “They are both likely to contribute to deployment growth. Due to recent, sometimes rapid, cost reductions for renewable power generation, lowcost storage systems can be an enabler for the efficient management of high shares of variable renewable electricity in the systems (noting that they are competing with other options to do this). “However, at the same time as battery deployment starts to increase, best practice and operational experience may unlock synergies for continued cost reductions that will in turn open

up new business opportunities for battery electricity storage technologies that may not have been plausible in the past.” Installations costs of vanadium redox flow battery systems were forecast to decrease the most, around 66%, from $347/kWh in 2016 to $119/kWh by 2030. For lead-acid, installation costs by 2030 are expected to halve from its 2016 numbers. The decreased costs for lithium-ion systems will vary depending on the chemistry (between 54% for LTO [estimates in 2016 range between $473/kWh and $1,260/kWh] and up to 61% for LFP systems), Compressed air energy storage is set to fall from $53/kWh for a typical project in 2016 to $44/kWh by 2030. Installation costs for flywheel systems should decline to between $1,000/

VRFB research project to test energy storage potential for Ireland’s future grid A project to test how a 125kW vanadium redox flow battery can help Ireland manage its abundant renewable energy supply was launched on October 3 through an International Energy Research Centre industry workshop in Queen’s University, Belfast. The ImpRESS project, a UK-Ireland industry-led collaborative research project, aims to demonstrate how battery-based energy storage can allow the Irish grid cope with the intermittency, uncertainty and variability challenges of harnessing a renewable energy supply. The project, based on an Irish test site with multiple renewable energy inputs, will use a VRFB

from Chinese firm Rongke Power. Tony Day, executive director of the IERC, said: “Ireland has fluctuating energy dynamics, and as a consequence of being an island, the scale of the power system is such that it provides an excellent testbed for the evaluation of energy storage solutions. “The ImpRESS project focuses on all-island electrical energy generation, consumption and storage to meet current requirements, and examines technologies for future electrical networks and grids. It will deliver engineering recommendations capable of influencing future grid-code standards and electrical power system

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policy development.” The IERC and Queen’s University Belfast are collaborating with a number of companies including Bombardier, Flow Energy Solutions, Williams Industrial Services, Green Lizard Technologies and Energia The ImpRESS project will focus on analysing the performance and efficiency of storage solutions on the all-island grid and the Integrated Single Electricity Market, due for launch next and expected to comprise more than 20 bidding zones, coupled by more than 40 cross-border interconnectors that will shortly contain a total generating capacity of over 3,000TW.

kWh and $3,900/kWh by 2030 as cycle and calendar lifetimes improve. Taylor says lithium and other non-lead chemistries were likely to dominate the deployment in stationary applications out to 2030, but lead-acid batteries had the potential to remain in use if they could decrease costs. “For instance, compared to the automotive market, the stationary lead acid production processes could be better optimized through increased automation,” he said. “Electrode improvements that rely on carbon embedding or the introduction of copper stretch metal meshes in the negative electrode of flooded lead acid batteries also have the potential to improve system performance. This could see them retain a place in the market, notably in hybrid storage systems that combine high power storage solutions like flywheels or lithium ion batteries with less expensive (albeit less performing lead acid batteries) for longer term energy provision.” The falling price of batteries could also stimulate a 17-fold growth of installed battery storage — from 11GWh to 181GWh, in the most conservative estimate, and up to around 421GWh in the most optimistic outlook — by 2030.   IRENA director-general Adnan Amin said that as storage technology improved and prices decline, both utility-scale and small-scale, distributed applications could grow dramatically, accelerating renewable energy deployment. “In this dynamic, low-carbon energy environment, now is a crucial time for storage technology. “This research demonstrates that the business case for renewable energy continues to strengthen, positioning it firmly as a lowcost and secure source of energy supply.” .


E.ON adds 10MW lithium-ion battery to biomass power plant in England E.ON announced on October 9 that it had completed the installation and grid connection of its 10MW lithium ion battery at a combined heat and power plant in the UK. The contract was won by the German firm in last year’s National Grid Enhanced Frequency Response (EFR) tender. The battery will be housed in four, 40ft (feu) long shipping containers, at the Blackburn Meadows biomass plant near Sheffield, and will help with the integration of renewable energy on to the grid. The batteries will also be able to provide extra power at times of peak demand as part of the Capacity Market.

National Grid’s 2016 EFR tender was opened to firms that could deliver sub-second grid frequency balancing services to mitigate either over-or undersupply of power when integrating increasing amounts of renewable generated power on the grid. Having undergone successful grid testing by National Grid, E.ON is the first EFR operator to complete the installation and bring its system online. David Topping, director of business heat and power solutions at E.ON, said the project was an important recognition of the enormous potential for battery solutions in the UK. “Blackburn Meadows is

a real example of the new smart energy world — a renewable energy plant providing electricity to the grid and sustainable and affordable heating and hot water to local businesses. “Batteries at this scale allow us to make best use of all renewable energy sources by harnessing the energy and having it ready for use whenever it’s needed — increasing the share of renewable energy on the grid while at the same time providing a secure supply for our customers.” Leon Walker, commercial development manager at National Grid, said: “Using battery storage is a significant development for managing the national grid. “Over four years we

KiWi Power wins National Grid contract to build 4MW behind-the-meter battery Demand response aggregator KiWi Power announced on October 10 that it is set to build a 4MW lithium ion behind-the-meter battery in Wales after winning a contract from UK power transmission operator National Grid this August. The battery, which will be developed, financed and managed by KiWi Power, will be located at Cenin Renewables, a 20-acre renewable energies site at Parc Stormy in Bridgend, South Wales. The battery will be charged using electricity from the grid, which will include a mix of generation sources including onsite renewables generation, and will sit within Cenin’s cluster of integrated clean technologies, which includes 3,000 PV solar panels, an anaerobic digestion plant and a wind turbine. Quentin Scrimshire, commercial leader for KiWi

Power, told Energy Storage Journal: “Developing storage systems behind the meter provides us with more flexibility to unlock a wide range of revenue streams, which we access using KiWi’s technology.” The battery is scheduled for deployment by February 2018, and follows KiWi’s management of UK

distribution network operator Northern Powergrid’s 2.5MW battery facility at Rise Carr substation, Darlington, and fellow DNO UK Power Network’s 6MW Leighton Buzzard battery, which it no longer manages. Yoav Zingher, CEO of KiWi Power said: “The UK is slowly waking up to the potential of flexibility and

estimate this service will save the system operator around £200 million. ($260 million) This is good news for consumers who benefit from our cost efficiencies, and paves the way for battery technology to establish itself as an important component of our energy system.” E.ON worked with Italian electrical manufacturer Nidec ASI to install the battery system. Blackburn Meadows CHP plant is a 30MW renewable energy plant that combines heat and power technology to capture heat produced through the electricity generation process to be used in a district heating scheme providing heat to customers. battery energy storage’s role in that. By applying Demand Side Response (DSR) techniques widely used elsewhere in the world, the UK could save nearly 10GW of demand — roughly equivalent to three Hinkley Point C nuclear power stations.” KiWi entered the UK market in 2009 and has more than 300MW of DSR assets under management, enabling large scale users to optimize their consumption patterns.

NSW to deploy 1MW BESS to defer infrastructure costs and support grid service Endeavour Energy, a power distribution company in Australia, announced on October 12 that it had awarded renewables integration firm MPower the contract to supply and install a 1MWh battery energy storage system to support New South Wales’ grid at West Dapto. The trial will allow the New South Wales-based

company to reduce network investment by up to A$1 million ($780,000) per year to keep downward pressure on its network charges, and if successful could be deployed to defer the construction of up to four new zone substations by 2024. MPower will design, build and install the BESS at the site of Endeavour

Energy’s future West Dapto zone substation and hopes to be operational by next summer. The announcement comes as distribution network operators rethink the way they connect customers and communities to the grid as end users embrace new technologies such as solar and battery storage.

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 13


Daimler to ‘live store’ EV batteries in a German 17.4MWh ESS Using second-life electric vehicle batteries in stationary energy storage systems isn’t a new business model, neither for that matter is using new packs in those applications. However, German vehicle OEM Daimler announced a business model on October 23 where packs used in a grid-connected energy storage system find a later use in its third-generation Smart EV fleet. The ESS packs will be used as spare parts if a vehicle incurs damage and its battery needs to be changed. The idea is to use the batteries in a restricted power band, without overloading the battery, to avoid the deep discharge/modification

of the cell chemistry that is found when the battery is not operated/charged during storage. Each replacement pack will come with a battery certificate that guarantees the durability of the battery package for at least eight years and up to 100,000 kilometres, and that its energy density is not under 70%. Already more than half way through building the 17.4MWh lithium-ion energy storage system, Daimler will use lithium ion batteries earmarked for EVs to initially provide primary control power services at German energy network Enercity’s site in Herrenhausen. To date, 1,800 of the

3,240 battery modules have been pooled to form a stationary ESS, and prequalified to provide primary control provision (PCP) by the transmission system operator, Netherland company TenneT. Enercity will be responsible for marketing the battery storage power on the control power market. The lithium ion cells will be produced by Daimler’s subsidiary Accumotive, with the development and production of the battery storage system was carried out by Mercedes-Benz Energy, also a fully owned Daimler subsidiary. Both companies are based at their Kamenz site.

Eaton launches data centre UPSAAR to aid grid frequency management Power management company Eaton will launch a firstof-its-kind UPS-as-a-reserve (UPSAAR) back-up power service before the end of the year that allows data centres to manage their real-time power consumption and therefore help transmission operators to regulate grid frequency. Eaton will be the first to introduce this functionality to UPSs, enabling more than 500MW of potential capacity for frequency containment reserve markets across EMEA (its installed base with UPSAAR compliant UPS systems in the field). The UPSAAR service is aimed at large data centre operators, including co-location or cloud service providers, and will offer financial rewards in return for adjustments made to their power consumption. The service was developed in collaboration with Fortum, an energy generator and vendor provider in European and Indian markets.

The service will initially be offered on the company’s three-phase, 20-400kWh 93PM and its 250-1200kVA Power Xpert 9395P UPS models. Both UPS systems can be used with lithium-ion batteries as well as alternatives including supercapacitors and lead acid batteries. Marika Sinikari, segment marketing communications manager at Eaton, said the system was about regulating grid frequency by limiting consumption when required, rather than planning the consumption (load shifting), which is normally required to balance the volatility in renewable supply or if a power plant drops from the grid. She told Energy Storage Journal: “UPSAAR can be used for both normal frequency regulation and for disturbances. The UPS will regulate the amount of power taken from the battery, that replaces consumption in the grid, as needed. The continuous frequency regu-

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lation for normal grid situations requires lithium-ion technology, while reserve applications against disturbances suits more traditional battery technologies. “FCRs are not energy intensive, especially the disturbance reserves. It’s more about having the regulating power capacity to momentarily support the grid rather than feeding vast amounts of energy. This also suits the UPS applications that typically don’t have long backup times and large energy storage (relative to system power).” As the energy markets move toward greater renewable penetration, the need to investigate services such as FCR to maintain grid frequency increases. Janne Paananen, technology manager for power quality, Eaton EMEA, said: “This turns supply and demand on its head. Instead of just demanding power, data centres can support the grid and be compensated for it.

The system has an output of 5MW, and once completed in the first quarter of 2018 the entire system will have a storage capacity of 17.4MWh. The ESS will offer grid frequency regulation service, a task mainly performed by fast-rotating turbines, rotating masses in large power stations, at the moment. The new Smart car will use 96 lithium ion cells, giving it a battery capacity of 17.6kWh and an estimated 70-80 mile range. Christoph Sedlmayr, a spokesperson for, Mercedes-Benz Cars, told Energy Storage Journal: “Generally, the operation of the stationary batteries is much more gentle compared to the vehicle operation and then the system is monitored. “The data centre industry has been moving away from focusing solely on energy and cost savings over the last five years, and it is now more about making investments pay for themselves. Data centre professionals can create a revenue generation strategy around assets that they already have, such as the UPS. There’s free money lying on the floor, just waiting to be picked up.” According to Eaton’s research of data centre professionals across Europe, 55% of respondents would consider FCR to increase the returns of investment in technology and to help the data centre balance fluctuating energy needs. Sinikari said the amount of money a data centre could expect to receive by using UPSaaR would be determined by the frequency containment market in which the asset owners could leave their bids. “In Finland the compensation for this has been between €30,000-70,000/ MW ($36,000-$83,000) depending on the year, if you bid for all hours,” said Sinikari.


India tender closes with firm offering 28MWh BESS project of just $46m A tender for a PV plus 28MWh battery storage system closed with utilityscale solar power generation company Mahindra Susten bidding Rp2.988 billion ($45.6 million) lodging the lowest bid, less than half that of the highest. The tender by Indian state-run company mining company NLC (formerly Neyveli Lignite Corporation) for the battery backed 20MW AC grid interactive solar PV project attracted 10 bidders, among which were automotive company OEM Hero (Rp5.27 billion) and lead-acid firm Exide Industries (Rp6.44 billion). NLC’s tender for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was floated this May,

with total project costs including both Energy Performance Certificate and O&M costs for the entire project. NLC India will assess the viability of the bids before awarding the contract as it looks to meet its target of reaching 3,990MW of solar power generation capacity. Current energy requirements in Andaman and Nicobar are predominantly met by diesel generation, with the tender seen as an environmentally friendlier and cheaper option than diesel generation, which sits at Rp20/kWh. The project will receive a government grant of Rp1 billion, which would lower the effective tariff to Rp8/kWh, but even with-

out the subsidy the cost of power is unlikely to exceed Rp12/kWh. Other applicants for the tender were TBEA, Marine Electricals, BHEL, Ujaas Energy, Enrich Energy, Adani and Sterling & Wilson. The move is part of a government initiative to encourage battery-backed solar power in the country, after its renewable energy capacity grew to around 14GW. The India government has set a target of 100GW by 2020. According to the Central Electricity Authority solar in India accounted for 5.5 billion kWh of electricity during Q2 of 2017, an 87% increase over the second quarter of 2016,

The NLC tender follows renewable energy firm Solar Energy Corporation’s decision on September 28 to halt its tender for two 50MW solar and 5MW/2.5MWh BESS backed systems in the Kadapa Solar Park, Andhra Pradesh. Falling solar tariffs, around Rp4.50 at the time of the tender, but since crashed to Rp2.44/kWh was blamed on the decision.

