GENEVA â€“ NEW YORK
PHOENIX ANCIENT ART SA â€“ 2017 / 34
SATYR TEASING A PANTHER
HEAD OF A YOUTH
MUSE HOLDING A KITHARA
LARGE NECKLACE ADORNED WITH SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES AND ANIMALS
LEG OF A MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE
CORE-FORMED GLASS OINOCHOE
AMBER FLASK WITH JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS
RED-FIGURE KYLIX (WINE CUP)
COUPLE OF DIGNITARIES
THE “BEHAGUE” CAMEO HORSE
SATYR TEASING A PANTHER Roman, 1st century A.D. Marble H: 108 cm (42.5 in) This sculptural group of smaller than life-size dimensions is an excellent example of Roman sculpture conventionally described as decorative. Usually found in the domestic context, these statues created part of the garden setting and were closely related to greenery and fountains. If the decorative effect of carved white marbles placed against trimmed, ever-green plants was obvious, the meaning of the garden as part of the sacred landscape associated with the world of Dionysos/Bacchus, the god of wine, provider of fecundity, growing and rebirth, was even more important in the thought of the ancients. Such statues were also considered as appropriate dedications to the gods and could be placed as ex-votos at the sanctuaries. Satyrs, who represented the bestial and sensual aspect of man, were close companions of Dionysos and his sacred animal, a panther. Being inhabitants of wild nature, satyrs themselves preserved the bestial features (horns, tail, and sometimes long hair on their skin). Here, as usual, the satyr is depicted in the nude with only one piece of cloth, a goatskin. It is draped across his body and tightened at the shoulder; on the front it is placed diagonally from left shoulder to right ďŹ‚ank. He is stepping forward on the tips of his toes while his upper torso is twisting almost as if he is dancing. However, the action is different: his head is turned down toward the panther whom he is teasing.
The satyr caught the animal with his left hand, by the end of its curved tail. By pulling and lifting it, he even elevates the panther's hindquarters into the air while the panther balances on its forepaws. In a surprise and annoyance, the animal has jerked its head looking up at its tormentor; the panther's mouth is wide open snarling. The captor, instead, is not going to stop, he is represented smiling with his heartshaped lips slightly parted, which reveal his teeth. Two little horns are visible on the forehead; the satyr's ears are pointed and his hair is carved in tufts (his tail at the back is not visible as it is covered by the goatskin). Satyrs are often represented in Greek and Roman art playing with a panther, teasing it with a cluster of grapes or drops of wine dripping from a bowl in his elevated hand. There are many variations of this scene, even including the ďŹ gure of Dionysos himself, and good examples of it are found in the statues in the Villa Albani in Rome, the UfďŹ zi in Florence, and the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. Beside the masterly represented story, this statue is also an interesting and important example of historical restoration; it demonstrates the methods of restoring ancient sculptures typical for the 17th and 18th century practices in Rome.
” Satyrs, who represented the bestial and sensual aspect of man, were close companions of Dionysos and his sacred animal, a panther.“
CONDITION Surface in good condition other than superﬁcial chips and cracks; some soil deposits; visible breaks at the satyr’s knees, left arm, hand, neck, head, panther’s chest and legs. Restorations to the satyr’s knees, neck and middle part of the left arm. The right arm and penis, once restored (evidenced by the drilled hole) have been de-restored and are absent. Also missing is the panther’s left foreleg. PROVENANCE Ex- private collection, circa 18th/19th century (based on the restoration techniques); Ex- private collection, acquired prior to 1972; Ex- Ophiuchus private collection, New York, 1982. PUBLISHED LOVE I., Ophiuchus Collection, Florence, 1989, pp. 76-83, no. 13. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIEBER M., The Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age, New York, 1961, pp. 111-139, ﬁgs. 449, 568. FURTWANGLER A., Der Satyr aus Pergamon, in Winkelmanns Program vol. XL, Berlin, 1880, pp. 4-20, pl, III, ﬁgs. 2-3. LOVE I., Ophiuchus Collection, Florence, 1989, pp. 76-83, no. 13. MANSUELLI G. A., Galleria degli Uffizi: Le sculture, Part I, Roma, 1958, pp. 133-134, no. 98, ﬁg. 100. WALDHAUER O., Die antiken Skulpturen der Ermitage, part 2, Berlin, Leipzig, 1931, p. 34, no. 135, pl. 32. 6
HEAD OF A YOUTH Roman, second half of the 1st century A.D. Marble H: 37.5 cm (14.76 in) This representation of a youth is one of the ﬁnest pieces in Roman portraiture of the JulioClaudian and Flavian periods. The composition, which is typical, presents him looking straight ahead. His appearance is individual and marked by a rather narrow shape of the face with prominent square chin. The hairline leaves his wide forehead open, the eyebrows, make clear lines above the eyes of which the right is slightly smaller than the left. The face is distinctive by its large, entirely preserved nose and very full lips well-articulated by the undulating lines; especially noticeable is the enlarged and tumescent area of the upper lip. The proﬁle presents the outline of the nose and lips dominating over the chin. This kind of disproportionality in the features of the portrayed person may indicate his young and transitional age. Indeed, the young man could be in his late teens as it is suggested by his sideburns. It covers only the lower part of the whiskers and chin, and does not even create a complete line along the face. According to a Roman custom recorded by the writers Juvenal (approx. 60-128 A.D.) and Suetonius (70-128 A.D.), young men shaved off their beards and offered them up to the gods during ceremonies; this ritual, which marked their transition from youth to maturity, was related to the assuming of toga virilis (young men before completing their seventeenth year wore toga praetexta). The age by the ceremony may vary: Suetonius (The life of Nero, 12) describes that Nero, who was 22 at that time, shaved off his ﬁrst beard, put it in the gold box decorated with rare pearls and dedicated in the Capitol.
The hairstyle is formed by hair combed from the crown forward, where the long and parallel crescent locks are arranged to form the straight line above the forehead; the hair is longer at the back. The rows of crescent-like locks became characteristic for Roman male portraiture of the Julio-Claudian period, especially for the Neronian era; a later style preferred more individual, ﬁnely delineated strands, as we ﬁnd them at the back of the piece. The view from the back also reveals a very individual narrowing shape of the hair edge and a beautiful continuous line of his long and slim neck. The marble is shaped as a head with the neck and part of the chest with a rounded bottom prepared for the insertion into the supporting part. Piecing the sculpture was regular practice of Roman sculptors; heads were often made separately for full-sized standing ﬁgures clad in togas. The speciﬁc shape of the present piece with its low and rounded chest line undoubtedly shows that it was made part of a herm shaft. The latter could be executed from a different (even contrasting color) stone to produce a stronger decorative effect. If the setting was inside the house’s courtyard or villa, the effect was fortiﬁed by the play of light and the presence of greenery. Similar portrait busts of individuals could be found in a Roman villa decoration combined with portraits of famous Greek intellectuals, poets or philosophers, and Hellenistic rulers.
” Young men shaved off their beards and offered them up to the gods during ceremonies; this ritual, which marked their transition from youth to maturity, was related to the assuming of toga virilis.“
CONDITION Excellent condition; Entirely preserved except for the broken left part of the bust and damaged ears; superﬁcial scratches and chips to the surface; a few small fractures in the marble; natural brownish patina, some encrustations, and root marks in the hair. PROVENANCE Ex- M. P. S. private collection, 1980s. PUBLISHED Antiken, Gordian Weber Kunsthandeln 10, 2006, pp. 16-18, no. 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY FITTSCHEN K., ZANKER P., Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom II: Die männlichen Privatporträts, Mainz am Rhein, 1985. JOHANSEN F., Roman Portraits II: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, 1994, pp. 134-135, no. 51. VERMEULE C. C., Greek and Roman Sculpture in America, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1981, p. 296, no. 252. 10
CYCLADIC “IDOL” Early Cycladic II, Early Spedos Variety, ca. 2700 – 2600 B.C. Marble H: 22.2 cm (8.74 in) Henry Moore, the great modern sculptor, once observed on his creations: “… my knife-edge sculpture may be unconsciously inﬂuenced by my liking of the sharp-edged Cycladic idols”. Beside the ﬁnding of rather obvious similarity in shapes of ancient and modern works, Henry Moore’s thoughts present a deeper understanding of making a sculpture: “I began to realize that there was no need for stone to restrict the expression of space as well as the form”. For this, both the concept and technique go together, and the ancient Cycladic sculptor, in the Moore’s recognition, was able to arrive “at a result which was inevitable from the beginning”, which was done by the direct carving in the marble, the process, that Moore so much appreciated in ancient sculpture and practiced himself. The highly imposing qualities make this marble ﬁgure a remarkable work of the Cycladic sculpture. The study of it designates a speciﬁc type in the representation of a nude human ﬁgure (which appears standing in a contemporary display) and recognizes it as belonging to a variety of the Canonical type (a folded-arm ﬁgure): Early Spedos. The sturdy, compact ﬁgure of average size is both well planned and well made. A classic example of its variety, the length was planned in four nearly equal parts—one for the head/ neck, one for the upper torso to the waist, one for the thighs, and one for the calves and feet. The maximum width of the ﬁgure is somewhat greater than the usual one quarter of the length. The outline contours of the ﬁgure's front and back consist almost entirely of pleasing convex curves. In proﬁle, the ﬁgure describes a series of angles that are contained within narrow limits. When made to recline on a ﬂat surface, the
piece touches the surface with the back of the head and buttocks and the heels are only slightly elevated. Similarly, when placed in a prone position, the nose, chin, breasts, forearms, and knees will touch, while the ends of the feet will remain very slightly above the surface. The internal incised detail is fully characteristic and well executed. On the front, this includes a ﬁne incision that runs under the chin and up the sides and across the back of the head, deﬁning the transition from head to neck; a shallow incision on the front marks the neckline that assumes a vague v-shape on the back. Deeper incisions boldly deﬁne the arms, which are shown in the canonical right-below-left position. Below the arms, very little of the mid-section is exposed, giving the impression that the arms are protecting the belly. A ﬁne curving horizontal incision crossing the ﬁgure forms the top of the "pubic triangle", at the apex of which the deeply grooved leg-cleft begins. This ends near the top of the feet and is perforated for a short distance in the area of the knees. On the sides and rear ﬁne grooves mark the transition from the thighs to the calves, interrupted by the leg-cleft, and on the back a sharp groove marks the spine. From the shoulders in back the upper arms are obliquely slanted so that the elbows are brought forward to the front of the ﬁgure where they appear symmetrical. It is possible that these types of ﬁgurines might have some religious/cultic function and could be considered as gods and goddesses. Other theories represent them as companions or servants of the dead, or even toys. None of the theories could be conﬁrmed as documental, and the archaeological evidence does not present any clue of how such ﬁgures were employed in the domestic or cultic context.
