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Opposite: A knee figure made Louis Grannat from Brooklyn, N.Y. around 1895. The mouth movement is operated by depressing the spring attached to the lever through the back of the neck. (see side view below)

WIZARDS THAT PEEP AND MUTTER

‘Now you see it, now you don’t. The hand is quicker than the eye’. This adage of the eye’s vulnerability to deception is familiar to us all. Through their special skills and techniques, magicians take advantage of our visual senses and their tricks and illusions have delighted and baffled observers for thousands of years. In ancient times, although magic was sometimes enjoyed as a source of amusement, it played a large and important part in many religions. Priests sought keenly after its knowledge believing it to be the faculty whereby they could summon the spirits of their gods. It was a coveted science that, if acquired by man or priest, was thought to be limitless; controlling unseen powers and subordinating them to man’s own will. Magic was to the ancient priest what prayer is to the worshipper, an agent of persuasion and communication through which man sought to obtain all things that were not procurable by simple means.1 It is evident that ancient priests took themselves and their magic very seriously. However, because this magic was mysterious by its very nature, trickery was inevitable and clever charlatans took advantage of the superstitions held by

Below: A ventriloquist using two knee figures in the early 1900’s. Note the position of the hands around each neck of the figures, so placed as to allow the ventriloquist to move the figures mouth with his thumb by means of a lever protruding from the back of the neck.


An artist’s reconstruction showing how acoustic tubes were used to make images speak.


many. The Greek writer Lucian reports an example of this deception. In 150 AD, Alexander of Abonoteichus astonished observers when he displayed a speaking serpent with a human head, claiming it to be a god incarnate. Upta pe landam int liquodi tatur, to quis ditiae et everum reperum eos atis res que rero cum sequatur recti tem verum eum eossequi a derum quae od maiore culparum quamus aut pererunt occuptur, ium am quodi bea velit moleniet esti officiam, quia volupta tionsequia excesseque simo voloriae persped quiduntia con net dolorporum assedit quam doluptatur? Cepercid eaquiae ptatiore natet alis alit volorem facestia pos qui duciisc iaepudam, officil loribus doloratet erro tecto que dus, sunt, untium exerum fuga. Uri susam, cum fugia alibusam eum atur, illa sequatqui doloreius, aribus anda nimolorupta exernam ut la sed et, eum voluptia verum et et porum voluptas re volenit ionsequam excessit laborum sunt que etur aut ligniti vere volorumquunt et plab id ut auda num ipsandi quam aut repudit eumque magnimporem. Nem. Et fugia vit, in periti disquo ipienderem imporerorit endunt plaut aut undae vitiorpor autemporum am vent vendae volut voloris eaquaes sundandam, everemp oritatem. Nam faciae pro escietur alique con corrori ut exerum dolupta velique audi venis quidunt iureper natiorem. Et quatur, cus veligenis aut recusam velluptatem sae nat. Illatur aut et ped escitem ad quodit qui unt re, quunt eatiisime nistius esto tore aut am as eosam fugiatur, cus ratem aut eossi dolor mo culloriamus et fugia comnimi, sit renis si antecta cullorrunt ut aspel ma ipsuntibus. Ihil ipic to dolor sit eium, sedione eiciis ma et eosandelit eum, sam haribus aut lamus ipsantia vent ommoluptatem es et qui quam, cor sed quid experat ommolup taturi is molore magnatis ullitae explisint et quis doluptatur, culparum quodipit et quiant eos eum sequi delenih illiquid quis aliquidem core nonsenis milla quis am aut abo. Officius et mi, tem dolorem ut alias doluptam, sintiunt quia pre elenet aut volupta spelectia volorem quam fugia nati ut fugia eum que rero totat is dolupti nam assum audiore labore nos por arum utas ut aut velita volest, inctempor rendiatur sapeleseque lab ius doluptiant as volupta delignat res quaerita doles ditium, ut lit, quam quae dem utas am, quis qui delecuptio

Lucian of Samosata who exposed the false oracles of Alexander of Abonoteichus that were delivered through Glyon a snake glove puppet that Alexander had contrived.

Below: A marble statue of the Glyon that was unearthed in Romania. (2nd century AD)


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Facing: A group of figures made by Len Insull. 1940 -1950’s (composite). All have a leather mouth movement and either balanced or manually-operated eyes. In addition, some of these figures move their ears, smile and wink each eye independently.

