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DESIGNS FOR GREEN AND WALKABLE CITIES DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR FORT WORTH

URBAN DESIGN STUDIO, CPLN 702 THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL OF DESIGN


DESIGNS FOR GREEN AND WALKABLE CITIES

DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR FORT WORTH

Urban Design Studio CPLN 702 The University of Pennsylvania School of Design Spring 2011


PROFESSORS Jonathan Barnett Michael Saltzman STUDIO PARTICIPANTS Adam Paul Amrhein Emily Leckvarcik Jaekyung Lee Pamela Lee Anthony Riederer Akua Nyame-Mensah Annie Michaelides Joanne Tu Purtsezova Alaleh Rouhi Karen Thompson


CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION

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URBAN CENTERS 1 A New Suburban Center With Rail and Highway Access 2 Main Street Highway Interchanges 3 University Research Center at a New Rail Station

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URBAN JOBS 4 Learn and Earn Campus 5 Workforce Neighborhood Near a Military Base

50 52 66

URBAN LIVING 6 Walkable Neighborhoods from a Commercial Strip 7 Beginning A New Neighborhood Near Downtown

82 84 98

URBAN NATURE 8 A Green Gateway to Lake Worth

110 112

URBAN REVITALIZATION 9 A New Downtown Boulevard

126 128

CONCLUSION

148

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

150

8 22 34


A FEW WORDS OF INTRODUCTION

Jonathan Barnett American cities and regions are full of opportunities to create infill neighborhoods in easily accessible locations, where there are supporting utilities already in place, but where older commercial and industrial uses are failing. There are also opportunities to restore the landscape in such places, which can enhance their value and make them more competitive with green-field locations. Another group of opportunities: creating new walkable centers with a mix of workplaces, shopping, and residences in both existing and developing urban areas, instead of endless housing tracts and underused commercial corridors. If such places could reach their development potential, central cities would have stronger economies, roads and transit could be more efficient, and over-all urban growth could be much more sustainable. The reasons these opportunities generally go unrealized is that they are places which present some form of complication; an investor can’t just acquire a property and build according to the code. Sometimes the code itself is the problem, sometimes it is an undesirable adjacent use, sometimes public investment is needed, often the complication is an infrastructure issue, or parts of key locations belong to a government agency, or the site is in multiple ownerships that would require cooperation

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

among investors. The real-estate market constantly supplies developers with sites that

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don’t need so much up-front work, so these more complicated situations are often not considered. To test the potential of opportunities that conventional development passes by, we turned to Fernando Costa, the Deputy City Manager – and former Planning Director - of the City of Fort Worth, who arranged for us to receive an inventory of some 60 such locations, identified by Jocelyn Murphy, Zoning and Land Use Manager, and Eric Fladager, Comprehensive Planning Manager, of the Fort Worth Planning and Development Department. We chose ten sites that Eric and Jocelyn thought had the highest priority for our study. Some were places where development was already planned in some form


but there seemed to be better alternatives; others were locations where various obstacles made desirable development difficult. We began by looking at the underlying environmental conditions in each location, such as topography and hydrology, as well as the urban

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contexts created by existing land-use and transportation patterns, using the GIS and other information provided to us by the City. We also made a trip to Fort Worth where we toured all the sites with Jocelyn and Eric, and had a useful discussion with City Planning

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Department staff. John Promise of the North Central Texas Council of Governments

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2

organized a meeting to help us understand the regional development context, and Scott

9 7 3

Polikov of the Gateway Planning Group set up a meeting for us with civic groups and

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developers who were involved in some of the locations we were studying. 1

We made an important research assumption: to work as much as possible within the current practices of the real-estate industry, particularly by looking at case studies of 5 miles

built examples that seemed appropriate for our situations. Uwe Brandes, Vice President for Special Initiatives at the Urban Land Institute, came and talked with our studio about

1.

A New Suburban Center With Rail And Highway Access

current trends in development and gave us access to ULI’s on-line case-studies library.

2.

Main Street Highway Interchanges

My co-teacher, Michael Saltzman is a founder and principal of Newwork LLC, a real estate

3.

University Research Center at a New Rail Station

development, planning, architectural and marketing company with a focus on urban

4.

Learn and Earn Campus

5.

Workforce Neighborhood Near a Military Base

6.

Walkable Neighborhoods from a Commercial Strip

7.

Beginning a New Neighborhood Near Downtown

8.

A Green Gateway to Lake Worth

9.

A New Downtown Boulevard

regeneration, town centers and mixed-use development. He has helped the studio identify the real-estate potential of each of our sites, showed us how to keep development within plausible assumptions about eventual implementation, and to demonstrate that desirable places have economic value. Our intent is to create proposals applicable, with appropriate modifications, to all locations dealing with similar issues. The proposals do not cover every situation, but they are representative of the opportunities to create greener and more walkable cities in all metropolitan areas.

