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Félix’s Portafolio

2010

First Edition EMQUE 20/05/2010


Félix´s Portafolio Unit 5 Tie the knot

How will you plan a wedding reception for tourists who want to get married while visiting Costa Rica? Once you‟ve settled in to your hotel, you‟ll have the chance to catch up with your Wedding Planner. You‟re in expert hands – dedicated to making sure everything runs smoothly on the big day. They‟ll take care of all the little bits and pieces so you can concentrate on enjoying the experience.

Your wedding

planner is there to: Make sure you‟ve got all the documents and arrange exactly when you‟d like to get married. Walk through all the finer details and arrangements for your wedding day. Make sure witnesses are available, whether friends, other hotel guests or staff. Arrange your bouquet, table arrangement and cake decoration flowers. Offer you any help you need to arrange your wedding reception. What do you need to be aware of while planning a wedding reception? You can plan your wedding exactly as you‟d like it of course. But most Thomson weddings include all these essential ingredients you‟ll need to plan your perfect day: A Thomson Weddings Representative who will take care of all the arrangements. The all important ceremony, marriage license, certificate and registrar fees. A bouquet for the bride, and a buttonhole for the groom. Wedding cake and a sparkling wine toast. Some free packages may not include things like the cake or flowers – so please check all the details with us before you book.

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FÊlix´s Portafolio What kind of music, food, and drinks will you offer during the reception?

Everything will depend on the client's taste

Considering ecological impact, would you allow tourists to get married and have a reception inside a protected area?

In Costa Rica we must enforce laws and environmental issues exist in large numbers. Which we must respect and enforce. Living in a society of law and democracy can not hope to gain advantage in the tourism sector jumping regulations and regulatory guidelines. For this reason the performance of any activity within a protected area must situate the expeditious and specific guidelines exist and which will depend on the site for example:

The creation, maintenance, administration, development and monitoring of protected areas, will aim to:

a. Conserve natural environments representative of the different biogeography regions and most fragile ecosystems, to ensure balance and continuity of evolutionary and ecological processes.

b. Safeguard the genetic diversity of wild species from which depends the evolutionary continuity, particularly the endemic, threatened and endangered species.

c. Ensure sustainable use of ecosystems and their components, actively promoting anticipation from neighboring communities.

d. Promote scientific research, the study of ecosystems and balance, as well as knowledge and technology to enable sustainable use of natural resources and conservation of the country.

3


FÊlix´s Portafolio e. Protect and improve water areas and watersheds, to reduce and avoid the negative impact which may result in poor management.

f. Protect the natural environment and landscape of the sites and historical and architectural sites, national monuments, archaeological sites Ecoturism

and

places of historic and artistic importance for culture and national identity.

We are beings and the impact that tourism is a social activity that involves us impacted is at once an agent environment, we can not deny our impact but we can control it with regulations that exist in protected areas.

http://www.sinac.go.c

But, One of the important points for the protection of resources in protected areas says: Regular special interest anthropogenic activities in the country's protected wilderness areas, to protect both ecosystems and cultural-historical elements, geological and archaeological present in them.

If all the above conditions cooperation could be the wedding. However, so now it is difficult for an activity as such achievements in a protected forest area by type of activity.

Costa Rica currently not ready for this kind of activities in a protected area in fact, all the 11 types of protected areas are not self-sustaining by the state bureaucracy.

Besides wedding receptions, what are some other uncommon services may ask for? Package holidays. Flights. Hotels City Breaks Villas. 4


FÊlix´s Portafolio Deals Destinations

In general our site as most others provide greater access to the coast, indeed the majority of activities promoting the beach. In the near future could be analyzed to establish centers for these activities, but following the protocols of protection.

Tsunami Geology - What Causes a Tsunami?

What causes a tsunami? A tsunami is a large ocean wave that is caused by sudden motion on the ocean floor. This sudden motion could be an earthquake, a powerful volcanic eruption, or an underwater landslide. The impact of a large meteorite could also cause a tsunami. Tsunamis travel across the open ocean at great speeds and build into large deadly waves in the shallow water of a shoreline. Subduction Zones are Potential Tsunami Locations Most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes generated in a subduction zone, an area where an oceanic plate is being forced down into the mantle by plate tectonic forces. The friction between the subducting plate and the overriding plate is enormous. This friction prevents a slow and steady rate of subduction and instead the two plates become "stuck".

Image by USGS

5


FÊlix´s Portafolio Accumulated Seismic Energy As the stuck plate continues to descend into the mantle the motion causes a slow distortion of the overriding plage. The result is an accumulation of energy very similar to the energy stored in a compressed spring. Energy can accumulate in the overriding plate over a long period of time - decades or even centuries.

Image by USGS Earthquake Causes Tsunami Energy accumulates in the overriding plate until it exceeds the frictional forces between the two stuck plates. When this happens, the overriding plate snaps back into an unrestrained position. This sudden motion is the cause of the tsunami - because it gives an enormous shove to the overlying water. At the same time, inland areas of the overriding plate are suddenly lowered.

6


FÊlix´s Portafolio

Image by USGS

Tsunami Races Away From the Epicenter The moving wave begins travelling out from where the earthquake has occurred. Some of the water travels out and across the ocean basin, and, at the same time, water rushes landward to flood the recently lowered shoreline.

Image by USGS Tsunamis Travel Rapidly Across Ocean Basis Tsunamis travel swiftly across the open ocean. The map below shows how

7


FÊlix´s Portafolio a tsunami produced by an earthquake along the coast of Chile in 1960 traveled across the Pacific Ocean, reaching Hawaii in about 15 hours and Japan in less than 24 hours.

Image by USGS Tsunami "Wave Train" Many people have the mistaken belief that tsunamis are single waves. They are not. Instead tsunamis are "wave trains" consisting of multiple waves. The chart below is a tidal gauge record from Onagawa, Japan beginning at the time of the 1960 Chile earthquake. Time is plotted along the horizontal axis and water level is plotted on the vertical axis. Note the normal rise and fall of the ocean surface, caused by tides, during the early part of this record. Then recorded are a few waves a little larger than normal followed by several much larger waves. In many tsunami events the shoreline is pounded by repeated large waves.

8


FÊlix´s Portafolio

Image by USGS The material above describes how tsunamis are generated and how they travel rapidly across an ocean basin. For more detailed information on this topic the following websites are recommended.