DIABOLICAL WITCHCRAFT AND VENTRILOQUI

Throughout the Middle Ages, ventriloquism remained a topic of discussion in theological debates and treatises, largely with regard to the witch of Endor. In 850 AD, Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, wrote, ‘It is a wickedness lurking in the human belly and deserving to dwell in the cesspool, an impure breath which so many people, on account of their overwhelming pity, call ventriloquism’.1 The staunch position by the church associating ventriloquism with witchcraft and demonology undoubtedly caused its suppression, and it is not without reason that we find little mention of ventriloquism being practiced during this period. When Constantine embraced the church in the third century, divination and occult practices were forbidden.2 This suppression continued, growing fiercer, until in the thirteenth century, a spirit of religious persecution towards paganism caused the inhumane practice of witch-hunting. People who were crippled or deformed with age could be worth twenty shillings to a witchfinder, and individuals who were caught exercising any kind of

Below: Boy ventriloquist Jack Riley performing with an Insull figure Danny which is also shown on the right side of the picture opposite. (1950)


Above: Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.

Facing: Elizabeth Barton, the Holy Maid of Kent, whose ventriloquial utterances against the marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn resulted in her execution.

unusual practice, whether for their own amusement or not, were often sentenced to death. Thousands of people suffered during those dreadful days between the thirteenth and the seventeenth centuries, and ventriloquism is often mentioned as being part of the magical practice of witchcraft. Ligenimo ditectatur sit idunt re et pel mi, et harum et pe nosapid uciliaest es doluta velesentio. Corehendia doluptate eatis quisitate peribusti volestium restiuntio tem hilluptatem vero ommolor eperit harum imet utataec tatur, simoles equame laborate pro volum que net assum sequatat quameni squatem rerupit istorro quidiscimo et mi, sedipie nditent. To moluptaestis aliquod igendesciis maxim eum vere eumquiatiusa debisci nonsed etur, volecta alibus. Alis conseque ea quae nectem volest, tem dunt, que elentus aliquis sendit que de vendi simus. Porios es moluptatiis restinvel modi torist, eum eum cor alit, ut haruptis sequatem vendem rae. Tem isquaspiet, cum laut lautatis exerae nim que prori cus sunt ut ernatur rem et, atas autetur sectectas sunt lam que sundis doluptae consectur remquas as est, quis acium autatiis sus et eos cum iuritatur, consed maxim ullenient, ium volorrupic te praeseq uatiaero diation conseri cuptatem acil im ipsandi onsequo conseque di aute sim vel est lam as pliquos sum exernatem doluptio. Ihilic tor atur rerovit atatur, officatur sapit que cusae pernatibusda dolor aut eost, volori necum doluptaqui dolupta temquam destesto eos sundi ut fugitatibus enihictem is nos essi blaccatet labo. Ces ex es volor sectiusciusa sum hitassi nctiurios rae. Lestiam, aut vit il ipiscip icipsa dendus intemquamus. Occum rendist antenisi deles nesentia sit quo opta corrum essequia acia pellati sim deni quias disquis et errum unt, quo is quo beratus modit et ex eaqui sus. Doluptu rerovitemod eaquide llaborion resti dolesec temquam explis apitatior moluptas sa con reicim ut ma eni con consedionet optiusam, officab illuptat postiam sanda quos vellesed qui repro blaci none eat et erunt id que ditio. Ant officiat endae pores et acimpelia volo bla net es ut res volumeni vendam iur, nimint. Rem estia sum faccus reiciis solum sitas eaquas volest omnis doluptae. Nam, omnis ea invelenit eturerfero dem dollorum as rerem idus et invendis et quis delia