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URBAN CENTERS

Walking is the most flexible and efficient means of transportation. Traditional city and town centers are walkable. Once you arrive, you can spend a day going to and from a variety of destinations. You can live in a traditional downtown, work in an office there, go out to lunch or the health club, even go to a theater or movie, without using transit or moving the car. But recent growth in the U.S. has not produced many new, walkable centers. Home, work, schools, entertainment, and shopping are all in different directions, often a long way from each other. Doing daily errands means driving from one store to the next. This new pattern had its advantages: more living space for less money, better access to the outdoors, work places away from downtown congestion, but these desirable qualities began to disappear as more and more people took advantage of them. Today traffic congestion is proverbial, the lower costs of suburban housing are cancelled by the high costs of journeys to work, and the support system of roads and utilities plus the loss of natural landscape become more and more unsustainable as metropolitan areas spread out. One response: more cities are building public rail transit, which can take people out of cars and creates walkable destinations around transit stops. In Fort Worth a new commuter line connecting to downtown and to DFW Airport creates opportunities for walkable mixed-use centers at the new stations. The City suggested we plan walkable centers at the southern terminus of the commuter line at Summer Creek and at the Berry Street stop near Texas Christian University. They also suggested we review the plans for developing the Walsh Ranch, more than 7,000 acres in one ownership at the extreme southwestern edge of the city, currently in discussion for annexation. Walsh Ranch is way beyond existing transit, or even streets and utilities. The question there is whether, when it develops it can be planned with compact, walkable centers that will conserve the landscape, cut the need for new roads and utilities and support future transit.


Part I 2 miles


8 Designs for Green and Walkable Cities


1

A NEW SUBURBAN CENTER WITH RAIL AND HIGHWAY ACCESS

Summer Creek Station Emily Leckvarcik Summer Creek is a rural area just southwest of Fort Worth. The character of the area is rapidly changing. In what was historically prairie and ranch land, single and multifamily housing has been emerging to the east and north of the station with more planned to the south. Additionally, two major projects are slated for development that will significantly alter the future of Summer Creek. A new commuter rail line is proposed for this location that will run north through downtown Fort Worth to the DFW airport. Also, the construction of a toll road interchange is planned here along the southwest parkway connecting I-30 to Cleburne. Current market demands combined with plans for rail and highway access, will dramatically increase Summer Creek’s regional importance and development opportunities. This plan proposes a dense, transit-supportive development around the commuter rail station and highway interchange rather than existing patterns of auto-oriented commercial and suburban residential development in the area. The proposal respects and enhances local hydrology and sensitive ecosystems while presenting options for dealing with power lines and rail infrastructure to create a walkable mixed-use center of lasting value.

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LOCATION Summer Creek is located approximately nine miles southwest of downtown Fort Worth. Summer Creek context

About 700 acres of undeveloped land surround the future location of the station. This area is under private ownership and in the extra-jurisdictional area just outside the city limits. The predominant land uses to the north and east of Summer Creek are suburban residential housing. To the west and north is rural prairie or former ranchland surrounding Benbrook Lake. In 2007, the population within four miles of the site was 64,000 and consisted of about 26,000 households. The North Central Texas Council of Governments has forecasted that the population of this area will increase by 78 percent to 112,629 in

Lake Benbrook

2030. TOPOGRAPHY AND HYDROLOGY A gently sloping prairie interspersed with trees characterizes the area around the station. Topography ranges 100 feet in elevation across the site, however few areas of steep

Area surrounding the future commuter rail station

slopes exist. Several areas collect and channel water across the landscape. One pronounced stream,

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Summer Creek, located east of the existing freight rail line runs into Lake Benbrook a

10

mile southwest of the station area. Lake Benbrook is a dam established by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1947 to control flooding, improve navigation, and create recreation opportunities. The outlet for the dam flows into Clear Fork, a tributary to the Trinity River that runs downstream to Fort Worth, Dallas, and eventually the Gulf Coast. The dam also Future rail station

serves as a drinking water reservoir for the city of Forth Worth. Lake Benbrook is encircled by several parks managed by the Army Corp. Longhorn Park, on the eastern shore of the Lake, lies within a mile of the station area. Approximately 22 acres surrounding Summer Creek near the station are within the 100 year floodplain. Because of its proximity to Lake Benbrook, disturbances to this floodplain could directly affect the water quality and flood management of the dam.


igh

tr

ail

Existing conditions around future commuter rail station

Summer Creek

gas well

substation

Existing Conditions

LEFT: Summer Creek existing topographic and hydrologic features

fre

rail line site boundaries roadways streams 100 year floodplain Elevations 845 - 860 825 - 845 810 - 825 800 - 810 775 - 800 760 - 775 745 - 760 725 - 745 710 - 725

Existing views on site

.25 mile

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PLANNED TRANSPORTATION The Fort Worth Transportation Authority (also know as the “T”) initiated the southwest-tonortheast rail corridor project in 2007. The commuter rail line will utilize existing freight rails throughout much of the corridor and terminate at Summer Creek in the southwest and the Dallas Fort Worth airport (DFW) in the northeast. The proposed system is projected to use self-propelled vehicles with either locomotive-hauled passenger coaches or diesel multiple units. The train ride between Summer Creek and DFW is expected to take approximately 70 minutes and run every 20 minutes during peak commuting hours. Because Summer Creek will be an end-of-the line station, the T anticipates that the station will draw from a Planned transportation improvements for Summer Creek include a new commuter station, parkway and two interchanges, and local road extensions. Because Summer Creek will be the terminus of the commuter rail line, a layover station for trains is proposed between the rail line and parkway.