9


Félix´s Portafolio Published on YaleGlobal Online Magazine (http://www.yaleglobal.yale.edu) Home > Trouble for Palm Oil Trouble for Palm Oil Once thought unhealthy and a contributor to deforestation, palm plantations meant to produce vegetable oil have long faced many critics. Though the health concerns have been dispelled, worries over deforestation remain. Unilever, one of the largest consumers of palm oil, has withdrawn a contract with a large Indonesian producer precisely over concerns that palm plantations are destroying the rain forest. This “voting with its feet” is all the more damning because the governments in both Malaysia and Indonesia – the largest palm oil producers in the world – certified that plantations in their countries were not contributing to deforestation. A soon-to-be-released UN reports estimates that up 25% of anthropogenic emissions are caused by deforestation. Rain forests absorb large amounts of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon. On the other hand, critics argue that a drop in palm plantations would severely harm the prospects for betterment among villagers all across Southeast Asia. Therein lies the paradox of sustainable development – is it possible to avert environmental degradation while lifting people out of poverty? – YaleGlobal The west grows more skeptical of the palm oil growers' promises of environmental sustainability

10


Félix´s Portafolio The Asia Sentinel 14 January 2010 Palm oil, the world's cheapest cooking oil and a versatile product that is used in everything from biofuels to chocolate chip cookies, has always been under fire from various quarters, first allegedly because of its adverse effect on cholesterol – since disproven – or because of concerns over tropical deforestation to plant oil palm plantations. However, in recent months the ante has been raised considerably. The oil palm industry beat back an attempt in December at the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in Copenhagen to curb additional planting under a World Bank proposal called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing countries (REDD). But the industry's relief has been tempered by the fact that in Dec. 11, Unilever, the world's biggest user of the oil, suspended a US$32 million contract with subsidiary of the giant Sinar Mas Group until the Indonesian conglomerate proves its plantations aren't contributing to deforestation. Also, just three days before, in a program called "The End of the Jungle," the BBC accused the Malaysian government and the palm oil industry of "laying waste to last remaining rainforests of Borneo in what has been described as a corporate land grab." Now the plantation companies are concerned that other major European Union and US importers, particularly Procter & Gamble and Nestle, may follow Unilever, especially as the global warming debate heats up and also that concerns grow over the destruction of the habitat of the orangutan, a cuddly ally of the environmentalists whose habitat is being destroyed at an alarming rate. Scientific American recently quoted Richard Zimmerman, director of Orangutan Outreach in New York, as saying Indonesian tropical forests are wiped out at a rate of six football pitches a minute for palm oil planting. As many as 20,000 orangutan have been killed, according to the report. A recent Jakarta Globe article called attention to massive deforestation of ostensibly federally protected forest areas on the island of Riau, with 2,000 hectares of forest leveled in 2008. "When you fly over Borneo today, all you see is mile after mile of oil palm plantations where only a few years ago you would have seen pristine tropical 11


Félix´s Portafolio rainforest," Zimmerman told the publication. "The forest is simply gone. And every creature living in it has been slaughtered." Some 85 percent of the forest on the island of Sumatra has been wiped out. Kalimantan, the Indonesian portion of Borneo island, is now the focus of massive oil palm planting. On the Malaysian side of Borneo, according to the BBC, IOI Group, which sells palm oil in more than 65 countries, is bulldozing vast tracts of rainforest for oil palm plantations. "…from a distance, the plantations look quite green and lush, in reality they are barren: the life has basically gone," the report found. "It's estimated that only 3 percent of the primary rainforest of Malaysian Borneo remains. Logging has devastated much of the land, but now campaigners say the palm oil plantations have taken over. And it's not just the forest that's gone. Since the early 1990s whole communities have left - driven, they say, from their farms." Between them, Malaysia and Indonesia produce 90 percent of the world's palm oil – with world demand at 48 million metric tons annually and growing. Virtually all of the major plantation companies belong to the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, an alliance between consumers and producers which ostensibly subscribes to best environmental practices. Unilever was a founding member. But both the Unilever decision on the Sinar Mas subsidiary and the BBC show on IOI have exposed vast differences between promise and practice. In addition, both the Malaysian and Indonesian governments fully backed the two companies, attesting that they were protecting the environment. In effect, those events make the Roundtable look like an utter sham and make it questionable whether it has the credibility to allow importers to work together with exporters in concert to bring up environmental standards. As environmental groups have raised awareness of concerns about the loss of primary forest and carbon sinks, the palm oil industry has become increasingly concerned. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates in a new report that preventing carbon release from deforestation is "the climate change mitigation option with the globally largest and most immediate carbon stock impact per hectare in the short term." Deforestation, the body said, "may account for up to 25 percent of global total anthropogenic

12


FÊlix´s Portafolio emissions and is said to be the largest single source category in the developing world." An industry group, World Growth, headed by Alan Oxley, an Australian lecturer and skeptic about climate change, has been established and is bitterly disputing Greenpeace's efforts, saying environmental groups, by their actions against palm oil producers, are themselves potentially devastating to the poor, with tens of thousands of jobs that could be lost in palm oil plantation. Palm oil, the industry group said, can generate returns of more than US$3,000 per hectare while village farming generates less than US$100 per hectare. Malaysia's oil palm plantations alone, which directly employ 580,000 jobs, support two million livelihoods, World Growth argues. Oxley has aggressively sought to contradict environmentalists, arguing that development and forestry experts have shown that two-thirds of forest clearance is driven by low income people in poor countries searching for land, habitation and food production. He describes environmentalists as "Europebased activists who don't provide data that can be verified," peddling science that "cannot be substantiated or severely exaggerated." World Growth calls oil palm plantations "very effective carbon sinks - a stark contrast to the propaganda by Greenpeace, Wetlands and Friends of the Earth." The question is what happens next. As a Reuters analysis pointed out, if European buyers of palm oil get stickier about requiring Indonesian companies to observe strict environmental standards, there are roughly 2.5 billion people in India and China alone who have no qualms whatsoever about buying Indonesian and Malaysian palm oil, by far the largest staple oil in Asia. It is far cheaper to produce than either soybean or corn oil and requires virtually no fertilizer. According to the Reuters analysis, the EU accounts for only 14 percent of consumption, down by 20 percent over 1999 because of environmental concerns. Not only is palm oil by far the most popular cooking oil in Asia, justauto.com, the automotive industry's online analytical publication, says that "Rising energy consumption and environmental issues has now shifted the focus towards biofuel use, particularly in transportation. Though the biofuel industry is in its initial stages in Asia-Pacific, there is a huge potential for its 13


Félix´s Portafolio development in the region." Any downshifting of oil demand in the west appears to be matched with an upshift of demand in Asia. The world biofuels market, the publication forecasts, is likely to grow by 1.47 percent on a compounded annual basis through 2015, with global ethanol production reaching 25.07 million gallons by 2014. Consumption in China, the report says, "is likely to move faster than the production and expected to attain a CAGR of 2.51 percent from 2007 to 2015.Ethanol consumption in India is anticipated to move at a CAGR of over 2 percent during 2007 -2015. " One thing is certain, however. The credibility of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil has been severely damaged, perhaps fatally. The credibility of the Malaysian and Indonesian governments, as regards protection of their tropical rainforests,

is

equally

at

risk.