” Henry Moore, the great modern sculptor, once observed on his creations: ‘… my knife-edge sculpture may be unconsciously influenced by my liking of the sharp-edged Cycladic idols’.“
CONDITION Excellent condition, complete except for the left foot and a small part of the right foot which were restored. PROVENANCE Ex- French private collection, Cannes, acquired from Galerie Ramier, 1970s; Ex- French private collection, acquired in Nice, 1996; Paris art market, 2014.
BIBLIOGRAPHY GETZ- GENTLE P., Personal Styles in Early Cycladic Sculpture, Wisconsin, 2001, pl.60. GETZ- GENTLE P., Ancient Art of the Cyclades, Katonah Museum of Art, Katonah, New York, 2006, pp. 30-33, nos. 18-25. GETZ-PREZIOSI P., Early Cycladic Art in North American Collections, Richmond, Virginia, 1987, pp. 160 ff., nos 32 ff. MARTHARI M., RENFREW C., BOYD M., eds, Early Cycladic Sculpture in Context, Oxford, 2017. RENFREW C., The Cycladic Spirit: Masterpieces from the Nicholas P. Goulandris Collection, New York, 1991. SOTIRAKOPOULOU P., The “Keros Hoard”: Myth or Reality? Searching for the Lost Pieces of a Puzzle, Athens, 2005, pp. 95-96, no. 10, pp. 181-184, nos. 170-171. THIMME J., ed., Art and Culture of the Cyclades, Chicago, 1977, pp. 257-258, 462-464, nos. 142, 145, 149-150. 14
NEED TO MATCH THE COLOR OF THIS ONE TO THE ONE ON THE RIGHT. SAME FOR THE PAGE BEFORE. THE COLOR OF THE IDOL SHOULD BE A BIT REDDISH
“LEXIDEMOS” STELE Greek, Classical, ca. 375 – 350 B.C. Marble H: 66.7 cm x W: 50.8 cm x D: 17.8 cm (26.25 in x 20 in x 7 in) The captivating ﬁgure of this draped and bearded man is sculpted in very high relief on a marble stele which, if not of Greek island marble, is made of the equally ﬁne stone from quarries on Mt. Pentelicus as are similar stelai known from Athens. The curling locks of the man’s hair and beard, furrowed and creased brow, and his full, slightly parted lips, all convey the image of the bearded male type known from similar masterworks of sculpture created in the Classical style of the ﬁfth century B.C. The ﬁgure on this stele is heavily inﬂuenced by this earlier style, which tended to present mature Greek men as bearded and wrapped in himatia, perhaps to suggest the intellect and cultivation of the “philosopher type.” The man’s expressive face embodies an aura of pathos – a harbinger of emotion that becomes clearly evident in the sculpture of the Hellenistic period that follows. Therein is one of this bearded ﬁgure’s unique aspects, as it expresses a restrained stoic classicism combined with the more poignant aspects of human emotion found in Hellenistic sculpture. The head of the bearded man is almost three dimensional as it is deeply carved, which allows the left side of his face – unseen from a front view of the stele – to be well-modeled as well. He is framed by an architectural setting that sets him within a naiskos, which suggests the façade of a small temple, here partially preserved and comprised of a vertical pilaster with a simple capital supporting a triangular pediment. Such pediments were embellished by a ﬂoral palmette at the top with smaller semi-palmettes at the right and left ends of the structure. The man stands with his shoulders sloping as he subtly bends forward, loosely wrapped in a himation, with the garment worn in the usual manner for this ﬁgural type. The cloak is draped over both shoulders leaving his chest bare and his left arm covered as his hand grasps the edge of the himation and its cloth gathered in horizontal folds below the pectoral muscles. The left hand is life-like, sculpted
with sensitivity to its anatomical structure of bone and muscle, with even the ﬁnger nails ﬁnely delineated. With his head bent forward and looking down, he extends his equally well-modelled right hand to clasp the hand of a seated ﬁgure, a woman, who is now partially preserved with only her right arm and hand apparent, and part of the garment she wears, a himation, visible as a shallow-carved curving element above the arm. The gesture of clasping with the right hand can be interpreted as one of departure, the dexiosis, and the emotional state of the bearded man is made clear as he bids a touching farewell to a family member. Above the man’s head is a narrow architrave bearing the Greek inscription, ΛΕΞΙΔΕΜΟΣ, that provides the name, Lexidemos, which likely refers to the bearded ﬁgure. One of the closest parallels for the stele under consideration here, and of similar date, is the notable Pentelic marble stele of Ktesilaos and Theano in the Athens National Museum. Finely made marble funerary sculpture and monuments from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica were distinguished from their beginnings in the 6th century B.C., during the Greek Archaic period. In the early 5th century B.C., after the Persian Wars and subsequent rebuilding of the Parthenon, the Acropolis and the city of Athens itself, a new series of sculpted monuments, both sumptuous and of high quality, were created beginning about 430 B.C. The custom was maintained well into the 4th century B.C. and this fragment of a grave stele with a bearded man is of the Late Classical type. Major ﬁgural stelai like this example, of such quality and state of preservation, are rare. They were expensive in antiquity and reﬂected on the status of a family as much as on the merits of the departed. Ultimately inﬂuenced by masterworks of the High Classical period, such as the marble reliefs of the Parthenon and sculpture in the round, they rank among the few examples of this type of classical sculpture that has survived from antiquity.
” Major figural stelai of such quality and high relief are rare and were ultimately influenced by masterworks of the High Classical period, such as the marble reliefs of the Parthenon.”
CONDITION Surface is weathered with some soil deposits, a few cracks and chips; the proper right side and central akroteria on the pediment are broken off and missing; damaged are the man’s nose, ﬁngers of his left hand and “sleeve”, right arm and hand, and right hand of the ﬁgure from the absent right side of the relief. PROVENANCE Sotheby's New York, June 18, 1991, lot 89; US private collection. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOARDMAN J., Greek Sculpture: The Late Classical Period, New York, 1995, p. 116 and ﬁg. 127, for the stele of Ktesilaos and Theano, ca. 380 – 360 B.C.; pp. 114 -117, for funerary sculpture of Athens and Attica. CLAIRMONT C., Gravestone and Epigram, Mainz, 1970. CLAIRMONT C., Classical Attic Gravestones, Kilchberg, 1993. DIEPOLDER H., Die attischen Grabreliefs, Berlin, 1931. JOHANSEN K., The Attic Grave-Reliefs of the Classical Period, Copenhagen, 1951. KALTSAS N., Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Los Angeles, 2002, p. 158, no. 310, for the comparable stele of Ktesilaos and Theano, ca. 380 – 360 B.C., H. 93 cm, W. 50 cm, Athens NM no. 3472, Pentelic marble, found in Athens in 1921; and additional Late Classical Period stelai, pp. 180 - 207. REEDER E., Hellenistic Art in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1988, p. 75, no. 5, for a fragmentary relief with a similar image of a draped and bearded male ﬁgure; acc. no. 23.174, probably Pentelic marble; purchased from Brummer in 1924. SCHMIDT S., Hellenistische Grabreliefs: Typologische und Chronologische Beobachtungen, Kőln 1991. 18
MUSE HOLDING A KITHARA Roman, 2nd century A.D. Marble H: 74 cm (29.13 in) The style of this statue of one of the nine Muses is expressively Classicistic, and the composition of the ﬁgure reﬂects the contrapposto attitude. She is standing with her right leg bent and linked to the tall rectangular pillar. Holding a kithara with both hands, the Muse is slightly leaning on the support, her pose is both natural and graceful. Although predominantly frontal, the ﬁgure is completely sculptured from the back and does not miss any detail from the rich drapery. The Muse is fully dressed according to Classical fashion: a chiton with short and buttoned sleeves, a belted peplos with long overfold, and a long himation fastened with a circular ﬁbula at her left shoulder, crossing her chest and completely covering her back; she also wears sandals with thick soles. The sculptor differentiated the thickness of the fabric showing the heavy folds and pleats of the outer dress while the sleeve has a thinner fabric with narrow hem and shallow folds radiating around the buttons. Her hairstyle is also a reﬂection of the Classical model: the long hair is parted in the middle and rolled up. The undulate strands are deeply curved by the running drill demonstrating the Roman period modeling; the grooves create a beautiful chiaroschuro effect which contrasts with the clear surfaces of the face, neck, and chest. The perfect oval shape of her pretty young face with absolutely regular features expresses calm and great concentration as if the Muse is about to play the instrument and recite her verses. There were few of the nine sisters, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory), who were dis-
itnguished by the same attribute: Terpsichore, the Muse of dance and chorus, Polyhymnia, the Muse of hymns and other choral songs, and Erato, the Muse of erotic poetry. The Muses accompanied Apollo, the god of music and prophesy, who, in his turn was often represented holding the kithara. If such a detail of the present ﬁgure as the partial revealing of her bare right shoulder and chest was observed, the perception of the image as Erato would be highly probable. Historical records evidence the presence of the statues of Muses on public view in different places of ancient Rome. Their colossal statues adorned the theatre of Pompey completed in 55 B.C. Pliny the Elder (Natural History XXXVI iv, 34-35) reports that there was a group of marble statues of Apollo, Leto, Artemis and nine Muses by the Greek sculptor Philiskos of Rhodes exhibited in the Porticus of Octavia. In Roman art, much inﬂuenced by the retrospective tendencies and favor for the Greek Classical art, it happened very often, when the famous sculptures installed in Roman public monuments were lately reproduced in the statues of smaller scale or on the reliefs such as the fronts of the marble sarcophagi. However, the originals by Philiskos, the Hellenistic sculptor of around 100 B.C., did not survive, which makes difﬁcult the identiﬁcation of the well-known archetype. For this present statue of one of the nine Muses, it seems, there is a numismatic image which testiﬁes that the sculptural type of a Muse leaning on a pillar was familiar in Rome already in the 1st century B.C. (the coins mint by Q. Pomponius Musa in 66 B.C.).
