‘ F L O AT I N G I N S PA C E ’ EMMA SJÖHOLM Design Report AR3005 2021
TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Introduction...............................................3 Critical Reflection ....................................6 Faith + Interviews Briefs .......................................................14 Sites .........................................................16 Perth road Kwik Fit Westfield Lane Roseangle Unit Groupwork......................................22 Typology Positive Space Environment First Impressions Materials Vista Focal points Enclosure Personal Response Bathhouse Typology ...............................38 The Sauna The Sweat Lodge The Hammam The Sento The Mud Bath Hydro Therapy Programme Development ......................46 Initial Ideas Exploring two sites Perth Road Kwik Fit Chosen Site Site Analysis ............................................54 Kwik Fit Existing Structure Sun Analysis Proposal Development ...........................64 Redefining the Brief New vs. Old Development Formative Scheme Design Reviews Extroverted/Introverted Activities Development Design Theory
Technology ..............................................96 Technical Workshops Environment Pool Structure Precedents .............................................108 Tsingpu Yangzhou Retreat Suzhou Chapel The Weather Project Thereme Vals Vertical Baths Faithlie Centre Warehouse in Ageo Homerton Dining Hall Kogneyu Alfriston Swimming Pool Freemen’s School Swimming Pool Hydrothermal Centre ‘Aquavox’ Notre-Dame du Haut Yasuragi Between Thinking and Making ...........142 The Tactility of Space Preferred Compositions The Outcome ........................................146 Context Ground Floor Basement Floor Sections Materials Structure Extroverted/Introverted Roof and Ceiling The Guiding Light MP&L...................................................174 Overall Concept Design & Planning Issues Technical Design, Building Warrant and Integrated Environmental Strategy Cost Related To Design Co-Professionals and Business Models Health and Safety Conclusion.............................................184 References .............................................186 List of Figures .......................................188
Filip was on his way home after a long day in the architecture studio on Perth Road. It was raining outside, and it had been one of those days when everything seemed to be falling apart, almost as if he was simply just floating in space. He kept walking up the street and noticed the newly built bathhouse where the old Kwik Fit garage used to be. The weathered-steel-clad building was sitting there, quite modest like it had been there since forever. The building had long intrigued him, and his friend Robin, a regular at the bathhouse, told him it was not only a great place for making new acquaintances, but also a place for self-realisation. After a moment’s consideration, the warm light penetrating the glass-box finally made him enter through the brick wall that had once been the garage, and walked into the new building envelope. He was greeted with a view of a small bar area, where are few elderly women were chatting about their day, and from where he also got a glimpse of the Sento-inspired bathing space behind the seating area. He walked up to the reception, which was part of the bar, and continued into the changing rooms to the left. The changing rooms had a warm tone to them; the birch plywood on the lockers gave the space a relaxing and informal atmosphere. After changing into his swim trunks, he took his towel and walked into the bathing area. He stopped for a second to take in the timber structure which made up the roof. The light shining through the apertures above the ceiling plane and the shadows created by the rafters made the space come to life. The brick wall enclosing the space made Filip think of the area’s industrial past, and how he was standing in this historically important part of the city. He sat down in the warm water next to a few men, and his mind started to wonder; he asked himself the question: how do I fit into this space?
Fig 1. View of the sauna looking into the courtyard.
“Profound architecture makes us experience ourselves as complete embodied and spiritual beings. In fact, this is the great function of all meaningful art” Juhani Pallasmaa
FA I T H + When mentioning the word ‘faith’, one’s mind might immediately think of the word ‘religion’ and places the two in the same box, almost making them synonymic. However, this notion of using the two as synonyms, is not always correct, and, though they might circumstantially describe the same thing, they have different meanings. Religion is according to Yuval Noah Harrai in his book Sapiens – A Brief History of Humankind “a system of human norms and values that is founded on a belief in a superhuman order” (2011, p. 234). Faith, on the other hand, has a more open interpretation. The Cambridge Dictionary defines it as follows: 1. Great trust or confidence in something or someone 2. A particular religion 3. Strong belief in God or a particular religion Now, in this project the first definition will have substantial value in determining the approach to this architectural brief. There are plenty of religious organisations and institutions in Dundee providing services and community for those within that religion, however, there are not very many places for individuals who do not identify with a specific religion and these individuals are therefore left without ‘sacred’ space. This proposal will therefore create spaces which will allow individuals to connect with themselves, a community, or whatever higher power they might feel connected to. After asking 7 people from three different continents about their religious beliefs and if they feel connected to the ‘divine’ outside of their place of worship, it was obvious that some people no longer feel a need to attend religious events to connect to something godly. They feel closer with themselves and their own beliefs when spending time in nature, in a forest or by the sea. Historically speaking religions has evolved from animism to polytheism to monotheism, depending on the human behaviour and needs at the time (Harrai, 2011, p. 233-244). Is it possible to imagine the world, with knowledge ready at hand thanks to the internet, moving towards a new era, where finding trust within oneself is becoming the new meaning of faith, and if so, how can architecture be used as a tool to allow for this connection to self? Since this is a project of architecture it is not possible to design a forest or a beach, but the proposal attempts to identify the elements in nature and in existing places of worship that emphasise this connection to that ‘something bigger’. A part of this investigation is to look into a few architectural precedents and see how the structure is used to make this connection to ‘divinity’, and how artists such as Olafur Elisasson is using art as a medium to create ‘the space in-between’. Juhani Pallasmaa describes this idea as follows: “The ultimate meaning of any building is beyond architecture; it directs our consciousness back to the world and towards our own sense of self and being. Profound architecture makes us experience ourselves as complete embodied and spiritual beings. In fact, this is the great function of all meaningful art” (Pallasmaa, 2012, p. 13)
This quote sums up the key idea behind this proposal, in how the visitor is unconsciously controlled by the architecture in a way that makes them aware of their own existence. How to physically (or theoretically) achieve this ‘space in-between’ has not been a clear route; the idea of connecting the proposal to nature seemed important, but how does one make an urban site in Dundee a part of ‘Mother Earth’? One answer to this question is water. Water is the one thing that is essential for all beings on the planet, the thing 60% of our bodies are made of, and the one thing we cannot go more than three days without. Water also happens to be strongly associated with mythology in many cultures and the ritual of cleansing can be found in lots of traditions around the world. For instance, the Finnish sauna is associated with the Saunatonttu (Sauna Elf) which guards the sauna and makes sure the bathers are following the sauna rules. The process of throwing water on the hot rocks, is what the Finns call ‘löyly’, meaning ‘spirit’, referring to the steam rising from the stones. Similarly, the Mesoamerican sweat lodge ‘Temazcal’ is a place where the steam thrown onto the rocks is supposed to chase the demons away. This strong connection between bathing and spirituality made the project take the shape of a bathhouse. Historically the bathhouse typology has been significant for creating a sense of community, taking the Japanese sentō and the Roman baths as examples. In the article: A new sauna culture: Reimagining the bathhouse as a community space, Jane Withers describes role of bathhouses in society as follows: “Although the bathhouses belong to different cultures, typologies and traditions, they have in common a belief in bathing as a catalyst to creating community. The Japanese describe this affiliation between bathers as “brothers in the skin.” (The Globe and Mail, 2016) With the influence of hydrotherapy and the healing benefits of a bathhouse, both mental and physical, the project has evolved into something more of a healing place, fully equipped with a small bar area, a shallow pool for socialising, a journey though the baths which changes in temperature and atmosphere, and a small spa area. The bar and shallow pool encourage more extroverted behaviour, and in doing so, they create a sense of community. The journey through the baths is symbolic to the journey of finding oneself, and how one sometimes feels like one is simply floating in space, without direction or purpose. The idea is to have ‘a guiding light’ leading the way from one space to the next. The spa is for people to embrace nudity and appreciate and accept themselves with the help of mud baths, sweat lodges, and hammams. The structure is also represented in these floors separated by extroverted and introverted behaviour. The social aspect is a tectonic timber structure, making one think of a sunny day in the forest where the sun is shining through the treetops. The lower floor, on the other hand, is a stereotomic concrete structure, making one feel the heavy weight of the load bearing elements holding up the structure. The cave-like atmosphere is further emphasised in how this floor is partially buried into the ground.