Source url: http://www.asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=222 7&Itemid=229 Rights: Copyright © 2005 - 2010 Asia Sentinel.

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Félix´s Portafolio THE PASSIVE (use & practice)

USE: Study the following example. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks used carrier pigeons in ancient times. ==> Carrier pigeons were used in ancient times by ancient Egyptians and Greeks. (thing done)

(doer)

So, when do we use the passive? We use the passive in the following cases: Case 1: The thing done is more important than the doer. e.g. A new supermarket was opened in our district last week. Case 2: Both the thing done and the doer are important. e.g. Algeria was colonized by the French. Case 3: The doer is unknown. e.g. A lot of articles are stolen in the supermarket every day. Case 4: We don‟t want to mention the doer. e.g. I was told that you had broken my glasses.

PRACTICE: Now change the following sentences into the passive. Mention the doer (the by phrase) only where necessary.

HOW?

WHY?

1. They probably

recycle some of the solid wastes regularly.

2. The hurricane Gustav severely damaged the houses on the shore.

3. Someone has stolen my watch.

4.

The horror film affected my little brother badly.

15


FÊlix´s Portafolio 5.

6.

The milkman will deliver two bottles of milk to your door.

They are going to deliver our new washing machine tomorrow.

7.

Johnny Ball is training our local football team.

8.

Anyone can do this activity very easily.

9.

They haven't released the exam results yet.

10.

Someone has told me that you still go out with Billy.

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Félix´s Portafolio The Haiti Earthquake Felix Eduardo Montoya Quesada Answers Why do more people die long after the earthquake than during it?

This happens for two reasons first by the lack of disaster and emergency plan, qe is to know how to act if any of these. This plan must be comprehensive and well known for citizenship and which should also include the design of the buildings and the national and international support for financing housing for the economically disadvantaged. What are the five main sectors that need to be targeted or improved in order to recover this nation? The text mentions d that‟s five main sectors: Smallholder or peasant. Agriculture. Reconstruction port services and light manufacturing. Local small-scale trade. Public services, including health care and education.

Based on the reading, what would be a priority in the recovery of Haiti, agricultural production or environmental protection? Explain why. Obviously agricultural production will be essential to provide the nutritional needs of the Haitian population. For this reason Haiti people and the government should be given more importance to agricultural production that to other activities at this time. However shouldn‟t forget that the country's development depends not only on agriculture and must make significant efforts to support from other sectors.

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Félix´s Portafolio How can a natural disaster, like the Haiti Earthquake, affect the tourism industry? List 5 possible negative consequences. Earthquakes fears. Health problems such as lack of water and contamination. Unstable infrastructure. Natural landscape change. Reservations canceled at the last minute

What is the author´s position about Haiti´s recovery? Is he optimistic or pessimistic? Does he seem interested or indifferent? ―This time, it must be done right.‖ I think it has a positive but realistic situation with this phrase the author wants once and for all of Haiti is supported by the world in an orderly fashion and which created an economic, political and social for Haitian people. That balance would be to provide economic support disinterested technical and logistical services to not only shovel the aftermath of an earthquake but the consequences

of

a

country

abandoned

by

the

world.

Today's definitely time for the world will change the way to a prosperous country that once was forgotten by world capitalism.

The author refers to a key challenge in Haiti´s recovery. What is it? And what are other challenges does he refer to? Quote the author says, " The key challenge is to support these five sectors in order to combine shortterm relief with long-term reconstruction and development." This is to support the lifting of the town with support from the day with a constant support to provide short and long term logistical support necessary to rebuild a society from all the edges so necessary and so the Haitian people will have been helped a better way than in the recent past.The hope is the harbinger of better times for Haiti.

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Félix´s Portafolio The Haiti Earthquake Posted by Editor | Jan 15, 2010 The quake in Haiti came suddenly—but the results were predictable. At the moment it struck, scientists from the Earth Institute and other parts of Columbia University were in Port-au-Prince with a UN-sponsored project assessing how to reduce the nation’s obvious vulnerability to natural disasters. It is clear that the extreme toll came as much from poverty [...] Read More... Posted by Jeffrey Sachs | Jan 26, 2010 | Comments Rebuilding Haiti: The 10-Year Plan

Credit: Liana Razafindrazay/CIESIN The horrors of Haiti’s earthquake continue to unfold. The quake itself killed perhaps 100,000 people. The inability to organize rapid relief is killing tens of thousands more. More than 1 million people are exposed to hunger and disease and, with the rain and

hurricane seasons

approaching, are vulnerable to further hazards. Even an economy as impoverished as Haiti’s is a complex system dependent on trade between rural and urban areas, transport, electricity, port services, and government functions. Haiti’s economy worked badly in the past, and was still reeling from four hurricanes in 2008 when the earthquake struck. When the quake hit the capital, it demolished every center of social activity and destroyed the systems upon which daily urban life depends. Millions of people are now without livelihoods and the means for survival. The first stage in an effective response–the first three or four weeks–must focus on rescuing survivors and stabilizing supplies of food, water, 19


Félix´s Portafolio medical services, and shelter for the population. Neither Haiti nor the world was properly equipped for this, and tens of thousands will die needlessly. The world’s emergency-response systems – especially for impoverished countries in zones that are vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanoes, droughts, hurricanes and floods – needs upgrading. After a month or so, the emergency phase will give way to a decades-long struggle for recovery and long-term development. Haiti must avoid a prolonged period of tent cities in which people are mere refugees. But where should displaced people – numbering hundreds of thousands, and perhaps more than a million – live? How should they be provided with food, water, health care and shelter? And how can they begin to contribute to the revival of basic economic life? The economy will have a simple structure in the coming years, with most economic activities focused in five sectors: smallholder, or peasant, agriculture; reconstruction; port services and light manufacturing; local small-scale trade; and public services, including health care and education. The key challenge is to support these five sectors in order to combine short-term relief with long-term reconstruction and development. First, special efforts should be made to boost peasant agriculture and rural communities. This will enable hundreds of thousands of displaced people to return to their village communities and live from farming. With fertilizer, improved seeds, small-scale irrigation, rapid training and extension services, and low-cost storage silos, Haiti’s food production could double or triple in the next few years, sustaining the country and building a new rural economy. Reconstruction – of roads, buildings, and water and sanitation systems – will employ tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of Haitian construction workers, and boost the regeneration of towns. The World Food Program can help peasant farmers to produce more food in the countryside and then purchase the food to use in food-for-work programs oriented to construction projects. Haiti’s infrastructure was meager before the earthquake (hence the shocking mortality rate), and most of that is now rubble. Large-scale 20


