EMI India Trip Guide
Welcome to Engineering Ministries International. It is a privilege to be able to serve together in God’s great purpose for the nations.
This Trip Guide will help you prepare for your project trip with EMI by:
• • • •
giving an overview of the ministry of EMI and EMI India. highlighting some important aspects of a project trip. introducing some unique factors about working in EMI India. helping prepare you for re-entry to your home culture after the trip.
Each project, each trip, each team and each ministry we serve is unique. The EMI staff project leader will be guiding and coordinating the efforts of the team in the specific challenges of your project.
Table of Contents
1 2-3 4
Where We Work Introduction, History & Who We Are Structure & Doctrine
5 6-7 8 9 10 11
Spiritual Packing Technical and Survey Architecture and Design Water and Wastewater Construction
12 13 14-15 16-17 18
Culture Shock Culture Religion Values Language
Staying Involved Reverse Culture Shock
Hindi, Conversion Factors, and Scales
Where We Work Mussoorie
Bangladesh Population: 160,500,000 Major Religion: Islam Major Language: Bengali Currency: Taka Bhutan Population: 760,000 Major Religion: Buddhism Major Language: Dzongkha Currency: Ngultrum India Population: 1,300,000,000 Major Religion: Hinduism Major Languages: Hindi, English Currency: Indian Rupees
Nepal Population: 28,000,000 Major Religion: Hinduism Major Language: Nepali Currency: Nepali Rupees Sri Lanka Population: 21,000,000 Major Religion: Buddhism Major Languages: Sinhalese, Tamil Currency: Sri Lankan Rupees *Populations are approximate based on 2015 data
Sri Lanka 01
Introduction If you have been searching for an opportunity to use your talents in engineering, architecture, surveying or design in Christian ministry, this is it. EMI mobilizes design professionals and student interns to equip the worldwide Body of Christ by providing design and planning services for approved projects. Together we are designing world of hope.
History â€œWhere there is no vision, the people are unrestrained.â€? Proverbs 29:18 In the spring of 1981, on the island of Saipan near Guam, the Lord revealed the vision of EMI. The island had been hit by a typhoon and people were trying to rebuild their lives. While serving on a short-term ministry trip, one of the volunteers found that his skills and abilities as a structural engineer were greatly needed. From this experience a vision was set forth by God to involve design professionals in ministry to the needy and the poor. This vision gives design professionals an avenue to share their faith, exposes them to the realities of the underprivileged in our world, and provides them with a fellowship of believers which encourages and strengthens their faith. This vision is EMI. Since 1981, EMI has pursued that vision by completing over 1,100 projects in 90+ countries around the world. EMI was incorporated in May of 1982 as a non-profit company in Colorado, USA and the first full-time staff design professional joined in 1984. EMI now has over 120 staff and interns who serve in 10 offices on 4 continents. 02
Who We Are
People restored by God and the world restored through design.
To develop people, design structures, and construct facilities which serve communities and the Church.
Core Values :
Design EMI works within the local context to design and construct culturally- appropriate facilities that are sustainable, affordable, and transformational Discipleship EMI develops people spiritually and professionally through intentional discipleship and mentoring Diversity EMI builds the Church by connecting people of diverse backgrounds, abilities and ethnicities to demonstrate our love for God, our love for the nations and the unity we share in Christ
EMI India EMI India was established to better meet the design needs of Christian ministries all over South Asia, and was the first overseas EMI office. EMI India has been involved in nearly 300 projects, from schools and childrenâ€™s homes to hospitals and goat farms. Bringing together national Christian workers, volunteer design professionals and student interns since 1998, we are proud to serve the Body of Christ in India and surrounding nations. 03
“And if you give even a cup of cold water to one of the least of my followers, you will surely be rewarded.” Matthew 9:42
The ministry of EMI is conducted at different office locations by full-time staff, volunteers, and interns. The Global Office of EMI, headed by the CEO, provides leadership and supports the operations of the other offices. EMI’s Board of Trustees oversees the vision, finances and direction of the ministry. They empower and direct the CEO in the day-to-day operations of EMI’s ministry. Office Directors are appointed to oversee the staff and operations of their respective offices. All staff are called by God to bring ministry opportunities to other design professionals and interns and to bring quality design services to the ministries EMI serves.
Doctrine EMI serves with people of varying Christian backgrounds and denominations. Our intent is to celebrate the primary unity we share in Christ without focusing on non-essential issues that we may embrace as individuals. Trusting Jesus Christ as Savior, EMI believes:
• All scripture is God-breathed and useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness.