wide geographic area and attract mostly commuters. A station area plan is proposed for Summer Creek with a 600 car parking area directly east of the station. The parking area proposal contends with the existing floodplain plain of Summer Creek and avoids the transmission line right-of-way parallel to the rail corridor. The North Texas Tollway Authority (NTTA) also has plans that will impact the future of Summer Creek Station. A new southwest parkway toll road (SH121) is proposed between I-30 and Cleburne to ease traffic congestion. The tollway transverses the area around

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Summer Creek from north to south, crossing over the train tracks ¼ mile north of the

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station. Local roads, such as Bryant Irving and Sycamore School Road are also planned to extend south and west, respectively, in order to connect to the train station park and ride and toll way interchange.


Existing development plans around Summer Creek Station

Based on the existing residential market demands and future highway and train access, several developments have already been proposed for Summer Creek. The initial development plans propose a large residential development on the west side of rail line with some mixed use surrounding the station and auto-oriented commercial uses to the east side of the tracks. The T, in partnership with the City of Fort Worth and private sector stakeholders, convened a charrette in 2008 to brainstorm visions for the station area and review and refine the development concepts. Alternatives to the existing proposed

Existing SpreadPlans Title

EXISTING DEVELOPMENT PLANS

development were created and include a denser town center with a greater mix of uses, more residential offerings, and enhanced pedestrian environments. However, the alternatives still show the town center concentrated around the rail station and ignore the most accessible areas of the site. All the existing development proposals took the T’s proposed parking area for granted and did not address floodplain issues surrounding Summer Creek. The plans do not recognize the opportunity to connect the east and west sides of the track in a unified development,

Alternative development plans for Summer Creek Station from a 2008 charette sponsored by the “T�

relying on an existing at-grade crossing on Sycamore Schoolhouse Road instead. Furthermore, the existing plans miss the opportunity to increase the value of the town center by moving or burying the transmission lines.

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GREENWAYS In planning Summer Creek beyond the station, the first proposal was to create a network of greenways to protect the sensitive ecologic areas and save on infrastructure costs. The greenways are located in areas of steep slope, over natural drainage channels, and provide buffers between the development and surrounding land uses. The greenways will be programmed with active and passive recreation opportunities. Over three miles of non-vehicular recreation trails are contained within the greenways to encourage commuting options and provide exercise circuits for residents and workers. CIRCULATION This proposal determined the primary circulation in relation to the greenways, landscape features, existing road network, and future highway and road extensions. Access to the area surround the station was maximized to accommodate daily commuters from the immediate vicinity and region. LAND USE

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

The highest densities and the greatest mixture of land uses are proposed surrounding the

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station, at the most visible intersections of primary roads, and adjacent to the off-ramps of the toll road interchange. A gradient of medium to low density residential is then proposed from a Âź mile around the station outward. Civic spaces are designated at primary intersections internal to the Summer Creek development to provide for places of worship, schools, libraries, and community centers. The land west of the Summer Creek, owned by the Sid Richardson Foundation, is intentionally left undeveloped. Longhorn Park and the riparian area surrounding Lake Benbrook should be augmented and the historic prairie landscape on this parcel preserved indefinitely for environmental value, recreation opportunities, preserved in perpetuity.


Primary circulation Greenways and parks Commercial Medium to high density residential Low to medium density residential

Landuse Plan

Existing roads

Institutional

See town center detail on pg. 17

.25 mile

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ILLUSTRATIVE PLAN The heart of the Summer Creek proposal is the town center located within a five minute walk of the rail station. In contrast to the existing plans for the Summer Creek, a link is made over the tracks by moving or burying the power lines. This unites otherwise unrelated areas of development, forms the core of a new urban center, and adds significant value to the properties along it. Additionally the 100-year floodplain is retained, enhanced, and incorporated into the design as a distinctive attraction and important piece of the development’s stormwater infrastructure. The key elements of the town center proposal include an office cluster around the eastern traffic circle at the toll road interchange on Sycamore Schoolhouse Road. The corridor leads north from there into the main commercial center of the development with outdoor clothing and gear supplier, such as REI, anchor across from a hotel. Between

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Legend

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1. Grocery store 2. Neighborhood commercial 3. Civic space 4. Low to medium density residential 5. Medium to high density residential 6. Greenway 7. Walk-up apartments and condominiums 8. Town houses 9. Commercial 10. Commuter parking structure 11. Existing gas well 12. Summer Creek commuter rail station 13. Wetland restoration with boardwalk network, environmental education signage, and shelters 14. Hotel 15. Outdoor gear and clothing retailer 16. Office building 17. Existing substation 18. Existing multi-family housing

the commercial core and train station, the existing floodplain has been transformed into a functioning wetland with a network of boardwalks, shelters and lookout towers. By relocating two poles to the wetland corridor, the transmission lines can be rerouted around the station area or buried for this distance. This creates high-value development opportunities right at the train station as well as increasing the value of surrounding parcels. The road bridging the tracks is gently sloped to accommodate people with disabilities and two to three levels of parking are accommodated on either side of the tracks behind the commercial fronts for daily commuters and commercial patrons. The two parking structures on the west side of the tracks are capped with living green roofs for stormwater management and to achieve sustainable building standards. The development immediately west of the tracks is primarily a high-density residential neighborhood. With apartments, townhomes, and condominiums provided here, residents can choose the lifestyle that is best for them in the heart of the new town center. The western traffic circle on Bryant Irving Road is lined with civic institutions and local-serving commercial such as a place of worship, grocery store, and pharmacy.