FÊlix´s Portafolio capital investment will also be needed to re-equip the ports and to reestablish a power grid. Recovery will also require re-establishing at least a small-scale manufacturing sector. Haiti, like its next-door neighbor, the Dominican Republic, once created jobs in port facilities, including production of clothing, baseballs, and other light-manufacturing items. Those jobs disappeared in the 1990s, when the United States imposed a trade embargo on Haiti as part of an effort to re-establish democracy. Democracy returned, but the economy was destroyed. Other countries have risen from the rubble of natural disaster and war, and Haiti can do the same over the next five to ten years.

For the next

decade, however, and especially for the next five years, there will be no escape from the need to rely on international financing, and mainly grant assistance, to finance the rebuilding effort. The world has spent heavily in Haiti before, but very ineffectively. This time, it must be done right. A clear strategy is needed to bolster the key sectors discussed above. Each sector requires a five-year recovery strategy with a clear budget and clear lines

of

partnership

and

responsibility linking

the

Haitian

government, nongovernmental organizations and institutional donors, especially

governments

and

international

agencies.

The second key to successful reconstruction is to harmonize the international

response.

There

are

probably

40

or

more

official

organizations from abroad, if not more, already engaged in the recovery effort. In addition, there are hundreds, if not thousands, of native Haitian NGOs. The Haitian government itself has been reduced to paralysis by death and destruction. There should be one overarching framework. There should be one major multi-donor bank account to finance the heavy outlays required for Haiti’s recovery. There should be a highly professional executive team coordinating the international support efforts. And all of this should be put in place very soon, while there is international interest. The world will move on to the next crisis very soon, well before Haiti has even started to recover. 21


Félix´s Portafolio I have watched the problems of international cooperation for a quartercentury. Each agency has its role, but they also tend to squabble over turf rather than cooperate. International financial promises are made for headlines and photo opportunities, but end up undelivered. We therefore need money in the bank, and clear leadership. My nominee to guide the process is the Inter-American Development Bank. The IDB’s deep, long-term commitments in Haiti and professional expertise in agriculture, health, education and infrastructure qualify it to coordinate the multitude of agencies that will be involved. It should work closely with a professional executive team made up of native and diaspora Haitian professionals with relevant expertise. Rebuilding Haiti will cost perhaps $10 billion to $20 billion, and will take much of the coming decade. Getting started now will save countless lives and prevent a further tragic downward spiral of a society that stands on the brink of survival.

Jeffrey D. Sachs is director of the Earth Institute, Columbia University. Copyright 2010, Project Syndicate. Peasant Politics: Critical Perspectives on Rural Development 28 May 2009 'Peasant

question';

central

to

study

of

rural

development As agrarian systems the world over undergo massive change, the role of the smallholder within wider economic and political relations remains a key focus for academic study and policy debate. Since the days of Lenin and Chayanov, „the peasant question‟ has been central to the study of rural development. But today, there is not just one question, but many. The analytical and theoretical perspectives required to make sense of dramatic changes in rural settings due to globalisation, financial crises, land grabs and radical economic change have also shifted. No longer is there a standard Marxist critique, but a range of other perspectives, drawing on a more plural set of insights, knowledges and conceptual frames. 22


Félix´s Portafolio But the basic questions at the heart of this long tradition in studies of rural development remain important. For any setting, we must ask who owns what, who gets what and what do they do with it? Social relations – notably class and gender - and politics – both of the state and wider social movements - inevitably govern the distribution of assets, patterns of work and divisions of labour, the distribution of income and the dynamics of consumption and accumulation in rural societies. Leading Journal on Peasant Studies Re-launched The Journal of Peasant Studies was established in 1973 to explore these questions, and for over nearly four decades has provided a focus for debate. Over this period, it has become one of the leading journals in the field of rural development, aiming to provoke and promote multidisciplinary, critical thinking about social structures, institutions, actors and processes of change in and in relation to the rural world. This year the Journal has been re-launched. A new editor and editorial team have been appointed and the journal‟s orientation and editorial policy have been revised. The new editor, Jun Borras – Professor at St Mary‟s University, Canada, is actively involved in rural social movements internationally and has contributed substantially to scholarship on land reform and agrarian change, particularly in the context of the Philippines. He is supported by an Editorial Collective, which includes IDS Fellow, Ian Scoones. Highlighting contemporary controversies and policy issues in rural development The opening editorial of the new issue states that the journal will: „…encourage further inquiry into how agrarian power relations between classes and other social groups are created, understood, contested and transformed. The journal will pay special attention to questions of agency of marginalised groups in agrarian societies, particularly their autonomy and capacity to interpret – and change – their conditions. It will promote contributions that question mainstream prescriptions or interrogate orthodoxies in radical thinking. We encourage contributions about a wide range of contemporary and historical questions and perspectives related to rural politics and development.‟ 23


Félix´s Portafolio The latest issue is now available free to download and includes an array of articles defining a new focus for the study of rural politics and development. The opening article by Jun Borras sets the scene, locating contemporary debates about peasant societies in context. An article by Ian Scoones reviews rural livelihoods perspectives, and particularly the past decade‟s experience of using „sustainable livelihoods‟ approaches. Shahra Razavi explores the gendered dimensions of agrarian change, while Marc Edelman looks at the interactions between social movements and professional researchers. A series of articles also reflect on the longer-term history of „peasant studies‟, including Teodor Shanin on Chayanov, Henry Bernstein on Lenin and Chayanov and Terence Byres on the comparative historical experiences of agrarian transition in Britain, France and Prussia. In a forthcoming issue, a new „Grassroots Voices‟ section presents a collection of reflections on 'Everyday Forms of Political Expression' from a range of social movement activists, while a future book reviews section will contain a review essay on critical responses to the World Bank‟s World Development Report on agriculture

by

IDS

Fellow

Stephen

Devereux

and

colleagues.