Will India’s solar penetration boom pave the way for world’s next big ESS market? Industry analysts predict India’s installed solar capacity will reach more than 17GW by the end of 2017. The India government has set the ambitious goal of reaching 57% renewable generation by 2027, with India’s Central Electricity Authority predicting the country will have 275GW of installed renewable energy generation by that year. Of the solar project pipelines in India — approximately 13GW — only about 6GW of tendered projects are awaiting auction. With continued large scale integration of solar power into the grid, the manageable threshold and the time for introducing grid scale energy storage

systems is here. On October 5 the Clean Energy Access Network, India’s industry body representing the decentralized renewable energy sector, launched its first annual “State of the Sector” report. The report called for increased public partnership to scale DRE solutions and to build a modern energy system for India’s hundreds of millions of people without access to electricity or clean cooking. CLEAN also issued a request for proposals on October 4 inviting lithium ion technology providers and mini-grid developers to design a pilot project to demonstrate lithium ion technology for mini-

grids in India. The bid submission deadline was October 30. The United States Agency for International Development will be funding the pilot project, which will see CLEAN looking for mini-grids in the range of 15-20kW, generating 80-100kWh of energy per day. CLEAN cited a number of reasons including weight, charging times, depth-of-discharge and cycle life for omitting lead-acid ESS manufactures from the bidding. It is within this climate of change Intersolar India explored the current trends in the industry with around 260 exhibitors, 100 speakers from the global solar and energy storage industries, and

more than 12,000 international solar and energy storage experts at its annual event in December. (See next issue for conference review.) A statement from Intersolar India said: “Battery energy storage systems turns out to be the most preferred among the storage systems. India’s ambitious strategy to accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles requires a concerted and coordinated effort that brings together the best of the private and public sectors in transport, infrastructure and energy. “Electric mobility solutions and energy storage systems have, additionally, the potential to actively shape India’s future energy system.”

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 15


Lead, not guilty as charged… the case for the accused For the last five years energy storage systems have increasingly turned to lithium ion batteries as their chemistry of choice. The logic hasn’t been perfect — but the hype around the subject has! But given rapid and massive improvements in lead battery technology perhaps it’s time to re-evaluate what should go where. It’s been one of the most abrupt turnarounds in the history of science. The lead battery — workhorse of the modern world for more than a century — has become the least favoured battery for the new and rapidly expanding world of energy storage systems. According to recent US Department of Energy figures lead acid batteries were used in just over 2% of new large scale energy storage deployments in the past year. A couple of years ago that figure stood at around 10%. Quite why this has happened is puzzling given that lead batteries continue to be the chemistry of choice for heavy duty energy storage such as large scale battery deployments in UPS and telecoms applications. There is no denying, however, that lithium ion batteries have many advantages over lead acid batteries. Their energy density is higher, they have superior performance in fast recycling. In particular, they are better

suited in coping with some of the more sophisticated grid management functions — such as load levelling, frequency regulation and the like. These functions are nowadays more important than ever as utilities need to balance a grid that has to deal with the intermittency of renewables and the more subtle needs of the smarter grid. But what they gain in one direction they lose in another. “There’s a kind of blindness that’s overtaken our industry in the past couple of years,” says one systems integrator. “In that lead batteries can be used for the heavy lifting — cheap bulk energy storage is where it excels — while the higher grid functions can be dealt with using lithium.

Cost savings: bipolar firm ABC says its batteries can reach three times the cycle life but with half the lead content.

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“Also some of the advanced lead batteries that are entering the market nowadays can compete with lithium for many of these higher grid functions. “The idea of hybrid systems — mixing everything from flywheels and supercaps with lithium has been around for a long time. But lead batteries have stopped being a contender. I don’t really know why. It’s as if the whole industry has upped sticks and said any chemistry but lead.” This is perhaps the oddest phenomenon of all. Lead stands head and shoulders above every other chemistry in being the most affordable at around $150/kWh. And, though lithium has made inroads in moving towards this figure, it still requires a leap of faith that it can prove as costeffective within the next decade. But any realistic defence of lead needs to be judged on hard facts. And that is whether proven data from existing products can match up to large scale ESS requirements. Bipolar — success at last On paper, bipolar offers a new way of constructing a lead-acid battery, one that has the potential to make batteries cheaper to manufacture, and more importantly deliver better performance than traditional leadacid batteries or even lithium batter-

ies in some applications. The key to realizing the technology’s potential lies in the biplate, specifically making it non-corrosive, lightweight, conductive and cheap. Several companies have tried to make a viable, marketable biplate, but so far the difficulty has always been taking the concept through to commercialization. But that is no longer the case. Two firms stand out at the moment — Advanced Battery Concepts (ABC), which has now a commercial line in operation, and Gridtential, which is close to commercialization of its product. Both firms have attracted investment from major lead battery firms in the US and abroad and the first mass-produced bi-polar batteries could be rolling off the factory production lines soon. So why are big companies looking at bipolar? There are two reasons why the technology is important, says Ray Kubis, an industry veteran who, two years ago, became a director and latterly chairman of Gridtential. The first is the market demand for higher voltage products with unique capabilities. “Either it’s going to be lithium-ion or the deployment of bi-polar, because they are the only types of solu-

tions that can offer the opportunity to scale up to higher voltage,” he says. The existing infrastructure of leadacid batteries is adaptable and well done at the 12V level. However, when non-bipolar (or monopolar) batteries are scaled up it is hard to reach the higher voltage demanded by new applications such as 48V systems for micro and mild-hybrid cars. Bipolar offers a viable, theoretical way for companies to achieve those demands. Gridtential has a sheet of silicon that replaces the traditional metal grid in current lead acid battery designs with a silicon substrate. In January last year Gridtential raised $6 million from Crown Battery, Leoch, Power-Sonic and East Penn. These firms are conducting trials of inserting the new technology into their existing lines. Elsewhere, ABC is using a lead sheet that has an “excellent technological chance of being successful”, says one consultant. “Its conductivity is good and I’ve seen results from ABC, and some of those are very good. The issue there, however, is durability under corrosion, but technically their results are very good.” The key area where bipolar has the potential to trump legacy lead acid batteries is in the architecture of the

“if you can reconfigure existing factories and the bipolar product coming out of that factory can compete with lithium-ion, and at only 5%-10% of the capital outlay you would otherwise spend, then to me it makes sense to rapidly develop the alternative bipolar.”

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COVER STORY: IN DEFENCE OF LEAD battery. In a typical prismatic design, a grid is connected to the cast-on strap at the lug. This means the active material for a standard grid is being worked non-uniformly during cycling because the current flow is high near the lug, and low away from the lug. In a bipolar design, the current flow is extremely uniform across the active material. “As a result,” says Ed Shaffer, CEO and co-founder of ABC, “you have higher utilization of the active material or more energy. “Additionally, the design is very suitable for thin layers so higher power can be achieved as well with much better charge acceptance.” The simplified construction and uniform current flow also results in higher cycle life, up to three times, ABC says, “as long as you can maintain the edge seal”. Interest in ABC has mounted this year. In January the company signed a non-exclusive agreement with Johnson Controls. In April this was extended as Hal Hawk, the president and owner of Crown Battery, took a stake in the firm. Hawk, a former head of BCI who has spent a lifetime

“Either it’s going to be lithium-ion or the deployment of bi-polar, because they are the only types of solutions that can offer the opportunity to scale up to higher voltages” in the lead battery industry, is a widely respected figure. His investment is seen by many in the lead industry as a more powerful endorsement than that of Johnson Controls. In April, ABC announced it had chosen Wirtz Manufacturing to install production-scale paste lines for its prototype production facility. “This equipment will allow us to demonstrate run at rate throughput and assist our licensees in their adoption of our GreenSeal bipolar technology,” Shaffer said at the time. John Wirtz — who has also spent a lifetime working and designing battery manufacturing equipment

— said: “ABC has been able to demonstrate precision pasting of bipolar electrodes repeatedly and successfully. Theirs is easily scalable, innovative, and simple. We look forward to the broad adoption by licensees of their bipolar lead battery technology.” In another endorsement, Bob Galyen, chief technology officer of China’s CATL (and the largest lithium cell producer in the world), became chairman in May of a technology advisory board set up by the company to help its development. Galyen, who is also the current president of NAATBatt, has a long history in the automotive battery sector and worked on the original General Motors EV1 project in the 1990s. He knows both lead and lithium well. In May, the Trojan Battery Company became the third battery manufacturer to take a licence in ABC’s technology. The participation of Trojan is particularly interesting in that its speciality has always been deep cycle batteries. Many in the lithium sector are unaware that Trojan, for example, offers a lead battery with a guaranteed 17 year life. It is also no secret that it sees its

BIPOLAR IN BRIEF For years most batteries have been made with conventional monopolar technology that uses two plates per cell and then connects those cells in a series of metallic connectors outside the cells or through a wall. (Figure 1) This design results in ohmic losses within the plates, leading to unsymmetrical distribution of the current density during operation. Furthermore, these grid and cell connectors increase the total weight of the battery. While bipolar and monopolar designs share the same lead acid chemistry, they differ in that in bipolar batteries, the cells are stacked in a sandwich construction so that the negative plate of one cell becomes the positive plate of the next cell. The cells are separated from each other by the bipolar plate, which allows each cell to operate in isolation from its neighbour. Stacking these cells next to one another (Figure 2) allows the potential of the battery to be built up in two-volt increments.

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Since the cell wall becomes the connection element between cells, bipolar plates have a shorter current path and a larger surface area compared with connections in conventional cells. This construction reduces the power loss that is normally caused by the internal resistance of the cells. At each end of the stack, single plates act as the final anode and cathode. This simpler construction leads to reduced weight since there are fewer plates and bus bars are not needed to join cells together. The net result is a battery design with higher power than conventional monopolar lead acid batteries. Until recently, the main problem limiting the commercialization of bipolar lead acid batteries was the availability of a lightweight, inexpensive and corrosion resistant material for the bipolar plate, and the technology to properly seal each cell against electrolyte leakage. Source: Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium

Figure 1

Figure 2

COVER STORY: IN DEFENCE OF LEAD future — as its CEO Jeff Elder once told Energy Storage Journal — as an energy solutions company rather than just as a battery manufacturer. From ABC’s perspective, the true benefit of its technology will be in the 20%-30% lower production costs based mostly on bill of materials reduction. “That is huge,” says Shaffer. Data from ABC shows that using its technology, a battery can reach three times the cycle life but with half the lead. “That means that every pound of lead mined can be used six times longer… or put another way there is six times less lead needed for the same amount of energy. That is fantastic,” says Shaffer. Kubis believes that Gridtential’s bipolar construction helps improve active material utilization to breakthrough levels, while improving charge acceptance and life at Partial State-of Charge.

Looking beyond regular lead

The kind of performance changes demanded by users — especially if lead battery manufacturers can offer utilities and power companies the huge storage and energy management capabilities that they are purchasing from lithium suppliers — is why it’s important that companies improve their paste recipes and concurrently implement fundamental architecture changes, such as the bipolar architecture.

This could yield advanced leadbased batteries with overall performance of three to four times that of legacy lead acid batteries. Our existing batteries are simply not good enough against the performance required by today’s demanding and growing range of applications, says Kubis. In many applications, where there is a need for very high power, such as in backup power for cloud computing or for frequency regulation for grid-scale services, bipolar batteries will work, says Kubis. However, with consumer electronics — or long duration, say four to eight hours where there’s a need for a steady energy release across a few hours and not high power — it is harder for advanced lead batteries to compete. But Kubis believes advanced bipolar batteries can compete across high power or mixed power/medium energy applications. Having better PSoC means the battery is a potential game changer in 48V systems. At the energy storage

“Both 48V and energy storage systems are possible applications. If you look at ABC and the stage where they have got to — with data in the public domain — you can look at reasonable cell production within a few years.” — Geoffrey May, principal of FOCUS Consulting side of the market, Geoffrey May, principal of FOCUS Consulting, says bipolar’s future will probably lie in its ability to be used in domestic or small commercial installations. “At that end you’ll probably see systems with 48V modules bringing it up to a reasonable capacity because of the need for systems at domestic level to be a few kWh to start being viable,” he says. “Both 48V and energy storage systems are possible applications. If you look at ABC and the stage where they have got to — with data in the public domain — you can look at reasonable cell production within a few years.” May says he cannot make a judgment of Electriplast or Gridtential because they have yet to go public with their results. The other factor is energy density, at around 38Wh/kg for legacy lead acid and the potential for bi-polar to reach 50Wh/kg-63Wh/kg. Theoretically the technology could double from these claimed levels today. Companies such as Gridtential know bipolar is going to beat traditional lead acid for energy density, but they have yet to validate that. “There’s talk about the very high theoretical capacity of advanced lead,” says Kubis. “Yet we believe we can realistically reach much higher than 50Wh/kg.” And he thinks the timescale to achieving this target will be much smaller than five to 10 years because of the progress that his company’s partners have made. “We expect there will be products in the field from our manufacturing partners and investors by the end of this year and developing further in the next year.” A lot of alternative battery systems

use unique new materials that come from small-scale industry but Kubis says Gridtential’s solution is integrating treated silicon wafers that comes from the high volume, low cost solar industry. And at higher volumes, they can see the cost of silicon they use dropping as low as lead at $1 per pound, while enabling the much higher performance concurrently with at least a third less weight. “In addition, to adapt Gridtential’s technology, you also don’t have to spend billions of dollars on a gigafactory, you only need to adapt the assembly process, and integrate a silicon biplate supply chain to change the factories from being able to manufacture traditional lead acid batteries to bipolar. You can continue with your existing oxide manufacture, curing and charging infrastructure,” says Kubis. “Some claim lithium ion is a better investment at scale, yet you just need to look at the recalls within the industry along with the scale of new factory investments. If you invest $5 billion in a battery factory then have periodic recalls such as we’ve seen with cellphones, laptops, or with Boeing, what’s the return on investment then? “If you can reconfigure existing factories and the bipolar product coming out of that factory can compete with lithium ion, and at only 5%-10% of the capital outlay you would otherwise spend, then to me it makes sense to rapidly develop the alternative bipolar.” Kubis says existing battery manufacturers are under threat. “The lithium ion industry is coming out of China, Korea and Japan. If this trend were to continue then European, US Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 19

COVER STORY: IN DEFENCE OF LEAD From Advanced Battery Concept’s perspective, the true benefit of its GreenSeal technology will be in the 20%-30% lower production costs based mostly on the reduction in the bill of materials. That is huge” — Ed Shaffer, CEO and co-founder of ABC   and Indian battery makers will be reduced to being assemblers of cells.” “So bipolar offers the opportunity for the non-Asian battery industry to not become obsolete, and bipolar is a way to add value to your region and continue to offer a strong supply chain.”