Mile

Town Center SpreadDetail Title

1/4 11 1

2 8

2 7

3

8 7

10

7 6

4

10

9

7

9

5

9

13

12 9 10

18

10 14 121 Tollway

11

15

Bryant Irving Rd

9

17

9

16

9

16

16

Sycamore Schoolhouse Rd 9

9

11 200 ft 16

17


RIGHT: Key plan B

A

B A 1

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

View 1 from hotel terrace cafe overlooking wetland toward train station

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Spread Title

LEFT: Bird’s eye view of town center

LEFT: Section A through ramp over station

100 ft

B. Section through station

100 ft

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PROGRAM SUMMARY Office

425,500 sf

Commercial

221,750 sf

Local-serving Commercial

350,300 sf

Town Houses

425 units

Duplexes

150 units

Apartments

600 units

Condominiums

400 units

Single Family Homes

900 units

Parks and Open Space

200 acres

Recreation Trails

3 miles, including 1/2 mile of wetland boardwalk

Station Area Parking

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Phase 1

20

1,200 spaces


To accommodate the commuter station development, the commercial buildings and ramp over the station should be the focus of phase one. This necessitates construction of the

Phase 2

primary circulation routes and initial reroute of the transmission lines around the station

Phasing

PHASE 1

to east. Surface parking is constructed first with the foundations of structured parking planned for future phases. Residential neighborhood development is begun in the first phase as well to help finance future construction. Development of the commercial corridor begins concurrently with the wetland restoration efforts. PHASE 2 The commercial is augmented with the main retail anchor. The office cluster is begun at the eastern traffic circle. The residential development to the west of the station begins and residential development in the periphery of the station commences. The hotel and office space is begun to the east of the tracks. The remainder of the housing development in Summer Creek is completed. Phase 3

PHASE 3 The local serving commercial and civic space surrounding the western traffic circle is completed to serve the Summer Creek residents. The remainder of the office cluster is completed and the hotel is constructed. The parking areas are converted to structured parking, and the green roofs on the two to the west of the station installed.

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22 Designs for Green and Walkable Cities


2

MAIN STREET HIGHWAY INTERCHANGES

Walsh Ranch Joanne Tu Purtsezova Walsh Ranch is a 7,275-acre property located in Tarrant and Parker Counties at the junction of Interstates 20 and 30 at what is currently ranch land at the extreme southwestern edge of Fort Worth. Annexation of this land to the City is currently in negotiation. While the land surrounds the junction of two important highways, the three interchanges that would permit connections to the surrounding development have not yet been constructed. This creates an unusual opportunity to design the interchanges and the street system at the same time. However, the land for the interchanges belongs to the state Department of Transportation, which means that joint development of the public and private land around the intersections will require negotiation. The pay-off for the extra work would be highly advantageous to the development. Instead of the conventional clover-leaf or diamond interchanges which create large gaps at the points of maximum access, the proposal shows how a local street could both link and become part of the interchanges at I–20 and I–30, creating main streets for walkable centers located with the best access from all directions, rather than a town center cluster relegated to a quadrant of one interchange, which is the current proposal.

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Preferred future diagram for North Texas

INTRODUCTION CONTINUED A key part of the proposal is a series of three main street bridges lined with retail frontages, so that there is a continuous pedestrian-oriented experience linking both sides of the I-30 and I-20 highways. Concentrating development in this way creates a place that can be served by transit in the future. It also makes it possible to accommodate more than half of the development program within areas more easily served by infrastructure, conserving much of the existing ranch land. EXISTING CONDITIONS AND PLANS Walsh Ranch is approximately nine miles west of Downtown Fort Worth. This property was selected as a study area because of its seven miles of interstate highway frontage, which presents a unique opportunity to create a new prototype for ways to deal with and design along existing highways. Since arterial street patterns in the United States and elsewhere have historically been largely influenced by the configuration of existing highway infrastructure, Walsh Ranch is an ideal location to begin to explore new options for how to

Land use plan for Walsh Ranch

address suburban and exurban sprawl. The site is relatively flat closest to I-30, but steadily

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

slopes upwards to a hilly vista to the south away from I-30. Elevations range from 774 to

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1047 feet and elevation changes occur gradually, over a distance of over four miles. Gas wells are located throughout the Walsh Ranch property.