• In the deity of Jesus Christ, His virgin birth, sinless life, vicarious death on the cross, resurrection and second coming.
• If you confess with your mouth Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.
The Project Trip is the primary way EMI carries out its ministry. Through the experience of serving with EMI India on a project trip, we want to challenge and stretch your knowledge, technical experience and design skills by applying them to the South Asian context of engineering and architecture. This adaptation is the way we can effectively meet the design needs of our clients. As you put your gifts and skills to use in the Body of Christ, we hope God will grow your faith and your vision for Kingdom service.
The Project Trip
Spiritual Prayer and time in Godâ€™s Word is foundational to preparing for your trip. Form a team of people who will commit to pray for you while you are away. Share about this trip and your expectations for it with your pastor or elder. Start a journal to write down your expectations and to record your experiences before, during and after the trip. Be prepared to share a personally meaningful scripture or something God has been teaching you during the trip. Guard against doubt and discouragement which are common distractions whenever one steps out in faith. Begin praying now for team unity and humility as we serve, for Godâ€™s protection, for good communication and sensitivity with the ministry we are going to serve. Pray for His empowering hand as we seek to accomplish a great deal in a short time.
Packing Travel in India is many times more stressful with a lot of luggage. You should try to be as flexible and mobile as possible since the team will be carrying its bags and survey equipment everywhere. The following list is a general guide for an extremely diverse region. Your project leader will communicate with the team about the specific needs of your trip; contact them for the final word on packing questions.
unobtrusive security/travel wallet valid passport and visa plane tickets 2 photocopies of the details of the passport and visa 2 passport sized photos
daypack large backpack or duffel bag lightweight shoes sandals / flip-flops 2 pair lightweight dress / casual pants 2 lightweight collared dress / casual long sleeve shirts 2 lightweight collared dress / casual short sleeve shirts 3 pair of socks light jacket* bandana/sweat rag hat/head covering
Additional Dress Notes:
*verify with project leader
Dress conservatively. Shoulders and upper arms should be covered. Bring light scarves/dupatas and longer Indian style shirts/kurtas. Trousers should cover the ankle and clothes should not be form fitting; loose trousers are better than skirts. Shorts or capris are not acceptable. It is possible that shopping for inexpensive local clothing will be planned into the beginning of the trip.
For Men: No shorts, except for sleep wear. As a rule, men wear trousers in public in India.
backpacking towel earplugs
toothbrush and small toothpaste small shampoo / conditioner small soap small sunscreen travel packet toilet paper comb / brush nail clippers shaving kit small packet laundry detergent deodorant feminine hygiene products
small Bible journal notebook this Trip Guide loose paper / grid paper trace roll * drafting tape* scales / ruler / triangles / etc. pens / pencils / markers / erasers / etc. calculator USB drive laptop computer * small tape measure pocket tool / knife (not in carry-on!) watch flashlight camera extra batteries water bottle reading material
malaria medicine (contact project leader) mosquito repellent ibuprofen tablets aspirin tablets anti-acid tablets Food anti-itch cream snacks/energy bars (All meals will be provided) small hand sanitizer wet-wipe packets any personal medication needed (notify project leader)
DO NOT BRING anti-diarrhea medicine
*verify with project leader
Check with your local health department for suggestions pertaining to the protection of your health in the country you will be visiting. We ask that you do not smoke or consume alcoholic beverages during this trip out of respect for the ministries we are serving. Kindly submit to the authority and leadership of your project leader. Additional specific requests are outlined on the Travel Agreement. Please sign and return it to your project leader before joining the team. 07
Technical Though specific project information may not be available before a trip, researching the country and locality you will be working in can give you a head start. Some of the common challenges of an EMI project are effective cross-cultural communication, getting critical design feedback, incorporating local materials and methods, maximizing the use of passive and efficient building systems and introducing improvements to the common practice. During the trip there will be both “task time” and “no-task time”. Use the time well by building relationships with a team member, a ministry worker and a local. This is the three-fold ministry of an EMI trip. God has purposely brought your team, this ministry and this locality together at this specific time. Look for opportunities to be used by God to serve your team, your project leader and the ministry. Be flexible and positive—expect the schedule to change since unpredictable things happen. Be a learner of culture, language and religion and ask questions. Make time to spend with God and to journal—you will not remember everything later. The following pages introduce the common technical areas a project trip will address. Some elements of the environment many EMI India clients operate in are described for each.