Situated on Perth Road, Dundee, where the existing garage ‘Kwik Fit’ is located, one of the key design moves is to retain parts of the old structure and use this as the main design force for defining the new building envelope. The idea is to retain the brick wall as a type of relic host structure where ‘its significance is in the recall of a memory: an event, history, a period of time’ (Wong, 2017, p.118). The wall will allow the proposal to create a bridge between the new and the old, making the visitor aware of the industrial past of the area. The combination of weathered steel cladding and the retained wall framing a glass-box entrance, makes the proposal appear almost as an old warehouse, forgotten about to society; reflecting how the bathhouse typology, too, has been slumbered on for many years.
Fig 2. Design process diagram.
Fig. 3. Concept image: Light shining though the treetops into the underground cave.
I N T E RV I E W S
This interview consists of 7 different people from different cultures and religious backgrounds. However, to get a more objective analysis, the backgrounds of these individuals will remain unknown. For the sake of privacy all names have been changed. 1. What does religion or faith mean to you? 2. Do you ever experience a connection to the divine outside of your place of worship, and if so, can you identify which element(s) allows for this connection?
Q 1. Religion to me is believing in something bigger than us, having faith and trusting HIS process and challenges that he gives us 2. When unexpected things happen, like meeting a lover that you’ve never even talked to before as though you were destined for each other. When small blessings happen for example being healthy despite the pandemic etc.
M 1. Faith for me is all about relationship. I personally don’t like using the word religion. My faith is all about getting to know God personally and, through him, spread his love unconditionally to everyone around me. 2. I don’t need to be in a specific building to feel close to God. To be fair, I feel most connected to God when I’m home alone and not distracted by anything. For me, it’s all about having a one on one conversation with him discussing everyday life. K 1. Religion and the divine means safety for me. I find comfort in there being a ‘divine force’, a sort of code which can be visible in the patterns of shells or in the golden ratio, for instance. I also think it means calmness and affinity. As humans we have a need for an explanation to things, and if there is no ‘logical’ explanation to it, we find peace in there being something bigger behind it all. 2. I feel connected to a ‘divine force’ by the ocean, in the forest or in natures forces (nature has a strong connection to the divine in my opinion.) Open spaces with an atmospheric light or powerful acoustics can also contribute to this feeling of being connected to the divine.
E 1. It is an approach; for example, I do not believe it is a coincidence that we are here, and since we are here we have been given freedom, but freedom comes with responsibility, and this responsibility can be kindness which can be linked to a religious moral. 2. Yes, it can be a feeling. Wonder makes me feel connected to something divine, and this wonder is a feeling of calmness which can be felt by the sea, on my terrace, or at work if I bond with someone in a group project. It can also be felt through certain types of music. A side comment: If I got to pick a place of worship, I would choose the Johannes Kapell in Jakobstad, Finland. It is a simple and stripped back chapel which allows me to think and express my feelings. If I compare it to the Notre-Dame de Paris, I think “wow, what a beautiful building!” when I enter the cathedral, but it is the building which draws my attention, and not my own connection to the divine. There is room for me in a small church, but not in a big one. B 1. Last source of hope and conservatism. 2. When I am near real nature or when I see life happening at its purest moments like the birth of a baby or the death of a loved one. I think it is often related to the “raw” we experience, the stuff that have been happening and existing way before we were this evolved P 1. It means a way of living, many people get into so they can find people with the same thoughts of life. Also, it’s a way to take care of your mental health, looking for answers and strength to get throw life. Lifestyle, brotherhood, mental care. 2. To be outside, with people that you like, sharing experiences and making you feel good represents a blessing. Sharing, friendship
L 1. It provides safety and comfort in difficult situations. It is a comfort to have a foundation of faith when it comes to happy moments, such as marriage, and sad moments, such as funerals, which Christianity for instance provides. Otherwise, religion helps me identify my ‘base’ values; the values found in my everyday life. In other words, religion for me is not about going to church, it is more a guidance and a way for me to work towards my values: diversity, equality, and inclusion. Small things in everyday life make a difference and help me in working towards the greater good. I appreciate that some elements from religion is incorporated in civil law. 2. Yes, in nature. There is a lot of nature around Jakobstad, my hometown, and this closeness to nature has made me appreciate its beauty. I have an interest in science and I am particularly intrigued in learning how everything works and find a beauty in how this is expressed in nature. For instance, when I am walking or cycling in nature, I can observe it beauty, especially if I am alone in a forest or by the sea, I can observe the starts and feel that I am a small part of the universe and feel grateful for being part of it. It can almost be compared to a religious feeling, where I find meaning and appreciation for my own existence, for the odds of me being me are infinitely small.
K 1. For me, religion means the things that hold certain people together and philosophical way to pursue true happiness ( as a Buddhist I may have a different view from Christians) 2. I don’t really worship and there’s no god in Buddhism, so not really. But, I feel like I’m a part of something bigger in the universe when I’m alone with nature
Fig. 58. Collage: what is faith?
WELLBEING “We ask you to explore, conceive, develop and demonstrate life enhancing design proposals for urban spaces and community architecture which enable medical professionals, social groups and the public to work towards the common goal of improving the health, wellbeing and outlook of society. Informed by precedent research the brief for a Centre for Wellbeing presents the opportunity to develop a building that creates a new forum and facility for health in the community.” Fig. 4 Sport and Wellbeing centres in the area.
(RE)MAKE + “ We therefore ask you to consider a multidisciplinary centre for making that draws industry, academia and the professions together with the community. This creative community must balance innovation with environmental responsibility and embrace tradition and craft.”
Fig 5. Make and craft centres in the area.
FA I T H + “...Can such varied requirements be successfully housed under one roof? Is it appropriate to even try? The brief provides you with the opportunity to consider questions such as this as well as pursuing a centre for any chosen faith or simply a centre for the community with a “sacred” space. Where you align yourself on this spectrum is entirely personal and should be supported by relevant precedent research.” Fig 6. Religious institutions in the area.
Fig 7. Possible sites.
Site options: 1. Perth Road 2. Kwik Fit 3. Westfield Lane 4. Roseangle
1 . P E RT H R O A D
Fig 8. Image of Perth Rd site
Fig 8. Sketch of Perth Rd site
Fig. 10. Figure-ground of site location.
Pros: • Situated on the busy Perth Road, a street filled with life and activity • No existing building on site; more ‘freedom’ • Multiple religious institutions on Perth Road or nearby; strong case for faith + brief • Multiple creative institutions on Perth Road or nearby; strong case for make + brief Cons: • Perth Road is busy and therefore not the site best suited for a Wellbeing Centre. • No existing structure; retrofit project not possible Ideal brief for this site: Faith + or Make + because of their strong link to existing institutions in the area and both briefs benefit from the liveliness of a busy street.
2. KWIK FIT
Fig 11. Image of Kwik Fit site
Fig 12. Sketch of site Kwik Fit
Fig. 13. Figure-ground of site location.
Pros: • Situated on the busy Perth Road, a street filled with life and activity • Existing structure on site; possible retrofit project • Multiple religious institutions on Perth Road or nearby; strong case for faith + brief • Multiple creative institutions on Perth Road or nearby; strong case for make + brief Cons: • Perth Road is busy and therefore not the site best suited for a Wellbeing Centre. • Existing structure to take into consideration; not a much ‘freedom’ (Though existing structure is not listed) • Significant level change from top to bottom of site; might complicate construction Ideal brief for this site: Faith + or Make + because of their strong link to existing institutions in the area and both briefs benefit from the liveliness of a busy street. 19
3. WESTFIELD LANE
Fig 14. Image of Westfield Ln site
Fig 15. Sketch of Westfield Ln site
Fig. 16. Figure-ground of site location.
Pros: • Situated in Roseangle, a quieter residential area • No existing structure on site: more ‘freedom’ • Close to Magdalen Green; possible way to encourage exercise and spending time outdoor Cons: • Not as lively as Perth Road; not as easy to attract attention to proposal • No existing structure; retrofit project not possible • No strong connections to faith or creative institutions Ideal brief for this site: Wellbeing due to how quiet the site is and its closeness to the green.
Fig 17. Image of Roseangle site
Fig 18. Sketch of Roseangle site
Fig. 19. Figure-ground of site location.
Pros: • Situated in Roseangle, a quieter residential area • Existing structure on site; possible retrofit project • Close to Magdalen Green; possible way to encourage exercise and spending time outdoor • Connection to existing church nearby Cons: • Not as lively as Perth Road; not as easy to attract attention to proposal • Existing listed building which limits ‘freedom’ • No strong connection to any creative institutions Ideal brief for this site: Wellbeing due to how quiet the site is and its closeness to the green. Site could also be suited for a faith + project because of the nearby religious institution and the street is slightly busier than the residential area. 21
E N G L (type) ISH
mid 19th century
TYPOLOGY mid 19 century th
D E F I N I T I O N --
typology is the classification of physical characteristics commonly found in buildings and urban places.