Paste glorious paste

One of the critical phases in the development of a good lead acid battery is adding the lead paste to the grid. How it attaches — with the use of a so-called ‘expander’ — and the way crystal structures that develop form make a huge difference in battery performance.

In the past four years Hammond Group has made extraordinary progress in the development of expanders. It now has a range of 120 customizable expanders under a generic brand called SureCure. “The nub of the problem between lead and lithium is mostly a question of price and recyclability,” says Terry Murphy, chief executive of Hammond, who has refocused the firm to

concentrate on the battery sector. “For advanced energy storage lithium ion batteries meet most of the technical requirements, but are too expensive. By contrast lead acid batteries are inexpensive and 100% recyclable, but don’t have the necessary cycle life. The challenge has been to extend that life.” “SureCure expanders provide lead acid batteries with dramatically improved dynamic charge acceptance while our lab, which is open to the industry, is dedicated to all of our technical development. Its goal is to enable lead acid batteries to achieve 80% of lithium ion’s technical performance. But at just 20% of its cost,” says the firm. Dynamic charge acceptance — the way batteries can accept and rapidly store large influxes of energy — is the next big thing for the lead acid business. It opens up two worlds — that of microhybrids in the automotive sector and the huge new areas of business opening up with grid scale storage. In laboratory testing and now in

production batteries, Hammond has achieved an order-of-magnitude increase in dynamic charge acceptance while simultaneously increasing cycle life show relative comparisons to our control samples. The innovation does not require a change in other battery paste ingredients, grids, or plates. No change in any other material component or process. No new tooling, production technique, distribution, use, scrap characterization, or recycling. SureCure represents a new expander family, with no safety concerns or known adverse effect Moreover, SureCure is customizable according to the needs of the batteries being made and the operating conditions that they will run in. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of Hammond’s new expander range is the fact that, for example, the extended cycle life that can be added to a battery can be multiplied when paired with say a bipolar battery.

Enter the UltraBattery

The UltraBattery is a hybrid, longlife lead-acid energy storage device. It combines the fast charging rates of an ultracapacitor technology with the energy storage potential of a lead acid battery technology in a hybrid device with a single common electrolyte.

Combining these two technologies in one cell means that UltraBattery works efficiently in a Partial State of Charge (PSoC). Compared with conventional VRLA batteries, UltraBattery provides more energy and costs less over its lifetime when used in variable power applications. The technology is more efficient, and is equally as

HOW INEVITABLE ARE FURTHER ADVANCES OF TECHNOLOGY? A lesson from history. Perhaps. In 1965 legendary Boeing designer Joe Sutter set up a special team to develop a new airplane — “we’re calling it a jumbo jet,” he said. “The hump in the middle will convert it into a cargo plane. Technology is racing so fast that by the 1970s they’ll soon be obsolescent for passengers. Supersonic airlines are the future.” Half a century on, The 747 remains the workhorse of the skies. Technology marched on. But not at the pace that the 1960s and 1970s visionaries or designers thought

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would be the future of aviation. “The trouble with large sectors of the energy storage business is they believe that something approaching Moore’s law — where computer processing power was predicted to double every two years — applies to our industry,” says one commentator. “Basically that means the challenges of today will be mastered by the technologies of the future. Unfortunately that’s not necessarily true. There are physical limitations to what can or can’t be done. And battery chemistry in

terms of energy density, say, is one of them.” Recycling of spent lithium batteries is one such example. The difficulty here is a simple one — recycling is perfectly feasible but is the technology ever going to be in place to do this in a commercially attractive way? Moreover, at a certain point limitations will necessarily arrive — a Carnegie Mellon report pointed out just two years ago, economies of scale in lithium battery production are fast approaching their end point.

COVER STORY: IN DEFENCE OF LEAD safe and recyclable, as conventional lead batteries. Although this technology has been found in the advanced lead acid battery world has been around for the past five years, it is only now becoming commercially more available. Two firms make the battery — Ecoult, a subsidiary of East Penn Manufacturing, and Furukuwa Battery. This May, Ecoult signed an agreement with Exide Industries, one of the top two battery firms in India, which is now going to manufacture them. Market expectations are that they will change the face of the energy storage market in the country. UltraBattery technology is already successfully deployed in automotive and stationary energy applications. (In the conference in print section following these pages in this magazine, full details of one such grid management scheme are given.) An Ecoult spokesperson said: “UltraBattery technology is well suited to a large number of industry sectors including: grid/microgrid support, including frequency regulation, power quality, spinning reserve, energy shifting and demand management and smoothing and ramp-rate control (particularly for renewables); micro and medium HEVs; dual-use for data centres and buildings; diesel efficiencies; residential energy management; and other transportation (particularly railways). “We are very excited about the possibilities for dual-use applications. These exploit UltraBattery’s ability to provide grid and UPS support in a single installation (ie selling grid support services while the grid is available, but switching to UPS for any grid-outage event). “The cost for such applications suggests that businesses such as data centres could gain an attractive return on their battery investment.”

Other improvements

There are at least three other mainstream directions that the lead market is moving in to earn the title of being considered as an advanced lead battery and a cheaper rival to lithium as an industry standard.

Carbon additives Pioneering research carried out through the use of carbon additives in negative lead battery electrodes started well over a decade ago but a whole new generation of products is just emerging. The latest studies from ABC suggest that the combination of a

“Our goal is to enable lead acid batteries to achieve 80% of lithium-ion’s technical performance. But at just 20% of its cost. I believe it’s a target that’s already in our sights” — Terry Murphy, chief executive of Hammond Group lar battery and carbon additives is an immensely powerful combination. Carbon additives as such don’t change the basic electrochemistry of the battery but they do increase specific power and reduce sulfation, the principal cause of lead battery failure. A good example of a new additive comes from Heraeus Battery Technology which launched its Porocarb carbon powders in September. These increase charge acceptance by up to 20% and life cycle by 100%. “Porocarb is a product family of synthetic porous carbon powders tailored specifically for demanding electrochemical applications in which the needs for a designed porosity intersect good kinetic accessibility,” says the firm, which claims its product is the first conductive additive that ensures electronic connectivity within the electrode and enhances ionic conductivity. “Even at the highest levels of electrode compression and loading, Porocarb ascertains open pathways within the electrode that help with electrolyte supply and distribution during filling and operation. It enables advanced electrochemical systems that were previously not achievable using standard carbon conductive additives.” Developed in 2014, the additives have been tested with actual customer pilots, says the firm, and have demonstrated increased charge acceptance of up to 120%; faster recharging rates; increased cycle life of up to 100%, and nearly 50% greater capacity at deep-discharge operations for longer power supply. Separators A new generation of separators is emerging — the largest players at the moment are ENTEK and Daramic, both of which have developed separators that allow lead batteries to be customized for use in varying climates and locations.

Most importantly, however, this customization means that step changes in terms of greater cycle life are being achieved. TPPL Two lead battery firms in particular, EnerSys and Northstar ,have been pushing this technology further. Thin Plate Pure Lead batteries have a higher energy density, fast charging capabilities and eliminate topping up of the batteries. TPPL essentially is a simple idea though complicated to achieve. TPPL batteries have a manufacturing process to create thin plate pure lead (99.99%) grids that measure 1mm compared with the conventional 2mm-4mm plates. Using thin plates improves power density as more plates can be fitted into the same-sized cell. Using a stronger acid in the battery further enhances power density. TPPL also lowers energy consumption. EnerSys says it has measured up to a 40% reduction in the energy required to maintain a battery fully charged, compared to a traditional lead-calcium battery with the same power. Advanced TPPL batteries are virtually maintenance-free during their anticipated design life which contributes to their low total cost of ownership. Northstar says that one of its battery ranges has a design life of more than 15 years at 20°C. Moreover because of their advanced casings the batteries can withstand operating temperatures of -40°C to -65°C. The low self-discharge rates means that TPPL batteries also store well. Their shelf life is up to 24 months between refresh charges. The latest research work by the ALABC — the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium — is seeking to find yet higher energy densities for lead batteries and claims its researches are very positive. Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 21

COVER STORY: IN DEFENCE OF LEAD Nobody can deny the huge strides made in developing lithium batteries over the last decade. But some of the questions of its future — ­ at least in terms of universal adoption and the rate it happens, refuse to go away.

And the case against lithium…

It would be foolish to knock lithium batteries from a point of view of technology — huge progress has been made in recent years in creating top-class, best-of-breed lithium batteries. But there are question marks hanging over them which refuse to go away. Broadly they come down to four areas. • Lack of recyclability, at least from an economic viewpoint. • Possible shortages of supply in any run-up to mass adoption. The main concerns are cobalt, nickel and refined lithium carbonate. • When things go wrong, they do so in a spectacular and highly expensive way • Price. The cost of lithium battery packs continue to come down but still — despite many wild claims — not to a level approaching lead acid. 22 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

The true costs of recycling

There’s a rough rule of thumb that’s been used about recycling large format lithium batteries for the past few years. The cost of recycling is roughly a tenth of the cost of the new battery. So, a $7,000 EV battery will cost around $700 to dispose of.

One lead smelting veteran puts it simply: “For the dollars of smelting you have to put in, you only retrieve a few cents of metal that have any value from recycling lithium batteries. That’s the difference with lead recycling — lead is worth something and justifies the cost of processing it.” As a rough rule of thumb it’s useful, but all lithium batteries aren’t created equal. There are six basic chemistry types and three of these contain cobalt, a metal for which there is a demand, though the cost of retrieval is still greater than the metals retrieved.

In various parts of the world, most particularly in the European Union, recycling is the only legal method of disposal. Landfill is not an option. But in the generality recycling is difficult to justify economically. Recent estimates suggest that just 3% of lithium batteries are being recycled. The processing costs are around $4,000 per tonne — with anecdotal evidence that lithium batteries are being discharged and stored in warehouses. For the most part, however, those lithium ion batteries reaching end of life are consumer batteries from portable electronics. It will be at least 15 years before sizeable flows of lithium batteries will need to be recycled from electric vehicles and stationary storage. Maarten Quix, who heads up the recycling business unit of metals refining and recycling specialist Umicore, says: “In comparison with lead acid batteries, which consist of lead, acid and plastic, the complexity of rechargeable lithium ion batteries is much greater, with a variety of cell formats, and metals used to make these batteries for the portable electronics, automotive and stationary storage markets. To date there are not enough volumes of lithium ion batteries needing to be recycled to create economies of scale reducing the costs of collection and smelting.

Shortages ahead? The upcoming shortage of cobalt is reasonably well known in the lithium ion battery markets — three of the basic lithium batteries contain cobalt — and as Energy Storage Journal went to press cobalt had reached $75,000 a tonne — a 20% jump in the month. But it’s impact on the energy

COVER STORY: IN DEFENCE OF LEAD “Though lithium-based batteries have achieved impressive, higher standards in energy density over the last 25 years, their safety hazards remain very real, with huge consequences when something goes wrong in design, assembly, controls, usage, or collection and return after use. Think Samsung and a $5 billion recall” — Ray Kubis, Gridtential age industry will be limited given that most grid storage systems are using lithium iron phosphate. Perhaps more worrying, in a more subdued fashion, is that lithium carbonate prices are also heading upwards — from $6,100 per tonne two years ago to above $20,000 a tonne in November. Demand pressure is intensifying. BMW said its needs for car battery raw materials such as cobalt and lithium will grow 10-fold by 2025 and that it was in the middle of signing five and 10-year supply contracts. Other car companies such as VW, which has a $40 billion five year investment in electric vehicles, are trying to cut similar deals. Media chatter is that most automotive firms are finding supply problematic in closing deals given China has secured most of its own market needs. The problem for large scale ESS projects is a simple one — much of their planning is not even in the pipeline. Securing long term supply contracts will only be available for a few utilities and grid projects. Meaning, at the most basic, that the cost of ESS using lithium as the base battery chemistry is now open to the vagaries of a potentially roller-coaster market three to five years down the line. Farid Ahmed, principal analyst for lead markets with Wood Mackenzie, says: “While there is an abundance of lithium in terms of a global resource, the rate at which production needs to expand to meet projected demand over the next decade outstrips anything previously achieved for a mined commodity.   “That’s not to say it can’t be done, but it won’t be easy.” Ahmed also said there was an absence of any meaningful new supply of metallic nickel powder in the coming years, essential for Li-ion batteries.  Possibly an even greater concern is the lack of forecast production capacity of Li-ion batteries, whether or not the raw materials are available.

“This means that the availability of Li-ion batteries will remain constrained for the next decade or so, limiting the rate at which battery prices can fall,” said Ahmed. “The likely outcome will be that in the short to medium term, Li-ion batteries output will go preferentially to the application most demanding of light weight and high energy density — electric vehicles and hybrids. “Unlike lithium, there is ample future supply of refined lead, with over half of global production coming from recycling.  This opens a window of opportunity for lead batteries to become established as the best option for deployment as the energy storage battery chemistry of choice, both in terms of performance and cost.”

When things go bang … And when things go wrong on the lithium side of things they have gone spectacularly wrong. The cost of the Samsung recall of its batteries this year has been estimated in the region of $5 billion. The recall of Sony laptops — 2006 and 2016 and other firms in between — also makes the point that even the best run technology firms have encountered difficulties in the past. And expensive ones too. “Though lithium-based batteries have achieved impressive, higher standards in energy density over the last 25 years, their safety hazards remain very real, with huge consequences when something goes wrong in design, assembly, controls, usage, or collection and return after use,” says battery veteran Ray Kubis. “Long after recalls for Sony laptops, a fleet of cars dramatically burning in New Jersey and the grounding of a whole fleet of new Dreamliner jets design from Boeing, we’ve just seen a global recall of Samsung phones. “Samsung is not a struggling startup from an emerging country with

developing management, supply chains, and controls — rather, it is one of the three largest and best producers globally of lithium based batteries.”