â€? The Muses accompanied Apollo, the god of music and prophesy, who, in his turn was often represented holding the kithara.â€?
CONDITION Almost entirely preserved except for the broken off part of the kithara, right arm, right top and lower part of the pillar, right lower frontal and back part of the base; damaged right knee, left palm, and hair on the right side; surface is weathered and worn; there are brown stains on the left side of the base. PROVENANCE Ex- private collection, Vienna & Munich; thence by descent to an Austrian private collection, 1974. PUBLISHED H. Korban Art Gallery, Catalogue Greek & Russian Icons, Ancient Art, Vienna, 1970, p. 30, no. 201. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIEBER M., The Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age, New York, 1967, pp. 22-23, 100, 128-130, 160. Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC), vol. VI, s.v. Mousa, Mousai, no. 268. RIDGWAY B.S., Hellenistic Sculpture I, The Styles of ca. 331-200 B. C., Madison, Wisconsin, 1990, pp. 246-274. 24
RECUMBENT IBEX Achaemenid, 6th – 5th century B.C. Gold H: 5.2 cm – L: 4.1 cm (H: 2 in – L: 1.61 in) The ibex was a powerful image in Achaemenid art, associated with fertility, strength, and physical prowess. The image remained a favorite motif for centuries and was often employed for the decoration of armlets or necklets’ ﬁnials or handles of vases as the pieces from the Oxus Treasure (5th –4th century B.C., the British Museum) demonstrate. The attitude and style of the ibex is reminiscent of the Achaemenid bulls surmounting the ﬂuted columns from Persepolis as seen on the stone examples at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Typical of the Achaemenid style, the ferocity of these snarling animals has been tempered and restrained by decorative convention. Impressed from a thick sheet of gold, the ﬁne anatomical details of the ibex are perfectly preserved: the hooves, the outline of the legs and, on the muzzle, the nostrils, the mouth and the bone structure of the skull and jaw, as well as the ﬁnely modeled hair down the back of the animal’s head, the powerful neck and heavy horns curving backwards with chased ribbing were sculpted in the round, along with the long ears held alert. The bold facial details display wide eyes and arching eyebrows.
CONDITION Excellent state of preservation. Complete except for the missing tip of the proper right horn, some small scratches, fractures and dents, a small hole on the chest, and a hole below the proper right ear. PROVENANCE Ex- British private collection; Ex- US private collection, 2001. PUBLISHED Bull Leapers to Picasso, New York, 2000 (illustrated). BIBLIOGRAPHY 7000 Years of Iranian Art, Washington D.C., 1964, nos. 446, 454. CURTIS J. E., TALLIS N, Forgotten Empire: The world of Ancient Persia, London, 2005, p. 125, no. 127; p. 142, no. 168. GHIRSHMAN R., The Art of Ancient Iran, From its Origins to the Times of Alexander the Great, New York, 1964, pp. 249-251. MUSCARELLA O.W., ed., Ancient Art: The Norbert Schimmel Collection, Mainz, 1974, nos. 152, 155, 159, 161. A Peaceful Kingdom, The Leo Mildenberg Collection of Ancient Animals, Christie’s London, 26 and 27 October, 2004, pp. 272-273, lot. 357. RUBIN I. E., The Guennol Collection I, New York, 1975, pp. 89-92.
There is a hollow interior with remains of bitumen core, which were part of the structure that allowed the ornament to be attached to its support: probably a piece of furniture, a container, or a weapon. The ibex is recumbent, with three legs folded under its rectangular curved body. The right foreleg is stretched out. Modeled in a very naturalistic attitude: it is calmly resting, straightening its neck and slightly turning its head towards the observer. The pose indicates the liveliness of the animal and corresponds well to the function for which the art object was designed.
LARGE NECKLACE ADORNED WITH SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES AND ANIMALS Sarmatian, 1st century B.C. – 1st century A.D. Gold, turquoise and amethyst L: 35.6 cm, Weight: 242 g (L: 14 in, Weight: 8.53 oz) This massive neck ornament is composed of three different parts: a complex, ropelike loopin loop-chain; its ﬁnials, which take the shape of crouching animals and are inlaid with turquoise; and a rectangular centerpiece set with a large oval amethyst of exceptionally ﬁne dark purple color. The most fascinating elements are the crouching animals, which tuck their front and rear legs under themselves. While their bodies and ferocious appearances are that of a lion, the twisted, curving horns above their heads make them into lion-grifﬁns. These fantastic creatures are generously inlaid with turquoise, which are set into openings and function as an integral part of the bodies: haunches, ribs, ears, eyes, and cheeks are all indicated by drop-shaped inlays of various sizes. With its muzzle, one lion-grifﬁn holds a square setting also ﬁlled with turquoise. The other hook, also covered with a similar setting, links the chain to the central ornament. The clear, geometric lines of this ornament present a remarkable contrast to the liveliness of the animals. A rectangular, gold base supports the slightly raised oval setting, which holds a domed amethyst surrounded by a ledge. While the multiple chain and the central setting of this impressive piece accord perfectly with the jewelry of the late Hellenistic and early Imperial Roman periods, the crouching animals with integrated turquoise inlays suggest a late Sarmatian origin. The Sarmatians, a multitribal confederacy of Iranian people akin to the western Scythians, favored a very particular goldwork marked by their own colorful interpretation of the famous “Animal Style.” Oval, drop-shaped, circular, and even rectangular turquoise was generously used to indicate parts of the bodies of fantastic animals. Splendid examples of Sarmatian work and style have been found in the rich burials of these nomads, who inhabited
the steppes from Afghanistan in the east to the Ukraine in the west. Late Sarmatian gold work of the ﬁrst century B.C. to the ﬁrst century A.D. sometimes shows the inﬂuence of goldsmiths of the Classical world; this object, for example, is a Sarmatian interpretation of the Hellenistic animal-head necklace. A similar hinged clasp, with an oval mount on a rectangular base, was used for a Hellenistic bracelet now in the Museum of Historical Treasures in Kiev. CONDITION Excellent condition. Some tarnish on chain and some corrosion on ﬁnials; a few stone inlays are missing from their settings on ﬁnials. PROVENANCE Ex- de Chambrier private collection, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1960s. PUBLISHED Greek and Roman Gold, Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva - New York, 2008, no. 34. BIBLIOGRAPHY TREISTER M. Y., Concerning the Jewelry Items from the Burial Mound at Nogaichik, Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 4, 2, 1997, pp. 122ss, ﬁgs. 2, 17s. L’oro di Kiev, Milan, 1987, no. 47. GUGUEV V., The Gold Jewelry Complex from the Kobyakov Pit-Burial, in CALINESCU A., ed., Ancient Jewelry and Archaeology, Bloomington, 1996, pp. 51ss. SULIMIRSKI T., The Sarmatians, London, 1970. SARIANIDI V., The Golden Hoard of Bactria, Leningrad, 1985. ROLLE R., MUELLER-WILLE M., SCHIETZEL K., Gold der Steppe: Archäologie der Ukraine, Schleswig, 1991, nos. 161f., 155, 145. KARABELNIK M., Aus den Schatzkammern Eurasiens: Meisterwerke Antiker Kunst, Zurich, 1993, no. 138. Technical Examination Report, Dr. Jack Ogden, July 8, 2002.