“To raise the question of typology in architecture is to raise a question of the nature of the architectural work itself. To answer it means for each generation, a redefinition of the essence of architecture and an explanation of all its attendant problems.” Typology is used within architecture to describe the differences within buildings. Within Roseangle we analyse the different typologies in the form of the several different forms of structure found within our site. These range from tenement buildings to detached villas. All incorporating different characteristics to fit their surroundings and contextual issues. The diagrams to the left represent the journey and redefinition of a structure throughout multiple iterations. The variety and change within these diagrams potentially highlight the adaptations needed to overcome certain physical and theoretical challenges. It is these changes that allow for the specific typologies to be created within architecture as each structure must overcome its own individual challenges to create a meaningful and suitable piece of design.
typology i characteris and urban
Tenements are made up of housing blocks stacked on top of each other, similar to terrace housing they often make up rows that line the street print. Specific to the tenement type some buildings offer the ground floor as retail.
The industrial type presents itself as large in scale, low in hight and with large floor coverage. Green space is traded for parking, to allow access for its multiple users, details are unassuming and materials are similar, using industrial in their aesthetic.
Villas stand alone and are often stepped back from the street in their own garden or green space. In the West End area the majority of villas are towards the bottom of the hill near Magdalen Green. Many of the older villas run along the road parallel to the green allowing them views out across the Tay. Terraced housing sees the single house block attached to other blocks and arranged in rows. This results in full streets flanked in this type of housing. Terraced housing is seen throughout the west end area is concentrated near the middle, between Perth Road and Magdalen Green.
Miller’s Wynd, car park
Westfield Lane, car park and greenery
Magdalen Green, public park 27
ENVIRONMENT spring - summer . spring - summer . spring - summer .
environmental analysis . environmental analysis . environmental analysis .
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Scan QR code to see how light and shadows change from one season to the other.
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environmental analysis .
Stone + Lime The East End retained the basic materials of stone and lime which can be seen throughout the street scape of Dundee.
Slate + Iron Due to the growing numbers of residential housing and new developments a more modern approach of materials is introduced in Dundee’s local architecture.
Timber + Lead
In some areas, an alternative use of materials is introduced, creating a diverse architecture throughout Dundee.
Virw from Perth Road
Secondary streets leading one towards Magdalen Green.
The slope makes it easier to move downhill, towards Magdalen Green.
Narrow streets create an anticipation for what lies around the corner, making one move forward, towards Magdalen Green.
Gravitating towards Magdalen Green Situated on a slope, the natural flow and movement of Rosangle is directed downhill, towards Magdalen Green, an extensive green space. The smaller secondary streets allow for an intriguing, calm experience and lead one off the busy Perth Road, where the framed vistas and the horizontal focal points of the river Tay pull one into the narrow lanes. These smaller urban spaces create a journey of enclosure and scale when the typology changes and the narrow streets make the observer anticipate something vast and open, making every turn filled with the hope of experiencing the juxtaposition between enclosure and openness. One is finally rewarded with this experience when Roseangle comes to an end, and a wide public space opens up in front of the observer.
The Vertical and the Horizontal When walking through Dundee, one’s eyes are either drawn to the Church towers, chimneys or the hills on the other side of the Tay. One can therefore draw the conclusion that Dundee has two strong elements: the vertical and the horizontal axes. Here one can see the tower of Gate Church International on Perth Road as the vertical focal point, and the River Tay as the horizontal focus point.
lle Mi nd Wy r’s
5. st We ld fie e
A journey through the streets The changing typology makes one experience the urban spaces differently; scale and enclosure change depending on the variations in the vertical and horizontal axes.
Cross section through car park.
2. Cross section though tenement housing and open space. Secondary street.
3. Cross section though tenement housing and tenement housing. Primary Street.
4. Cross section though villa and terraced housing. Secondary street.
5. Cross section though villa and villa. Secondary street
6. Moving through the sections from Miller’s Wynd towards Westfield Place. 35
“Enclosure sums up the polarity of legs and wheels. It is the basic unit of the precinctual pattern; outside, the noise and speed of impersonal communication which comes and goes but is not of any place. Inside, the quietness and human scale of the square, quad or courtyard. This is the end product of traffic, this is the place to which traffic brings you. Without enclosure traffic becomes nonsense.” (Cullen, 1961, p. 25)
Fig. 54. Dundee.
Fig. 55. Image of the existing brick wall on Kwik Fit site
Taking this analysis forward, the project aims to continue the investigation of typology specific to the Roseangle area, and more specifically explore how the bathhouse typology will fit into this context. It aims to answer the question: how can the bathhouse typology be used as a catalyst for creating community and a journey of self-realisation in the context of Dundee?
Fig. 56. Bathhouse.
B AT H H O U S E T Y P O L O G Y
Fig. 59. Gallen-Kallela. Saunassa (In the sauna). Oil painting. 1889
‘There has been an extraordinarily rich architecture and culture associated with communal bathing since ancient times. With the arrival of the private bathroom and a more clinical approach to sanitation and wellbeing, we have lost this leisurely sense of the bathhouse as a place not just for wellbeing and relaxation but also a place for social exchange and community life. Gone too is the sensorial dimension of an architecture of stillness and reflection, designed to be seen floating, or through a veil of steam.” (Roca London Gallery, 2016)
The traditional Finnish Sauna is a place for relaxation where one is expected to behave the same way as one would in a church. According to Finnish mythology there is a Saunatonttu (Sauna Elf) guarding the sauna and making sure the bathers are following the sauna rules. The sauna is an important part of Finnish culture and has historically been an essential part for community life. (RIBAJ, 2020)
Fig. 60-61. Concept images of the sauna typology.
T H E S W E AT L O D G E
The sweat lodge is native to Mesoamerica and made to facilitate spiritual cleaning. The steam bath was used by the Mayans as a way to rid the body of toxins and a way to reconnect with nature. This is usually a simple igloo-like structure where the shamans pour herb-infused water over hot volcanic rocks, making the dome fill with a fragrant steam. (culture trip, 2016)
Fig. 62-63. Concept images of the sweat lodge typology.
The Moroccan hammam is not just a place for washing and cleansing, but also a social place for catching up with friends. Bathers are usually equipped with cleansing olive oil soap for the washing. The hammam requires full nudity where men and women are separated. (culture trip, 2016)
Fig. 64-65. Concept images of the hammam typology.
The Japanese sento is a public bathhouse where men and women are separated with a free-standing wall. Traditionally found in the sento is a painted mural of Mount Fuji and pools varying in temperature. After a bathing the visitors usually gather outside to enjoy a cup of green tea. (culture trip, 2016
Fig. 66-67. Concept images of the sento typology.
T H E M U D B AT H
The mud bath has been common around the world for many centuries, dating back to the days of Cleopatra and is known to have several health benefits including detoxifying and drawing out impurities, softening skin, improving circulation, and easing aches and pains. The mud bath is usually experienced completely naked, and the baths are usually heated up to body temperature. (Travel to Wellness)
Fig. 68-69. Concept images of the mud bath typology.
”And yet, while the medical benefits promised by sauna advocates are entirely spurious, the intoxicating quality of the experience is undeniable. And so the idea that the spirit world comes within touching distance through the steam rising from the heated rocks in the sweat lodge, for instance, or the pre-Christian tradition that a Bannik or bath spirit haunts the Slavic banya, may have some physiological basis.” (The Architectural Review, 2018) The healing benefits of water, physical and mental, are many and vary with the change in temperature. A few of the healing benefits of cold and hot water are listed below: Cold - - - - - - - - -
Decreased inflammation and swelling Reduced muscle soreness and fatigue Lowered cortisol levels Improved circulation Reduced pain Stimulates immune system Tightens the skin Reduce hair loss Accelerates metabolism
Hot - - - - - - -
Improved cardiovascular health Reduced muscle soreness and fatigue Improved brain health Better blood flow to joints and muscles Improved sleep Removes toxins from skin Acts as a nasal decongestant
Fig. 70-72. Programme development.
This project is not targeted towards a particular religion or faith, it is an analysis of self-realisation and finding faith within oneself. It is an exploration of the individual and the individual’s beliefs, regardless of religious orientation, and how one can find a connection to ‘that something bigger’ without being situated in a traditional place of worship.