The price of everything The arguments over price comparisons between lithium ion and lead acid batteries installed in ESS continue to rage — mainly because a whole range of different comparisons are made. Lead acid batteries are known to be cheaper than lithium by as much as half, but the average lifetime cost is never so clear and possibly misrepresented as such by lead distractors. A recent report by Navigant suggests that the installation costs of ESS for lithium batteries will drop by 54% by 2030. The same report said lead acid batteries would drop by around 50%. One neutral industry commentator said: “With so much money pouring into a sector, it is perhaps inevitable that not all deals will complete smoothly and not all investors will realise the return they were hoping for. “But in some cases investors could misunderstand or even be misled — deliberately or otherwise — by the way in which energy storage units detail their project return on investment and detail key elements such as pricing per kilowatt hour. “The reality is that the basis of the figures varies. “Sometimes figures are given for a whole installation; sometimes calculations are offered per cell or per pack. But these differences can make a big and important difference to the relative attraction of an energy storage project to investors and its commercial viability. “The multiple variables present in any energy storage project make it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the cost of energy storage, never mind the ‘value’ of it or the pricing per kilowatt hour.” Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 23


The demonization of lead: a short history Thomas Midgley Junior isn’t so well known now. But, until his death in 1944, he was reckoned to be one of the most brilliant men of his day. Midgley’s fame rests on his two great contributions to mankind — dichlorodifluoromethane (better known to us as CFC, the chemical that destroys the ozone layer) and tetra-ethyl-lead, the anti-knocking additive to petrol that was universally accepted as poisonous some 50 years after its discovery. To be fair, Midgley’s immediate contribution to the planet was, at first, a beneficent one. The first CFCs were a boon to air cooling systems and saved many lives. The alternatives, such as propane or chloromethane, were toxic, explosive or highly flammable. Oddly enough in the 1920s and 30s every year people died at the hands of their fridges. And tetra-ethyl-lead provided the automotive industry the push that made the internal combustion engine the workhorse of the planet and the troubled dream of an entire nation. But — 70 years after his death — with CFCs phased out and TEL only found in the poorest nations of the world, Midgley’s legacy lingers on. And in a totally unexpected way. By putting TEL into our cars, Midgley put lead into the atmosphere. Or rather General Motors did (which to its shame knew from very early on that it was dangerous following deaths, madness and hallucinations in its workforce). Rather like the anti-smoking campaign, public awareness of TEL took time to build up. As did the growing accumulation of lead in the air. The trigger for it becoming an issue came from an unexpected direction: cheap paint and timber frame houses in the US. For the very poor in America, their cheap wood-built houses could be spruced up nicely with the judicious use of paint — whose principal pigment within it was lead oxide. And the mix of cheap wood and cheap paint? The result: flakes of peeling lead which entered people’s lungs.

24 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

The resulting US (and then later worldwide) legislation turned attention to finding lead anywhere and everywhere. So in the 1960s and early 1970s a seemingly powerful case for getting rid of the lead in petrol emerged. News that the high levels of lead in US and European inner city children caused by petrol fumes created a ripple effect — from the world of the tabloid to seats of government. In the event, legislation to enforce a ban of lead in petrol was inevitable. At this point, Robert Merton’s Law of Unforeseen Consequences kicked in. In the public mind by the end of the 1970s lead had now become as dangerous as, say, arsenic or strychnine. Probably even looking at the metal would make you blind or send you into spasms. The fact that it was not just fit for purpose — and maybe the only thing that would easily and cheaply work within a car, or a power back up system — was left by the door … neatly sitting next to the open-toed sandals. Even congressmen and MPs are human and jump with the lemmings. The result? We now have a generation of misinformed politicians who, with admirable thoroughness, are trying to legislate lead out of existence. The lead community has been fighting back for a generation and more. But with little impact on a media that doesn’t want to hear a good news story. So, for example, arguments about the recyclability of lead continue to have little impact on a general public that believes recycling of, say, tins or wine bottles is probably worthwhile — but interesting? Yet the recycling story is an important one to remember — even if the arguments don’t touch the heart. It

shows a responsible, mature industry that can point with ample justification to a defence that its core product is safe. And can be proven so. The trouble is that changing public perceptions only seems to work best when sensationalism occurs. In Europe, for example, a thoroughly worthwhile book ‘E’ is for Additives, written in 1987, persuaded an

Thomas Midgley Jr: “the man who inadvertentlyhad more impact on the atmosphere than any other single organism in earth’s history”

In the public mind by the end of the 1970s lead had now become as dangerous as, say, arsenic or strychnine. Probably even looking at the metal would make you blind or send you into fits.

COVER STORY: COMMENT entire continent of people wider use of diesel, which who didn’t read the book now causes some 38,000 that an ‘E’ number (the premature deaths, acEuropean food code for a cording to the World permissible food additive) Health Organization. was not just a bad thing WHO predicts this will but a terrible one. rise to 174,000 a year by (Forgetting of course 2040. that E948, for example, The full demonization is the code for oxygen, or of lead would not be comthat herbs such as oregano plete, however, without would nowadays be coded the blessing of the media as too dangerous to be aswhich, during the US presisigned an ‘E’ number.) dential campaign last year Lead trade organizations cheerfully conflated a lead such as the International scare in Flint, Michigan, a Lead Association, EUscandal around a recycling ROBAT, BCI and various plant in Vernon, Califorothers continue to try and nia, and the idea that perfight back. But they have haps now was the time for an enormous challenge on all cars to be electric. their hands. And, being In the public imaginarespectable bodies, rightly tion, historically which enough would not stoop to was the more evil: lead or underhand media trickery. Saddam Hussein? But ill-informed politiIndeed the problem for cians — or even informed lead goes back to image ones either — don’t necesrather than substance. sarily want to go against Lead can be toxic — so the views of their electorcan pure oxygen — but ates: “It’s hard to get pothe chances of lead batlitical people, let alone orTetra-ethyl-lead provided the automotive industry with teries finding their way dinary ones, to understand the push that made the internal combustion engine the into the environment in what an inconsistent view workhorse of the planet and the troubled dream of an any meaningful way is they have on lead. They entire nation. virtually non-existent. want to ban it from the Perhaps the issue of deEuropean Union but still monization is about to drive cars,” one battery veteran told morseless killing machine on the plan- take a new twist. Batteries International recently. et — the motor car.” The Dreamliner scare of three years “They worry about infinitesimal And in yet another twist in the Law ago hit the headlines but was quickly levels of lead in the blood while the of Unforeseen Consequences, remov- forgotten, so too were the hoverboard battery itself powers the most re- ing lead from petrol gave rise to the scandals last Christmas and even the $5 billion recall of Samsung mobile phones this spring. But now there are rising fears — some of them even credible — of laptops, tablets and mobile phones exploding and going into thermal runaway on passenger planes. Could this be a wake-up call to the New Enemy of Humanity? The 18650 battery and the lithium coin cell? If that’s the case it’ll be another unexpected consequence of the kind poor Tom Midgley suffered. In his instance, he was unlucky to the end — “the man who inadvertently had more impact on the atmosphere than any other single organism in earth’s history,” according to one historian — met a sorry fate. Crippled by polio in his 50s he invented an elaborate system of pulleys By putting TEL into our cars, Midgley put lead into the air. Or rather to make himself mobile. He died General Motors did (which to its shame knew from very early on that it was from strangulation in his invention’s dangerous following deaths, madness and hallucinations in its workforce). strings.

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 25

COVER STORY: CONFERENCE IN PRINT, LEAD BATTERIES This extract from a paper written by Geoffrey May (principal, Focus Consulting), Alistair Davidson (director, International Lead Association) and Boris Monahov (program director Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium) demonstrates how lead acid batteries provide a viable, sustainable and cheaper resource for large scale static energy storage systems, The whole paper provides an overview of the performance of lead batteries in energy storage applications and highlights how they have been adapted for this application in recent developments.

Lead batteries for utility energy storage: a review Lead acid batteries have been used for energy storage in utility applications for many years but it has only been in recent years that the demand for battery energy storage has increased. It is useful to look at a small number of older installations to learn how they can be usefully deployed and a small number of more recent installations to see how battery technology has moved forward and the directions for the future. BEWAG, Germany The BEWAG BESS facility was installed in 1986 to provide spinning reserve and frequency regulation for the electricity network in West Berlin when it was an isolated network not interconnected with the then East Germany. The battery had a capacity of 14MWh and comprised 12 parallel strings each with 590 cells with a capacity of 1000Ah. The cells were tubular flooded cells with negative grids made from lead plated expanded copper mesh and pasted

In the first seven years of operation, it had a capacity turnover of 7,000 times the nominal capacity and there were no reported problems.

26 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

in a normal manner. The increased conductivity of the negative plates in tall tubular cells leads to a more uniform current distribution between the top and bottom of the plates and better performance. The battery ran for nine years from installation until 1995 although in the last two years of operation, Germany had been re-united. The battery was interconnected to the grid and the need for battery support was reduced. In the first seven years of operation, it had a capacity turnover of 7,000 times the nominal capacity and there were no reported problems. The battery supported a 30kV distribution system and the power delivered for frequency control was limited to 8.5MW but for spinning reserve this was increased to 17MW. The system fully satisfied the technical requirements for maintaining the stability of an island network and showed a high level of reliability.

Southern California Edison, Chino, California Southern California Edison (SCE) installed a 10MW, 40MWh battery at a sub-station in Chino which became operational in 1988. The battery consisted of eight parallel strings of 1,032 cells with a capacity of 2,600Ah. The cells were pasted plate cells with antimonial grids and used compressed air for electrolyte agitation to avoid stratification. There were systems for water addition, acid-level indicators, temperature measurement and overall battery management. The battery had a design life of 2,000 cycles over an eight year period and in fact operated for nine years. The power conversion system was connected to a 12.5kV line that in turn fed into a 69kV line from the sub-station. Battery efficiency was measured as 81% and the power conversion efficiency was 97%. Since this was an experimental facility, it was used to demonstrate capabilities for peak shaving, load levelling, load following, spinning reserve, transmission line support, frequency control, voltage control, VAR control and black-starts. One particular feature of the battery was its use to damp low frequency oscillations which can occur on long transmission lines.

COVER STORY: CONFERENCE IN PRINT, LEAD BATTERIES A physical examination and electrical tests on cells removed after a period in service showed that they were in good condition, and were likely to exceed its design life

Type, power rating and discharge time for different energy storage systems

This experimental facility was used to demonstrate capabilities for peak shaving, load levelling, load following, spinning reserve, transmission line support, frequency control, voltage control, VAR control and blackstarts. It was shown that by modulating battery power output, these fluctuations could be reduced although this was limited by the power output available. Switching from idle to full charge or discharge could be achieved in <20ms. The project was successful in demonstrating that a large lead acid battery could perform a wide range of duty cycles reliably over an extended period of time.

Metlakatla, Alaska Metlakatla is a small community on an island off the coast of Alaska and its power needs are supplied by a hydroelectric generator and a diesel powered

generator. The demand is variable and had high peaks because of the operation of a commercial sawmill. Before a BESS was installed, diesel generation was used for peak demand and the hydroelectric generator was not used to full capacity. This also resulted in inefficient use of the diesel generator to follow the load. An analysis of the system showed that a battery could stabilize and improve power quality by reducing voltage and frequency variations and reduce reliance on diesel generation which would result in savings in fuel costs that were high because of the remote location. A 1.6MW peak, 1.0MW continuous battery was commissioned in 1997 and has operated successfully since then. The battery consists of a single string of 378 2V modules each with a low rate capacity of 3,600Ah. Each module consists of three VRLA AGM 1,200Ah cells in parallel. The battery is connected through a power conversion system to a 12.5kV distribution network. In 2000 the sawmill was closed because of environmental concerns regarding deforestation but the system continues to operate with reduced demand. The system operates in a PSoC mode using excess hydroelectric power to charge the batteries

and is charged and discharged to maintain frequency and voltage within prescribed limits. Equalization charges are required at six-monthly intervals. A physical examination and electrical tests on cells removed after a period in service showed that they were in good condition, and were likely to exceed its design life. The level of overcharge reported after three years in operation was only 0.8% which is a strong factor in reducing the degradation of the battery.

Lerwick, Shetland Isles, Scotland The Shetland Isles in Scotland has an electricity supply network with a 66MW diesel generating plant and 11MW of wind power. There is some thermal storage in use and a BESS with 3MWh of capacity and a 1MW peak output has been installed to reduce the demand on the diesel generation and increase the proportion of wind power that can be used. The system was installed in 2013 and has operated successfully since that time providing a 20% reduction in peak demand for diesel generation with savings in fuel costs and improvements in power quality. The battery consists of 12 parallel strings of 264 cells with a nominal voltage of 528V and a capacity of 1,000Ah. The cells are VRLA AGM types with carbon loaded negative active materials and high density positive active materials mounted horizontally in steel enclosures. The charging parameters are carefully regulated and a recharge factor of 5% is specified. Detailed monitoring of the battery is carried out locally and remotely by the battery supplier. Thermal management is important

Energy Storage Journal â&#x20AC;˘ Winter 2017/2018 â&#x20AC;˘ 27

COVER STORY: CONFERENCE IN PRINT, LEAD BATTERIES for uniform operation of the battery. Safety systems include hydrogen detection and dispersion as well as conventional fire suppression equipment. Power conversion is through two 500 kW inverters to a transformer to an 11kV grid connection. The lessons learned from this installation are that current sharing between strings and recharge factor uniformity are useful parameters to identify the proper functioning of the

The lessons learned from this installation are that current sharing between strings and recharge factor uniformity are useful parameters to identify the proper functioning of the battery

battery and that a high level of measurement of voltage and temperatures is useful to ensure efficient maintenance activity. Heat output from the battery needs to be managed. Equalization charges may be applied as necessary. The overall efficiency of the installation was measured as 84%. This is a round trip efficiency based on the energy input for charging and the energy output on discharge. The recharge factor was 105%.