â€?The most fascinating elements are the crouching animals, while their bodies and ferocious appearances are that of a lion, the twisted, curving horns above their heads make them into lion-griffins.â€?
NIKE EARRINGS Greek, late 4th – 3rd century B.C. Gold H: 4.1 cm and 4.4 cm – Weight: 7.7 g and 7.6 g (H: 1.61 in and 1.73 in – Weight: 0.27 oz and 0.26 oz) These two earrings, which are almost identical, are each composed of a solid gold ﬁgurine of the goddess Nike. They are each composed from a large number of separate components, as is characteristic of Greek jewelry, all formed by hand, not cast. The patera rim is of ﬁne gauge beaded wire as is the back strut supporting the suspension loop. There are two loops on the back of each earring, ﬂanking the hook. The wings and himation (cloak) draped on the young woman’s shoulders are in sturdy sheet gold and skillfully chased and contoured to accurately represent feathers. At the back of the statuettes, a loop-shaped wire allows the pendants to be fastened to a large, round and three-layered ﬂower; at its center, in the posterior part, the hook designed for insertion into the earlobe is soldered. The ﬁgurine represents a young woman standing in an elegant attitude, with her feet crossed as if she is tracing a dance step. She raises one of her arms that holds a libation vessel (despite the miniature size of the ornaments, one can recognize a rhyton with a horse protome): she is pouring wine, in a circular cup edged with granulation, that she holds much lower in her other hand. As is normal with the ﬁnest Greek work, the images are reversed to make a true, mirror pair. Thus, she holds the rhyton in her right hand on one earring, in her left hand on the other. This gesture is attested in Greek art through many other sculpted and painted representations.
The identiﬁcation of both ﬁgures is not immediate: in spite of the young women's nudity, the presence of the spread wings likely leads to the Goddess of Victory, Nike for the Greeks. Her attitude, reproduced many times in Classical iconography (feet almost touching the ground, largely spread wings, fabric ﬂoating in the wind) indicates that the deity is lightly landing on the ground or is about to slowly take off. Such earrings are well documented in women's tombs of the early Hellenistic period and exist in numerous variations. Besides Nike's images, one also ﬁnds representations of Eros in different poses, Sirens, and Ganymede and the eagle. CONDITION Impeccable condition with no restorations or repairs. Very small encrustations on the surface. PROVENANCE Ex- Schaefer collection, South Germany, 1960s. BIBLIOGRAPHY GREIFENHAGEN A., Schmuckarbeiten in Edelmetal, Band I, Fundgruppen, Berlin, 1970, pl.13, 1 p. 33 (from Pangaion, Macedonia); Band II, Einzelfunde, Berlin, 1975, pl. 41, 6, p. 51. HOFFMAN H. and al., Greek Gold, Jewelry from the Age of Alexander, Boston, 1966, pp. 84-94, pp. 238-239. MARSHALL F.H., Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan and Roman in the Department of Antiquities, British Museum, London, 1969, pl. 32. WILLIAMS D. and al., Greek Gold Jewellery of the Classical World, London, 1994, pp. 66-67, p. 77, p. 170. Technical Examination Report, Striptwist Ltd., January 4, 2017
YOUNG BEAUTY Etruscan, late 5th – 4th century B.C. Bronze H: 11.4 cm (4.48 in) The artistic qualities of this solid cast ﬁgurine are remarkable; the piece could be placed among the best known examples of small scale Etruscan bronze sculpture. Both sophistication and elegance deﬁne the work, while the rendering of the human body gives a feeling of sensuality. The woman, apparently very young, is represented standing with her feet almost side by side and the left knee bent. The arms are outstretched and bent at the elbows, both hands are now missing. It is clear, however, that the arms were not shown in a praying pose. Similar compositions can be found among representations of either deities or mortals. The woman’s attire, without a himation or any jewelry, looks rather simple though elegant; the lack of additional decoration would indicate she is neither a goddess nor a priestess. Most probably, her identity is that of a worshipper presenting gifts to a deity. The present preservation of the ﬁgure does not allow us to know the exact objects she once held; comparable ﬁgurines have a ﬂower, fruit, cake, or a libation bowl. She wears a plain, narrow, ankle-length chiton of Ionic type with short sleeves and a girdle. The neck line, seamlines and edges of the sleeves as well as the bottom of the skirt are accentuated by two incised lines (these simple lines may suggest embroidery, but no tassels hanging from the chiton on each shoulder appear). The fabric does not create folds and clings very close to the body. This effect helps to reveal that the body is slim and ﬁrm, with narrow hips. Such proportions, close to that of the boy’s ﬁgure, indicate the youth of this female. The features of the young body are also seen in her small, but prominently shaped, breasts, positioned high on the chest. Although the tips of the feet are damaged, it seems that the toes were not indicated, the assumption being that she wears some kind of boots.
The composition is singular and the rhythm of the body parts participating in the simple movement is perfectly coordinated. The quiet stance is animated by the bent left knee, and the right hip has a prominent curve, allowing the torso to continue the sinuous line. The level of the shoulders is slightly asymmetrical; the right shoulder is lower than the left one as it corresponds to the more outstretched right arm. The balance of all counter-positions is harmonious, and it is reminiscent of the Polykleitan contrapposto. The curving lines creating the thighs, hips, and shoulders are particularly beautiful and attractive, and more is revealed when the statuette is viewed as a piece of three-dimensional sculpture: characteristic are the soft and ﬂuid transitions of the volumes. The perfectly smooth surface reﬂects the light; in contrast to the plain areas, the grooves that separate the hair strands create a sharper effect of light and shadow. This is especially noticeable when the piece is seen from the back; it may well be that handling the piece and the possibility of its being admired from all sides was the sculptor’s concept. The hair style (hair rolled up and held by the ﬁllet) originated in the middle of the 5th century B.C. and remained popular further on. The hair exposes the forehead completely, the face is marked by wide-opened large eyes and long eye brows. The diadem, composed of two rows of large beads, adorns the head. The statuette is a solid cast and preserves a grey-green patina. The bronze was tooled after casting: the surface was polished and the details, such as eyes with the iris, the individual strands of hair, and parts of the diadem were all skillfully chiseled.
” The bronze was tooled after casting: the surface was polished and the details, such as eyes with the iris, the individual strands of hair, and parts of the diadem were all skillfully chiseled.“
The Etruscans were indigenous people who primarily inhabited the region of central Italy (Etruria) extending between the Arno and the Tiber Rivers. The Etruscan culture was initially developed by an early Iron Age civilization in northern Italy known as Villanovan and other inﬂuences from the eastern Mediterranean. The Etruscans prospered from the 8th to the 2nd century B.C., when they were gradually overpowered and their culture was absorbed by the expansion of the Romans. The agriculturally rich land of Etruria contained copious mineral supplies of copper and iron, and subsequently the Etruscans became master bronze smiths who exported their work throughout the Mediterranean. Etruscan art is widely admired for its ﬁgural sculptures and statuettes, bronze metalwork, painted terracotta, and wall paintings. Etruscan gold-work and jewelry, including engraved gems, were as highly prized in antiquity as they are in our own day. As a result of their extensive contact with other people, which was initially brought about by trade, the Etruscan culture was heavily inﬂuenced by Greeks and their neighbors and trading partners from the east. Despite outside inﬂuences, Etruscan art has been recognized as a particularly distinct and unique product of Italian culture.
CONDITION Beautiful dark-green patina; a few scratches; surface slightly damaged on the left arm above elbow, on the left side of head, at the tips of feet; missing are both hands and nose. PROVENANCE Important American private collection, acquired in New York, 1989. BIBLIOGRAPHY BONFANTE L., Etruscan Dress, Baltimore, London, 1975, pp. 31-44. HAYNES S., Etruscan Bronzes, London, New York, 1985, pp. 292-293, nos. 128-129; p. 304, no. 160. HILL D. K., Catalogue of Classical Bronze Sculpture in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, pp. 106-109, nos. 239-242, 244. MITTEN D. G., DOERINGER S. F., Master Bronzes from the Classical World, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1968, pp.169-171, nos. 168-171.
LEG OF A MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE Roman, ca. 1st – 2nd century A.D. Bronze H: 96.5 cm (38 in) A signiﬁcant bronze fragment having a ﬁnely preserved ancient patina, this left leg of a sculpture was originally part of a larger than life-size statue, one that may have depicted an emperor, ruler, deity, or victorious athlete. The position of the leg demonstrates that this ﬁgure was in an active striding pose, as the leg is thrusted forward with bent knee and toes slightly curled that, in real life, would have served to balance the ﬁgure and possibly provide forward momentum. The anatomy of the leg is both highly detailed and true to nature, with muscles, veins, knees, ankles, toes, and even toenails indicated, all of which demonstrate the high aesthetic quality and importance of the sculpture to which it was joined. Large scale, complete ﬁgures that provide comparanda for this ﬁnely cast and ﬁnished bronze fragment include sculptures such as the Hellenistic statue of a runner (Izmir Museum, no. 9363, from Kyme, perhaps 1st or 2nd century B.C.), and the Classical style bronze runners from the Villa of the Papyri (Naples National Archaeological Museum, nos. 5626, 5627, 1st century A.D.), where the runners’ left legs offer a close parallel. The statues of Hellenistic rulers could be another strong possibility to which this present leg once belonged. In such statues the muscle style, taut posture, and tall proportions, along with the over-life size of the ﬁgure, were all used by a sculptor to express the sense of a super-human power. The bronze statuette of a ruler as Hermes or Perseus (National Archaeological Museum, Naples, no. 126170) preserves the individual portrait features, attributes, and characteristic stance which create a composition very similar to this monumental leg.