Existing Conditions

RIGHT: Site summary plan for Walsh Ranch

General location of Main Street Highway Interchange for I-30 Town Center Community

Landscape view to south of Interstate Highway 30

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OPPOSITE: Illustrative diagram with land uses for I-30 Town Center Community

DESIGN CONCEPT The proposal significantly scales down the amount of total road lengths that are needed

PROGRAM SUMMARY

to support local and regional mobility in order to save on infrastructure costs. Further, as

I-30 Town Center

a response to changing demand in a time of financial uncertainty, this plan offers a wider

Retail

960,000 sf

Commercial

500,000 sf

MF Residential

4,800 units

SF Residential

1,696 units

variety of housing choices in order to address a broad concern for efficiency and economy in an era of increasing fiscal restraint. This plan also seeks to propose a modest alternative that drastically scales down the proportion of built-out land to unbuilt land and seeks to lay the groundwork for future transit development. This present proposal is intended to be implemented based upon the Vision North Texas plan outlined by the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), in which growth pattern scenarios and options are each considered and weighed against one another. However, rather than envisioning the Walsh Ranch property as a sprawling extension of downtown, this plan envisions the Walsh Ranch property as a separate community. The reasoning behind this simultaneous appeal to and departure from the NCTCOG Vision Plan is that historic land use models have indicated that growth occurs

Opposite

where land is bounded by growth areas and that land urbanizes when it is bounded by

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

urbanized areas. Consequently, sprawl has historically occurred along and outwardly from

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highways somewhat unrestrained. This present plan attempts to reign in some of the perceived potential for additional sprawling to occur. This proposal draws on the plans already produced by HNTB and their economic impact numbers, site selection, and general vision are all carefully considered and integrated into this new plan to the extent possible. The central feature of the proposed design is set of three main street highway interchanges that are positioned where communities in the existing Walsh Ranch plan are already proposed. Each main street highway interchange is configured with a retail hub that bridges the portions of each community to either side, extending outward with a central block of main street retail frontages. Office buildings,


Courtyard Apartment with Ground-Floor Retail

Main Street Bridge Shopping Center

Attached House Single-Family House Playground Parks and Open Space Wooded Area Retail Commercial Office Commercial Sidewalk

I-30 Town Center Community

Parking Garages

High-Density Residential Medium-Density Residential Low-Density Residential Road 300 ft

Pond

27


OPPOSITE: Illustrative Diagram with Land Uses for I-30 Town Center Community

which provide opportunities for residents to live near employment, are clustered, creating walkable and accessible main street frontages. This integrated configuration is a central theme in the overall design concept. These office clusters largely cap the main street

PROGRAM SUMMARY

blocks to either end of the highway and are formed around roundabouts that slow down

I-20 Town Center

vehicular traffic in order to encourage pedestrian traffic.

Retail

880,000 sf

Commercial

500,000 sf

MF Residential

3,200 units

SF Residential Attached

424 units

plan aims to build the road infrastructure in such a way that clustered development implies

SF Residential Detached

392 units

fewer overall miles of road being necessary for efficient traffic circulation. The purpose of

Phasing will be used in order to ensure a timely but sustainable build-out of Walsh Ranch. A road connecting I-30 to I-20 based on the 2010 Major Thoroughfare Plan, but adapted to the present proposal is one of the main infrastructure components needed. The phasing

decreasing the total lengths of arterial roads is to make the present proposal more costeffective during both the comprehensive master planning process and subsequent work

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

RIGHT: Example of ground Floor retail for residential apartments in Addison, TX envisioned for Walsh Ranch

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Opposite


Courtyard Apartment with Ground-Floor Retail

Main Street Bridge Shopping Center

Attached House Single-Family House Playground Parks and Open Space Wooded Area’ Retail Commercial Office Commercial Sidewalk

I-20 Town Center Community

Parking Garages

High-Density Residential Medium-Density Residential Low-Density Residential Road 300 ft

Pond

29


OPPOSITE: Illustrative diagram with land uses for Overlook Town Center Community

done via the aforementioned public-private partnerships. All infrastructure should be put into place in advance of building construction in order to address City staff concerns regarding overextension of municipal resources to outlying areas. Site remediation will also occur during this first phase, as needed. Phase two calls for the construction of the first of

PROGRAM SUMMARY

three mixed-use town centers, including housing, commercial, office space, parking, and

Overlook Town Center Retail

920,000 sf

Commercial

2,000,000 sf

MF Residential

7,200 units

SF Residential Attached

530 units

SF Residential Detached

784 units

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

RIGHT: Courtyard housing example from Legacy Town Center in Plano, TX

30

Opposite

public space. The final two phases include the construction of the second and third town centers, respectively.