EXPLORING TWO SITES
After investigating each site, the two sites on Perth Road (sites 1 and 2) are the top candidates for the chosen brief. The busy street provides an opportunity to draw people into the public spaces of the proposal and allows for a strong connection to faith and religion with multiple other religious organisations nearby. The two sites also offer a great change in level, which can be useful for creating a bathhouse with intimate spaces where the aim is to make the visitors feel more connected to themselves. Creating spaces underground makes it more difficult for natural light to reach these rooms, but also allows for more creative solutions in letting light into these intimate spaces.
1. Perth Roa
Fig. 73-74. Perth Rd and Kwik fit sites in context.
1 . P E RT H R O A D
Fig. 75-77. Perth Rd site ideas. Section and plans.
2. KWIK FIT
Fig. 78-80. Kwik Fit site ideas. Section and plans.
After carefully considering both sites, the Kwik Fit site emerges as the winner. The existing structure on the site makes for a great opportunity for a retrofit project where parts of the existing structure can be retained. In this case the existing brick wall will be kept and used as an essential factor in the design process. The retained brick wall will work as a relic host structure as defined by Liliane Wong in her book Adaptive Reuse. She defines it as follows: “Sometimes a host structure is simply a relic of the past. It is not transformed but rather serves as the catalyst for new construction. Its significance is in the recall of a memory: an event, history, a period of time” (Wong, 20217, p 118)
Fig. 81. Brick wall on Kwik Fit site.
S I T E A N A LY S I S
Fig. 82. View from Perth Rd looking at the existing structure on site.
Fig. 83. View from Perth Rd looking at existing structure and view towards the Tay.
Fig. 84. View from Westfield Ln looking at existing brick wall.
Fig. 85. View from Westfield Pl looking towards Perth Rd.
Fig. 86. View from Westfield Pl looking towards the Tay.
Fig. 87. View from Perth Rd.
5. North Elevation on Perth Road 6. Tay Rail Bridge
4. West Field Pl. Materials: timber and lead
3. Rose Angle. Materials: slate and iron
2. Gate Church International
1. Perth Road photo collage
7. Magdalen Green
8. Taylor’s Lane. Vista
9. Perth Road. Materials: stone and lime
Fig. 88. Diagram analysing context.
Fig. 89. Brick wall which will be retained.
Fig. 90. Plans of existing structure.
Fig. 91-93. Existing structure.
Fig. 94. Existing structure in context.
Winter Solstice 9 am Noon 6 pm
Equinoxes 9 am Noon 6 pm
Summer Solstice 9 am Noon 6 pm
Fig. 95. Sun analysis.
Fig. 96. Sun path
Fig. 97. Prevailing winds
Fig. 98. Potential access
Fig. 99. Greenery
Fig. 100. Views from neighbouring buildings
Fig. 101. Opportunity to bring proposal to street edge
Fig. 102. Serial vision sketches of initial ideas.
Fig. 103-104. Development plans.
Fig. 105-107. Development sketches. Plan and sections.
REDEFINING THE BRIEF
Fig. 108. Extract from A Pattern Language - Towns, Buildings, Construction. by Christopher Alexander
NEW VS. OLD
Fig. 109. Concept idea: opening up the brick wall to Westfield Ln.
One of the design intents is to retain the brick wall and make it the leading design force. The proposed structure is to be partially placed on top of it, almost like a box, slightly offset to Perth Road to allow for some public space to the north of the proposal.
Fig.110. Placing a ‘box’ on top of the retained structure.
Another idea is to make the lower floor, which is partially dug into the ground, a stereotomic structure, while the upper floor is of a tectonic nature.
Fig.111. Concept model.
Fig.112-115. Development sketches. Plans and sections.
Fig.116. Concept model.
Fig.117-119. Development sketches. Plans and section of ‘key space’.
A steel structure was first considered for the upper floor to further emphasise the connection between the proposal and the industrial past of the area, but was later discarded because of its environmental impact, and how the tactility of space became almost ‘too industrial’.
Fig.120. Sketch of ‘key space’.
F O R M AT I V E S C H E M E D E S I G N R E V I E W S
OFFICE CHANGING ROOMS
BATH 1 ‘SOCIAL BATH’
OUTDOOR SPACE SAUNA
Fig. 121. Ground floor plan 1:200
BATH 3 ‘ATMOSPHERIC BATH’
BATH 2 HYDROTHERAPY
Fig. 122. Basement floor plan 1:200
Fig. 123. Building model with context 1:200.
Fig. 124. Development longitudinal section 1:200
Fig. 125. Building model with context 1:200.
Fig. 126. Development cross section 1:200
Fig. 127-128. Development elevations (north and west) 1:200
Scheme Design Review Concept: Concrete (stereotomic) structure - lower floor Timber (tectonic) structure - upper floor
Fig. 129. Building model with context 1:200.
Fig. 130. Development of roof structure.
Fig. 131. Diagram explaining roof structure and relationship between retained wall and pool.
Scheme design review comments:
1. Look into timber structures and get a better understanding of how to construct proposal 2. Make better diagrams showing the new vs the old and what parts of building to keep. 3. Show ‘before and after’ of site (comparison of what is there and what is proposed) 4. Solve entrance 5. Show proposal in context (use google earth image) 6. Clarify narrative: maybe call it ha healing place? 7. Keep developing the tectonics and stereotomics 8. Celebrate light in roof structure a bit more. Not expressive enough. 9. Find structural precedent. 10. Good concept (stereotomic, tectonic)
Fig. 132. Model 1:200
Fig. 133-135. Model 1:200
Fig. 136. Interior perspective of ‘key space’.
Fig. 137. Cross section through key space showing early ideas for natural ventilation.
E X T R O V E RT E D / I N T R O V E RT E D A C T I V I T I E S
Fig. 138. Sauna
Fig. 142. Light source
Fig. 139. Divide large pool into multiple smaller ones to create groups
Fig. 143. Varying proportions
Fig. 140. South facing outdoor space where people can gather.
Fig. 144. Varying temperatures
Fig. 141. Bar
Fig. 145. Varying acoustics
Fig. 146-148. Development plans and section 1:200.
Fig. 149. Interior view of ‘atmospheric bath’.
Fig. 150. Interior view of ‘key space’.
Spa Female Spa Male Changing room Male Bath 3 ‘HydroChanging room therapy’ Female
Bath 1 ‘Social Bath’
Bath 2 ‘Outdoor pool’
Bath 7 ‘Acoustic bath’
Bath 6 ‘Cold Bath’
Bath 4 ‘Atmospheric bath’
Bath 5 ‘Warm Bath’
Fig. 151-153. Development plans and section 1:200.
Fig. 154. Exterior view of proposal. Building is clad in corten steel.
Fig. 155. Development elevation 1:200
Fig. 156-158. Model 1:200
D E S I G N T H E O RY
A substantial part of the design theory is influenced by Christopher Alexander and the book A Pattern Language - Towns, Buildings, Construction where he talks about basic design moves for a timeless design. A few of his diagrams and ideas (images and text to the left) have been analysed and made into key design moves.
“Place the main entrance of the building at a point where it can be seen immediately from the main avenues of approach and give it a bold visible shape which stands out in front of the building.” (Alexander, 1977, p. 544)
This design move is visible in the proposal in how the retained wall stretches out of the building envelope and is the first thing visitors see when approaching the building from both sides of Perth Road.
“Lay out the entrances to form a family. This means: 1. They form a group, are visible together, and each is visible from all the others. 2. They are all broadly similar, for instance all porches, or all gates in a wall, or all marked by a similar kind of doorway. “ (Alexander, 1977, p. 502)
This is present in the design proposal in how the retained wall defines the main entrance but is also the element the visitor enters through to get to the changing rooms, and later on into the sento inspired bathing area.
“Inside a south-facing court, or garden, or yard, find the spot between the building and the outdoors which gets the best sun. Develop this spot as a special sunny place – make it the important outdoor room, a place to work in the sun, or a place for a swing and some special plants, a place to sunbathe. Be very careful indeed to place the sunny place in a position where it is sheltered from the wind. A steady wind will prevent you from using the most beautiful place.” (Alexander, 1977, p. 759-760)
As part of the proposal there is an outdoor space for bathing deliberately placed in the sunny south side. The space is enclosed on all sides by the retained wall and the new building envelope making it an ideal place for a pool.