Survey Surveying is normally performed by the government with optical equipment and chains only for defining property boundaries. Many EMI project surveys can be performed with similar equipment (especially for a flat and un-featured site), but use of a total station is also common.
Permanent boundary stones or benchmarks may not exist. Legal agreements are made by a site tour with all parties and a government official. In that process, temporary markers are often placed or other natural markers (i.e. trees, edges of fields) are referenced which are agreed to as the final property boundary.
Ministries we serve in India in turn serve the poor and usually have minimal funding. Although buildings are necessary, any savings on building construction can be used for ministry activities. Construction funds may be raised from their church body, local community, from abroad, or any combination of those sources, but the cost of construction needs to be justified locally. Most would like to see a ‘beautiful’ development which glorifies God, however, the cost and timing of expenses must balance the pressures of a ministry serving the poor. Understanding some common priorities which guide those we serve allows us to more effectively meet their needs and match their values in design.
Architecture and Design
The First Priority is to design spaces that absolutely meet the needs of the ministry while maintaining sensitivity to cultural issues we are made aware of during the trip. The Indian standard for comfort and livability in a space is very different from a Western one. Other factors, for example, the desire to keep mens’ and womens’ living quarters separate, can predominate over the quality, efficiency, or effectiveness of a space. Your project trip leader will have a good sense of the cultural cues that will guide the design. The Second Priority is a building that performs well functionally, conforms to the life safety requirements of the code (if applicable), and is cost efficient in square footage and proposed use of materials. Utilizing the effective project phasing, the locally available building materials and local construction methods are the best means of cost control. The Third Priority is aesthetics. Aesthetically pleasing buildings are possible; however, the design palette can be very limited. Building placement, orientation, forms and massing, natural and artificial lighting, window and door placement, color and texture, earth forms, landscaping, and limited use of decorative material make up the typical design palette. Most clients will be especially sensitive to ‘extra costs’ associated with aesthetics.
Water Supply Observe local water use and estimate the actual per capita total daily use on the site. Interview the client ministry about project water supply needs. Compare this information with water use standards and develop a project detailed water use estimate. Consider all possible water sources to identify a single, sustainable, year-round water source to meet the normal daily project need. More than one source may be needed. Common sources include: shallow wells, deep wells, surface water, community water supply and rainfall collection. It is common practice to install multiple small-volume rooftop tanks directly over each location of water use. In a site with many facilities, however, this approach increases maintenance and management burden and can cause interruption in water supply. Central water storage and supply system may be preferred, though this approach could be new to the client ministry. Water treatment is commonly provided by a filtration appliance for personal or communal use. Taps are not expected to yield drinking water, and water quality can be a very sensitive issue. If the client ministry is concerned about site water quality, use of a water test kit is appropriate. Contaminants such as high minerals and nitrates may indicate a need for additional treatment.
Wastewater Disposal Observe local wastewater disposal techniques and use similar technology while improving the current practice by one or two steps. Many on-site systems consist of a septic tank and soak pit handling only blackwater, while greywater is plumbed separately and runs off untreated. In urban areas, a community sewer system may be available.
The site soil type and stratification should be investigated as much as possible. Tools for doing this are hand soil tests, interviews with knowledgeable people, inspections of side walls of nearby pits, trenches, wells, etc., and percolation tests. Soil type and stratification will affect wastewater disposal planning, which impacts site master-planning. Similar tools may be used to get an accurate picture of the local water table and its seasonal variations.
Labour is one of the cheapest commodities in India. This is directly opposite of most developed and professional construction environments in the West. Hand excavation and extensive use of cast-in-place reinforced concrete is typical. Construction utilizes local unskilled labor plus a few skilled workmen. The project contractor may have a foreman directing the labor day-to-day, while he visits more infrequently. Construction techniques using hand-workmanship without power tools are common.