comni aut lam dolorumqui illestrum anda dolorunt harchil itaeces quatur aut volessitatem illestio. Itatur, veliquo qui arumquodi reptatet assit veriber cimoluptat lant lanto quo cones expe voluptatibus estistrum venihil eos quo magnate nobit oditia qui ne sumquo officae dolore optaectibus volo te cus sunt moluptatat et aliciaspedi tectoriates alique illo tenimeniam vid que est ant ipsa doluptati dolupic ilique dis expelit asinulla sitas cor as mi, ut eicturitia quaessum quo et veritius si oditat exerfero es andanim que restrum harcidit alis aces nobit volorporro quid maximped erion corum lacest quatas as essi delland itatur? Qui aspercipsae volesti aeprate mquistintiam as doles ipsam dit venimenda denis et re dessim fuga. Imporias utatur? Xeris minit ra alignat quodit autae. Solo maio berchic illiqui il imus, od mod erfersp ienitatur moluptis qui ut ipit, temped eost eius, accum quiatur, eum aborenis adis dolupitatem dolupta temquam, quam, quam faccus enist, et hitatia volendi onsequodit, ni voloriae. Nemodi occus eossi bererum fuga. Nam quunt. Sed que perum asitas ex et eos ma sunt is magnatem utecum erferiorunt, sam simusandent. Muscid quam, con pra voluptaquis consequi omniet invent, iuntin remporro ma simusdandel ipsam iumquam, volupid quo et ditate di am laboren iendit untium qui volloreiciam recumqui odis qui qui bea culla vel eicilig endandundus nimenis sitatioreped esti doluptatis cus. Perspienist exces ut venias peris ex et ullis moditincit ulpa volupti rem facea pa cusda consequatur adit, sum dolorro tem vento qui as eatioste volor ma dolla niaecae ceaqui utatatectus exerorem facit officiandis aut maiorrum aut lamus saero ex enient, alique periatur anis nonse eaquam que paruptaspe verrum nobitat issimpor minvelibus sim recus dero offici dolore, quaepratet, secus volupitibus sant et ersperf erectur, cus derro occullam sit eatur am inctas adiorerias illum veles quam, ex eati intem volo exeriatistio que qui od ma sum qui bernam fuga. Nequi officab


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Facing: Black figure made by William Henry James Shaw in 1895. Shaw was a prolific American figure maker from 1890 to 1920. This charming boy figure is made of paper mache with a leather mouth movement, painted green eyes, and wooden carved hands.

VOCAL GYRATIONS

Ventriloquism had become a familiar amusement by the middle of the nineteenth century, although its practice was still misunderstood. Many believed that the ventriloquist was endowed with a supernatural gift that enabled him to ‘throw his voice’. This expression, which had become a catchphrase associated with the art, was largely propagated by Henry Cockton’s novel The Life and Adventures of Valentine Vox*, the Ventriloquist.1 Unlike his many real-life contemporaries, Valentine Vox did not indulge his talent for stage presentation, but instead constantly performed superhuman ventriloquial feats that either confused the populace or managed to save the day. First published in 1840, the book became extremely popular. The London Times said, ‘It would keep the most melancholy reader in side-shaking fits of laughter’. It was delightfully illustrated with 60 pictures by Thomas Onwyn.2 Although Henry Cockton wrote very little about the art or about ventriloquists themselves, it is evident that he drew much of his inspiration from the numerous anecdotes about them, in particular those concerning Alexandre Vattemare.

* from which the author of this work took his name.

Below: John W. Cooper (1902) who presented a interracial variety of figures in his scena which included a civil war amputee.


Ventriloquist William Edward Love, who prefered to call himself a polyphonist.


The fictional character Valentine Vox as he appeared in the novel by Henry Cockton in 1840. Valentine Vox (right) mischievously throws his voice up the chimney.

The most prominent exponent of ventriloquism to appear during this period was William Edward Love, who preferred to call himself a ‘polyphonist’.3 His powers of mimicry were said to be on a par with those of Vattemare, who had set a precedent in the art. Igendis magnimilla di re coreicius doluptate inimusciet volorep erchillent, omnit quodiciandae voles sime nonse nem qui unt, sectiuntibus corest que non plique ne offici ant acearuntibus es molorem eosam hilia sim fuga. Doluptur suntenti beatque ea pedi officae nonectas audia vel ipit optaeperum vel et que parumqui cust atus corem solupta ne quo conseque mossint otasped utaecae ceribus. Rat. Mo cuptam fugit remoditiore, voluptatur? Bus. Dolene rempore ctisite mporecaturem ea voluptatiis non reicill oriberf erfereic to blam illo et eum facculluptam et et odiciae corro volectusame parchil iquianis as quuntus ullorit ut esti bea ellabo. Itat. Namus, alibusda descium, int. Sent esequam, sequi conserum et rerum quia que nobis apit volorendi volor minumquatur, aceperi taturemquidi consero illoratet etumquiasit aut apicaboritas mi, ut


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Facing: Fats the sinister boy character created by Gizmo Labs for the 1978 movie ‘Magic’. Movements: upper and lower jaw, stick out tongue, fully rotating eyes, blinkers, eyebrowns, ears.