“Dressing and undressing, storing clothes, having clothes laying around, have no reason to be part of any larger complex of activities. Indeed they disturb other activities. They are so self-contained that they themselves need concentrated space which had no other function.” (Alexander, 1977, p. 873)
The changing rooms have been placed to the side of the proposal in what is defined by the room as secondary space. These room create their own small group.
“Create alternating areas of light and dark throughout the building, is such a way that people naturally walk toward the light, whenever they are going to important places: seats, entrances, stairs, passages, places of special beauty, and make other areas darker, to increase the contrast.” (Alexander, 1977, p. 646)
This design idea is the basis for the basement level of the proposal, where the visitor is moving from one space to the next by following a light source. It is used to make a journey of self-realisation. Fig. 159-163. Diagrams from A Pattern Language- Towns, Buildings, Construction. Fig. 164-168. Diagrams.
Comments on the 1:50 technical section: Roof Flat roof should have PVC membrane and a 300mm. Parapets should also be used around skylights. Proposed truss needs so be thicker and the material which sits on top of truss should be considered. Walls Concrete wall should be slightly thicker (400mm?). Exterior walls should have 200mm insulation. Column No comments were made on the steel column. Floor (and foundation) Upper floor slab should be slightly thicker 600mm(?). Define flooring. Floor should be drawn as one slab with the insulation underneath it. Insulation should be EPS (drawn with a zigzag pattern). Under the load bearing there should be a strip footing, independent from the slab, drawn as a dashed line 1.1m long and 600mm thick.
Fig. 169-171. Development of technical section 1:50
1. CLT rafter 500 x 200mm 2. CLT Column 400 x 400mm 3. CLT 100mm 4. Insulation (2 x) 120mm 5. Insulation (2x ) 150mm 6. Waterproof membrane 7. Corten steel cladding 8. Triple glazing 9. Mullion 10. Concrete screed (or ceramic tiles, still undecided) 11. ??? 12. Reinforced concrete slab 500mm 13. Concrete wall 400mm 14. Concrete screed 15. Concrete 200mm 16. EPS 300mm 17. Existing brick wall 18. Plywood(?) wall 100mm (still under development)
6.4.3. 17. 8.
14. 15. 16.
Fig. 172. Development technical section 1:50
1. Aluminium roof cladding 2. Gutter 3. CLT slab 100mm 4. Insulation 2 x 150mm 5. Glulam rafter 200 x 500mm 6. Glulam column 400 x 400 7. Insulation 2 x 120 mm 8. Waterproof membrane 9. Corten steel exterior cladding 10. Triple glazing (curtain wall) 11. Glazing 12. Reinforced concrete slab 200mm 13. Integral concrete beam 500mm 14. Pool Structure 15. Concrete wall 400mm 16. Concrete slab 200mm 17. Pool tanking 18. Pool finish 19. Overflow gutter 200mm 20. Retained brick wall 21. EPS 300mm 22. Sand binding 23. DPM
8. 9. 7.
16. 22. 23.
19. 18. 17.
Fig. 173. Technical section 1:50
Fig. 174. Model showing basic structural components and materials (concrete and timber) 1:50
Fig. 175-176. Sketches of roof details and timber joints.
Energy The proposed design does not necessarily promote a more sustainable use of energy, but the water pools offer a great opportunity to store heat radiated from the sun and from solar panels which could potentially be placed on the roof. The proposal also counts on the City of Dundee to invest in, and offer, greener sources of energy, such as wind turbines, in the near future, as stated in the city’s plan for a greener future. (dundee.com)
Lighting The upper floor will be well lit during the day, with controlled light hitting the lower floor. During the darker hours of the day, artificial lighting will be placed as spot lighting in the pools as well as in walls and ceiling.
Ventilation The is opportunity for natural ventilation in the proposal, but due to the nature of the building strict control over humidity and temperature is required, making natural ventilation difficult in the colder months. Most of the mechanical ventilation will happen through the floor structure between the upper and lower floors. The pool structure makes the floor structure take up more space, but also allowing services to run through it.
Fig. 177-181. Diagrams explaining natural lighting, artificial lighting, natural ventilation , and mechanical ventilation.
Fig. 182. Public - Private Light - Dark
Fig. 183. Clothed - Naked Light - Dark
Fig 184. Cold - Hot Light - Dark
Fig 185. Fire Escape
Fig. 186. Visitor experience: clothed, naked, semi clothed, clothed.
Programme and function The way people use the spaces, going from clothed to naked to semi clothed to naked etc., requires a change in temperature, privacy and control. The diagrams to the right explain which spaces are in more need of control than others.
Fire escape There are two fire stairs, one close to Perth Road and the other to Westfield Place, making sure the bathers are always within 30m distance of one of the stairs. The bar and staff area are located near the main entrance allowing for escape in case of emergency to happen directly onto Perth Road.
1.Pool water 2. Pool finish 3. Tanking 4. Concrete 5. Under floor heating 6. Concrete floor slab 7. EPS 8. DPM 9. Sand binding
7. 8. 9.
Fig. 187. Layering of pool structure.
Fig. 188. Pool structure: integral concrete beams.
11. Fig. 189. Basic principle of using a heat pump.
1. Skimmer 2. Main drain 3. Inlet 4. JetSwim 5. Light 6. Circulation pump 7. Filter 8. Heat pump 9. Check valve 10. Drain 11. Drain
Fig. 190-191. Early sketches of pool structure and window detail.
As part of the investigation to understand how the bathhouse can be used as a catalyst for creating community and a journey of self-realisation the following precedent have been analysed for a better understanding of context, structure, programme and materiality. 1. Tsingpu Yangzhou Retreat / Neri&Hu 2. Suzhou Chapel / Neri&hu 3. The Weather Project / Olafur Eliasson 4. Thereme Vals / Peter Zumthor 5. Vertical Baths / James Barber 6. Faithlie Centre / Moxon Architects 7. Warehouse in Ageo / Arii Irie Architects 8. Homerton Dining Hall / Feilden Fowles 9. Kogneyu / Schemata Architects 10. Alfriston Swimming Pool / Morris+Company 11. Freemen’s School Swimming Pool / Hawkins/Brown 12. Hydrothermal Centre ‘Aquavox’ / Otxotornea 13. Notre-Dame du Haut / Le Corbusier 14. Yasuragi / Yoji Kasajima
T H E B R I C K WA L L | T S I N G P U YA N G Z H O U R E T R E AT
Fig. 192. The Brick Wall.
Analysing: How the existing brick wall defines the added structure by placing it in a grid.
Neri&Hu Design and Research Office Yangzhou, China 2017 110
The retained brick wall is the driving design force where the buildings are slotted into the grid created by the wall. To put it simply: form follows the retained wall.
Fig. 193-194. Concept: slotting building into existing structure.
Fig. 195. Suzhou Chapel.
Analysing: Placing a box onto a retained structure, how hierarchy is declared from the outside.
Neri&Hu Design and Research Office Suzhou Shi, China 2016 112
Fig. 196-197. Diagrams.
The chapel is sitting on an existing brick wall which functions as threshold the building. The chapel stands tall and is the first thing the visitor notice when approaching the building. It declares the chapel as a place of importance from the outside.
T H E W E AT H E R P R O J E C T
Analysing: How to create the space ‘in between’.
Olafur Eliasson Installation in Turbine Hall, Tate Modern, London 2003 114
Fig. 198. The Weather Project.
Fig. 199. Concept diagram.
The Tate Modern describes the exhibition as follows: “In this installation, The Weather Project, representations of the sun and sky dominate the expanse of the Turbine Hall. A fine mist permeates the space, as if creeping in from the environment outside. Throughout the day, the mist accumulates into faint, cloud-like formations, before dissipating across the space. A glance overhead, to see where the mist might escape, reveals that the ceiling of the Turbine Hall has disappeared, replaced by a reflection of the space below. At the far end of the hall is a giant semi-circular form made up of hundreds of mono-frequency lamps. The arc repeated in the mirror overhead produces a sphere of dazzling radiance linking the real space with the reflection. Generally used in street lighting, mono-frequency lamps emit light at such a narrow frequency that colours other than yellow and black are invisible, thus transforming the visual field around the sun into a vast duotone landscape.” (TATE, 2003) The installation is about emphasising the space ‘in between’ and making the viewer observe themself. The installation allows and encourages different activities, such as sitting down on the floor or practicing yoga, to take place in the Turbine Hall. It is an installation about finding oneself in a space, where Eliasson creates an object which plays with the concept of art only existing as long as someone is there to experience it. 115
T H E R M E VA L S
Fig. 200. The Theme Vals
Analysing: Structure, programme, and how Zumthor creates a journey through the baths.