Courtyard Apartment with Ground-Floor Retail

Main Street Bridge Shopping Center

Attached House Single-Family House Playground Parks and Open Space Wooded Area’ Retail Commercial Office Commercial Sidewalk High-Density Residential Medium-Density Residential Low-Density Residential

Overlook Town Center Spread Community Title

Parking Garages

Road 300 ft

Pond

31


RIGHT: Illustrative diagram of the three main street highway interchanges over existing Walsh Ranch concept diagram

PROGRAM SUMMARY Retail

2,760,000 sf

Commercial

3,000,000 sf

MF Residential

15,200 units

SF Residential Attached

2,650 units

SF Residential Detached

1,176 units

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Massing diagram of Overlook Town Center

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1250 ft


Conclusion

CONCLUSION By drawing upon existing comprehensive planning efforts, this proposal attempts to approach the development of Walsh Ranch from an environmentally-sensitive and preservationist perspective. At the same time, market factors must be considered, so single-family houses from the original program have been included and the proposed single-family houses are to be moderate in size and scale. The inclusion of assorted housing types is intended to reflect changing market needs resulting from current economic conditions. Overall, he plan as outlined above seeks to schematically lay out a trio of individual communities that can be viewed in the aggregate as a comprehensive Walsh Ranch master planned community while maintaining unique identities. The most important element of this plan is that it captures the entire residential and commercial program from the existing Walsh Ranch plan while decreasing total infrastructure costs and increasing total preserved land area in parkland and preserved natural areas. This type of compact development makes future transit development more feasible and likely. Section of Main Street Highway Bridge in I-30 Town Center

25’

10’ 10’ 10’ 7’ 40’ median 7’ 10’ 10’ 10’ widen existing 7’ emergency lanes to 10’

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34 Designs for Green and Walkable Cities


3

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CENTER AT A NEW RAIL STATION

Texas Christian University - Berry Street Pamela Lee The proposed Texas Christian University-Berry Street commuter rail station, located along the Southwest-to-Northwest Commuter rail in Fort Worth, Texas, creates development opportunity for a University Research Center. However, seasonal flooding impacts the area, presenting a challenge to any development plans. Until stormwater management efforts are employed to mitigate seasonal flooding, the potential development opportunities of this study area cannot be fully realized. Addressing the seasonal flooding challenges by implementing an urban stormwater management district will enable parcels adjacent to the new commuter rail station for redevelopment. By using the leverage of the neighboring institutions, an office campus including commercial and research/ laboratory space will support the innovative and academic pursuits of both TCU and Paschal High. Also complementing Paschal High School’s exceptional academics and athletics, a mixed-use championship soccer stadium will be proposed on the study area to create a destination for both innovation and recreation.

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Existing land use along the Berry Street Corridor

The Texas Christian University – Berry Street study area is located in an inner neighborhood Residential

Office / Retail

Industrial

Institutional

Parking

Vacant

of the City of Fort Worth approximately three miles from downtown, accessible by bus transportation and located two miles east of Interstate I-35. The study area is approximately 45 acres and contains Texas Christian University, Paschal High School and the future TCU-Berry Station of the future Southwest-to-Northwest Commuter Rail. Located on the eastern edge of the study area is Texas Christian University, a private university with a student enrollment of 9,142 and 1,825 employees. Paschal High School is also located on the north of Berry Street and is a reputable public high school. It is also known for its successful soccer program, making these facilities an important part of the school’s campus. The commuter rail station will accommodate individuals commuting daily both into and out of the downtown area, other workplaces in the Fort Worth region and the Dallas-Fort Worth Airport improving overall regional connectivity. The neighborhood adjacent to the Berry Street commercial corridor is predominantly single-family residential. Retail along Berry Street currently has a fragmented nature consisting of mostly low-density uses, such as fast-food restaurants and automobile shops, becoming more disconnected further east. The TCU-Berry study area is within

Paschal High School

the Trinity River watershed, which once had tributaries and shallow creek beds that

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

accommodated seasonal swells throughout the neighborhood. However, in the 1950s

36

those water flow paths were buried underground into pipe infrastructure to create more developable parcels above ground. The current infrastructure is now outdated and inadequate, often being overwhelmed by stormwater, leading to flooding throughout the neighborhoods. Prevalence of impervious surfaces and poor filtration through Texas claylike soils exacerbates the problem, causing flash floods. Currently, the City is studying the feasibility of various stormwater management alternatives, but is finding it difficult to acquire locations that could serve as holding areas for excess stormwater.


Site Context

LEFT: Highlighted opportunities

700 ft

LEFT: Southwest -to-Northwest Commuter rail route

Texas Christian University

37


Example of existing retail along Berry Street

In anticipation of the TCU-Berry commuter rail station, two plans prepared by HOK and URS have considered this area, concentrating on Berry Street and parcels within a walking distance of the transit station. Both suggest mixed-use development for Berry Street, modestly increasing in development density. Neither one of these plans take into consideration the seasonal flooding challenges. The main goal for both of these plans is to enliven Berry Street to better connect the future commuter rail station to both Paschal High School and Texas Christian University. Mixed-use retail and parking towards the rear of new development is suggested. Mixeduse building prototypes were also proposed, but do not fit within the context of the area and are located on parcels that are prone to flooding. These plans do not reflect the true potential of this area.

III. VILLAGE PLANNING

Consensus Development Plan

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Urban Village Plan prepared by HOK in 2007

38


Proposed TCU-Berry Station Site

School is located on the largest site closest to the train station with a single owner. By omitting this parcel as a location for redevelopment, the plans are limited just along Berry and the smaller parcels near the train station to create a dense, compact and walkable neighborhood. By utilizing the Paschal High parcel, a more dynamic and effective plan to promote walkable urbanism can be suggested for this site.