PUTTING THE WHOLE PAPER TOGETHER The competitive position between lead batteries and other types of battery indicates that lead batteries are competitive in technical performance in static installations. Table 2 provides a summary of the key parameters for lead acid and Li-ion batteries. Lead batteries cover a range of different types of battery which may be flooded and require maintenance watering or valveregulated batteries and only require inspection. For many energy storage applications with intermittent charging input and output requirements, especially with solar

PV input, batteries are not routinely returned to a fully charged condition and where the battery is required to absorb power as well as deliver power to the network, PSoC operation becomes the normal mode. There have been substantial improvements in lead acid batteries in this area especially with the use of carbon additives to the negative plate but this continues to be an area of active development and further improvements in performance should be achieved. There are also other types of lead batteries, particularly batteries with a hybrid construction with

supercapacitor elements combined with a conventional negative plate. These offer further improvements in shallow cycle performance. Safety needs to be considered for all energy storage installations. Lead batteries provide a safe system with an aqueous electrolyte and active materials that are not flammable. In a fire, the battery cases will burn but the risk of this is low, especially if flame retardant materials are specified. Li-ion batteries have a much higher energy density, highly reactive component materials and a flammable electrolyte. Safety engineering needs to be to a very

Table 1: Comparison of key parameters for energy storage systems System

Life (years )


Energy efficiency (%)

Installed system cost ($/kWh)











Lead acid


















































28 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

COVER STORY: CONFERENCE IN PRINT, LEAD BATTERIES King Island, Tasmania, Australia Hydro Tasmania, an electricity utility in Australia has integrated a 3MW UltraBattery BESS from Ecoult as part of an island microgrid it has implemented on King Island in Bass Strait. The island grid supports the residential and commercial electricity needs of the island which has a population of around 1700 people. The BESS

high standard to ensure the risk of thermal runaway, fire and explosion is managed. Other battery systems also have safety issues that need to be controlled. An issue with all battery technologies is sustainability. There are strict regulations regarding collection and recycling of all types of battery and mandated efficiency targets irrespective of the broader societal needs to ensure that

complements other components of the microgrid such that the system often runs for continuous periods of more than 24 hours using electricity generated from renewable sources (wind and solar) alone with the BESS shifting energy from periods of excess generation to periods where extra energy is needed to match load as well as contributing to ancillary services like frequency management. The Hydro Tasmania solution

The BESS complements other components of the microgrid such that the system often runs for continuous periods of more than 24 hours using electricity generated from renewable sources

all goods form part of a circular economy. For lead batteries, there is an established recycling infrastructure in place that operates economically in full compliance with all environmental regulations. For Li-ion and other chemistries used for battery energy storage, recycling processes do not recover significant value and will need to be substantially improved to meet

current and future requirements. Lead batteries have a long history of use in utility energy storage and their capabilities and limitations have been carefully researched. Their reliability is well established and they can be adapted for a wide range of duty cycles within this sector which will continue to ensure they provide a good solution that is competitive to other approaches.

Table 2: Comparison of technical and other features of lead acid and Li-ion batteries for energy storage service System

Lead acid


Energy density

35–40 Wh/kg *

150–180 Wh/kg

80–90 Wh/l

300–350 Wh/l

250 W/kg*

800 W/kg

500 W/l

800 W/l

High temperature performance

to 40°C

to 50 °C

Low temperature performance

to -30 °C

to -20 °C

Charge acceptance



Cycle life



Overall service life

15 years

10–15 years



Needs to be assessed for longer



Recovery methods uneconomical



Issues to be resolved

Cost (battery system only)



Cost (battery system only)



Power density

Note *: Bipolar lead-acid batteries are being developed which have energy densities in the range from 55 to 60 Wh/kg (120–130 Wh/l) and power densities of up to 1,100 W/ kg (2,000 W/l)

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 29

COVER STORY: CONFERENCE IN PRINT, LEAD BATTERIES has significantly reduced the amount of fossil fuel (diesel) consumed to meet the island’s energy needs and the UltraBattery batteries in the BESS which has been operated for a number of years continue to operate reliably. UltraBattery batteries have now been used in many grid and renewable integration projects and recent projects include the integration of reserve power functions and the ability to move seamlessly from grid ancillary support to full islanded microgrid modes for power continuity during times of grid failure.

Aachen, Germany A large battery system was commissioned in Aachen in Germany in 2016 as a pilot plant to evaluate various battery technologies for energy storage applications.

The behaviour of Li-ion and lead acid batteries is different and there are likely to be duty cycles where one technology is favoured but in a network with a variety of requirements it is likely that batteries with different technologies may be used to achieve the optimum balance between short and longer term storage needs. This has five different battery types, two lead acid batteries and three Li-ion batteries and the intention is to compare their operation under similar conditions. Each battery is grid connected through a dedicated 630 kW inverter. The lead acid batteries are both tubular types, one flooded with lead plated expanded copper mesh negative grids and the other a VRLA battery with gelled electrolyte. The flooded battery has a

30 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

power capability of 1.2MW and a capacity of 1.4MWh and the VRLA battery a power capability of 0.8MW and a capacity of 0.8MWh. The Li-ion batteries are lithiummanganese dioxide, lithium iron phosphate and lithium titanate. The experience from this project to date is that battery energy storage can control reactive power in a network, maintain stability and provide useful support to the network. It is intended to evaluate the economic aspects of different methods of operation as the work proceeds. It has been confirmed that batteries can be installed and put into service quickly close to consumers. The behaviour of Li-ion and lead acid batteries is different and there are likely to be duty cycles where one technology is favoured but in a network with a variety of requirements it is likely that batteries with different technologies may be used to achieve the optimum balance between short and longer term storage needs.

Lyon Station, Pennsylvania, US The DSO for a large part of the Eastern part of the US has installed a large hybrid lead battery/ supercapacitor (UltraBattery) in

Lyon Station, Pennsylvania for frequency regulation. This was installed in 2012 and has been shown to be highly effective in stabilizing the network. There are four batteries each feeding into 900kW inverters which in turn feed into a 13.8kV line continuously to provide frequency regulation. Each string consissts of 480 2V VRLA cells. The hybrid batteries have a total of 3.6MW of power capability and 3MW of power can be exchanged either as output or input. The system has been shown to be 92%-95% DC/DC efficient and in performing regulation services has an average AC to AC efficiency of 80%. The original cells are performing well and one string has been replaced with a higher performing UltraBattery variant.

This was installed in 2012 and has been shown to be highly effective in stabilizing the network. There are four batteries each feeding into 900kW inverters which in turn feed into a 13.8kV line continuously to provide frequency regulation.

Lead-based Ultrabattery® used for frequency regulation at Lyon Station, Pennsylvania


Optimism — too timid a word for the prospects of 2018 Energy Storage Journal invited 10 of the industry’s executives and insiders, between them knowledgeable across the spectrum of deployments; utility, commercial & industrial, residential and off-grid; both sides of the meter, and spanning expertize from all areas — integration to software development — to tell us what they think the year ahead has in store.

The end of the beginning… the future is promising

W John Jung President and chief executive officer, Greensmith Energy

ithout question, 2017 was another breakthrough year for energy storage globally, particularly in grid-scale deployments. Record procurements and installations of ever-larger energy storage systems were made to improve the capacity and reliability of grids around the world, driven in part by the increased transition from baseload fossil generation to intermittent resources such as solar and wind. From the UK to Australia, South Korea and a growing number of ISOs across the US and Canada, energy storage is finally beginning to deliver

on its potential now that battery prices have declined by more than half over the past two years. Utilities, developers and other grid operators have started to aggressively invest in energy storage assets for a variety of strategic, operational and financial reasons. And those pesky science projects and pilots-to-nowhere are rapidly being replaced with multi-MW, 10+ year financeable capital investments rivalling any traditional energy investments. However, 2017 was just the end of the beginning for the energy storage industry as more applications become

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 31

THE ESJ 10: TRENDS FOR THE YEAR AHEAD feasible and would-be owners and operators entered the sector in droves. In 2018, the role of software controls and optimization to maximize the performance and longevity of energy storage will become even more critical as the average age of most systems is less than four years. What’s more, complementing generation and distribution assets with energy storage will fuel a growing wave of grid hybridization anchored by a new class of supervisory software. Finally, battery commoditization and industry consolidation will ramp up into 2018, separating the winners and losers based on the quality of integration, software and hybridized solutions.

Utilities, developers and other grid operators have started to aggressively invest in energy storage assets for a variety of strategic, operational and financial reasons. – John Jung, president and chief executive officer, Greensmith Energy

Cost-efficiency in battery storage systems is key battery storage systems are falling, which makes it even more important for manufacturers to establish a solid market presence with high-quality products and good service. This year has also seen significant advances in the performance of battery storage systems, in particular.

Daniel Hannemann Managing director, TESVOLT What’s been happening in the storage industry over the last year? Global demand for battery storage systems has grown significantly in 2017, to the point that many competitors and suppliers are now experiencing supply difficulties. But thanks to close relationship with our inverter supplier SMA, TESVOLT remains able to deliver. At the same time, prices for

32 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

What has the past year been like for you? If 2017 has taught us one thing, it’s that innovating and focusing on cost-efficiency and ROI are absolutely worth it. At the beginning of the summer we launched our new high-voltage system — thanks to high-performance Samsung SDI cells and a service life of 30 years and 8,000 cycles, the investment will pay off in as little as five years, depending on how the system is used and in which country. The demand is there, we just have to meet it. We’re concentrating on the real financial gain that our storage system brings customers. What are the possible applications? The market for battery storage systems has really heated up this year in the UK and Australia.

But we’ve also carried out some projects in African countries over the year which demonstrate the suitability of battery storage systems even in challenging environments. While in Europe our work tends to revolve around reducing peak loads, and in the UK, for example, the issue of grid services is extremely interesting from a financial point of view, in countries with less developed infrastructure the focus is on building a functioning supply network based on renewable energies. What would you like to see from politics/the market? Stable conditions are an advantage for us. Unfortunately, there isn’t always a consensus on the direction we should take in the coming years. State subsidies would send an important signal that the government recognises the benefits of battery storage systems. But it has always been our aim to offer a product that can hold its own on the market, and provide customers with the best possible performance, without the need for state subsidies. If the investment pays off in five years, customers will invest.


Regulatory changes ahead to affect European power landscape Europe needs a regulatory framework that ensures further development of all existing and new battery technologies without jeopardizing or even banning them. Rene Schroder Executive director, EUROBAT


ith batteries high on the European political agenda, 2018 promises to be an important year for our industry from a regulatory and policy-making perspective.

This past November, the European Commission presented its legislative proposal for the next CO2 emission reduction targets for road transport. Throughout 2018, this proposal will now be debated by EU member states and the European Parliament. The European Commission sug-

gests reducing average CO2 emissions by 30% until 2030 (compared to 2021) for new passenger vehicles and vans. What needs to be kept in mind is that a variety of battery technologies exists today — lead, lithium, nickel and sodium-based batteries — and they will all deliver CO2 savings in vehicles with different powertrains, which will coexist for the foreseeable future. For this reason, we are highlighting to the EU institutions that continuous efforts on the development of all battery technologies will be a fundamental cornerstone of the transition to a decarbonized economy. Next year, the European Commission will also continue the evaluation

of the EU Battery Directive in view of a legislative proposal which will come out beginning in 2020. We are using this opportunity to underline to EU policy-makers that the legislative overlaps that exist between the Battery Directive, End-ofLife Vehicles Directive and REACH regulations needs to be addressed. Europe needs a regulatory framework that ensures further development of all existing and new battery technologies without jeopardizing or even banning them. More coherence between different EU initiatives related to batteries is absolutely needed to ensure the development and production of all existing and new battery technologies in Europe.

2018 and the rise of long duration storage The UK energy market continues to evolve rapidly and while this is largely for the better, it also creates risk for renewable asset owners, as the longevity of their investment return comes under scrutiny.

Stuart McGregor CEO, RedT


017 has been an incredibly important year for energy storage. As a business, we fully support the important policy advancements the UK government announced this year, such as the long awaited definition of storage as its own class of generation and the subsequent removal of so-called double charging. We firmly believe these will help propel the UK energy storage industry.

I began the year by saying that energy storage was not yet economic

here in the UK, and I’m pleased to say that I’ve been proved wrong. The UK market for our long duration flow machines is very much open for business and we are thrilled to be involved in a number of innovative projects, which demonstrate the attractive business case and environmental benefits of our systems. This was further underlined by recent moves to de-rate short duration batteries in the capacity market, in favour of long duration energy storage machines. The UK energy market continues to evolve rapidly and while this is largely for the better, it also creates risk for renewable asset owners, as the longevity of their investment return comes under scrutiny. However, this has created opportunities for us, as the market needs a flexible platform asset, which we can offer. A machine (not a battery!)

that can adapt to a fast changing energy market, hedging risk for the asset owner who can perform multiple services and take advantage of opportunities in the form of new grid services, as and when they arise. 2018 will see the rise of long duration storage in front of the meter and behind it. Companies like Centrica are already ahead of the curve in creating the new distributed energy system of the future, which will fundamentally change the way we consume energy from the grid. One example of this are the innovative peer-to-peer energy trading schemes which Centrica is trialling. In short, 2017 was a big year for the energy storage industry, but I have even higher hopes for next year where we will see real, widespread adoption of energy storage to help support the new energy system of the future. Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 33


Demand side trends force modernization

Dan Sowder Vice president, power systems, integration, Doosan GridTech


rowing utility demand fuelled by grid modernization needs is driving energy storage market growth. The past year has also seen continuing beneficial declines in battery prices. While prices may be more volatile over the next year or two, long-term downward trends are expected to continue as new supply enters the market in the years ahead. Meanwhile, key demand-side trends augur well for energy storage growth. In the past few years, and accelerating in 2017, the industry has made substantial progress toward a new wave of utility-integrated energy storage. In contrast to earlier simplistic de-

ployments, utility integration brings key benefits, including adherence to open standards and a program approach. Open standards — successfully applied for decades in computing and the internet — are now delivering lower costs and increased customer choice for energy storage and the electric system. Standards such as MESA, SunSpec and OpenADR enable a larger market for both customers and suppliers. The program approach starts with utility customer needs, sizing and siting energy storage units to optimize overall electric system value. Benefit-stacking across a wide range of use cases — requiring advanced software, notably absent from earliergeneration ESS — is critical to this optimization. A prime example of a utility-integrated system is the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power Beacon ESS, which co-locates a 20MW/10MWh ESS with the existing 250MW Beacon solar PV plant. Beacon integrates the benefits of large-scale energy storage into utility operations, and is a substantive step toward City of Los Angeles goals to deploy 500MW of battery storage by 2025. The growing prevalence of rate payer-funded systems such as Beacon is a clear sign that the industry is moving beyond the need for incentives. As energy storage becomes main-