Peter Zumthor Graubünden, Switzerland 1996 116
Fig. 201. Sections and plan highlighting pools.
Structure “The facade, with a striking alternation between solid and void, clearly shows the construction technique. The volume of the building consists of 15 subsidiary volumes, all distinct from each other. These fragments are assembled as a large three-dimensional puzzle, thus the roof coverage is not continuous but broken at each of the connections between these blocks. These subtle gaps of just 8 centimetres allow the entry of a sliver of natural light. Despite its appearance as a massive, monolithic volume, the building is a composition of slightly spaced apart structures that make up the whole.” (Archdaily, 2009)
“Mountain, stone, water – building in the stone, building with the stone, into the mountain, building out of the mountain, being inside the mountain – how can the implications and the sensuality of the association of these words be interpreted, architecturally?” Peter Zumthor
Fig. 202. Change in temperature.
V E R T I C A L B AT H S
Fig. 203. Vertical Baths.
Analysing: Separating floors into stereotomic and tectonic, and in doing so, creating different atmospheres for the floors.
James Barber Norway NOT BUILT 118
Fig. 204. Section.
Fig. 205. Concept diagram. Tectonic-stereotomic.
FA I T H L I E C E N T R E
Fig. 206. Faithlie Centre Analysing: The use Corten Steel in the context of Scotland and as a material to make a new building envelope fit in with an old.
Moxon Architects Fraserburgh, UK 2020 120
Fig. 207. Corten Steel.
Corten steel “Also known as Weathering Steel, the material has a higher corrosion resistance compared to regular carbon steel and develops a protective oxide on the metals surface which slows down future corrosion. However, the metal is not 100% rust proof, and if water is allowed to accumulate in pockets, those areas may experience higher corrosion rates. “The layer protecting the surface develops and regenerates continuously when subject to the influence of weather; the steel is allowed to rust in order to form the protective coating.” (corten.com)
WA R E H O U S E I N A G E O
Fig. 208. Warehouse in Ageo.
Analysing: The timber structure defines a space between the floor and the lover edges of the rafters, while still letting light in from above.
Arii Irie Architects Ageo, Japan 2019 122
Fig. 209. Diagrams exploring how structure can define space.
H O M E RTO N D I N I N G H A L L
Fig. 210. Homerton Dining Hall. Analysing: Load bearing timber structure (glulam and joints) , and how it defines space beneath the lower edge the rafters.
Feilden Fowles Cambridge, UK In construction 124
Fig. 211-213. Timber details and section..
Analysing: Programme, how a public bathhouse can be used to create community.
Schemata Architects Tokyo, Japan 2020 126
Fig. 214. Koganeyu..
The Sento is used as a way to reclaim the community the traditional bathhouse typology would create. After private bathrooms becoming more common, the public bathhouses have become fewer in numbers, and with it the communal life has decreased. This building aims to reclaim this community by offering a social area, in this case a bar, as part of the entrance and by including different types of baths for the visitor. The baths include: medicated, hot and carbonated pools, as well as a sauna and an outdoor area.
Fig. 215. Plan and section.
4. Fig. 216. Programme.
1. Entrance. Bar, reception and lobby working as threshold for the changing rooms. Public space.
2. Changing rooms. Threshold for the bathing area. Has a ritual sense to it in how visitors must disrobe before entering the bathing area. Men and women separated. Private space.
3. Bathing area. Water, carbonated, medicated and hot bath. Men and women separated. Private space.
4. ‘Cool off area’. Cold bath and air bath outdoor space. Men only. Private space. Fig. 217-2020. Series of photocopies.
ALFRISTON SWIMMING POOL
Analysing: Programme, use of timber as part of a pool structure, pool structure.
Morris+Company UK 2014 130
Fig. 221. Alfriston Swimming Pool.
Fig. 222-224. Plan and sections.
Programme - Changing rooms to pool - Size and location of changing rooms
Structure - Concrete - Pool - Tanking - Insulation - Beam
Fig. 225-227. Diagrams.
FREEMEN’S SCHOOL SWIMMING POOL
Fig. 228. Freeman’s School Swimming Pool Analysing: Structure (glulam columns and rafters with a CLT roof slab), layering of walls and roof.
Hawkins/Brown Surrey, UK 2017 134
Fig. 229-230. Structural details.
HYDROTHERMAL CENTRE ‘ A Q U AV O X ’
Analysing: Integral concrete beam structure.
Otxotornea Pamplona, Spain 2009 136
Fig. 231. Hydrothermal centre ‘Aquavox’
Fig. 232-234. Sections looking at pool structure.
NOTRE-DAME DU HAUT
Analysing: How different apertures let in natural light.
Le Corbusier Ronchamp , France 1955 138
Fig. 235. Notre-Dame du Haut.
Fig. 236-237. Photocopies of light entering the space.
Fig. 238-242. Aperture diagrams.
YA S U R A G I
Analysing: Use of materials.
Yoji Kasajima Stockholm, Sweden 1970s (Refurbished by WHITE Arkitekter in 2018, added hotel extension) 140
Fig. 243. Yasuragi
Fig. 244-246. Photocopies exploring materials.
BETWEEN THINKING AND MAKING
T H E TA C T I L I T Y O F S PA C E
Ceiling: timber Wall: timber Floor: ceramic tiles
Ceiling: concrete Wall: concrete Floor: ceramic tiles
Ceiling : timber Wall: timber Floor: timber
Ceiling: concrete Wall: timber Floor: ceramic tiles
Ceiling: white plasterboard Wall: timber Floor: concrete
Ceiling: concrete Wall: concrete Floor: concrete
Ceiling: timber Wall: timber Floor: concrete
Ceiling: concrete Wall: timber Floor: concrete
Winner Ceiling timber Wall: timber Floor: concrete
Fig. 247-259. BTM exercise.
Fig. 260. Model (concrete and timber) 1:50 View of sento inspired pools and timber structure.
Buildings with a religious purpose on Perth Road
The proposal in its neighbourhood with direct links to the industrial area of Dundee.
View of the proposed design and the retained brick wall, creating a bridge between old and new. 148
Fig. 261- 267. Images and diagrams placing the proposal in context.
Fig. 268. Elevation 1:1000
Fig. 269. Site location plan 1:500
Fig. 270. Retaining parts of the old structure.
Fig. 271. Creating breathing space for Perth Road.
Fig. 272. Continue the public street edge of Perth Road.
Fig. 273.Make roof structure reflect the hierarchy of spaces.
Fig. 274. Separate extroverted and introverted behaviour into floors.
Fig. 275. Make structure reflect the extroverted/introverted.
Fig. 276. Night time view of the entrance on Perth Road.
Fig. 277. North elevation 1:100.
1. Lobby/Reception 2. Bar 3. Staff area 4. Changing Rooms 5. Sento baths 6. Outdoor area and pool 7. Sauna
Fig. 278.Ground Floor Plan 1:200
Fig. 279. Interior view of the bar area.
1. Seating area 2. Hydro Therapy 3. Atmospheric Bath 4. Warm Bath 5. Cold Bath 6. Acoustic Bath.
7. Small Bath 8. Changing Rooms 9. Hammam 10. Mud bath 11. Sweat lodge 12. Plant Room
Fig 280. Basement Floor Plan 1:200
Fig 281. Interior perspective of ‘Atmospheric Bath’.
Fig 282. Section AA 1:200.
Fig 283. Section BB 1:200.
Fig 284. Brick wall framing ‘key space’.
Fig 285. Acoustics: noise from Perth Road does not reach lower floor .
Fig 286. Roof and floor showing a hierarchy of spaces.
Fig 287. Upper and lower floor separated by materials and structure.
M AT E R I A L S
Fig 288. 1:50 Part Elevation. Corten Steel exterior cladding with matte black metal roofing
Fig 289. Structure influencing details such as seating. The lightweight timber chairs on the top floor can be moved to suit social needs, whereas the concrete cubes are too heavy to be moved around, forcing the visitor to seek repose by themselves.
1. CLT roof slabs 2. Glulam beams and rafters 3. Existing brick wall (non-load bearing) 4.. Reinforced concrete slab with 5.. Integral concrete beams. 6.. Reinforced concrete walls 7. Concrete slab
Fig 290. Axonometric showing load bearing structure. Fig. 291. Technical section CC 1:50
Fig 292. Sectional model (concrete and timber) 1:50
E X T R O V E RT E D - I N T R O V E RT E D
Fig 293. Extroverted upper floor and introverted lover floor.