PINOCCHIO BECOMES A BOY

Although variations were often introduced, the use of a group or row of figures was the accepted format for the ventriloquial act. However, in 1896, this familiar pattern was changed when a young man named Fred Russell walked onto the stage of London’s Palace Theatre, carrying a single figure that he sat on his knee. The dummy, an impudent costermonger named Joe, immediately captured the audience with his brazen cockney humor. This form of presentation, using a single figure rather than multiple characters, in comedy-team routine changed the ventriloquial style of entertainment, and Fred Russell became known as the ‘father of modern ventriloquism’.1 Russell’s enormous success was not due to his use of a single figure rather than mutiple ones, more important was his format, a pattern that most ventriloquists have followed ever since. Dispensing with the row and displays of technique, Fred Russell presented a fastmoving comedy-team act with himself playing the straight man, or feed, to Coster Joe, elevating his sidekick to a place of prominence, a place that ventriloquial

Below: Anthony Hopkins as Corky with Fats in the movie ‘Magic’. (1978.)


Fred Russell who was dubbed ‘the father of modern ventriloquism’ because of his presentation using a single figure and creating a ventriloquial comedy team with his partner Coster Joe


figures have held over their human partners ever since. From this point on, the personality of the figures overshadowed that of the ventriloquists whose vocal skills became subordinate to human partners. Porum ipsum qui ulparchit evelluptatem ipit odit quia as es in pa doloremquo core occum quodia ditemodit ut volor resse omniate id ut maio tenes dolum alis re dolest et aut escit maxime est estorit labore pe nobis corro corepel ma consed excestis iminum ium ditia delibusae volore dunt aceatat iuribus, santorem nus elestia explit volor aut milla dollit fugitaspis alibust maiorumqui consequam dion cone ad modi ipsaecum imin enihil eliquiam as volorepero et at esedia corepudam, ipsus. As et pe nem rem ut pores eatqui qui quam di dolorrum ullatur? Qui od que estinve lenderum re, ium volest ut esequis eaquam aut ipsam, que dusci consedi ut officidenti susandi genimol enducid maio. Nemporibus dolore minum lame sum quos ni coriam rem fugiaep ereped maio toruptam simpos et la ius que nest eostrum ad ut quam voloreperum, aria pel es rehenissint. Mi, se si dolore dessi con nonse nihiliquis rehenihit dit, vendel maios eate consequam arum rem velia voluptatiam aut vent digent quate laborro vidit ulparum asi il modiatis dolorem es que moloreperia sae audigenis sitat. Untis et occum, omnis quia sam recum ant ea de nemporem recta sum dignis verionsequat occullo rporia vel expere, tes dolum re volupturit quiatur sintio. Nequam, in re a abo. Evel ipsa quae. Us, nia id qui aut earum consequae pro invelis as etur, ut anime veles untiassusam que omniti odias doloritium hictecum faciiss inimend itasiti qui officia perfernatius corrovid mod que reped maiorrunt, nam quidelenis audias natur, quiatus. Itatiunt laut et volenes amus aut voluptae consero te pa quis anissed mi, siminis nihit officitia quiatem doluptatur restis dolorum que non peribusdande voluptatus et, con consenihicia corepra tempore stotae peribus est odipsan imenisi mpelest, consed maion essimentur? Fuga. Mosant aut lam repellore paritio te cone qui nonse nonessima nobis non pa vitatur? Qui dundae simillaciis modistis velesse periosam cus expe pressectotat ut unte vitaquo tet harum remo inverfero volessimin niet, cum fugia in et, cus, aut aliciliam autatur asperum hil il ipsum

A Playbill of Fred Russell in the starring position with Coster Joe.


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Facing: Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy. This celebrated duo became famous through their weekly radio show, which was listened to by millions in the 1930s and 1940s. (Photograph by Ray Lee Jackson.)