Power outages drive pace of change forward Catherine Von Burg CEO SimpliPhi Power


ith increasing power outages in the US alone in 2017, the supposition that the centralized electrical grid is reliable and

Utility integration brings key benefits, including adherence to open standards and a program approach. Open standards — successfully applied for decades in computing and the internet — are now delivering lower costs and increased customer choice for energy storage and the electric system. stream, electric distribution operators are also focusing on new distributed energy resource management systems (DERMS) — advanced software for controlling and optimizing energy storage, solar PV, electric vehicles and demand response. Energy storage, with full, four-quadrant electrical capability, is key to coordinating intermittent PV generation, EV charging and demand response. We expect that the future electric system will be anchored by an integral combination of energy storage and software, developed with open technology standards and deployed programmatically to maximize utility benefits. cost-effective to maintain is being revealed as a myth. Hurricane Maria left 3.5 million people in Puerto Rico without power, with 60% in the dark more than 40 days after the hurricane destroyed the island’s centralized electrical grid. Likewise on April 21, New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco all suffered hours-long blackouts simultaneously, spurring speculation of a coordinated cyber attack. In northern California this fall, 24,000 PG&E customers in Napa and Sonoma Counties went without electricity for days in the midst of wildfires that ravaged the area, which some

Across the globe, 2017 revealed how antiquated and vulnerable our centralized electrical infrastructure can be. That’s why both consumers and utilities are embracing distributed energy storage+renewables to bolster the centralized grid 34 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

THE ESJ 10: TRENDS FOR THE YEAR AHEAD speculated were caused by downed power lines from high winds. And, these stories are only the highlights for the US. Across the globe, 2017 revealed how antiquated and vulnerable our centralized electrical infrastructure can be. And, with each costly repair, utility rates are expected to go up. That’s why both consumers and utilities are embracing distributed energy storage+renewables to bolster the centralized grid. This trend is expected to continue in 2018. In Puerto Rico, solar and energy storage installers are working at an accelerated pace to bring independent power to people who are no longer willing to rely on the central grid. In Sonoma, California, the Stone Edge Farm microgrid islanded for 10 days during the area’s wildfires and proved itself as a ‘power island’ that could serve as an emergency refuge in the future. In New Zealand, the utility Powerco is installing mini grids for remote customers, rather than repairing and maintaining 20 transmission poles. Now is the time to consider the integration of renewable assets into our grid infrastructure. SimpliPhi Power expects microgrids and mini grids to gain traction in 2018 and beyond as solutions that bolster the existing grid, and the ability to extend access to power beyond it, increase. By leveraging energy storage, renewable energy generation and microgrid solutions, utilities can continue to fulfil their mandate of reliable power, while also modernizing their grids for the future of energy.

Now is the time to consider the integration of renewable assets into our grid infrastructure. SimpliPhi Power expects microgrids and mini grids to gain traction in 2018 and beyond as solutions that bolster the existing grid, and the ability to extend access to power beyond it, increase.

2018 a year of improving the business case

Marc Borrett Reactive Technologies


ith enhanced frequency response (EFR) kicking off and green levies removed, 2017 has been a very positive year for energy storage in the UK. Thanks to EFR, there has been a significant incentive to build energy storage devices and, as a result, hundreds of MWs of storage have now come into the market. However, the future earning potential of these assets after the fouryear EFR timeframe has not yet been fully bottomed-out. This will be partly addressed this coming summer when Ofgem has committed to unveiling its System Needs and Product Strategy. SNAPS will include the introduction of a storage licence which will re-classify energy storage as a unique subsection of generation and will make provision for energy storage to stack revenues, making their business case more robust. Equally, it is clear that control and optimization technology will have a key role to play in enabling

energy storage assets to harness their full market potential moving forward and improve returns for investors. We are seeing a growing interest from commercial and industrial (C&I) customers expressing a desire to explore integrating energy storage across their sites as an opportunity to avoid peak energy costs, earn new revenue streams and contribute towards their energy efficiency initiatives. Reactive Technologies’ energy optimization platform is able to optimize energy consuming and generating assets, including energy storage, across all available energy market opportunities and the highest value ancillary services available. In addition, renewable generators have increasingly been approaching us to explore new ways of maximizing their return on investment by leveraging energy storage in conjunction with our optimization and enhanced PPA capabilities. We look forward to sharing news of our technological innovations, which won Reactive the coveted Frost & Sullivan Global Distributed Energy Company of the Year Award 2017, and updates on exciting energy storage projects with the wider energy community in the new year. We fully expect 2018 will be the most promising year for energy storage, and Reactive Technologies, to date.

Control and optimization technology will have a key role to play in enabling energy storage assets to harness their full market potential moving forward and improve returns for investors

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 35


Electricity storage is the essential component of a smarter grid Customers for storage are not just the traditional members of the power industry. Investment funds want to own infrastructure assets, electricity supply companies want to maintain their market share and new participants are appearing in the market. Georgina Penfold

Anthony Price

CEO, Electricity Storage Network

Chairman, Electricity Storage Network


017 seemed to be the year that everything was going well for electricity storage. Battery costs continued to fall, the first projects with contracts for National Grid’s EFR service were just coming on line, battery projects were gaining ground in the Capacity Market, and the government announced its smart systems plan. But as 2017 draws to a close, some fear there are tough times ahead for storage developers as expected revenues for frequency response drop and storage is not so highly favoured in the Capacity Market — yet this is in stark contrast to many optimistic project developers who still see many opportunities ahead. So what do we expect for electricity storage in 2018? The Electricity Storage Network, our group for promoting storage in the UK, will continue to lobby government to deliver on its

promises to support the development of storage. Those with a responsibility to set regulations and legislation in the electricity industry have a tough job to keep ahead of both technical developments and new commercial and business models. Hybrid systems, which combine the elements of long duration and short duration storage illustrate some of the possibilities. Dieter Helm’s review of energy prices has already drawn out the role of storage as a major disruptor in the power industry. This gives us the biggest clues as to the shape of the electricity storage industry in 2018. First, it’s not just about batteries. It’s easy enough for politicians to grab headlines, and batteries — especially lithium ion types in smart-looking electric cars — make great headlines, but there are many other ways of storing energy. Second, the market for storage has shifted — project developers seized the

opportunity to sell frequency response services but are now seeking out other parts of the value stack to cushion the drop in frequency response prices. Third, customers for storage are not just the traditional members of the power industry. Investment funds want to own infrastructure assets, electricity supply companies want to maintain their market share by offering customers improved services that aid customer retention and new participants are appearing in the market. The change of distribution network operators into distribution system operators will create many opportunities for sellers of storage systems and project developers, especially for systems embedded in the lower voltage areas. We expect to see more interest in longer duration energy storage, more installations behind the meter — some domestic, but many in the smaller and mid-size commercial and industrial sector — and most importantly, acceptance that electricity storage in all its forms is the essential component of a smarter grid.

Acceleration — 2017 was


his was a big year for energy storage, and as an industry we should expect continued growth and further market acceptance in 2018. We saw more energy storage deployments in 2017 that solved problems such as transmission and

Troy Miller Director Grid Solutions, S&C Electric Company

36 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

distribution deferral and capacity constraints that historically were resolved by ‘adding more copper’. Energy storage, when used as a component of a larger distribution system, can create pockets of improved reliability and resiliency on the distribu-

Next year, we should see energy storage solving additional reliability and capacity problems facing the grid. We also should expect to see energy storage accepted and deployed in even more regions and countries


The tipping point arrives — look too for the rise of the digital energy retailer

Ryan Wartena President Geli


n 2018, we will reach the tipping point for networked energy storage business applications and all sectors will start moving towards digital energy retail strategies. Energy storage has matured as a technology and is now maturing as a financially viable market maker.

Energy storage prices are pushing solar-storage projects around the world — think the US, Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the EU, Canada, Japan, Korea, Mexico and more — to over 20% IRRs [internal rates of return] making projects properly lucrative to activate financiers. In 2018, we expect to see solar developers across the board considering energy storage on every commercial and utility solar project. Microgrids will continue to emerge and will begin to challenge traditional UPS and diesel generator offerings as individual and corporates look to have resiliency in their renewables projects. Financial operating implications of fast, mega, and hyper EV charging infrastructure will drive energy storage applications at places of work and commerce. We will see an increase of aggregation demonstration projects across the globe from utilities, retailers, community choice aggregators, market aggregators, EV makers, and consumer electronics manufactures.  We expect the experimentation of many business models and stakeholder collaboration models to work to reconcile how networked energy storage and other IoT assets will provide digital energy services to

buildings, grids, and markets. These business model experiments, both Blockchain and not, will lead to the rise of the ‘digital energy retailer’, opening the aperture for OEMs, utilities, retailers, and anyone network controlling assets to provide digital energy services. Finally, the wave of towns and communities across the globe that are dedicating to a 100% renewable energy plan has blossomed into the 100s and as a result scalable financial analysis, connected to engineering, construction, project coordination, and control solutions will be required to realize our internet of energy.

These business model experiments, both Blockchain and not, will lead to the rise of the Digital Energy Retailer, opening the aperture for OEMs, utilities, retailers, and anyone network controlling assets to provide digital energy services.

good, but 2018 will be better tion network. Microgrids, consisting of energy storage and typically renewable generation, are becoming more and more prevalent in our grid networks. By using energy storage, we are proving these complex systems can perform admirably as an alternate energy source while potentially solving other problems simultaneously in the same location. I’d expect the trends we are seeing this year to accelerate in 2018. Next year, we should see energy storage

solving additional reliability and capacity problems facing the grid. We should also expect to see energy storage accepted and deployed in even more regions and countries. The industry leaders in the US, Europe, and Australia are ready to take on more. This past year, we saw the destructive forces that storms and hurricanes can have on our grid. We also heard a lot of hypothesizing on how additional energy storage and microgrids could have helped improve electrical reliability and resiliency during those

storms. This conversation will continue into 2018, and the catastrophic hurricanes of 2017 will be a catalyst for more energy storage and microgrid deployments. Last, the profound impact of energy storage, combined with continued advancements in distribution automation, will improve grid reliability and resiliency around the world in the years to come. S&C is continuing to lead the charge in this space and looks forward to increased momentum both in the US and around the world.

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 37


Energy Storage Journal spoke to RedT’s Scott McGregor about why he believes his firm is poised to capitalize on the new tipping point for the price of renewable energy. Debbie Mason reports.

Vanadium redox to flourish in deep energy storage 2017 could well have marked the beginning of the end of the stand-off between lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries as grid-scale energy storage options. But not because either has proven more successful than the other: more because there’s a new player in town. The not-so-new kids on the block, vanadium redox flow batteries, are being promoted and researched in more and more countries around the globe. Most notably in China, Rongke Power, for example, is in the process of installing what could be the world’s largest battery. This is a massive 800MWh storage unit covering an area equivalent to 20 football pitches, which will balance grid supply and demand in Dalian, the capital city of northeastern Liaoning Province. By the end of 2017, 100MW of storage is set to be installed, the remainder in 2018. The technology behind vanadium redox has taken time for it to mature — see table — but since the first commercial installation in the mid-1990s the technology has moved forward though adoption rates have been slow. So why a promised boom now? One of the main drivers has been the plummeting cost of renewable energy — particularly solar power. Scott McGregor, CEO of the UKbased RedT Energy, says he knew 17 years ago that vanadium flow ‘machines’, as he insists on calling his energy storage systems, would become commercially viable one day. He just didn’t know when. “We’ve been waiting around for various macro factors to fall into place,” he says. “Solar prices had to come down to make it economically viable. And they’ve come down — in fact they’ve only started to come down as there’s still a way for them to fall. Then power prices had to go up, which they have. In Australia, where we have cracked the market wide open, they are extremely expensive.

38 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/18

“And there had to be an ability to earn money off the grid. That’s now possible — there’s now a trading advantage, a platform where people can actually trade their energy to make money. “Even three years ago it would not have made economic sense, but now all of these factors are in place. It was no use bringing this on to the market until customers could make money and numbers had changed, and now they have. It’s a pricing tipping point, and we have reached it. And now the UK and Australian governments are among those who are supporting it.” The price of solar power, at 6¢ per kilowatt hour, he says, has now fallen below gas, at 6.5¢, and coal, at 12¢. Another factor is perception, he says. “There’s a misconception of energy storage as a whole. People think of generating energy as quite simple —

it’s either solar or it’s wind. People will judge whether it’s high quality or low quality, but they will see it as the same thing. Generating power. “People have the same idea with storage — that it’s just storage. But they need to compare the technologies, because they’re not all right for every application.” So while other technologies are tapping this potential and also providing storage options, they can’t compete with the cost, life cycle or performance, RedT’s market communications official Joe Worthington says. “We look at the price over 25 years,” he says. “If you factor in everything — inflation, depreciation, operation, maintenance, replacement — we are significantly cheaper than lead and lithium. That’s how project developers are looking at things now, the kilowatt hour cost.” At the moment, the go-to technology for storage appears to be lithium-ion batteries, but as McGregor says, they only provide 15-30 minutes of power in the event of a black-out. His machines can store much more than this. One such project is the Olde House, in the southwestern English county of Cornwall, where 1MW of the RedT machines have been installed at a 600acre farm-cum-holiday apartment complex though the utility Centrica. The battery is the first to participate in Centrica’s local energy market trial, which will provide a trading platform where the farmer is able to trade any excess power with other consumers, thus making money and ultimately

If 2017 marked a price tipping point, when customers began to realize the benefits and economics of energy-saving technology, 2018 will be dedicated to delivering all the orders the company has received. 2019, he says, will be the year of the mega projects — Scott McGregor, RedT