Engineering is not a requirement for construction. Building takes place without much prior planning or design and with very few actual drawings. If engineering is applied, it may be through a prior design precedent or an empirical approach. Codes exist but are likely not enforced. Municipal authority over construction applies only in certain areas, and regulations may be of a very basic or empirical nature. The local contractor or builder may be the strongest authority in the construction project after EMI India issues a design. Simple drawings and sketches with few details is common construction practice. Varying units of measure may be in use for different purposes in a single project (i.e. Kilometers, Feet, Centigrade, Inches, Millimeters, Liters, Acres, Kilograms, etc.). Professional liability does not greatly impact construction authority. The party with actual control over construction (commonly a contractor or builder) is most â€˜liableâ€™, as that term is played out in India. EMI does not assume any liability for the welfare or health condition of individual team members before, during or after the trip. Each team member assumes total liability for themselves, their person and their belongings. There is inherent risk in EMI travel and work in the developing world. Accepting the trip invitation includes your acceptance of those risks. 11
Culture Shock You arrive at the train station and pile out of the taxi with two suitcases, a carry-on and a jacket that’s useless in this heat. Suddenly you are swarmed by pushy, sweaty men in red shirts and turbans. They’re in your face and shouting something you can’t understand while trying to grab your bags. A filthy child is tugging at your leg and holding out her hand. Suddenly all this is a little bit scary. The guy who picked you up at the airport calls you to ignore them all, pick up your bags and follow him. You try to roll your suitcases, but the ground is uneven with lots of potholes and steps. Cars are honking everywhere and there are more people than you have ever seen in your life. It smells bad, and… is that a cow on the tracks?? You can’t read the signs and you don’t know where to go. Your excitement turns to fear as you realize that if you lose your guide, you’ll be completely lost and helpless in a foreign country. You hastily gather up your luggage and hurry forward, narrowly missing a pile of fresh cow dung… This is your first taste of culture shock. Much of what we do at home requires little thought or effort because we know the rules. When we enter a new culture we find those rules have changed—and we may not even know what they are. Simple daily tasks are suddenly difficult, so it takes more energy to get through the day. The emotional and physical stress resulting from entering a new environment is called Culture Shock. Though everyone experiences culture shock differently, there are several common symptoms. The top one is denial—we tend to attribute the stress of culture shock to other sources. There can also be psychological and physical symptoms such as irritability or a headache. Experiencing frustration is common because familiar cues from our home culture may be absent or because the new culture’s values are different than our own. Sometimes the best coping strategy is to expect and accept the stresses of culture shock as a normal process. Taking proactive steps to be a learner of culture will also help us cope.
The vision and ministry of EMI is cross-cultural. Designing in India may not be what you are used to. Everything seems reversed: labor is the cheapest commodity, women in sarees place concrete using dishes they carry on their heads, time is not money and ‘yes’ can also mean ‘no’. Working across cultural boundaries can be confusing. In order to truly serve the ministries we visit, we need to learn about the culture in which they operate. Here are some tips on becoming a good learner of culture:
1. Begin each day by giving it to God. Ask Him to direct your interactions, protect you, and give you wisdom. 2. Ask questions. Your project leader has probably experienced it before. 3. Maintain a sense of humor. Be able to laugh at yourself and your situation. . 4. Keep a journal of interesting, exciting, scary, and frustrating experiences. 5. Look for ways to interact. Fight the urge to withdraw. 6. Look for things to be thankful for and resist the urge to complain. 7. Practice distinguishing between observation (what you see and hear) and interpretation (what that action or situation might mean).
Religion One of the first things a traveler to India notices is religion. Temples, mosques and shrines are tucked into every corner. Day and night prayers are broadcast over loudspeakers for all to hear. In India, religion defines who you are and how you live. From the clothes you wear to the food you eat, religion is integral to daily existence. Here is a brief introduction to several religions of the region:
It is difficult for those not raised in an Indian culture to wrap their minds around the idea of Hinduism. Hindus pride themselves on not clinging to dogma or drawing distinctions. A Hindu may worship any of the religion’s 330 million gods and goddesses or none at all; he or she may worship at a mosque or church and still be regarded as ‘Hindu’. A few concepts most Hindus share are: dharma, karma, and reincarnation. Dharma is a person’s duty in life, determined by his or her caste, gender and stage in life. Good or bad karma results from whether you’ve followed your dharma or not. It follows a person into the next life so, if a person has more good karma he will move up the scale toward enlightenment (moksha). With too much bad karma, he will be reborn as someone (or something) lower, perhaps in a lower caste or as a bug. The goal, after many reincarnations, is to achieve liberation from the cycle and to merge with the all-encompassing life force called Brahma or Atma.
Indian adherents: Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Buddhist 1%, Christian 2%, Sikh 2%, Jain 0.5%, Other 0.5%
Islam came to India through traders and Mughal invaders. Muslims have had a major impact on culture, cuisine, music and architecture. During the hundreds of years of Mughal rule, many Indians converted to Islam.