The revamped journal aims to become the focus for debate and discussion about rural politics and development, and seeks to generate informed debate, comment and analysis – particularly encouraging contributions from younger scholars from the global south. The Journal aims to highlight contemporary controversies and policy issues, and explore them through a lens focused on agrarian politics and change. For example, a forthcoming conference, convened by the Journal, focuses on biofuels, land and agrarian change (pdf) and will examine how the transfer of land to use by biofuels has affected livelihoods, tenure security and agrarian relations, and the political economy of policies underlying such rural transformation. Future journal issues will include special sections of food sovereignty, agro-ecology movements and human rights and agrarian struggles. http://www.ids.ac.uk/go/news/peasant-politics-critical-perspectives-on-ruraldevelopment

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FÊlix´s Portafolio International perspectives on tourism-led development: some lessons for the SDIs Abstract The concept of tourism-led socio-economic development is neither new nor peculiar to South Africa. This study draws on the international experience of the Malindi-Mombasa coastal development corridor in Kenya, the Goa Coast of India, the Kulu Valley and Bhutan in the Himalayas, the Gambia, Dominica, Belize and the Maldives. It assesses the results achieved in these tourism programmes against the strategic objectives of those South African SDIs that place a heavy emphasis on the country's tourism potential. The SDIs, as described elsewhere in this collection, represent a new paradigm adopted by the South African government, aimed at moving away from a protected and isolated approach to economic development, towards one in which international competitiveness, regional cooperation and a more diversified ownership base are paramount. The key objectives of the tourism-led development corridors, including the Wild Coast and Lubombo SDIs, are to generate sustainable economic

growth

and

development;

generate

sustainable

long-term

employment creation; maximise the extent to which private sector investment and lending can be mobilised into the process; change the ownership base of the industry so that people previously excluded from the mainstream of the economy by discriminatory practices can play a meaningful role as workers, managers and owners of new tourism enterprises; and to exploit the opportunities that arise from new tourism and ecotourism developments for the creation of upstream and downstream business opportunities, especially small businesses owned by previously marginalised groups.

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a790995355&db=all

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FÊlix´s Portafolio Tourism and Entrepreneurship: International Perspectives Summary Tourism development provides an avenue for overall economic development and a boost for local entrepreneurship activities. As a result, the encouragement of entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism development has emerged as core areas for policy support and donor-assisted funding across both developed and the developing world. 'Tourism and Entrepreneurship:international perspectives' provides an innovative, fresh approach reflecting on the most recent trends in tourism development. The central stage of the book is the role of entrepreneurship in the context of regional/local tourism development. With contributions from key thinkers in the tourism and entrepreneurship area, it:* explains the impact of tourism entrepreneurship on places and overall regional /destination development; * examines the role of public sector in facilitating

the

need

of

sustainable tourism development;*

examines the effects and implications of funding schemes and support programmes beyond the immediate interest in the success or failure of the firm to encourage entrepreneurship; *explores specific issues, from the perspective of the owner / manager / entrepreneur; * contextualises developments in a tourism context against both their structural backdrop and against the dynamics of sustainable tourism development in other economic and cultural environments. Main features include:* Synthesis of tourism and entrepreneurship* Institutional and collective entrepreneurship in tourism development * Comprehensive analysis of tourism environment * Integrated international case studies based on reallife firms and tourism developments, from Uganda and Serbia to Slovenia and Australasia. http://ebooks.ebookmall.com/title/tourism-and-entrepreneurship-internationalperspectives-page-ateljevic-ebooks.htm

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FĂŠlix´s Portafolio Perspectives on Social Development Development is a function of societyâ€&#x;s capacity to organize human energies and productive resources to respond to opportunities and challenges. The paper traces the emergence of higher, more complex, more productive levels of social organization through the stages of nomadic hunting, rural agrarian, urban, commercial, industrial and post-industrial societies. It examines the process by which new activities are introduced by pioneers, imitated, resisted, accepted, organized, institutionalized and assimilated into the culture. Why does a society develop the way it does? by Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang "Why does a society develop the way it does?" by Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang" and "Summary of theories of change" is now at http://gsociology.icaap.org/report/summary2.htm

Also see reports on global change at http://gsociology.icaap.org/reports.html Comprehensive Theory of Social Development "Democracy raises human aspirations. It encourages individuals to take active initiative for their own advancement. It facilitates freer and wider social interactions. It releases greater social energy. It vastly increases the dissemination of information and the multiplication of new organizations. As the transition from monarchy to democracy was a catalyst for rapid economic advancement of Western countries over the past three centuries, the spread of democratic institutions today opens up greater possibilities for global expansion. Development theory needs to explain the dynamics of the process by which political and social conditions impact economic performance."

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Félix´s Portafolio Peasant Politics: Critical Perspectives on Rural Development 28 May 2009 'Peasant question'; central to study of rural development As agrarian systems the world over undergo massive change, the role of the smallholder within wider economic and political relations remains a key focus for academic study and policy debate. Since the days of Lenin and Chayanov, „the peasant question‟ has been central to the study of rural development. But today, there is not just one question, but many. The analytical and theoretical perspectives required to make sense of dramatic changes in rural settings due to globalisation, financial crises, land grabs and radical economic change have also shifted. No longer is there a standard Marxist critique, but a range of other perspectives, drawing on a more plural set of insights, knowledges and conceptual frames. But the basic questions at the heart of this long tradition in studies of rural development remain important. For any setting, we must ask who owns what, who gets what and what do they do with it? Social relations – notably class and gender - and politics – both of the state and wider social movements - inevitably govern the distribution of assets, patterns of work and divisions of labour, the distribution of income and the dynamics of consumption and accumulation in rural societies. Leading Journal on Peasant Studies Re-launched The Journal of Peasant Studies was established in 1973 to explore these questions, and for over nearly four decades has provided a focus for debate. Over this period, it has become one of the leading journals in the field of rural development, aiming to provoke and promote multidisciplinary, critical thinking about social structures, institutions, actors and processes of change in and in relation to the rural world. This year the Journal has been re-launched. A new editor and editorial team have been appointed and the journal‟s orientation and editorial policy have been revised. The new editor, Jun Borras – Professor at St Mary‟s University, Canada, is actively involved in rural social movements internationally and has contributed substantially to scholarship on land reform and agrarian change, particularly in the context of the Philippines. He is supported by an Editorial Collective, which includes IDS Fellow, Ian Scoones. Highlighting contemporary controversies and policy issues in rural development