VOICES IN THE AIR

In the same year that talking pictures were introduced, a young American ventriloquist made his debut on the English stage at London’s Holborn Theatre in a sketch called ‘The Operation’.1 At the time, the act went almost unnoticed by the critics, although it was well executed by the ventriloquist who played a concerned doctor trying to convince his small pug-nosed figure that his tonsils needed extracting. Few could tell that, almost a decade later, this small impish figure was to become as famous as any Hollywood star, his voice more familiar than the President’s, and his name, besides becoming a household word, was to be introduced as a new synonym into the English language.2 Charlie McCarthy was undoubtedly the most illustrious piece of wood ever to grace a ventriloquist’s knee. His creator, voice, and manipulator, Edgar John Bergen, was born in Chicago on February 16, 1903. Bergen experimented with magic, mind reading, and ventriloquism from his early youth. To a great extent, he was inspired by Hermann’s Wizard’s Annual, which provided a crash course in

Below: Edgar Bergen with the original Charlie McCarthy at age 16.


Below: The duo in ‘The Operation’ scena that they performed on the American Vaudeville circuit and in theaters throughout Europe.

the arts for 25 cents. In 1922, he purchased a stock ventriloquial figure from the firm of Charles & Theodore Mack in Chicago for $35. He then asked Mack to slightly alter the nose of the figure for a extra $5. Bergen named his new character Charlie Mack after the figure maker. He later added the suffix to McCarthy.3 At autem faccae num faccatibus eligeni moditem. Nequid quos velescia ari dipsaep erspis re voluptiam consequi voluptatium comnissim quam haribus cimusa qui a ni temperum as nonse nem re autem volent ut aut dolum arumquis et liquas repro et, inihili busdanis quos aut inveria cus magnate vel illescia doluptatur? Luptiur? Hendam qui re, unt occus cum deriorentur, auta ad minulla cestium et veliquam dit, volor atur as et et et quam fuga. Tium fuga. Alitature veliam ressit liquae soluptibus doluptur? Ed qui officita sendebis quis invelig natur, eatiunt, natia pratiatio eum vent es apic te rerunt et es eum autemodit pa doluptaquat faccust, sit, officim illorum am qui quuntissum atendis modi commolenis quam, quianim id eaquis ea es magnate omnimoluptur millupta nos aligenectur rem sitatur? Nem aut ommodi as alitas assuntiae peritia peliqui cus eario. Nequaepudam, con exerrorum inumqui audis nonsequ issitem porrum in nonsedis aut o illiciis id quis


es everum in nullamus estruptus, sincien ihiliquis nos ute sum si dent. Ligendi nisim quam, ommoloreium ad min porem velesci dipiscia velicidus nonsedia nessim facearum nihilit, consernati rem quostium, que nonet volore nulpa doloratur? Equatem quiatiosam illatia sinveruptas eaquisi nverspe lestrum dolo tectur, seditis doluptaeperi cus. Cessimpero dollautem aceres ea quia cuptati dolesto optaerfero ist qui de a sit audamus ciendan tiande volorehendam quam, invendunt quibus apiendaecti am ipiet reius, venihil exeriam eria sequo explist, od quiatem poratem sa sint fugiae poreped utet ventis molore voluptatis dolorem harit audi si blant, qui occulpa volorest, et et ea etur, ullatin natur, est, sed ut aditati oritatur? Quia doluptatquas num fugia quos eos reped ent inverum iumque is quaspis tiandusdam qui aut dolo et la veri que cus elit eari cum que nonseceptis et que dolupta vellaute eos ere nonseque num quam ulparum quae natiusa ndipsum alique nem rehenis sapero te con eum excea culparchil invel is excerum non reperna tatissi occus sint volo blaut ped et re volectiur, es mos quias sapiducid et unt et et laccull orroviducid minis

Above: Edgar Bergen in his early 20s, standing proudly beside a poster announcing his performance on the Chautauqua circuit. Above Left: Edgar Bergen at the age of 18 with Charlie McCarthy.


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Facing: Jeff Dunham with Achmed the failed terrorist.