Most large scale bronzes from antiquity have not survived because they were melted down to re-use the metal in other works of art, vessels, weapons, or coins, which makes any ancient bronzes of this type, whether whole or fragmentary, an extreme rarity. Large bronze statues were cast in sections – heads, torsos, arms and legs – using the lost wax method in which the piece-mold ﬁlled with wax was heated and replaced with poured molten bronze, this technique proved to be the most efﬁcient method to create large scale bronze works in antiquity. The bronze joins were judiciously placed at inconspicuous places on the sculpture. After assembling the sections, the joins were fusion welded and then the surface chased to smooth out any rough parts of the surface and to minimize any appearance of the join-line or seam. Minor ﬂaws in the surface, particularly air pockets remaining from casting, were repaired by patching. On this leg, one may observe several small patches as evidence of such work. The interior of the hollow leg clearly shows several seams and sprues (pouring channels for the bronze), which is fascinating technical evidence for the difﬁcult procedures involved with hollow casting bronze sculpture.
CONDITION Beautiful olive green patina throughout; a few of the original rectangular patches are absent; the edge of the upper break is irregular with few cracks. PROVENANCE Ex- Claude Claire Grenier Collection, Monte Carlo; US private collection, acquired in 1989. BIBLIOGRAPHY DAEHNER J., LAPATIN K., eds., Power and Pathos: Bronze Sculpture of the Hellenistic World, Los Angeles 2015, pp. 26-27, ﬁg. 1.7 for the statue of a runner from Kyme; pp. 120-121, ﬁgs. 8.9 and 8.10, for the runners from the Villa dei Papyri, Herculaneum; pp. 192-193, no. 4, for the statuette of a ruler. MATTUSCH C., Fire of Hephaistos: Large Classical Bronzes from North American Collections, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 15-28, for casting large scale ancient bronzes. SMITH R.R.R., Hellenistic Sculpture, New York, 1991, pp. 19-20, ﬁg. 3. 42
SEATED HOUND Proto-Elamite, ca. 3rd millennium B.C. Silver L: 11.7 cm – Weight: 485 g (L: 4.6 in – Weight: 17.1 oz) The outstanding state of preservation and the technical skills of the craftsman make this object a true masterpiece. The statuette of the seated hound is a solid cast in precious silver; both its dimensions and weight are truly impressive. Figurines made of solid precious metal are incredibly rare in Mesopotamian art; this one was certainly cast in the lost wax process using a mold (or two; the tail could have been cast separately and then soldered). The collar, which is completely separate from the animal, was made of a twisted silver wire. The composition of the seated animal is marked by the well-observed details of its attitude: the dog’s tail is raised, the head is directed toward the invisible prey; there is some tension expressed in the body, as if it were about to pounce. Although such an attitude is close to that of felines (lions in particular), it is more probable that the sculptor wished to represent a canid: the pointed shape of the muzzle, the raised tail, and especially the presence of the collar are all characteristics of a dog. Both incisions and sculptural modeling were employed to shape the dog’s speciﬁc anatomical details. The dog’s muzzle of long triangular form is framed by a short mane which goes in front of the pointed ears and is modeled by incised oblique lines; engraved semi-circular lines and dots indicate the lips, other dots mark the brows and the deep, almost circular furrow encircles the eyes. The forms of the body (shoulders, torso, and thighs) are also well modeled; thick and deep incisions bring more details to the paws and intensify the claws and muscles. It should also be noted that the underside of the dog’s body with its paws and belly is perfectly ﬁnished and does not have any visible tenon: the statuette was not ﬁxed to a base and was intended to be moved and placed. It is possible that it made part of a group of several ﬁgurines.
Dogs were a very important part of the economy of Near eastern societies, especially in the activities related to the hunt and oversight of the troops. Recent studies have proved that this animal, a wolf’s descendant, was the very ﬁrst animal domesticated in Mesopotamia already in the course of the 9th millennium B.C.; Sumerian cuneiform documents testify the existence of dog farms. In the 4th and the 3rd millennium, the representations of dogs was spread throughout the entire Near Eastern world, from Egypt to Mesopotamia, from Elam to northeastern Iran, and to the cultures of the Indus. CONDITION Complete; no restoration; surface weathered; some tarnish; there are traces of the light hammering on several places that the sculptor used to even out the surface. PROVENANCE Ex- de Chambrier private collection, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1966. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1984, pp. 44-45, no. 61. AMIET P., L’âge des échanges inter-iraniens, 35001700 av. J.-C., Paris, 1986, p. 327. CAUBET A., ed., The Louvre: Near Eastern Antiquities, Paris, 1991, p. 50. KOZZLOFF A. P., ed., More Animals in Ancient World from the Leo Mildenberg Collection, Mainz am Rhein, 1986, pp. 5-6, no. II,4. SASSON J.M., ed., Civilisations of the Ancient Near East, New York, 1995, pp. 153-174, 203-222. VON BOTHMER D., ed., Glories of the Past, Ancient Art from the Shelby White and Leon Levy Collection, New York, 1990, p. 43-44, no. 30.
â€? The outstanding state of preservation and the technical skills of the craftsman make this object a true masterpiece... Dogs were a very important part of the economy of Near eastern societies, especially in the activities related to the hunt and oversight of the troops.â€œ
CORE-FORMED GLASS OINOCHOE Greek, Early Hellenistic, 4th century B.C. Glass H: 22 cm – D: 10.4 cm (H: 8.66 in – D: 4.09 in) This is one of the largest and most extraordinary core formed oinochoai in private hands. Its speciﬁc shape called oinochoe has an ovoid body and trefoil mouth. The body is marked by a distinct downward taper and constriction at the junction with the base. A broad trefoil rim surmounts the tall cylindrical neck. The attached coil handle in the same dark blue color glass connects the rim with the mid-section of the body, where it is marked by a small yellow glass appliqué in the shape of an acorn. The lower part of the body is decorated with opaque white, yellow, and blue trailing combed into a characteristic feather pattern. The white and yellow horizontal trailing separates it from the upper portion of the body, which is also decorated with opaque white, yellow, and blue trailing but worked in a festoons type pattern. The circular yellow trailing accentuates the high neck. The oinochoe is both extraordinary in terms of its size and quality, and truly does represent a massive work in core-formed glass.
CONDITION Complete; slight iridescence, dulling, and pitting on the surface. PROVENANCE Ex- European private collection, acquired prior to 1974; Swiss private glass collection, 1991. BIBLIOGRAPHY ANTONARAS A., Fire and Sand, Ancient Glass in the Princeton University Art Museum, New Haven, London, 2012, pp. 16-18, 48, no. 12. BIANCHI R. S., ed, SCHLICK-NOLTE B., BERNHEIMER G. M., BARAG D., Reflections of Ancient Glass from the Borowski Collection, Mainz am Rhein, 2002, p. 45. GROSE D.F., Early Ancient Glass. Core-Formed, RodFormed and Cast Vessels and Objects from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman Empire 1600 B.C. to A.D. 50, Toledo, 1989, pp. 161-162, nos. 146-149.
This technique is considered as one of the most used ancient glass techniques invented in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the second millennium B.C. The threads of glass in colors would be wound around a prepared core and dragged up and down to form a zigzag-like pattern. Greek artisans, most probably from Rhodes, employed this technique in the 6th century B.C. and imitated the shapes of the contemporary Greek ceramic vessels, especially those small, amphoriskoi and arriballoi, designed to keep aromatic oils and cosmetic substances. In the 4th century B.C. shapes became taller, and the new decorative patterns (feather, festoon, or inverted festoon motifs) were introduced; these characteristics deﬁne the Mediterranean Group II, to which the present glass oinochoe belongs.
AMBER FLASK WITH JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS Byzantine, late 6th – 7th century A.D. Amber glass H: 8.9 cm (3.5 in) This highly decorated small hexagonal ﬂask with a ﬂat base, a wide mouth and a rounded rim is of high quality and craftsmanship. Each of the six sides of the ﬂask is decorated with a symbol: an ornament in the form of a cross adorned with heart-shaped patterns at the end of each arm, a stylized palm tree, a shrine represented by two columns with stylized capitals supporting an arch, twice the motif of concentric lozenges and, ﬁnally, a menorah on a tripod base with its seven lamps lit. This artifact is one of a large number of glass vessels produced in Israel and in Syria and intended for the pilgrims. In his exhaustive study, D. Barag identiﬁed ﬁfty-ﬁve hexagonal and four octagonal examples and classiﬁed them in two main forms, the bottles and the ﬂasks (this ﬂask would be classiﬁed in type B5). Although almost all the vessels feature the same iconographic elements as the ones visible here, it seems that the ﬂasks would have been favored by the Jewish clientele, while the bottles would have attracted mainly Christian clients. The closest parallels for this ﬂask are an almost identical artifact housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, dated between 578 and 636 A.D., and three ﬂasks in the Toledo Museum of Art.