ROOF AND CEILING
Fig 294. Model 1:50.
Fig 295. Base structure defining main space.
Fig 297.Extending other rafter to define service space.
Fig 296. Extending rafter to define circulation space.
Fig 298. Extending rafter in other direction to define space of importance.
Fig 299. Interior view of the sento inspired baths.
THE GUIDING LIGHT
Fig 300. ‘Guiding Light’ concept image.
The Guiding Light is a journey where the visitor in inclined to follow the light from one bath to the next. This journey offers a play of proportions, temperatures and acoustics; all to enhance the sensory experience of the visitor and to make them ask the question: how do I fit into a space?
Fig 301. Proportions.
Fig 302. Temperature.
Fig 303-304. Acoustics.
Fig 305. The Guiding Light journey.
Fig 306. The Guiding Light making the visitor move from one space to the next.
Fig 307. 1. Sento inspired baths. Shallow pools which promotes social behaviour. Medium temperature. No echo.
Fig 308. 2. Outdoor pool. Cold. No echo.
Fig. 309. 3. Atmospheric bath playing with ceiling heights. Medium temperature. Slight echo.
Fig 310. 4. Warm bath. No echo.
Fig 311. 5. Similar proportions to previous bath, but cold. Slight echo.
Fig 312. 6. Brightest of the baths on the lower floor. Medium temperature. Slight echo.
Fig 313 7. Narrow bath making the visitor look up. Warm bath. No echo.
Fig 314. 8. Artificially lit. Medium temperature. Slight echo. Bath not defined by walls.
Fig 315-317. Model 1:50.
OVERALL CONCEPT DESIGN & PLANNING ISSUES
The proposal is situated on Perth Road in Dundee, where the existing garage ‘Kwik Fit’ is located. On site there is an existing brick wall, making one think of Dundee’s industrial past, which will be retained and kept as an essential part of the proposed design. To continue the public aspect of Perth Road with shops, cafés and bars located on the street edge, the proposal is offering a small bar accessible for everyone next to the entrance. The proposal will also allow some breathing space to the otherwise quite narrow pavements on both sides of the street by offsetting the proposal by a few meters. This also makes the proposal easily accessible for bikers with room for bikes to be parked right next to the building entrance. Fig 319. Existing building vs proposed design.
Fig 320. Integrating the existing brick wall as a part of the proposed design.
Bicycle parking Existing building Exterior space Access Public ground floor Pavement Perth Road
Fig 318. Diagram.
TECHNICAL DESIGN, BUILDING WA R R A N T A N D I N T E G R AT E D E N V I R O N M E N TA L S T R AT E G Y
Fig 321. Natural light shown in yellow Artificial lighting shown in orange. Natural and mechanical ventilation.
1, 3 & 4.
5 & 6.
1. Aluminium roof cladding 2. Gutter 3. CLT slab 100mm 4. Insulation 2 x 150mm 5. Glulam rafter 200 x 500mm 6. Glulam column 400 x 400 7. Insulation 2 x 120 mm 8. Waterproof membrane 9. Corten steel exterior cladding 10. Triple glazing (curtain wall) 11. Glazing 12. Reinforced concrete slab 200mm 13. Integral concrete beam 500mm 14. Pool Structure 15. Concrete wall 400mm 16. Concrete slab 200mm 17. Pool tanking 18. Pool finish 19. Overflow gutter 200mm 20. Retained brick wall 21. EPS 300mm 22. Sand binding 23. DPM
16, 21,22 & 23.
10. Fig 322-323. Structural details.
C O S T R E L AT E D T O D E S I G N
BUILDING TYPE HIGH
The proposal is a public building which takes up more energy than residential typologies. The building is also a bathhouse which means it requires more maintenance than other public buildings, making it a high-cost project.
Considering the building typology, the proposal has to deal with a lot of humidity and heat, making it more expensive. Natural ventilation is possible, but also quite limited in the winter months since visitors are in their swimwear making any cold airflow feel extra chilly.
TOPOGRAPHY HIGH The proposal is situated on a sloping site, making it more difficult to build on. The cost is therefore higher than on a slat site. SITE HISTORY HIGH Considering the fact that this is a retrofit project, where a part of the existing building will be retained and kept as a key part of the proposed design, this project has to carefully consider the site history, dragging up the cost. ENVELOPE GEOMETRY
The envelope is a simple rectangular shape, making it easy to construct. DETAILING MODERATE The proposal uses quite simple solutions and standard use of materials which make it more affordable, however, the good quality and custom made elements (such as furniture) drag up the price. SITE SHAPE AND ACCESS
The site is easily accessible from Perth Road, to which both smaller and larger vehicles have access to. The shape is quite rectangular, making it easier to build on.
HEATING HIGH The nature of the proposal requires a lot of heating, but it is not only not only the baths that has to be kept at high temperatures, a lot of the spaces in the spa area will reach very high temperatures, making it more costly. The glazed curtain wall facing south will allow the upper floor pools to be heated up in the summer months, and since water has a very good thermal mass (4186KJ/m3.K, compare this to concrete: 2060KJ/m3.K) the upper floor will not need much heating in these warmer months. However, the cost of heating up water for showers, saunas, hamman etc. still drag up the cost of heating to a high-cost project. LIGHTING LOW The proposal is well lit during daytime, with the top floor being mostly glazed, and the lower floor is intended to be a much darker space. Artificial lighting will be required in the pools and during the darker hours of the day. MATERIALS MODERATE In-situ concrete Moderate Glulam rafters and columns Moderate CLT Moderate Corten Steel cladding High Aluminium cladding Low Timber acoustic panels Low Glazed curtain wall Moderate
CO-PROFESSIONALS AND BUSINESS MODELS THE TEAM ARCHITECT Responsible for the design and the planning of the project. Assists the client and advices on which type of professionals need to be appointed on the construction team. ENGINEER Gives advice on structure to ensure that is does not collapse. They also advice on more efficient ways, which may reduce the cost of the project overall. QUANTITY SURVEYOR Calculates the project budget and continually costs the project throughout all stages of the design and construction process to ensure the project stays on budget. They also try to cut costs where possible and assess the value for money of each aspect or material. SERVICES ENGINEER Responsible for aiding in the designing and planning of the services (ventilation, lighting, energy, etc). They also deal with the variables on each site by examining and finding solutions to the architect’s design, as well as finding the most cost-efficient way of servicing the building, while also taking into consideration use of sustainable and renewable resources. CONSTRUCTION MANAGER In charge of the team of contractors employed to construct the building. The contractors are chosen by the client. FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEER Makes sure the building meets legislation regarding fire and can advise on more innovative ways to meet these requirements.
THE PRACTICE The project is a fairly large-scale public building, requiring a medium sized studio team with experience in public building projects. The practice might consist of: BORD OF DIRECTORS The company might be named after the founding director (person who started the practice). The board of directors are appointed and run the company. ASSOCIATE The associate can have a number of different roles, but they are qualified architects who may also have a degree in another area. They are usually specialised in one area of architecture, such as structure or history, but they also assist in all areas of projects when required. SENIOR ARCHITECT Senior architects are qualified architects who are responsible for other members of staff (architects and architectural assistants). They are part of the design process from beginning to end and prepare proposals. PRACTISE MANAGER The practice manager ensures that the company runs smoothly and is responsible for training, interviews, HR and other admin related areas, and must be organised to keep the practice up to date with documentation. ARCHITECT The architect is similarly to the other members of staff, a qualified architect, but does not take on any extra responsibilities and is coordinated by the Senior Architect. ARCHITECTURAL ASSISTANT The architectural assistant is either a Part 1 or Part 2 student who will work on models, drawings, renders and idea sessions.
H E A LT H A N D S A F E T Y
PLANNING AND DESIGN STAGE
The site is accessible via Perth Road, making it possible for larger vehicles to reach the site. Due to its closeness to the busy street, parts of Perth Road might have to be closed off during the construction phase. The lanes on both sides of the site make is possible to access the depths of the site with smaller vehicles. The site will be surveyed prior to any construction work beginning to avoid any preventable accidents.
Since access to site is easy, any future maintenance and repairs will be possible. The plant room is also placed to be easily accessible from Perth Road, from above.