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Félix´s Portafolio The opening editorial of the new issue states that the journal will: „…encourage further inquiry into how agrarian power relations between classes and other social groups are created, understood, contested and transformed. The journal will pay special attention to questions of agency of marginalised groups in agrarian societies, particularly their autonomy and capacity to interpret – and change – their conditions. It will promote contributions that question mainstream prescriptions or interrogate orthodoxies in radical thinking. We encourage contributions about a wide range of contemporary and historical questions and perspectives related to rural politics and development.‟ The latest issue is now available free to download and includes an array of articles defining a new focus for the study of rural politics and development. The opening article by Jun Borras sets the scene, locating contemporary debates about peasant societies in context. An article by Ian Scoones reviews rural livelihoods perspectives, and particularly the past decade‟s experience of using „sustainable livelihoods‟ approaches. Shahra Razavi explores the gendered dimensions of agrarian change, while Marc Edelman looks at the interactions between social movements and professional researchers. A series of articles also reflect on the longer-term history of „peasant studies‟, including Teodor Shanin on Chayanov, Henry Bernstein on Lenin and Chayanov and Terence Byres on the comparative historical experiences of agrarian transition in Britain, France and Prussia. In a forthcoming issue, a new „Grassroots Voices‟ section presents a collection of reflections on 'Everyday Forms of Political Expression' from a range of social movement activists, while a future book reviews section will contain a review essay on critical responses to the World Bank‟s World Development Report on agriculture by IDS Fellow Stephen Devereux and colleagues. The revamped journal aims to become the focus for debate and discussion about rural politics and development, and seeks to generate informed debate, comment and analysis – particularly encouraging contributions from younger scholars from the global south. The Journal aims to highlight contemporary controversies and policy issues, and explore them through a lens focused on agrarian politics and change. For example, a forthcoming conference, convened by the Journal, focuses on biofuels, land and agrarian change (pdf) and will examine how the transfer of land to use by biofuels has affected livelihoods, tenure security and agrarian relations, and the political economy of policies underlying such rural transformation. Future journal issues will include special sections of food sovereignty, agro-ecology movements and human rights and agrarian struggles. http://www.ids.ac.uk/go/news/peasant-politics-critical-perspectives-on-ruraldevelopment

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FÊlix´s Portafolio International perspectives on tourism-led development: some lessons for the SDIs Abstract The concept of tourism-led socio-economic development is neither new nor peculiar to South Africa. This study draws on the international experience of the Malindi-Mombasa coastal development corridor in Kenya, the Goa Coast of India, the Kulu Valley and Bhutan in the Himalayas, the Gambia, Dominica, Belize and the Maldives. It assesses the results achieved in these tourism programmes against the strategic objectives of those South African SDIs that place a heavy emphasis on the country's tourism potential. The SDIs, as described elsewhere in this collection, represent a new paradigm adopted by the South African government, aimed at moving away from a protected and isolated approach to economic development, towards one in which international competitiveness, regional cooperation and a more diversified ownership base are paramount. The key objectives of the tourism-led development corridors, including the Wild Coast and Lubombo SDIs, are to generate sustainable economic growth and development; generate sustainable long-term employment creation; maximise the extent to which private sector investment and lending can be mobilised into the process; change the ownership base of the industry so that people previously excluded from the mainstream of the economy by discriminatory practices can play a meaningful role as workers, managers and owners of new tourism enterprises; and to exploit the opportunities that arise from new tourism and ecotourism developments for the creation of upstream and downstream business opportunities, especially small businesses owned by previously marginalised groups. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a790995355&db=all

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FÊlix´s Portafolio Tourism and Entrepreneurship: International Perspectives Tourism and Entrepreneurship: International Perspectives Summary Tourism development provides an avenue for overall economic development and a boost for local entrepreneurship activities. As a result, the encouragement of entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism development has emerged as core areas for policy support and donor-assisted funding across both developed and the developing world. 'Tourism and Entrepreneurship:international perspectives' provides an innovative, fresh approach reflecting on the most recent trends in tourism development. The central stage of the book is the role of entrepreneurship in the context of regional/local tourism development. With contributions from key thinkers in the tourism and entrepreneurship area, it:* explains the impact of tourism entrepreneurship on places and overall regional /destination development; * examines the role of public sector in facilitating the need of sustainable tourism development;* examines the effects and implications of funding schemes and support programmes beyond the immediate interest in the success or failure of the firm to encourage entrepreneurship; *explores specific issues, from the perspective of the owner / manager / entrepreneur; * contextualises developments in a tourism context against both their structural backdrop and against the dynamics of sustainable tourism development in other economic and cultural environments. Main features include:* Synthesis of tourism and entrepreneurship* Institutional and collective entrepreneurship in tourism development * Comprehensive analysis of tourism environment * Integrated international case studies based on real-life firms and tourism developments, from Uganda and Serbia to Slovenia and Australasia. http://ebooks.ebookmall.com/title/tourism-and-entrepreneurship-internationalperspectives-page-ateljevic-ebooks.htm

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FĂŠlix´s Portafolio Perspectives on Social Development Development is a function of societyâ€&#x;s capacity to organize human energies and productive resources to respond to opportunities and challenges. The paper traces the emergence of higher, more complex, more productive levels of social organization through the stages of nomadic hunting, rural agrarian, urban, commercial, industrial and post-industrial societies. It examines the process by which new activities are introduced by pioneers, imitated, resisted, accepted, organized, institutionalized and assimilated into the culture. Why does a society develop the way it does? by Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang

"Why does a society develop the way it does?" by Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang" and "Summary of theories of change" is now at http://gsociology.icaap.org/report/summary2.htm Also see reports on global change at http://gsociology.icaap.org/reports.html Comprehensive Theory of Social Development "Democracy raises human aspirations. It encourages individuals to take active initiative for their own advancement. It facilitates freer and wider social interactions. It releases greater social energy. It vastly increases the dissemination of information and the multiplication of new organizations. As the transition from monarchy to democracy was a catalyst for rapid economic advancement of Western countries over the past three centuries, the spread of democratic institutions today opens up greater possibilities for global expansion. Development theory needs to explain the dynamics of the process by which political and social conditions impact economic performance."