CONDITION Very good and intact. PROVENANCE Ex- Davidowitz collection; Ex- Michael and Judy Steinhardt Judaica collection, New York, early 1990s. EXHIBITED Hebrew Union College, Jewish Institute of Religion, New York, 1993; Museum of Jewish Heritage, New York, September 1997- November 2001. PUBLISHED GROSSMAN C., The Collector’s Room: Selections from the Michael and Judy Steinhardt Collection, New York, 1993, p. 34, no. 103. BIBLIOGRAPHY BARAG D., Glass Pilgrim Vessels from Jerusalem, in Journal of Glass Studies XII, 1970, pp. 35-63. EVANS, H.C. and RATLIFF B., eds., Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition, New York, 2012. STERN E.M., Roman Mold-Blown Glass: the First through Sixth Centuries: Toledo Museum of Art, Rome, 1995.
â€? On the palm between the fingers, there are remains of lead which indicate the connection to a short sword, reins, or curved wand (littus).â€œ
THESSALIAN “IDOL” Greek, (Thessaly), ca. 6th millennium B.C. Terracotta H: 15.2 cm (6 in) This is one of the rarest and most imposing Greek, Neolithic terracotta mother goddesses that has survived in such outstanding condition. Both the sophistication and distinctive level of abstraction deﬁne this idol as exceptional. Its relatively large size, skillfully designed composition, harmonious proportions, and beauty of its rounded shapes are all a testament to the quality of the craftsmanship. The entire composition is built as a contrast of the upper and lower parts. The upper part has rather schematic and ﬂattened volumes (head/neck, shoulders/arms, torso) which are positioned symmetrically and almost similar in size. The arms with spread rectangular shoulders are bent at a right angle so that the forearms create an exact parallel. The forearms are narrowing to a point that may suggest the hands of the idol which otherwise are not shaped individually. The unique shape of the forearms/hands was probably necessary for the accentuation of a gesture which points to the breasts, clearly positioned and seen as two small semi-spherical knobs (this gesture is in a great contrast to the so-called gesture of modesty in later Greek and Roman ﬁgures of the nude Aphrodite). The manner of the ancient sculptor is based on the minimalistic approach for the anatomical detailing. The eyes were shaped by two oblique cuts to pre-baked clay. The prominently sculptured nose dominates the face. The hair, ears, and mouth are not indicated at all. Interestingly, the same modeling is found in both soft clay and hard marble ﬁgurines, so the lack of details as a characteristic was not due to the difﬁculties and limitations of sculptor’s tools and materials, but was a deliberate choice.
The lower part of the “idol” is distinguished by corpulent forms of hips, buttocks, and thighs. Again, the shape uniﬁes the parts and creates exaggerated and purely abstract forms, to which are not lacking a sense of sexual beauty (noticeable is the line separating the left and right legs which starts at the top of the pubic area and continues to the buttocks). Figurines of sitting, standing or reclining females with over-exaggerated, voluminous shapes (especially of buttocks, breasts, and bellies) are characteristic for the Neolithic culture and found in many areas of the Near East, the greater Mediterranean area, and also in Eastern, Central and Western Europe. They vary greatly in style (with a more naturalistic or schematic approach in modeling the body, head and facial features) and material: commonly executed in baked clay, they can also be of white or grey marble, semi-translucent alabaster, or colored stones. The “idol” has considerable tactile appeal and was apparently designed to be handled. One does not exclude the opportunity that such ﬁgures were manipulated in some way during certain public or private rituals and ceremonies. Similar statuettes, both of stone and clay, were discovered in shrines and houses. It is generally assumed that the steatopygous form relates such ﬁgures to the fertility goddess, the Great Mother, whose cult was primary in the religion of the early human civilization. She was considered as Mistress of life and death for human, animal, and vegetation.
”The Great Mother, whose cult was primary in the religion of the early human civilization, was considered as Mistress of life and death for human, animal, and vegetation.“
CONDITION Excellent state of preservation; complete except for the damaged tip of the proper left leg; surface weathered and worn; a few cracks, chips and dents, small hole in the back of the proper right leg. PROVENANCE Ex- H.J.B. private collection, Chicago; Ex- Prominent US private collection, New York. BIBLIOGRAPHY BAILEY D., Prehistoric Figurines Representation and Corporality in the Neolithic, London, New York, 2005. BAILEY D. W., The Figurines of Old Europe, in ANTHONY D. W., ed., The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC, New York, Princeton, Oxford, 2010, pp. 113-127, p. 229, nos. 18. COHEN C., La femme des origins: image de la femme dans la préhistoire occidentale, Paris, 2003. GETZ-GENTILE P., Personal Styles in Early Cycladic Sculpture, Madison, 2001, pp. 1-6, p. 173, pl. 1, ﬁgs. a1-3. GIMBUTAS M. et al., Achilleion, A Neolithic Settlement in Thessaly, Greece, Los Angeles, 1989. LESURE R. G., Interpreting Ancient Figurines: Context, Comparison, and Prehistoric Art, Cambridge, 2011. LIGABUE G., ROSSI-OSMIDA G., eds., Dea Madre, Milan, 2007. MINA M., Anthropomorphic Figurines from the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Aegean: Gender Dynamics and Implications of Early Aegean Prehistory, Oxford, 2008. PAPATHANASSOPOULOS G., ed., Neolithic Culture in Greece, Athens, 1996, p. 293, no. 188. WEINBERS S. S., Anthropomorphic Stone Figurines from Neolithic Greece, in THIMME J., ed., Art and Culture in the Cyclades in the Third Millennium B.C., Chicago, London, 1977, pp. 52-58, 208-218, 415-424, nos. 1-21. 56
RED-FIGURE KYLIX (WINE CUP) by Makron as Painter and signed by Hieron as Potter Greek, Attic, circa 490 – 480 B.C. Terracotta D: 33 cm (13 in) Appropriate for a large wine-cup to be used at a symposium, Makron depicted – on both the interior and exterior – lively scenes from this event that held such social signiﬁcance for the ancient Greeks. In the tondo is a bearded man, seated on a stool, with a naked serving boy standing before him. The man wears a himation draped around his waist and legs, and holds a knobby staff with his left hand; the boy holds an animal shank in his left hand while he offers a platter of fruit in his right. Both ﬁgures are crowned with wreaths in added red. They are encircled by the border of the tondo, a neatly painted band of continuous meanders. The scene must be an excerpt from the ongoing symposium that is more fully detailed on the exterior: each side is painted with three banqueters wearing ﬁllets and wrapped in himatia as they recline on their dining couches supported by pillows covered with richly decorated textiles. The small tables in front of each couch are already cleared except for leafy sprays which drape down over the sides. In the center of one side, a bearded man is playing kottabos, and his kylix is raised in order to ﬂing the wine it contains at a target; the ﬁgure to the left looks back, cradling his cup by the foot, his right hand upraised. A basket hangs between them. The partially preserved ﬁgure to the right plays the
double ﬂute, the auloi, and their animal skin case hangs at the left. On the other side of the cup, as preserved, a banqueter is depicted in the center; the symposiast tothe right holding his cup in his left hand, a basket hanging between them; the ﬁgure to the left, with his head turned frontal to face the viewer, holds his cup in his left hand while in his outstretched right hand offers a second to be ﬁlled. It must be late in the evening as a tired serving boy wearing a red ﬁllet sleeps while he crouches beneath one handle, his head resting on his shoulder and with a restful smile on his face. A calyx-krater, the wine “punch-bowl” wreathed in ivy – and by that time perhaps almost empty – is depicted beneath the other handle. Just above, the kylix is signed in black gloss on the reserve underside of the handle: HIEΡON EΠΟΙΣΕΝ, “Hieron made this.” A master of Greek vase painting, Makron was one of the most talented and proliﬁc of Attic vase painters working in the Late Archaic period. More than six hundred vases and fragments of vases have been attributed to him. Nearly all of these are cups of kylix-shape, but he also decorated several skyphoi, a plate, a pyxis, an aryballos, and at least two askoi. Active for nearly two decades, from about 495 BC to shortly after 480 B.C., he worked regularly for the potter Hieron, who signed more than thirty of his cups.
” A master of Greek vase painting, Makron was one of the most talented and prolific of Attic vase painters working in the Late Archaic period.“
His earliest works indicate that he was inﬂuenced by Onesimos, whose career began some years earlier. To date, Makron’s signature appears only on one vase, the skyphos in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston that depicts the departure of Helen to Troy and her subsequent retrieval. It bears many hallmarks of his style, such as the representation of diaphanous, ﬁnely pleated garments with closely hanging folds that sensuously reveal the feminine bodies beneath. The garments often end in serpentine hems or distinctive swallowtail shapes. Although a few of his vases are painted with scenes from Greek myth, focusing mostly on the Trojan cycle, the majority of Makron’s cups depict groups of men, women, and youths in various combinations of Dionysiac, athletic, or symposium themes, as evidenced by this magniﬁcently painted and perfectly potted wine-cup, which is another masterwork from Makron’s mature period, the decade after 490 B.C. A fragment of this cup is in the Museo Archaeologico in Florence.
CONDITION Reassembled from fragments and restored in areas of the body and foot. Superﬁcial chips and scratches to the glaze. PROVENANCE Ex- Dr. Elie. Borowski (1913 - 2003) private collection, collected from 1950s – 1980s; Ex- American private collection, Massachusetts, 2000. EXHIBITED Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, 18 December 1984 to 30 June 1985. PUBLISHED SCHAUENBURG K., Herakles bei Pholos: zu zwei fruhrotfigurigen Schalen, in Athenische Mitteilungen 86, 1971, pp. 51-54, pls. 38-41.1. GUY R. in LEIPEN et al., Glimpses of Excellence, A Selection of Greek Vases and Bronzes from the Elie Borowski Collection, Toronto, 1984, no. 10. KUNISCH N., Makron, Mainz, 1997, p. 165, pl. 21, no. 47.