FLOW BATTERY PROFILE: REDT paying back the cost of the machines. In this way, businesses will be able to save money by generating energy and storing it for use when the cost of grid energy is high (in the evening), or make money by trading it with other consumers, McGregor says. In McGregor’s native Australia, where the use of solar power is, in his words, a no-brainer, the university of Monash in Melbourne has agreed to install a 1.2MWh vanadium flow machine, along with a smaller lithium battery. The two will work in tandem to store energy generated by solar panels at a biomedical research facility at the campus, saving energy costs but also with plans to trade the energy in the future. McGregor says the vanadium flow battery will be the big ‘boring’ workhorse offering storage hours’ worth of electricity, while the lithium battery will supply short-term bursts of energy as required. “Their energy needs are quite complex, it’s quite a big university and they’ve got labs and a variety of needs,” says Worthington. “They have quite a high baseload, which is almost 24/7, and at random times of the day they get a big spike. It’s being installed with a view to going off grid eventually.” Monash is also RedT’s first official foray into Australia. “We were going to wait to go into Australia, but we couldn’t not go there because the price of the power there is so high,” says McGregor. “It’s a perfect storm of three aspects: solar prices coming down; the incredibly high price of power in Australia; and a ropey grid system. As well as RedT’s orders in the UK and Australia, the company has made agreements with distributors in central and eastern Europe and southeast Asia, details of which are under wraps apart from the company confirming an initial commitment of 12 units. Flow batteries come into their own in the remoter regions of the world, where no grids break down since there simply are no grids, and where the installation of a microgrid would provide invaluable energy storage to replace the commonly used polluting and expensive diesel generators. South African power utility Eskom has confirmed it will test a vanadium flow battery developed by the South African firm Bushveld, and another by Uni Energy Technologies, over the next 18 months with a view to

A SHORT HISTORY OF VANADIUM REDOX BATTERIES Vanadium flow batteries were first explored in the 1930s by Pierre Pissoort, then in the 1970s by various researchers. Up until the 1970s no one had previously used vanadium redox couples in a working flow battery. A reason for this was the low solubility of pentavalent vanadium compounds in acidic solutions that would limit the practical energy density of such a system. The fact that vanadium exists in several oxidation states however, made it an excellent candidate for a single element flow battery that might overcome the problem of cross contamination observed with the Fe/Cr battery by NASA researchers in the 1970s and 80s. Steps to commercialize it,

admittedly with some teething difficulties, were advanced by Maria Skyllas-Kazacos at the University of New South Wales in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the first semi commercial installation appeared in 1995 with a full installation for Sumitomo Electric the following year. Problems with uptake have generally focused on the expense of the electrolyte feed stock, and the long pay-back time. Mechanical problems with the pumping mechanisms have also affected promises of a full 20+ year cycle life. Full patents for all-vanadium batteries were filed in Australia and the US but expired in 2006 generating renewed interest in the technology.

Maria Skyllas-Kazacos: arguably the dominant figure in advancing flow battery technology to the fore. Here an early team photo shows postgraduate student Maria, Franz Grossmith, Michael Kazacos and Miron Rychcik

History of vanadium flow batteries 1996

First commercial vanadium redox battery installation (Japan)

Sumitomo Electric Industries,


Invention of the vanadium redox flow battery

Maria SkyllasKazacos


Patent on redox batteries

Alberto Pellegri and Placido Spaziante


Development of practical redox batteries



Modern redox flow battery patent

Walther Kangro


Suggestion of vanadium couples for use in flow batteries

Pierre Pissoort


Development of the redox fuel cell

Wilhelm Borchers

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/18 • 39

FLOW BATTERY PROFILE: REDT investigating all of the applications RedT says the machines are ideal for: smoothing wind and solar power loads, providing black start capabilities and load shifting. The local Engineering News reported that Eskom estimates the country’s national grid would need around 2,000MW of additional, daily storage. RedT’s machines are already in Africa. The Thaba Eco Hotel in Klipriviersberg Nature Reserve, just outside Johannesburg, has a solar array of 100kWp. It backed this up with diesel generators when the sun is not shining or when the grid cut out — neither of the two being uncommon. The hotel has a 15kW, 75kWh RedT flow battery at the centre of a solar mini grid, replacing the diesel generators and allowing a section of the hotel to operate entirely off the grid. This is just the start of RedT’s potential in the continent. “Sub-Saharan Africa is a third market for us,” says McGregor. “In Australia, you have mining operations that are essentially off-grid. But in Africa in a number of places there’s no such thing as the grid. Mining and resources are situated in such remote places that you have to airlift diesel in and so on. If you’ve got the space to have a mine you’ve got the space to have a whole bunch of storage machines. “There are a lot of development projects, and rural projects for electrification — health clinics, for example.

SOME OF THE OTHER PLAYERS Numerous companies and organizations involved in funding and developing vanadium redox batteries include Imergy (formerly Deeya), Vionx (formerly Premium Power), StorEn Technologies incubated at CEBIP-Stony Brook University, UniEnergy Technologies and Ashlawn Energy in the US; Renewable Energy Dynamics Technology in Ireland; Gildemeister (formerly Cellstrom in Austria) in Germany; Cellennium in Thailand Rongke Power; Prudent Energy in China; Sumitomo in Japan; H2, in South Korea; redT in Britain and Australian Vanadium in Australia.

This November’s delivery of a RedT flow battery at the University of Chester in the UK

“We can also monitor them remotely,” he says. “So if it’s halfway up a mountain in Botswana, you don’t have to fly someone there — you can see what the issue is remotely.” Not that there should be many issues to worry about. Another of the batteries’ advantages over the other chemistries available is their low

As well as RedT’s orders in the UK and Australia, the company has made agreements with distributors in central and eastern Europe and southeast Asia

RedT delivery at Thaba eco-resort (left). The Gen2 15-75kWh battery ahead of delivery (right)

40 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/18

maintenance requirements and less need for replacement parts. “It’s accepted that these systems will last at least 20 years,” he says. “You might need to change the odd fuse but this is why we call them machines — you wouldn’t need to change the whole thing. With a lithium battery, if the battery breaks down you have to replace the whole thing.” Many of RedT’s machines are made by Jabil, the US-based global manufacturer that has plants all over the world, so the machines can be delivered anywhere. And when it comes to vanadium supply, the fact that the electrolyte itself does not need to be replaced means its shouldn’t necessarily be an issue. In fact, it would even be possible for firms to rent the electrolyte off RedT and give it back to them if the machines were no longer needed. Vanadium itself, which was named after the goddess of beauty and fertility, is the 18th most abundant on Earth, coming ahead of copper, nickel or zinc. “Because the electrolyte never degrades, it doesn’t have to be replaced,” says McGregor. “It can be in one system for 20 years then we can take it out and put it in another one.” The exact cocktail ingredients for the electrolyte are proprietary, but in rough terms it is 70% water topped up with vanadium and sulfuric acid. If 2017 marked a price tipping point, when customers began to realize the benefits and economics of energy-saving technology, McGregor believes 2018 will be dedicated to delivering all the orders the company has received. 2019, he says, will be the year of the mega projects. “Lithium is great for cars, computers, mobile phones and so on, but in terms of national grid storage it can only play around the fringes,” says McGregor. “The only reason we haven’t yet had battery storage en masse is the price.” And that reason, McGregor believes, is no longer valid. The boom years await.

The Battery and Energy Storage

CONFERENCE WATCH MONTHLY The definitive guide to battery energy storage conferences and meetings for the year ahead

SUBSCRIBE FOR FREE Contact Jade Beevor

FORTHCOMING EVENTS – 2018 International Conference & Expo on Lithium Batteries, used Battery & E-Waste Management, EWM India January 10-11 Goa, India The conference held by Battery and Recycling Foundation International from New Delhiwill feature an exhibition by lithium battery manufacturers, users,  e-waste recyclers and recycling equipment manufacturers among others. The two day conference will feature country sector studies by experts from all over the world, talks by various stakeholders, regulatory authorities and researchers as well as details of the latest advances in environmental technologies.

World Future Energy Summit Abu Dhabi, UAE January 15-18 The World Future Energy Summit, part of Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week, celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2017. Already the world’s most influential event dedicated to advancing the use of renewable energy, energy efficiency and clean technology, to mark this milestone, exciting changes are being made to the exhibition and conference that will make it the most interactive and inspirational to date. Within the exhibition, dedicated country pavilions will enable attendees to meet with influential industry and government figures. In 2017, the exhibition at the World Future Energy Summit brought together 600 companies from 32 countries and more than 33,000 attendees from 175 countries, making it an essential place to network and seek new business opportunities.

sights into state of the art technologies available for energy storage, policy and regulations updates required for continuous growth, alternative energy storage systems, available options for battery recycling, revenue options for energy storage and methods available to increase operational flexibility. Contact Sarah Jaferani Tel: +91 20 6527 2801 Email

Energy Storage & Connected Systems London, UK February 6-7

Advanced Automotive Battery Conference Europe (AABC)

“Energy Storage & Connected Systems will bring together key industry figures to focus on the future of energy in the UK; covering practical examples of storage that are currently being deployed and how they integrate into a broader network of connected systems including smart buildings, grids and electric vehicle infrastructure. After an opening plenary attended by all, the conference will split into two tracks covering both  grid-scale storage and behind the metre, localised energy storage. In both cases, the content will also look at how we establish a policy framework for energy storage in the UK, including developing common technical standards and good practice. The event will take place at the Olympia Conference Centre, London on 6 – 7 February 2018.

Mainz, Germany • January 29-February 1



Energy Storage India January 10-12 New Delhi, India Last year the 4th annual Energy Storage India conference and exhibition, was another successful event that brought together 1,044 industry professionals and 100+ speakers from more than 20 countries. Contact Messe Düsseldorf India

The 7th International AABC Europe, held in January 2017 in Mainz, Germany, drew record attendance this year, with more than 700 attendees from 35 countries taking part in interactive discussions on the development and future market trends for vehicle electrification. In-depth sessions spanning battery chemistry, engineering, raw materials, lead acid, and supercapacitors, as well as high-volume xEV and specialty automotive applications highlighted needs and advances from OEMs and across the value chain. Formal papers and panel discussions were complimented by 75+ poster presentations and, new this year, networking roundtables facilitated by our speaking faculty. Work has already begun on an expanded technical program for 2018. Contact

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Energy Storage 2018 January 31-February 1 Cologne, Germany The conference will bring together key industry stakeholders to address the current challenges of the energy storage market and discuss the latest developments. The two day event will provide in-

4th Annual Energy Storage Policy Forum February 14 Washington DC USA Featuring nationally recognized policymakers and energy thought-leaders, the ESA Annual Policy Forum convenes a select audience of stakeholders from across the energy ecosystem — including state and federal regulators, policymakers, storage industry members, and utility decision makers. The 2018  Policy Forum promises to build on exciting developments to help guide one of the most interesting and important conversations in the electric sector today. The Energy Storage Policy Forum continues to provide value by hosting interactive workshops that empower participants to develop actionable roadmaps and policy solutions to challenges facing the electric sector. Contact Energy Storage Association (ESA)

FORTHCOMING EVENTS – 2018 Making Solar Bankable 2018

Battery Japan

Amsterdam, Netherlands February 15-16

Tokyo, Japan February 28-March 2

Making Solar Bankable is not your average gathering. Markets are moving, new business models are arising and solar is becoming a serious part of the energy mix in emerging markets, making the need for bankable projects and well-structured finance solutions more relevant than ever. 500+ project development & finance executives from 40+ different countries will come together again in Amsterdam. Through unique network facilitation and focused sessions per segment you’re sure to get enough leads and insights to fuel your business for months. Organized by Solarplaza and FMO, and widely supported by over 20 of the world’s largest industry players and finance institutions, this event is not to be missed by anyone involved in solar project development in Asia, Africa or Latin America.

World’s Largest-scale international exhibition showcasing various components, materials, devices, finished rechargeable batteries for rechargeable battery R&D and manufacturing. Attracting industry professionals of great quality to the show is essential in satisfying our exhibitors. We strongly believe it is the essence for a successful trade show. Founded in 1986, Reed Exhibitions Japan has been focusing on gathering a large number of quality visitors to the shows from all around the world. As a result, we have established a reputation in attracting huge number of high quality professionals for serious business meetings.


SAE 2018 Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technologies Symposium San Diego, California, USA February 20-22 SAE organizes and/or administers more than 25 international meetings and exhibitions each year covering all aspects of technology related to design, manufacture, and service life cycle for the automotive, aerospace, offhighway and other related mobility industries. Meticulously planned by a key group of organizers representing leading companies within the industry, this symposium features technical sessions that will be presented on the following topics: “HV-Policy and Market,” “Autonomous Electrified Vehicles,” “Electrification Infrastructure,” “HEV’s and PHEV’s,” “Non-Passenger Car Applications,” and more. Contact

San Diego hosts SAE 2018 Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technologies Symposium

India Smart Grid Week will be in New Delhi, March 5-9


Energy Storage Summit London, UKS February 27-28 Energy Storage Summit returns to London in February, and with interest building around the potential of the UK storage sector, the event expands across two days in 2018 to reflect the upward trajectory of this exciting market. • DNO, Regulators, National Grid • PPA Providers: Utilities, ESCOS, Traders, aggregators • Finance community: Banks, boutique mezzanine providers, renewable asset owners, private equity • End users: Housing Associations, Local Authorities, Installers, Large energy users • Developers from all backgrounds entering the market and targeting a wide range of segments • Energy storage companies and their supply chain Contact

India Smart Grid Week New Delhi, India March 5-9 ISGW 2018 will bring together India’s leading Electricity Utilities, Policy Makers, Regulators, Investors and world’s top-notch Smart Grid Experts and Researchers to discuss trends, share best practices and showcase next generation technologies and products in smart grid and smart cities domain. ISGW 2018 will include plenaries, interactive workshops, panels, keynotes, and technical sessions. Contact

Middle East Electricity Dubai, UAE March 6-8

EUEC facilitates information exchange and fosters cooperation between industry, government, and regulatory stakeholders for the protection of our environment and energy security. Now accepting Reservations to Exhibit and Abstracts to Speak at EUEC 2018 • Over 1,700 attendees network at 8 lunches, receptions and breaks held in the 150 company exhibit area • Over 400 presentations are made by experts in 10 track

Middle East Electricity is pleased to announce the newest product sector on the show floor – Energy Storage and Management Solutions (ESMS). Located alongside the region’s busiest trade focused solar industry event, Solar at MEE (formally Solar Middle East), ESMS will draw buyers from across the MEA region looking to source products and services for renewable energy generation projects. MEE is the region’s leading international trade event for the power industry, with dedicated product sectors for power generation, transmission & distribution, lighting, solar and brand new in 2018 – Energy Storage & Management Solutions.