CONSTRUCTION PHASE The site will be closed off on all four sides during construction to avoid any accidents from the public. The site is a low building (only two floors), but is partially dug into the ground, making it high risk for construction workers. Most accidents happen at when working in basement level construction, meaning extra attention must be placed when constructing the retaining walls. The retained brick wall poses another issue during construction since the proposal has to be built around it, making it more difficult to construct.
Fig. 324. Fire escape
BUILDING IN USE The building in use takes appropriate measures to ensure the safety of the visitors. Hand railing, circulation, fire safety etc., are planned in accordance with the Building standards technical handbook 2019: non-domestic, and allow for a safe visitor experience. The bathhouse typology does, however, require some extra care and attention. The deeper pools will have to be carefully monitored and taken care of to make sure no accidents, such as drowning, water contamination, or water damage occur. Extra caution must also be placed on the warmer areas (sauna, spa area etc.) where temperatures can reach 80C. Privacy is another issue, since visitors are not fully clothed in the bathing areas.
Fig. 325. Public - Private (light to dark)
Fig. 326. Cold - Hot (light to dark)
CDM 2015 is divided into five parts: Part 1. Deals with the application of CDM 2015 and definitions Part 2. Covers the duties of clients for all construction projects. These duties apply in full for commercial clients. However, the duties for domestic clients normally pass to other dutyholders Part 3. Covers the health and safety duties and roles of other dutyholders, including: Designers Principal designers Principal contractors Contractors Part 4. Contains general requirements for all construction sites Part 5. Contains transitional arrangements and revocations HSE has published Legal Series guidance that supports CDM 2015 and explains it in more detail. (hse.gov.uk)
The CDM (Construction Design and Management Regulations) regulate that health, safety and welfare of projects during construction, use and maintenance. They apply to all types of construction and list the responsibilities for each member involved. The Principle designer (PD): - Clarify the responsibilities of the client - Make sure designers carry out their duties - On-site they must eliminate any foreseeable risks before work commences - Provide information on any remaining hazards in the pre-construction file - Prepare the health and safety file The Client - Appoint a principle designer before any construction starts and notify the HSE ( The Health and Safety Executive) - Prepare client brief - Allow sufficient time and resources - Make sure welfare facilities are provided
Fig. 327. 1. Pavement 2. Perth Road 3. Public exterior space 4. Plant room
After walking through the journey of the Guiding Light and relaxing in the hammam and sweat lodge, Filip walked past the Atmospheric Bath and was again intrigued by how the light made the rough concrete structure come to life. He thought of the heavy weight of the concrete surrounding him on all sides and how it made him want to move from one space to the next in complete silence. He walked up the stairs, back to the lightweight timber structure and went through the changing rooms into the bar area. He decided to go for a juice drink on the menu and sat down next to a few people his age. They immediately started talking and Filip found himself smiling again; maybe it was a sense of belonging, maybe it was the journey of self-realisation, or maybe it was a combination of the two that made him realise that floating in space is not necessarily a bad thing: maybe it can be a way to discover who we truly are, while still allowing us to connect with the people around us?
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Culture Trip (2016) Sauna and Spa Traditions From Around The World. Available at: https://theculturetrip.com/ north-america/articles/spa-sauna-traditionsworld/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021) DAP (2018) Yasuragi. Available at: https:// dapgroup.se/en/yasuragi/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Deplazes, A. (2013) Constructing architecture : materials processes structures : a handbook . Third, extended edition. Basel: Birkhäuser Designboom (2020) ‘vertical bath’ by james barber houses three-story sauna in norwegian alps. Available at: https://www. designboom.com/architecture/vertical-bathjames-barber-sauna-norway-01-28-2020/ (Accessed: 08 May 2021) Dezeen (2014) Angular wooden roof reduces sound reverberation inside swimming pool by Duggan Morris. Available at: https://www.dezeen. com/2014/10/27/alfriston-schoolswimming-pool-duggan-morris-architects/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Dezeen (2020) Moxon Architects adds perforated weathering steel extension to Aberdeenshire Council HQ. Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2020/05/08/ moxon-architects-perforated-corten-steelextension-fraserburgh-scotland/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Dezeen (2020) Schemata Architects updates traditional Japanese bathhouse with tiles and Towada stone. Available at: https:// www.dezeen.com/2020/09/06/schemataarchitects-sento-bathhouse-renovationtokyo-architecture/ (Accessed: 08 May 2021)
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figures 1-19. Author’s own
Figures 196-197. Author’s own
Figures 20-54. Unit group work (Typology Analysis)
Figure 198. TATE (2003) About the installation: understanding the project. Available at: https://www.tate.org.uk/whatson/tate-modern/exhibition/unilever-series/ unilever-series-olafur-eliasson-weatherproject-0-0 (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figures 55-58 Author’s own Figure 59. Gallen Kallela, A (1889) Saunassa, Available at: https://www. wikiart.org/en/akseli-gallen-kallela/in-thesauna-1889. (Accessed: 08 May 2021) Figures 60-107. Author’s own Figure 108. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. and Silverstein, M. (1977) A pattern language towns, buildings, construction . New York: Oxford University Press. P. 683
Figure 200. ArchDaily (2009) The Therme Vals / Peter Zumthor. Available at: https:// www.archdaily.com/13358/the-therme-vals (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Figures 201-202. Author’s own
Figures 159-163. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. and Silverstein, M. (1977) A pattern language towns, buildings, construction . New York: Oxford University Press.
Figures 203-204. Designboom (2020) ‘vertical bath’ by james barber houses three-story sauna in norwegian alps. Available at: https://www.designboom.com/ architecture/vertical-bath-james-barbersauna-norway-01-28-2020/ (Accessed: 08 May 2021)
Figures 164-191. Author’s own
Figure 205. Author’s own
Figure 192. Neri&Hu The Brick Wall / Tsingpu Yangzhou Retreat. Available at: http://www.neriandhu.com/en/works/ the-brick-wall-tsingpu-yangzhou-retreat (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figure 206. Dezeen (2020) Moxon Architects adds perforated weathering steel extension to Aberdeenshire Council HQ. Available at: https://www.dezeen. com/2020/05/08/moxon-architectsperforated-corten-steel-extensionfraserburgh-scotland/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figures 109-158. Author’s own
Figures 193-194. Author’s own Figure 195. Neri&Hu The Sanctuary / Suzhou Chapel. Available at: http://www. neriandhu.com/en/works/the-sanctuarysuzhou-chapel (Accessed 07 May 2021)
Figure 199. Author’s own
Figure 207. Corten What is Corten Steel? Available at: https://www.corten.com/whatis-corten-steel.html (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figure 208. ArchDaily (2020) Warehouse in Ageo / Arii Irie Architects. Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/939845/ warehouse-in-ageo-arii-irie-architects (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Figure 209. Author’s own
Figures 231-234. ArchDaily (2013) Hydrothermal Center ‘Aquavox’ / Otxotorena. Available at: https://www. archdaily.com/326842/hydrothermal-centeraquavox-otxotorena-arquitectos (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figure 210. Feilden Fowles Homerton Dining Hall. Available at: https://www. feildenfowles.co.uk/homerton-dining-hall/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figures 235-237. ArchDaily (2010) AD Classics: Ronchamp / Le Corbusier. Available at: https://www.archdaily. com/84988/ad-classics-ronchamp-lecorbusier (Accessed: 07 May 2021)
Figures 211-213. Author’s own
Figures 238-242. Author’s own
Figures 214-215, 217-2020. Dezeen (2020) Schemata Architects updates traditional Japanese bathhouse with tiles and Towada stone. Available at: https://www.dezeen. com/2020/09/06/schemata-architects-sentobathhouse-renovation-tokyo-architecture/ (Accessed: 08 ;may 2021)
Figures 243-246. DAP (2018) Yasuragi. Available at: https://dapgroup.se/en/ yasuragi/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Figures 247-327. Author’s own
Figure 2016. Author’s own Figures 221-224. Dezeen (2014) Angular wooden roof reduces sound reverberation inside swimming pool by Duggan Morris. Available at: https://www. dezeen.com/2014/10/27/alfriston-schoolswimming-pool-duggan-morris-architects/ (Accessed: 07 May 2021) Figures 225-227. Author’s own Figures 228-230. ArchDaily (2017) Freemen’s School Swimming Pool / Hawkins\Brown. Available at: https://www. archdaily.com/885514/freemens-schoolswimming-pool-hawkins-brown (Accessed: 07 May 2021)