BIBLIOGRAPHY BEAZLEY J. D., Attic Red-Figured Vases in American Museums, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1918, pp. 101–106. BEAZLEY J. D., A Cup by Hieron and Makron, in Bulletin Antieke Beschaving 29, 1954, pp. 12-15. BEAZLEY J. D., Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, Vol. 1, 2nd edition, Oxford, 1963, pp. 458–481, 1654, 1701, 1706. BEAZLEY J. D., Paralipomena: Additions to "Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters" and to "Attic Red-Figure VasePainters", 2nd edition, Oxford, 1971, pp. 377–379. BEAZLEY J. D., Makron, in KURTZ D., ed., Greek Vases: Lectures by J. D. Beazley, Oxford, 1989, pp. 84–97. Beazley Addenda, additional references to ABV, ARV2 and Paralipomena, compiled by L. Burn and R. Glynn at the Beazley Archive, Oxfrod, 1982. Second edition, compiled by T.H. Carpenter with T. Mannack and M. Mendonca, 1990, pp. 243–247. BOARDMAN J., Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period, New York, 1975, p. 140, ﬁgs. 308-318. FURTWÄNGLER A. and REICHHOLD K., Griechische Vasenmalerei 2 , Munich, 1909, pp. 129–131. HARTWIG P., Die Griechischen Meisterschalen der Blüthezeit des strengen rotfiguren Stils, Stuttgart and Berlin, 1893, pp. 270–306. KUNISCH N., Makron, Mainz, 1997. LISSARAGUE F., The Aesthetics of the Greek Banquet: Images of Wine and Ritual, Princeton, 1990, pp. 80-86. RICHTER G.M.A., HALL L., Red-Figured Athenian Vases in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1936, pp. 72–80. RICHTER G., Attic Red-Figured Vases: A Survey, New York, 1958, pp. 81–83. ROBERTSON M., The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens, New York, 1992, pp. 100-106. SARTORI K., Das Kottobos-Spiel die Alten Griechen, Munich, 1893. SPARKES B., Kottabos, An Athenian After-Dinner Game, in Archaeology 13, 1960, pp. 202-207. STUCCHI S., Cottobo, in Enciclopedia dell’ arte antica, classica e orientale 2, Roma, 1959, pp. 923-924. VON BOTHMER D., Notes on Makron, in KURTZ D., SPARKES B., eds., The Eye of Greece, Cambridge, 1982, pp. 29–52. WILLIAMS D., Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum British Museum 9, Great Britain 17, 1993, pp. 46–53. 62
HIPPOPOTAMUS Egyptian, Middle Kingdom, 11th – 12th Dynasty, 2040 – 1790 B.C. Wood H: 12.5 cm – L: 26.7 cm (H: 4.92 in – L: 10.5 in) The hippopotamus ﬁgure is not only a charming example of the type known after the numerous faience statuettes, which were found in many Middle Kingdom burials, but it is a very rare survived wooden representation of the animal. The authenticity of the piece was conﬁrmed by the radiocarbon age analysis of wood made in the Center for Applied Isotope Studies of the University of Georgia in 2002. The piece is entirely preserved and probably served as support for a human statuette whose tenon would ﬁt in the perfectly carved rectangular slot. Similar composition is attested in the statue of Tutankhamun standing on the back of a leopard (The Egyptian Museum, Cairo). This seemingly docile animal was an everpresent danger to the ancient Egyptians; inhabiting the swampy edges of the Nile, it was capable of decimating crops and injuring people. Images of the hippopotamus, however, whether painted on tomb walls or crafted as amulets and statuettes, embodied both malevolent and benevolent forces. A female, for instance, often represented the goddess Taweret, patroness of childbirth, while a male hippopotamus was often seen as a harmful presence associated with the god Seth. During the Old Kingdom, pharaohs were expected to slay a hippopotamus, a symbol of chaos, possibly to help maintain order in the universe; the royal hippopotamus hunt became a ritual in the cult of Horus and Seth.
By the Middle Kingdom, statuettes of hippopotami were included in private burials, perhaps to allow the deceased the chance to “kill” the animal, thereby increasing their chance of gaining entrance into the afterlife. The legs were commonly broken, perhaps in order to “cripple” the animals and prevent them from harming the deceased in the afterlife. Another theory suggests that the hippopotamus was symbol of rebirth. If the idea of the representation of the deceased on the top of this hippopotamus is correct, the scene is not intended to represent the hunting: it should have a symbolic value. The hippopotami representations became popular during the Middle Kingdom, they depict standing, recumbent or sitting animal, this one strides forward on four legs. As there are no usual rolls of fat at its neck, it is possible to suggest that this is the representation of a young animal. His eyes were formerly inlaid with the pieces of metal or stone.
The delicate surface of wood is affected by cracks in many places; surface worn at the proper left side of the belly; remains of gesso (a preparatory layer for painting) in some places; remains of black substance inside and around the eyes used to ďŹ x the inlays; two holes (on the sole and thigh of the proper left hind legs) from radiocarbon testing. PROVENANCE
Ex- European art market, 1992; Ex- American private collection, New York, 2002. BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARNOLD D., An Egyptian Bestiary, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1995, p. 33. BUNSON M., The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, New York, 1991, p. 257. FAZZINI R., ROMANO J. F., and CODY M. E., Art for Eternity: Masterworks from Ancient Egypt, Brooklyn, New York, 1999, p. 69. FRIEDMAN F. D., ed., Gifts of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Faience, London, 1998. QUIRKE S., Ancient Egyptian Religion, London, 1994, pp.64-65. TIRADRITTI F., ed., Egyptian Treasures from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, New York, 1999, p. 208. WILKINSON R. H., The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, London, 2003, pp. 183-185; 197-199. Radiocarbon Age Analysis Report, The University of Georgia, May 17, 2002. 66
â€? Images of the hippopotamus embodied both malevolent and benevolent forces. A female often represented the goddess Taweret, patroness of childbirth, while a male was often seen as a harmful presence to be hunted by the cult of Horus and Seth.â€?
COUPLE OF DIGNITARIES Egyptian, Middle Kingdom, 2nd Intermediate period – Dynasty 13 (ca. 1802 – 1650 B.C.) Magnesian Schist H: 11.5 cm – W: 8.5 cm (H: 4.52 in – W: 3.34 in)
Already at the time of the ﬁrst pyramids, during the Old Kingdom period, Egyptian art introduced the representation of individuals, both single and couples, standing and seated. It became typical to represent a standing ﬁgure supported by a back slab (which often bears the inscribed name of the represented persons: pharaohs, high priests, ofﬁcials, courtiers, and dignitaries). This composition remained traditional in the Middle Kingdom and was employed in the present statuette which depicts a couple of dignitaries. Despite the small scale of the sculpture, it is marked by many individual details and skillful precision in the carving of the hard stone.
pectoral with vertical beads, is seen in between the sides of the wig. A long gown of thin fabric that clings to her body makes her appear almost nude, with a well-indicated naval, median line of the torso, and breasts. More than the male ﬁgure, the female image clearly represents the idea of an ever young and healthy person.
Each ﬁgure is standing with its left leg advanced; the heads looking straight ahead and even slightly raised giving the attitude a solemn expression. The ﬁgures hold their hands which leaves no doubt that they are husband and wife. Being of similar height and proportions, the ﬁgures appear quite the same; nevertheless, they are well differentiated. The man standing on the proper right of the group has a broad face with high cheeks, long straight nose with pronounced nostrils, and a big mouth. He wears a wide-spread, shoulder-length wig which leaves his large ears uncovered. His wardrobe consists of a long kilt; it is knotted above his ﬂat stomach and covers the ankles at the bottom, where the feet of almost rectangular shape are visible (each toe and toenail are carefully modeled). The woman’s facial features are quite similar with elongated almond-shaped eyes; the oval of her face is narrower and more delicate. She has a long and narrow tripartite wig, which covers her ears; a piece of jewelry, part of a
CONDITION Excellent condition; complete; no restorations or repairs; few scratches and small chips.
When the tradition to place them in the tomb was expanded from the exclusively pharaonic prerogative to a wider social group. Similar statuettes and statues were also dedicated to the sanctuaries of gods or deiﬁed members of the family.
PROVENANCE Ex- J.K. Hewett private collection, 1950s; Paris art market, 2009. BIBLIOGRAPHY EVERS H. G., Staat aus dem Stein: Denkmäler, Geschichteund Bedeutung der ägyptischen Plastik während des mittleren Reichs, München, 1929. FAY B., Egyptian Museum Berlin, Mainz, 1990, p.36, no. 19. OPPENHEIM A., ARNOLD D., ARNOLD D, and YAMAMOTO K., Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, New York, 2015, pp. 145-153, nos. 79-85. SALEH M., SOUROUZIAN H., The Egyptian Museum Cairo: Official Catalogue, Mainz am Rhein, 1987, no. 100. VANDIER J., Manuel d’archéologie égyptienne, Tome III, Les grandes époques, La statuaire, Paris, 1958. Scientiﬁc Report 1216-OA-72N-2, CIRAM Laboratories, March 14, 2017.