There are five major precepts, or Pillars, that are accepted by nearly every Muslim. The first is the Creed. Each Muslim must recite, “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is His Prophet.” Beyond this creed, Muslims learn about their religion primarily from the Muslim holy book, the Q’ran. Second, Muslims are required to do namaz (ritual prayer) five times a day, facing toward Mecca. Third, they must keep the fast of Ramadan for one month each year. Fourth, Muslims must practice almsgiving. Finally, they must perform a pilgrimage to Mecca, called Hajj, at least once in their lives. Friday is a holy day when the faithful visit the mosque to do special prayers. They must only eat halal (kosher) food, which includes an absolute ban on pork.
Christianity: Christianity is believed to have first come to India through the evangelistic ministry of the Apostle Thomas in the southern state of Kerala. Over 2,000 years later, around 2% of Indians have responded to the Gospel. Expressions of faith are as varied as the people of the subcontinent and include nominal, charismatic, ancestral, traditional, Catholic and Pentecostal Christianity. In some areas, such as South India, Christianity can be quite open and evangelistic. In other areas, such as North India, believers are more secretive and may face persecution. The Body of Christ in India is as unique and widespread as the hundreds of cultures and people groups which compose it.
Often cultural values we hold do not match the values of the cultures we enter. Comparing some of the values of two
• Time = Money • Schedule = Reality • Time is linear and a waste-able commodity. • Schedules and punctuality have priority.
• Direct, clear and immediate communication is most polite. • It is rude to say “yes” when the request is not possible. Negatives should be immediate so as not to waste the other person’s time. • “Yes” means “Yes”; “No” means “No”.
• Shown by treating each person equally—regardless of age, status or gender. • Indicated by avoidance of status symbols; powerful people go to great lengths to appear less powerful. • Reverse-hierarchical (upside-down pyramid) organizational structures.
different culture types can help us understand, adjust and interact more effectively in the places we visit and at home...
• Time = Time • Moment = Reality • Time is cyclical and in endless supply. • Relationships have priority.
• Indirect, read-between-the-lines communication is most polite. • It is rude to say “no” even if the request is impossible. Negatives should be couched in positive terms, body language or silence. • “Yes” may mean “Yes”, “No”, or “Maybe”.
• Shown by treating each appropriately—according to age, status and gender. • Indicated by status symbols; powerful people are waited on, addressed by titles and have appropriate dress and mannerisms. • Hierarchical (pyramid) organizational structures.
“The best time to sleep is in the early morning; the best thing to do with a knife is to cut betel nut.” — Assamese proverb
Language There are 22 official languages and hundreds of minor languages and dialects in India. For general traveling and in larger cities on the sub-continent, English is very effective.
fgUnh Along with English, Hindi is the basic medium of communication for much of North India. “ueLrs! (namaste!)” is the customary greeting and is done with ‘praying hands’ in front of the chest. It is used anytime for ‘Hello’ or ‘Goodbye’ depending on the situation. One other word that has a variety of uses is “vPNk (achchaa)”. The meaning depends on the tone of voice with which it is pronounced and the context of the sentence. It can mean ‘good’, ‘alright then’, ‘ah!’, ‘I see’, ‘really?’, and so on...
Common Hindi greetings
Jai masih ki (Christian)
t; eflg dh
Aap kaise hai? Mai theek hoo.
a How are you? vki dSls gS\ a eS a Bhd gwWA I am fine
Mera naam ____ hai.
esjk uke ____ gSA My name is ____.
Aap ka naam kya hai?
vki dk uke D;k gS\
Hello (victory is Christ’s)
What is your name?
*Additional Hindi words on inside back cover
Now that you have volunteered on a project trip, you better understand the impact an EMI team can have. We encourage you to stay connected after returning home! Here are some ways you can.
Complete your project work. Whether it is finishing a design, writing sections of a report, or reviewing plans, each piece is important for fulfilling our commitment to a ministry. Your project leader may assign tasks and schedule post-trip project work. Also, come back to serve with us again! Whether at EMI India or any other EMI office, a repeat volunteer is a great asset!
We come together with a passion to use our technical skills to see communities transformed around the world. EMI Network Partners invest their time, talent, and treasure in building Godâ€™s kingdom through the work of EMI, and they also connect with like-minded professionals in their home communities to encourage the transformation of our industry. We have been blessed with an education and resources in order to be a blessing to others. Partner together with us by Giving, Going and Praying.
(In both India and the USA, there are annual gatherings of the EMI Network. These conferences are a fantastic way to learn more about design in the developing world, hear about what God is doing through EMI, and connect with EMI staff and volunteers.)