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FÊlix´s Portafolio Local and international perspectives on development of tourism The arrival of tourists to Costa Rica in the first two months of 2010 exceeded the 9.5% recorded during the same period of 2009, which officials called today (18/03) as a "good omen" for the recovery sector after the international economic crisis. Data released today (18/03) by the Costa Rican Tourism Institute (ICT) indicate that between January and February this year the country was visited by a total of 428,233 tourists, 9.5% more than the 390,828 recorded in the same period of 2009 . Costa Rican Minister of Tourism, Allan Flores, told reporters that "these figures are similar to those recorded in early 2008, when tourism is still in the country had not suffered the impact of international economic crisis." Flores said that "these numbers bode well", but said that despite the recovery, "there are still regions and businesses affected by the drop in visitation recorded in 2009." The minister said that during the peak visitation is carburizing quite well "and said the country will establish its efforts in the coming months to promote not only international but also in local tourism. According to official data, visited Costa Rica last year 1.92 million tourists, 8% less than the 2.08 million who did so in 2008, when it set a record of visits to the Central American nation. Although no official growth projection for 2010, employers grouped in the National Chamber of Tourism (Canatur) estimate that the figure could be around 5%. Tourism is one of the main engines of the economy of Costa Rica, a country with 4.5 million inhabitants, employing 400,000 people directly and indirectly. This activity generates foreign exchange annually close to 2,000 billion, equivalent to 6.6% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Travel: great challenge for Laura Chinchilla

We are awaiting the proposal of Laura Chinchilla to revive tourism When Dona Laura take control of the country, we are starting a new season low, putting to tico, scary. The new government takes a problem in the field of tourism, in fact, is not the fault of any government official or the projection, or the next. The tourism problem is reduced to a simple matter of market forces: imbalance between supply and demand. Recently a meeting between a group of hoteliers Fortuna / Arenal with members of the executive and the National Bank. Area Employers demand that the government action before the crisis we face. However, we see the reality of the region: while the demand for tourist services fell by almost 10% in 2009, and probably not significantly increase by the year 2010, the supply of hotel rooms of 3 or more stars rose over 25% during the same period.

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FÊlix´s Portafolio In other words, the cake was made smaller and more we eat. The logical outcome is that the amount of cake for each is much smaller, and some went hungry. Seeing the reality in the field, presumably similar numbers in regions such as San Jose and Guanacaste. Until 2008 the demand for tourist services in Costa Rica exceeded supply, and the boom was between business partners. For 2010 we "turned the tables, and supply far exceeds demand. The solutions are logical but not easy to increase demand and / or reduce supply.

There is no miracle solution. Laura would be amazing if you donate can move his wand and grow the number of visitors immediately, by 20% to 25%. The outgoing ICT and tourism group surrounding Ms. Chinchilla are highly competent and knowledgeable in the subject and its problems, but we know that nobody has the miraculous potion. Opening new markets, attract new segments, and generate more tourists are a complicated business that requires time and investment. It is impossible to generate demand when it does not exist. The issue is not sent to minister to Beijing and expected 2 million Chinese visited a month later.

One must take into account that we live in a dynamic market and our competition is not idly watching their hotels empty. The fact that the ICT will increase the promotion does not mean that Mexico, the Caribbean or the rest of Central America are not doing likewise. If our source markets with economies remain weak, even increased advertising and marketing, we will not make up the numbers of visitors in the quantities we need. Again, fewer tourists looking for attractive offers worldwide.

The supply of hotel rooms and tourist services is steadily increasing, to join several factors. The Government and the market encouraged the construction of hotels during the decade of 2000, seeing a peak in the years 2007 to 2009. One must add to this effect lot of condominiums and residential projects on the beaches, which, by failing to buyers, were converted into hotel products, thus competing with established companies.

Legally there is no mechanism to reduce the number of rooms available, the only way to achieve this reduction would be forcing some hotels and condominiums to bankruptcy for failing to meet their bank obligations. The political and social cost of this proposal is high, and is a solution that any incoming government would take. In short, neither is easy to increase demand, nor is it feasible to supply reduction. The despair of finding a solution sector has led to price wars without quarter. There are important studies from prestigious institutions such as Cornell University show that the drop in prices did not increase demand. So,

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FÊlix´s Portafolio after sticks, horns. We not only have fewer tourists now have less overall income.

The table is set for Dona Laura and competent group of experts. The task is not enviable: revive a sector in crisis facing oversupply and stagnant demand. We must fight against market forces. A formidable challenge for a new group of rulers. However, inaction is no solution. The issue affects the national economy and tourism remains the main source of employment, especially in rural areas. We were, then, pending the Administration proposal Chinchilla, hopefully creative, expeditious and dynamic.

Send me by Miss Evelyn Benavides

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FÊlix´s Portafolio Ministers of Tourism CA: good prospect in 2010 Tourism Ministers from Central displayed good prospects for this sector next year, which is one of the main ratings on completion on Friday in Managua, the Meeting of Central American Tourism Council (CCT). The Nicaragua Tourism Minister Mario Salinas, described as positive his meeting with his colleagues in the region and the meeting of the Ad-hoc work for the creation of the Association of Caribbean Cruise Destinations (ADCC), the attended by representatives from 13 countries. Salvadoran Tourism Minister Napoleon Duarte, said that at present the prospects for next year are positive, despite that 2009 "has not been an easy year, it has been difficult for our industry and markets, which have been impacted by the global economic crisis, which occurred initially in the United States. " He said the tourism industry to Central America recorded 5.3 million tourists and average income by the 3000 order of $ 219 million. "In regional terms compared with 2007 there are good news, because 2007 was a different condition to 2008 and if we compare the figures in the last three years and averages, we have a six percent growth," noted the minister Salvadoran . "This is good for our countries, but especially when we begin to see everyday expenses, foreign exchange and average stays (from visitors), each of these indicators tell us that the industry has remained reasonably the last three years, "he said. He also said that there are interesting investment projects and cooperation in interaction between the private and public sector, which promises good dividend for next year. Achievements in the region Among the achievements of this year, citing the truism of Central Fair, held in El Salvador, which was described as successful in investigations and evaluations to be

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FÊlix´s Portafolio made later, which encouraged them to do another edition in Guatemala in 2010. "We will have the opportunity to collect all these fruits to Central America," Duarte said, stressing that the benefits to all sectors involved in tourism. He stressed that the dissemination of tourism resources of Central America will have a big impact with the Amadeus project, which he described some interesting project information that will lead to benefits for all countries. Duarte said market research shows that tourism will have a great power in the areas of adventure tourism, with regard to the culture and history and also the activity which can preserve the environment. Cruise with great potential For his part, Michael Singh, representative of the Belize Tourism Minister, highlighted the great potential that represents Cruise Tourism in Central America and highlighted the creation of the Association of Caribbean Cruise Destinations. "It is important, because the cruises are new to this region, that tourism growth will be positive. This area is new for such visitors, offers many different interesting things, and we think that in the future will increase, "he said. He felt that cruise tourism will generate a million and half visitors this year and highlighted major investments have been made in Honduras and Panama, to encourage this activity. Reported on the island of Roatan in Honduras's two main cruise companies in the world have invested a little under a million dollars in infrastructure and this investment has attracted some 500 000 visitors. He has created many jobs in the area of tourism, services and attractions as well as direct taxes to Honduras. At the end of this year, Belize will have received approximately 700 000 visitors from cruise tourists, he said. He emphasized that in Nicaragua there are many opportunities for tourism development potential Cruises on both coasts, Pacific and Caribbean 37