Previous Plans

Both plans also omit Paschal High School from any potential development. Paschal High

LEFT: Commuter Rail Station Plan prepared by URS in 2003 Figure 10: TCU/Berry Station Area Framework Plan

The T

25

TCU/Berry Station Area Plan

39


Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

RIGHT: Inundation map depicting parcels most affected by seasonal flooding. Map and images courtesy of the City of Fort Worth. Red lines indicate existing stormwater infrastructure

40

Examples of flooding in and around the study area


Spread Challenges Title

There are major challenges towards achieving walkable urbanism in the TCU-Berry Street study area. Most importantly, the seasonal flooding impacting the area must be addressed in order to protect existing and future infrastructure including the rail right of way and the future train station. Infrastructure must also be protected in order to justify the viability of the development in the area. Parcels one block north and one block south from the future commuter rail station flood fifty percent of the time during intense seasonal weather events. The pipe infrastructure constructed sixty years ago must be supplemented with facilities that have increased stormwater retention capacity to relieve the current infrastructure.

Forest Park-Berry Watershed

Flash flooding poses a serious threat to the safety of both residents and their property.

0

HENDERSON

5TH

BEWICK

BALDWIN

COLLEGE

ADAMS

RIPY

LAUGHTON

5TH

6TH

WILLING

RYAN

BEWICK

ADAMS

WILLING 8TH

JAMES

COLLEGE

ADAMS

WILLING

8TH

RYAN

JAMES

STANLEY

SHAW ORANGE

WOODLAND CURTIS BIDDISON

RIPY

STANLEY

LIVINGSTON

TOWNSEND

SHAW

ORANGE

COLLEGE

PAFFORD

FOGG

ADAMS

5TH

HENDERSON

WAGGOMAN

8TH

JAMES

DREW

DREW

MASON

FL IN

T

ADAMS

FERGUSON

BALDWIN

BOLT

BOLT

5TH

STANLEY

STO N BARR

GORDON

DICKSON

LIV ING

WAYSIDE

BOLT

DEVITT

LOWE

DICKSON

PAFFORD

DREW

RYAN PLACE

6TH

WILLING

8TH 8TH

RYAN

NE

LIVINGSTON

TOWNSEND

CL EB UR

UR

NE

WAYSIDE WAYSIDE

FRAZIER

WAGGOMAN

5TH

GORDON

WAYSIDE FRAZIER

FOREST PARK

M P

FOREST PARK

DICKSON

MCCART

MERIDA

DEVITT

BIDDISON

RIPY

FLINT

0.5

HIGH

CL EB

SANDAGE

RA

MERIDA

COCKRELL

0.25

BOLT

BERRY

MONDA

FRAZIER

´

LUBBOCK

SUFFOLK

DICKSON WAGGOMAN

ALLEY

RAM P

N

BOWIE

BEWICK

PAFFORD

COCKRELL

BOLT

LIVINGSTON

FOREST

FOREST PARK

SANDAGE

MERIDA

MCCART

WAITS

LUBBOCK

MERIDA

GREENE

WAITS

E RI DG K PA R

IE GR LD AN BU RY UNIVERSITY

redevelopment of its location.

BOWIE

CAPPS

LO WD E

LOWDEN

ORANGE

BUTLER

BUTLER

DRYDEN

W IN F

an appropriate proposal that works financially for all parties if they are to consider any

MISSION

BEWICK

MC CART

renovation and/or reconstruction of the school’s campus. The school district would need

UNIVERSITY

E RI DG

HARWEN

K

and the challenge of relocating both the school’s playing fields and student body during

CANTEY

SHAW

MP

BIDDISON

BIDDISON

BERRY

DEVITT

RA

BENBROOK

LAMESA W OR TH HI LL S

PA R

adjacent uses may be more difficult due to the neighborhood support of this school

BOWIE

H G ILL RA S NB UR Y

courses and preparatory courses for the college bound not offered to all high schools

COCKRELL

ODESSA

WABASH

Independent School District, but it is a premier public high school with an excellent

UNIVERSITY

As identified by the City of Fort Worth, Paschal High School is not only a part of the

in the city. Reorganizing this parcel for future development and capitalizing on its

PARMER

MAIN

WRIGHT

BELLAIRE

PARK HILL MCPHERSON

LOWDEN

LUBBOCK

ownership closest to the future train station, there are challenges in acquiring this site.

PRINCETON

UNIVERSITY

Though Paschal High School has been identified as the largest parcel under single

CANTEY

GREENE

NORTH DRIVEWAY TCU

School and the future commuter rail station.

academic reputation. It is a respected institution providing a curriculum of advanced

ROGERS

MCPHERSON

ROGERS

and may prove to decrease property values along Berry Street near TCU, Paschal High

UNIVERSITY

Without expanding the stormwater filtration capacity, no development is safe from flooding

COCKRELL

Forest Park neighborhood watershed boundaries. Courtesy of the City of Forth Worth