Spread the word:
EMIâ€™s services are needed by others who are serving the poor. Design professionals like you are looking for a short-term outlet to use their talents to serve the Church. Recent graduates or college students are looking for opportunities to gain professional experience and exposure to the worldwide Body of Christ. Help them get connected by telling the pastor of your local church about EMI and by directing those interested to our website.
Help build the EMI India staff team. Partners of the EMI fund enable us to give new and future staff members a jump-start in building a financial support team. This commitment is $US 100 per month. If you have served with EMI India as an intern or volunteer, we now ask you to Partner with us by investing in our future staff team! Additional information is available at emiworld.org
Reverse Culture Shock The hardest part of an EMI trip is returning home. Re-entry into a fast paced culture with all its wealth can be overwhelming. Just as you experience culture shock when traveling to a new country, you will face a period of transition as you readjust to the place you call home. Reverse culture shock can be more traumatic because it is common to unconsciously believe when traveling overseas that home, families and friends will remain the same. Often the traveler expects to be something of a celebrity upon return and that everyone will want to hear everything about what happened on the trip. The reality is that both home and the traveler have changed. People have moved on in your absence and may have only superficial interest in what you have experienced. You have developed a broader worldview and perspective and you find yourself out of step with people you used to be comfortable with. Also, you may experience guilt or a sense of meaninglessness in your old daily routine compared to the excitement and purpose of the trip. The secret to re-entry is to understand it as a process and to give that process time. Here are some tips on re-entering well: 1. Begin each day by giving it to God. Ask Him to direct your interactions, keep you humble, and give you grace. 2. Rest your body. The stresses of the trip will begin to tell once you are back. 3. Take time to relearn your own culture just like you did when overseas. 4. Catch up on what you missed. If you are interested in otherâ€™s lives they will be interested in yours. 5. Find an outlet for expressing what happened on the trip. Be ready with the one-minute summary as well as the hour long tale. 6. Resist a critical and judgmental spirit, just as you resisted it overseas. 7. Look for things to appreciate and be thankful for in your home culture.
Additional Hindi Vocabulary
Common Words and Phrases:
Haa Nahi Achchaa Dhanyavaad Koi baat nahi Mujhe pataa nahi Theek hai Ek minute Mujhe maaf karna Toilet kaha hai? _____ kaha hai? Yeh kya hai? Woh kya hai? Yeh wallah Kitnay bajay hai? Yeh kitney ka hai? Wallah (doodh wallah) Pukka Kachcha
Yes No Good Thank you No problem I donâ€™t know OK One minute Forgive me Where is the toilet? Where is the _____? What is this? What is that? This one What time is it? How much is this? Specialist (milk man) Definite / Permanent / Ripe Indefinite / Temporary / Raw
Numbers: Ek Doe Teen Char Paanch Chehh Saat Aath Nau Das
,d nks rhu pkj ikWa p N% lkr vkB ukS nl
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
One 1 Two 2 Three 3 Four 4 Five 5 Six 6 Seven 7 Eight 8 Nine 9 Ten 10
Inches to Centimeters Centimeters to Inches Feet to Meters Meters to Feet Miles to Kilometers Kilometers to Miles
Area Feet2 to Meters2 Meters2 to Feet2 Feet2 to Acres Acres to Feet2 Acres to Hectares Hectares to Acres
Volume US Gallons to Liters Liters to US Gallons
Weight Pounds to Kilograms Kilograms to Pounds
8,000 7,000 6,000
2.540 0.394 0.305 3.281 1.609 0.621
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
multiply by 0.093 10.764 2.296 e -5 43,560 0.405 2.471
multiply by 3.785 0.264
multiply by 0.454 2.205
50 45 40 35 30 25
N/mm2 to psi psi to kPa Kg/cm2 to psi KN/m2 to psf
multiply by 145.041 6.895 14.220 20.892
90 80 70 60
-5 - 10 - 15
- 25 - 30
1 2 3
feet 26,000 24,000 22,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
5 6 7
10 0 - 10 - 20
130 E. Kiowa, Suite 200 Colorado Springs, CO 80903 USA emiworld.org Ph: (1) 719.633.2078 Fax: (1) 719.633.2970 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Shivalik A-329 Basement Malviya Nagar, New Delhi, 110017 India india.emiworld.org Ph: (+91) 011.4652.5959 email@example.com
The current EMI India Project Trip Guide (2016)