â€? Miniature family portraits became popular in Egyptian art towards the end of the Middle Kingdom.â€?
THE “BEHAGUE” CAMEO HORSE Roman, 1st century B.C. – 1st century A.D. Onyx H: 4.5 cm – W: 5.8 cm (H: 1.77 in – W: 2.28 in) This exquisitely preserved fragment of a cameo cup shows the hand of a master at work. It exhibits all of the skills necessary for hard-stone carving, and the precision of details and execution is accentuated by the stone’s natural beauty. A mottled pattern is formed by irregular layers of milky white and brown, which is enhanced by the stone’s transparency. The entire surface is perfectly smoothed by polishing and demonstrates the great care taken in its ﬁnishing by a highly skilled artist. The spirited head of a bridled horse is depicted in proﬁle with details clearly delineated; a quiver for arrows is visible at the upper right. Realistic modeling of the animal’s musculature – the open mouth with veins indicated between ﬂared nostrils and a wide and prominent eye – and also an attention to detail for the hair of the mane and forelocks, all contribute an aura that conveys the spirited, lifelike animation of this galloping equine ﬁgure. Workshops in Antioch, and especially in Alexandria, likely produced a number of vessels made of semi-precious or rare stone during the Hellenistic and Roman period. Egypt did not have its own resources of onyx therefore the raw material was transported primarily from India. At the time of Augustus many stone carving workshops settled in Rome, where they met a growing number of important commissions. Stone vessels of various shapes were highly valued by the ruling aristocracy. Jugs and ladles could be used to make libations during religious rituals, and drinking vessels, such as cups, bowls, goblets, skyphoi, and kantharoi, formed part of prestigious table services and served as diplomatic gifts. The literary record relates that when the Romans secured the treasury of Mithridates VI, the king of Pontus, in the city of Talauri in 65 B.C. (Appian, Mithridatic Wars XII 115), they found 2,000 drinking-cups of onyx welded with
gold. Cleopatra impressed Anthony and his ofﬁcers by arranging a royal banquet in his honor, “in which the service was entirely of gold and jeweled vessels made with exquisite art” (Athenaeus Deipnosophists IV 147f). Originally, this small but important fragment of an onyx cup surely could have been part of a similarly beautiful vessel. Horses were an essential part of life in antiquity and played an active role in warfare and transportation as well as in athletic contests and games, which were a distinctive aspect of ancient Greek and Roman society. Greek and Roman art and literature demonstrate the widespread use of horses for racing and hunting. Considered prestigious pleasure vehicles, horses were used by both the Greeks and Romans for riding, while mules did the heavy work of plowing ﬁelds and pulling carts. The horse has also long been a symbol of social rank and wealth in Mediterranean lands and beyond. Among the diverse cultures of these regions social status was determined to a large degree by an individual’s ability to own and maintain horses. Throughout history social rank has often been deﬁned in terms of those capabilities: the hippeis (cavalry) in Greece, the equites in Rome, or the chevaliers and knights of Medieval Europe. Aristocratic associations with such a highly prized animal were reﬂected in rare and luxurious objects produced for domestic use, as evidenced by this image of a horse head from a cameo cup. Onyx is a banded form of the mineral chalcedony. Its colored bands range from white to almost every color; specimens commonly have bands of black and/or white. Both onyx and agate are varieties of layered chalcedony as they differ only in the form of their bands, onyx having parallel bands and agate with curved bands.
CONDITION Horse's head along with openwork harness in excellent condition, no restoration or repairs, the edge of the fragment is chipped. PROVENANCE Ex- Nolivos collection, Paris, 1867: The Nolivos Collection was assembled by this French collector whose objects of art were auctioned in 1867 at a Hotel Drouot sale in Paris. One of his most important objects is now in the collection of the Louvre; Ex- Julien Gréau (1810–1895) collection, Paris; Ex- Comtesse de Behague collection, Paris, after 1869 until 1939; Sotheby's, Monaco, 3 December 1987, lot 139; Ex- old British collection, UK, 2000; US private collection, 2001. PUBLISHED FROEHNER W., La collection de la comtesse R. de Béarn, Quatrième Cahier, Paris, 1912, p. 81, pl. 20, no. 4; Sotheby's, Monaco, 3 December 1987, lot 139. BIBLIOGRAPHY BALL S., A Roman Book on Precious Stones, Los Angeles, 1950. BÜHLER H., Antike Gefässe aus Edelsteinen, Mainz, 1973. GASPARRI C., A proposito di un recente studio sui vasi antichi in pietra dura, in Archeologia Classica 27, 1975, pp. 350-377. GASPARRI C., Vasi antichi in pietra dura a Firenze e a Roma, in Prospettiva 19, 1979, pp. 4-13. FONTANELLA E., Luxus: il piacre della vita nella Roma imperiale, Rome, 2009, p. 482. PARLASCA K., Neue Beobachtungen zu den hellenistischen Achatgefässen aus Ägypten, in The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 13, 1985, pp. 19-22. TOYNBEE J., Animals in Roman Life and Art, South Yorkshire, 2013, pp. 167-185.
fig. 1 Sketch from the 1912 publication La collection de la comtesse R. de Béarn ,Quatrième Cahier, Paris, 1912.
GODDESS TAWERET Egyptian, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, ca. 1500 – 1391 B.C. Amethyst H: 4.9 cm (1.92 in) The relatively large size and beautiful natural hues of amethyst make this representation of the hippopotamus goddess Taweret an extremely attractive gem-stone sculpture. It was likely a piece of jewelry considering the dimensions and the presence of a loop at the back side and could be set as a central amulet of a necklace. Taweret (“the great [female] one” in Egyptian) is considered as one of the most important household deities. Along with the goddess Meskhenet, and the god Bess, she was called upon to protect women in childbirth and their infants. Her iconography combines human arms, sagging breasts and a protruding belly, which suggests pregnancy, with a female hippopotamus, lion’s legs, and crocodile’s tail. The larger ﬁgures represent Taweret standing and leaning on a magic knot, which symbolizes protection, and sometimes holding a torch to dispel darkness and to expel demons. She wears a tripartite wig; the rear portion of which extends down the body and to the ground gradually becoming a long tail. The known amethyst ﬁgurines of animals (lion, hawk, monkey, hippopotamus, cat, also scarab and female sphinx) are shaped as sealstones or charms which have a loop for suspension. In this ﬁgurine the loop is ﬂattened and received the same vertical incisions, which indicate the long parallel strands of the wig. The carving of the amethyst is both delicate and precise; especially skillful in the modeling is the naturalistic rendering of the head with its long and rounded muzzle, large round nostrils, bulging eyes, and small pointed ears placed horizontally, all characteristic for a hippo’s anatomy.
The representations of animals, both wild and domesticated, constitute a very signiﬁcant part of the entire imagination in Egyptian art. Such images were closely related to the cults of deities, and ﬁgurines were often deposited at the temples and sanctuaries as votive offerings in hope of the gods’ protection or to appease them. In daily life, several objects of diverse function (furniture attachments, vessels, palettes, scale weights, gaming pieces, and jewelry adornments) were skillfully shaped as animal ﬁgures. The variety of forms was equally accompanied by a wide choice of the materials: faience, wood, ivory, gold, bronze, and different stones and minerals. However, ﬁgurines made of amethyst as this present one are extremely rare. The Egyptian artisans attracted by amethyst’s unique color started to employ it in the Pre- and Early Dynastic periods, but it was not until the Middle Kingdom when the use of that mineral became more popular. The amethyst mines were known to be in the rocks from the Eastern and Western Deserts of Egypt. As a mineral, amethyst has natural color layers of different intensity, and color zoning within a single amethyst crystal that could vary from a pale pinkish violet to a deep purple. The surviving examples of ancient Egyptian works in deep purple amethyst are very small in size, and these are mostly beads. At certain locations, amethyst grows as a second generation on older crystals of a colorless quartz, smoky quartz and rock crystal; such a combination of relatives from the same geological family is found in this carved ﬁgurine.
” Taweret (‘the great [female] one’ in Egyptian) is considered as one of the most important household deities and was called upon to protect women in childbirth and their infants.“
CONDITION Excellent condition; the statuette is complete; natural cracks in the stone structure; some encrustations on the surface. PROVENANCE Ex- Peter Sharrer collection, New York; Ex- P. Gottesman private collection, acquired in New York, 2000. EXHIBITED The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2000 – 2016 (L.2000.34.1.). BIBLIOGRAPHY FAY B., Egyptian Museum Berlin, Mainz, 1990, p.6, no. 4. NICHOLSON P.T., SHAW I., Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge, 2000, p. 51. ROBINS G., Women in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993, p. 63, ﬁg. 19. SALEH M., SOUROUZIAN H., The Egyptian Museum Cairo: Official Catalogue, Mainz am Rhein, 1987, no. 248. WILKINSON R. H., The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, London, 2003, pp. 185-186. 78
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Selection of objects Ali Aboutaam and Hicham Aboutaam Project manager Alexander Gherardi, New York Research Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva Antiquities Research Center, New York Aaron J. Paul, Washington D.C. Graphic design mostra-design.com, Geneva Photography Stefan Hagen, New York André Longchamp, Geneva Hughes Dubois, Paris and Brussels Printing CA Design, Wanchai, Hong Kong Print run 500 English
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