EUEC 2018 San Diego, California, USA March 5-7

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 43

FORTHCOMING EVENTS – 2018 Energy Storage Europe Dusseldorf, Germany • March 13-15 Those who would like to get to know the entire world of energy storage, its leading technologies and key-figures, for those there is only one destination: Energy Storage Europe in Düsseldorf. Energy Storage Europe offers a unique forum to the leading research institutes and companies of the storage industry. Only here are you able to experience live all of the presently existing storage technologies. Contact Messe Düsseldorf GmbH

Battery Tech Expo UK Telford, UK March 15 The battery industry is on the cusp of a power revolution with big technology companies investing heavily in the next generation of battery development and energy storage. Telford in the West Midlands is a major UK hub of the high tech industrial sector and will bring together professionals from across the advanced battery technology industry. The event will provide a unique opportunity to showcase the latest products, technologies and services covering the Battery Management Systems, EV Battery, Battery Storage, Battery Development/ Discovery, Commercial and Mobile Power Device sectors. Operated by 10four Media, the Battery Tech Expo will provide a unique and additional opportunity for companies within this industry to network with a high quality audience and do business. Running alongside this event is Power Electronics Expo UK.  Contact Tel: +44 1283 3 37291 Email:

NAATBatt International Annual Conference San Antonio, Texas • March 19–22

Energy Storage China Beijing, China March 26-28 Energy storage is profoundly changing the world of energy across the world. The World of Energy Storage by Messe Düsseldorf, in partnership with leading partner organizations, has been growing since 2010 with the launch of Energy Storage Europe in Germany. Messe Düsseldorf offers five different events in every relevant region of the world: China, Europe, America, India and Japan. Products and sectors covered: Energy storage, Renewable energies, Marketfeasible applications, Transformation of the energy system, Overall context of the energy supply industry, Industrial energy storage solutions, European grid integration, Electro-chemical storage, Mechanical storage technologies, Thermal storage technologies, Future energy storage

NAATBatt 2018, the 9th annual meeting and conference of NAATBatt International, will be held on March 19-22 at the Hyatt Regency Hill County Resort & Spa in San Antonio, Texas. The meeting will feature early looks at disruptive new technologies in the battery business, member update presentations, and the best networking and deal making in the industry. Also, in honor of the Texas venue, the meeting will feature the first Advanced Battery Shooting Competition.


Contact NAATBatt International

44 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

FORTHCOMING EVENTS – 2018 35th Annual International Battery Seminar & Exhibit Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA • March 26-29

As the longest-running annual battery event in the world, this conference continues to be the preferred venue to announce significant new developments in advanced battery technology.  This meeting provides not only broad perspectives, but also informed insights into significant advances in materials, product development and novel applications for all battery systems and enabling technologies. Make plans now to participate in the 2018 International Battery Seminar & Exhibit which will return to Fort Lauderdale from March 2629. Nearly 850 attendees from more

than 500 organizations representing 26 countries participated in the 2017 event. The entire advanced battery ecosystem was well-represented in Florida, including leading OEMs, top battery manufacturers, developers of advanced materials and components, plus national labs and universities from around the world. Attendance grew by more than 30% for the second year in a row, and has more than doubled since joining Cambridge EnerTech in 2015. Contact

Solar Pakistan: The 7th International Renewable Energy Exhibition & Conference Lahore, Pakistan • March 29-31

Energy Storage Innovations Berlin, Germany April 11=12 Join us for the annual IDTechEx event focusing on future energy storage solutions, including advanced- and postLithium-ion technologies, new form factors and emerging applications. The event brings together different players in the value chain, from material & technology developers to integrators to end-users, providing insight on forthcoming technologies, material selection, market trends and latest products. Energy Storage Innovations Europe is co-located alongside a series of synergistic events on wearable, sensors, 3D Printing, Graphene and 2D materials and printed electronics. Contact show/en/ Organizer: IDTechEx

Critical Power & Decentralised Energy April 18-19 Coventry, United Kingdom CPDe is the largest and most reputable, independently run, stand-alone Independent Power and Electrical trade exhibition in Europe. CPDe will be a two-day event incorporating an informative business conference focusing on aspects of independent power, gensets, CHP/district heating, battery and UPS system results and many more aspects of modern energy needs. Exhibitors that already have taken provisional and confirmed reservations including Teksan, Cummins, FG Wilson, Edina, Deepsea and Aksa to name a few. CPDe provides the ideal platform for visitors to attend this leading event which is expected to showcase leading regional and international companies. Contact Tel: +44 1403 220 7750 Email:

The main focus of this exhibition is to highlight the importance of the most practical and readily available non-conventional renewable resource i.e. Solar Energy. Studies suggest that the reliance of solar energy can be effective in combating the current power crisis in the country. Many developed economies have already started utilizing clean and renewable energy solutions due to which their installation cost has decreased globally. This is high time that Pakistan began to adopt

this trend so that it can get over the energy deficit and speed up the rate of its growth. Solar Pakistan will be the biggest energy event in Pakistan to bring together the decision makers, stake holders and concerned authorizes on one platform where they can discuss a way forward on how to move ahead with a plan to control the ever increasing energy deficit in Pakistan. Contact

Coventry was recently named ‘City of Culture’ for 2021. And will host Critical Power & Decentralised Energy in April 2018

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 45


Midwest Solar Expo & Smart Energy Symposium

Florida, USA • April 22-25

April 30-May 2 Minneapolis, USA The 2018 Midwest Solar Expo returns to Minneapolis for its 5th annual conference, exhibition and  Smart Energy Symposium. Join us as we continue to drive the conversation on the Midwest solar market — gain insights from industry experts, receive hands-on product training, enjoy the ‘happy hour’ and entertainment while networking with 400+ solar professionals from across the value chain. Once again, the  2018 Midwest Solar Expo will be co-located with the Smart Energy Symposium, a one-day speaker series dedicated to the smart, connected grid ecosystem, exploring how emerging smart energy technologies will interact with city infrastructure as it relates to communications, transportation, emergency resiliency and beyond. Contact

All Energy 2018 Battcon is a high-energy mix of industry specific presentations, panels, seminars and workshops, plus a trade show. More than 600 storage battery users meet at Battcon for three days of professional development and networking focused on the design, selection, application and maintenance of stationary battery systems. It’s a forum where those in the data center, nuclear, telecom and utility industries can learn from and network with industry experts. Battcon is an educational venue where users, engineers and manufacturers stay up-to-date by learning of the latest industry trends and how to apply best practices to the manufacturing, safety,  selection, installation, and use of stationary batteries. The core conference provides an intense

Energy Storage Association 28th Annual Conference and Expo April 18-20 Boston, USA As the national trade association in the US, the Energy Storage Association is the leading voice for companies that develop and deploy the multitude of energy storage technologies that we rely on every day. Our member companies research, manufacture, distribute, finance, and build energy storage projects domestically and abroad. Our collective efforts help to create

46 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

learning experience unavailable from any other industry source. Presentations include cutting edge topics delivered by leading authorities. Open discussion panels and breakout workshops geared to the utility, datacenter and telecom segments are also included in the conference. Data center, nuclear, telecom or utility industry professionals who are working in mission critical facilities or are involved in the development of stationary batteries and related equipment will find the Battcon experience is second to none. Every year, more end users are discovering Battcon, the conference geared for industry novices and seasoned battery professionals alike. Contact new, competitive markets and a fair regulatory environment that reflects the value provided by energy storage to millions of residential, commercial and industrial customers. The Energy Storage Association’s Annual Conference and Expo is  the premier gathering of those decision makers, leaders, and others stakeholders  from around the industry who understand that energy storage is integral to all systems planning and deployment. Contact Energy Storage Association (ESA)

Glasgow, UK May 2-3

All-Energy, the UK’s largest renewable energy event allows the entire spectrum of the renewables industry to showcase their energy solutions. The free-to-attend annual conference and exhibition brings together the UK’s largest group of buyers from the bioenergy, solar, offshore and onshore wind, hydropower and wave & tidal sectors, as well as those involved in energy storage, heat, low carbon transport  and sustainable cities solutions. Since its launch in 2001, All-Energy has provided the industry suppliers, experts and thought-leaders from the renewable energy supply chain the opportunity to connect with new customers, increase their sales opportunities and  expand business networks in this fast-changing marketplace. Contact Tel: +44 208 439 5560 Email:

FORTHCOMING EVENTS – 2018 The Battery Show Europe Hanover, Germany • May 15-17 The Battery Show (Hanover, Germany) is Europe’s largest trade fair for advanced battery and H/ EV technology, displaying the latest solutions from 300+ exhibitors including Bosch, BMZ, Valeo and Continental. Running parallel to the exhibition, the three-track conference provides insight into commercial opportunities and technical challenges from 170+ expert speakers. Contact Smarter Shows Ltd

ICCI — 24th International Energy and Environment Fair & Conference May 2-4 Istanbul, Turkey The ICCI 2018 Fair and Conference will present a general outlook on the global energy sector, worldwide and in Turkey. Accordingly, it will address issues such as energy and geopolitical balances, energy dialogue EU — Turkey, energy strategy of Turkey in today’s conditions, energy policies legislations and practices, as well as technical matters such as energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, developments in the renewable energy market, conventional energy technologies, operation and maintenance of power plants, cogeneration, mini-micro cogeneration and tri-generation systems, environment and recycling systems, new technologies and applications, energy trade, energy software, nuclear power, natural gas and petroleum, financing of energy projects and energy law will be dealt with both in national and international scale. Contact Tel: +90 212 334 69 00 Email:

11th Energy Storage World Forum (Large Scale Applications) + 5th Residential Energy Storage Forum May 14-18 Berlin, Germany The two separate forums will feature brand new researched topics addressed by renowned industry leaders and practitioners from top utilities, EPCs and international regulators representing 22+ countries. We bring together the change makers from around the globe to share their business insights, lessons learnt and data driven analysis to help you discover which technology is best suited to your business model and application, allowing you to achieve the highest return on investment.

tendance, this is your best opportunity to meet, network and develop partnerships with the government, leading utilities, power producers, project developers, investors and more in a single platform. Over 250 sponsors & exhibitors will be showcasing their industry leading products, ideas and innovations. Following unprecedented growth over the last three years, our 2018 exhibition will be our biggest ever, taking place over two floors. Don’t miss out on this opportunity to reach out to over 8,000 industry players who will be sourcing for the latest products and services at the show. Contact Email Tel: +65 6322 2760

Contact Dufresne Event Management

Power & Electricity World Philippines May 23-24 Manila, Philippines As the largest energy show taking place in the Philippines, Power & Electricity World, offers unequalled opportunities to forge business relationships and access new potential partners. There is simply no better place in which to connect with the industry. Helmed by over 100 speakers representing senior–level policy circles, government and regulatory bodies, industry heavyweights and financiers from across the region, our content shares the views that really matter. Across two days and five tracks we conduct deep dives on many of the most challenging questions currently facing the market. With 8,000+ industry players in at-

Manila will host the Power & Electricity World Philippines in May 2018

Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018 • 47

FORTHCOMING EVENTS – 2018 48th Power Sources Conference June 11-14 • Denver, Colorado, United States This year’s technical program reflects continued strong interest in high-energy batteries, fuel cells, and other portable and mobile power sources. We are sure that you will also enjoy the exhibit, hospitality suites, and social functions. This is the best possible conference for obtaining information and meeting with key influencers in the military power sources arena. Get updates on new military and government needs and requirements, and learn about the latest power sources technology from both government and industry spokespeople. Contact

ees Europe 2018

ees North America

June 20-22 • Munich, Germany

July 10-12

Discover future-ready solutions for renewable energy storage and e-mobility at Europe’s largest exhibition for batteries and energy storage systems and the industry hotspot for suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and users of stationary and mobile electrical energy storage solutions. Key players of the industry present battery innovations along the whole value chain and smart renewable energy solutions like energy storage communities or electric cars on the grid. The exhibition and conference both focus on renewable energy storage, from residential and commercial applications to largescale storage systems for stabilizing the grid. The spotlight is also shined on topics like energy management, electric transportation and intelligent systems integration. Charging the Future!

Covering the entire value chain of innovative battery and energy storage technologies, ees North America is the ideal platform for all stakeholders in the rapidly growing energy storage market. It takes place in the epicenter of the U.S. storage market: California. Co-located with Intersolar North America, ees North America provides the best opportunity to explore energy storage systems in combination with PV and beyond. In 2017, 130 energy storage exhibitors and more than 15,000 visitors participated in the co-located events. ees North America is part of the ees global exhibition series. Together with ees Europe in Munich, ees South America in São Paulo and ees India in Mumbai, ees events are represented on four continents.



48 • Energy Storage Journal • Winter 2017/2018

International Flow Battery Forum July 10-12 • Lausanne, Switzerland The meeting is aimed at all those interested in the deployment, commercialisation, demonstration, manufacturing, financing, component and material supply, and the sector of academic and industrial research of flow batteries. The IFBF has a unique combination of key note addresses, oral and poster presentations, seminars, and panel discussions to inform and educate delegates of the benefits of flow battery systems and for all to learn and share in the development of this exciting technology. The programme will cover recent progress, scientific, engineering and manufacturing issues, study of financial, marketing and commercial issues and will be relevant to renewable generation developers, smart grid operators, and all companies and businesses active in electricity supply. There will be an educational introductory seminar, which will be held on July 9, immediately before the main conference. This is suitable for those new to the industry. There will also be opportunities to visit the research and demonstration facilities operated by EPFL near to Lausanne . Contact Aud Heyden on +44 1666 840948. Email:

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Key International Trade Partner:

Showcase your energy solutions at the UK’s largest renewable and low carbon energy event • Be a part of the UK’s largest gathering of the renewables community • Meet your industry face-to-face and develop business with over 7,000 attendees • Join 300+ leading suppliers and build your sales pipeline • Connect with your target audience through dedicated sector trails • Promote to and network with key contacts from the renewables industry looking to source solutions Organised by:

Host city:

Contact the Sales Team today to secure your preferred stand location @AllEnergy +44 (0)20 8439 5560

ESJ, Winter Issue 19  

This issue focuses on the much neglected role of the lead battery in energy storage. The lithium world is largely ignorant of two things....

ESJ, Winter Issue 19  

This issue focuses on the much neglected role of the lead battery in energy storage. The lithium world is largely ignorant of two things....