1 Miles

41


Existing street improvements along Berry Street

This proposal creates a stormwater management district acting as both a policy and program, to employ several stormwater management strategies to reduce the impact of seasonal flooding in the neighborhood. Stormwater management districts are traditionally regional in context, encompassing an entire watershed. Within a stormwater management district several facilities can be combined to make a difference in protecting infrastructure by increasing water infiltration and retention, while encouraging public awareness and resident participation in addressing neighborhood flooding. The TCU-Berry study area could greatly benefit from an urban stormwater management district that plays an integral part within the watershed to maximize water infiltration and retention to protect surrounding residential units by utilizing street infrastructure, commercial and institutional uses. Fort Worth currently charges a stormwater utility fee and funds from this revenue stream could be applied to watershed and stormwater management district to improve infrastructure and promote public awareness. One program could be coordinating residents and volunteers to plant rain gardens throughout the area. This urban stormwater management district model can be replicated throughout the City of Fort Worth in neighborhoods who

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

RIGHT: Section of Berry Street showing improvement to provide stormwater management facilities

42


problem, it reduces the risk to residents and their personal property in the interim while more substantial stormwater infrastructure and facilities are proposed further upstream to mitigate the problem more effectively. Demonstration projects will be implemented using Fort Worth’s existing stormwater management utility fee. The following projects are suggested for the area: •

Improved street infrastructure that installs bioswales and produces greater

amounts of permeable surfaces

A program to subsidize rain barrels for all residences

Encourage rain garden landscaping on all commercial properties

Promote community garden space

Install permeable pavers for all surface parking

Plant trees along all streets throughout the district to increase infiltration and

provide shade

Install retention facilities, whether they are permanent water features or temporary

holding basins, where appropriate Paschal High School playing fields can be used as a temporary retention basin during large rain events

Urban Water Management Spread District Title

face similar issues. Though these efforts may not solve the stormwater management

43


44 Designs for Green and Walkable Cities


school’s playing fields into a stormwater retention facility. By sinking the field plane 3 feet below grade, the fields can retain ten million gallons of rain water. Phase 1 also includes the development of the train station and supporting parking structure creating an attractive destination for commuters. Berry Street will also benefit from improvements including large median bioswales, street trees and pervious pavers for on-street parking. Phase 2 will continue to address the stormwater issues by constructing underground stormwater retention facilities beneath structured parking and continuing on-street improvements to increase water retention through bioswales and pervious surfaces. An office building will be constructed adjacent to the commuter rail station, enabling a carless and walkable commute for those who work there. This office will also front Berry Street with available space for a coffee shop on the lower level, enlivening the street. A new hotel is introduced on Berry Street, with the goal of developing the train station into a true destination that relates to TCU. The closest hotel to TCU is a fifteen minute drive away, requiring visitors to rely on an automobile to travel and stay near TCU. Locating a hotel within a 25 minute walk down Berry Street is a great option for major TCU events including graduation, homecoming and major sporting events. Conference space in the hotel will be very useful for TCU, future office, commercial, retail and research tenants to hold private events. Also across the street are two research and laboratory facilities that will provide space for the expansion TCU’s science departments and/or local science related businesses. College campuses nationwide are facing scarcity of campus land due to increased student enrollment and providing development potential for TCU to extend their facilities, academic or otherwise further eastward and closer to public transit would be a

OPPOSITE: Phase 1 stormwater management

Stormwater Management Phase 1

In Phase 1, the stormwater management issues should be addressed by reorganizing the

great expansion opportunity. Paschal High School’s current building and practice fields will remain in Phase 1 in order to minimize the disturbance to the academic schedule and allow the school to continue the most important functions for as long as possible.

45


In Phase 2, Paschal High School will be renovated and built a new campus that will better complement its current academic needs. The high school playing fields, though, will be relocated outside the study area but within the neighborhood to parcels upstream that will serve as retention facilities that will better mitigate the neighborhood flooding. One practice soccer field and open courtyard space will be available on the Paschal High campus. A championship soccer stadium integrated into a mixed-use retail will be built below to complement Paschal High’s exceptional athletic program. This facility is meant to be jointly used by the high school, TCU and other sports programs throughout Fort Worth. This will be a unique facility, creating a destination where spectators from all over the city and region can access using the new commuter train. Lastly, retail along Berry Street across the street from the stadium will be developed to enliven the corridor.

Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

New boulevard vista from the new commuter rail station to the office park campus down Townsend Drive

46


New Champion Soccer Stadium

University Research Center Phase 2

LEFT: Phase 2

60 ft

47


Designs for Green and Walkable Cities

Existing Conditions

48

--- -

Large high school parcel Commercial retail on the future commuter rail station site Fragmented, low-density commercial development along Berry Street and across the street from the future commuter rail station Very little street improvements on Berry Street, no street trees, and lack of shade

RIGHT: Phase 1 ------

Paschal High School Water detention facility Research and Laboratory buildings (385,000 sf) New commuter rail station and related parking New office building relating to the station (120,000 sf) Hotel (250 rooms)

300 ft


Summary of Proposal LEFT: Phase 2 Complete

300 ft

- New Paschal High Campus - Championship soccer stadium - New retail (190,000 sf) - New office campus (408,000 sf) - Structured parking and retention facilities - Improved infrastructure along Berry Street and Townsend Drive

49


Designs For Green And Walkable Cities