FÊlix´s Portafolio The destinations around the world recorded a total of 600 million arrivals, International tourist arrivals in the whole world fell by 7% between January and August 2009, but the rate of decline has eased in recent months. These results and recent economic data, confirm earlier prediction of OMT decreased by 5% international tourist arrivals over the year 2009. For 2010, the WTO expects moderate growth. The destinations around the world recorded a total of 600 million arrivals, down from 643 million in the same period in 2008. Arrivals in the two months of high season of July and August decreased by 3% compared with a decrease of 8% in the first half of the year, and available data for September point to a continuation of this upward trend. The confidence index of the WTO also is improving after two periods in a historically low level. The experts surveyed more than 330 worldwide by the WTO confirmed that the trust is to collect. In the most recent survey, the percentage of experts with a negative prognosis for the next four months has fallen from 62% to 42% while 30% of the experts, the prospects are 'equal' and 28% are "best "or" much better. " "Throughout this year, the tourism industry worldwide is facing many challenges, from the global economic crisis, the credit crisis and rising unemployment, not to mention the flu pandemic. Rarely in the history of recorded tourism industry had to deal with so many different issues at once, "said UNWTO Secretary-General Taleb Rifai interim. "However, the negative trend that emerged during the second half of 2008 and intensified in 2009 is beginning to show signs of shrinking," he added. Tourism earnings suffer a little more arrivals in order to provide closer monitoring of the market during these difficult times, OMT is the first time gives an estimate on international tourism receipts for the year. As experience in previous crises, tourism earnings have been a little more arrivals and consumers tend to trade closer to home stay and travel for shorter periods of time. International tourism receipts are estimated to have shrunk in real terms by 9 to 10% in the first half of 2009, ie 1-2 percentage points below the decline in international arrivals during that period (-8%). Regional overview The results for the first eight months of 2009 show that international tourist arrivals declined in all regions, except Africa, which tighten the global trend. Europe, Middle East and the Americas were the hardest hit: in Europe (8%) were the most affected destinations in Central and Eastern Europe, but the results of all other subregions were close to the Media. Asia and the Pacific (-5%) shows the clearest signs of improvement and positive growth in August, driven by the encouraging results of Northeast Asia. 38


FÊlix´s Portafolio In the Americas (-7%) there is still no clear indications of an investment in the current trend of decline. Growth is still quite negative during the second quarter as well as in the months of July and August. South America has so far shown the best performance (-1%). The Middle East (-8%), although still well below the growth levels of previous years, saw a change to the positive growth between June and September (data for the region are quite volatile due to the influence of major religious events tourism flows). Growth in Africa (+4%) was very positive, given the current difficult environment. Moderate recovery The projections for 2010 the softening in the rate of decline in recent months is expected to continue for the remainder of the year. As this is in line with the WTO's initial projection for the entire year forecast for international tourist arrivals is maintained at between-6% a-4%. Given the high level of correlation between growth in arrivals and receipts for the whole of 2009 receipts are expected to decline by 6-8%. OMT Initial projections for 2010 indicate that international tourist arrivals are likely to witness a modest recovery next year, with growth at + 1% + 3%. This perspective reflects the gradual improvement of international tourism numbers in recent months and economic indicators in some markets of the main sources of better than expected. sia show the strongest rebound, while Europe and America will likely take longer to recover. Africa is expected to remain in positive territory as in 2009, with an additional boost to the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa. Growth is also expected to return to the region. The end of the recession in a number of key markets is good news. But 2010 will be a difficult year. The risks associated with influenza virus A (H1N1) remain on the horizon and it is expected that the pace of economic recovery would be modest. The IMF projects world economic growth to +3.1%, but this will be fairly slow in the advanced economies (+1.3%) and stronger for emerging markets (+5.1%). Unemployment, a lagging indicator, is expected to increase further in many countries this year and throughout 2010. They are likely to progressively stimulus measures, and in a number of advanced economies, possible tax increases may put additional pressure on household budgets. On the positive side, consumer confidence is showing signs of picking and interest rates and inflation expected to remain low. Tourist arrivals in the world and each region is the best indicator of trend, the numbers indicate that increased from 800 to 900 million in two years. In 2007, it is estimated that international tourist arrivals 39


FÊlix´s Portafolio increased by 6%, which has achieved a new record: nearly 900 million arrivals (an impressive result given that only two years before he had reached maximum historic 800 million). That amounts to 52 million arrivals in 2006, significantly higher than the total volume of the Middle East or Africa. In fact, world tourism enjoyed in 2007 the fourth consecutive year of growth above the average expected long-term (4.1%) with an amazing growth rate higher than those recorded in 2005 and 2006 (5.5%). The growth of the economy and tourism are being driven by emerging markets. While markets continue to mature as the first worldwide destinations, the faster increase of new markets confirms the UNWTO's central message about the potential of tourism to the developing world ", refers the investigation. Visits by leading countries of our region and Mexico with Argentina 21.353 million: 4.156 million Dominican Republic: 3.965 million Puerto Rico: 3722. Chile: 2.276 million Cuba: 2.150.000 Uruguay: 1.749 million (based on 2006 statistics) That is the barometer of the WTO? The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer is an activity undertaken by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). By doing regular monitoring of tourism trends in the short term, WTO aims to provide adequate and updated information to all those involved directly or indirectly in the tourism sector. The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer is published three times a year (January, June and October). Each issue contains three permanent elements: an overview of the data on the statistical trends of tourism in the short period of receiving and sending countries and air transport, the results of the latest survey by the Expert Group on Tourism UNWTO providing an evaluation and a prospective analysis of the results of short-term tourism and economic data selected for their relevance to tourism. The aim of future editions of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer will be to expand and improve coverage gradually. The development of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer is carried out by the Department of Market Intelligence and Promotion of the WTO, with the assistance of the consultant Nancy Cockerell. The WTO Secretariat wishes to express its sincere gratitude to all those who participated in drafting the WTO World Tourism Barometer, in particular all institutions that have provided data and members of the Group of Experts on Tourism of the WTO, for their valuable contribution. For more information and previous issues, see the section "Facts and Figures" on the WTO website at the address.

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Félix´s briefcase - Readings