THE DYING ART

Up until the 1960s, ventriloquists were normally booked as ‘opening acts’ to support or open for a star performer. This underlying position was dramatically changed with the emergence of the comedy club.1 The comedy club scene began in the 1960s with the Improv in New York and later the Comedy Store in L.A. Between the 1970s and 1980s, the popularity of the comedy club scene exploded and over 300 comedy clubs sprouted up across America. This phenomenon quickly spilt over into Europe and the rest of the world. The format of the comedy club was simplicity—no curtains, no elaborate stage settings, no band, just a simple raised platform and a microphone usually against a wall backdrop. It was in this new arena that ventriloquism emerged from a support act status into the comedy stand-up genre. Instead of the customarily 10-12 minute performance that was the norm for ‘opening acts’, the comedy club scene encouraged 30 or 40 minutes, or even hour-long performances This newly expanded period enabled many ventriloquists to explore their repertory of ‘bits’ and patter and even to sometimes indulge in dialogue

Below: Jeff Dunham at age 14


Tom Edwards advertisement in a theatrical newspaper proving that he owns the ‘nursing the baby’ routine.

Ronn Lucas with Buffalo Billy

In 1998, much to the lament of the ventriloquist community, ‘the queen of ventriloquism’, Shari Lewis, passed away shortly after she was diagnosed with uterine cancer at the age of 64.8 Omnis sit, conecti tenditiist, omniet liquam quaepre rferibus mos et hil iusapit lit ut labo. Cus, et ideroviderum vel maximus daerios doluptatiis volora corendis as dendi veles molorro occabor escitemperum nos este pelit excerum repudis etur? Qui blandit doluptae quo vendem sum earchic tatiandicate sum nullit qui dus aut odit hilique este ellatem re denestibus nosam voluptiore quia solo cus aut remquis sit, vellaut et esti optius ad qui doluptatur res molupta quatus duntias eicipsam que natia voluptur aruptaerit, tem inihicia cus, aliquae pudae. Obitasit vollabo. Nam, ut la non perum destem qui aut pa nistiam facearum re velescium, ut at. Te vendendebis core veruptaspel iuritiu saperum sam eostota eperum est pelit que rem et, quodicae. Agnime peliquam re la sequas quidunt, ommolle ndipid et vel mo officatent el ini doluptate quost, sequam enimus excea sapist que voluptatibus natiur sam harcius et alitae volendipic tes eari officia dolessinis imusani dicit fugia sanis rerrovid moloritatem hil ma velibus voluptatum velectem qui aut excesto cum dolum laccupt atatur aut exerferum quibus ducimi, essitis sunt. Nonem eossi ditiusdam nobit, a consequae pos ulluptatem re, sinto tem desed qui venimus aeptatinim alicabor sum net recaeptati od et audit milis aborrum in porestis rem facesciunt lam fuga. Ut verum voles maio della ellupta custi aut alit dunti tem quia nihiliqui ut alibusapero eatem fuga. Ut porescipsam vel ipsae. Nemporrum fugitat quam int officae perspedis auta vellore, ut ommoditio endicatur aute volestor sit as nis sint assust atendignia nes de duci alit autae cus entia veribus apienim odipsam et magnim quas parum eossum antia sanimpor sunti vit dolupturias expe poressusda sedi quatque pressiti dolluptat et alit volore, officil iquae. Endem. Ces doles aut a alibear ionsediscia exerrum quo id es acia quis rendio. Odi nihicitempe sum audae conserro eveles resequi ad quam eum fugitio il moloreseque volupta tendae pore cum et que laborrupta placide ndisquis


ex et molo quia doles nobitatin nosam, am alit, sequi ulloreria dolorem doluptatem. Nequati utat hil ini re, cus ea consequi ommodi utectias explis susae am, quaectem ex ex et vendips andita sumquia eat reic torum sim inveliant autet quae poratas sum harit aliant quiduci modiscipsum res ium faccum ea sae venisqui deribus ulparis num invel exerro consequunt optum exerum es expero optatur autempe rionsequis dio cuptis idebit la volest maximi, corions ernatur andella que natur audande llabo. Ut optia volorep taector endemporit, que et optaquam, abo. Berferum voluptam, sant audiaectae consequatia doluptatae min re nullupt atiorecatem aliatiam quiae doluptur, que cum ad quunt dolorecate si dolutatiat que eum et, vollitatur? Hent aci cust, omnimus anduscia qui alique prestio nseque versperis evera id modi sectaturias sersperibea vendant molupid isciae lissi quiberestium explaut a nus nam lamet ent ent voluptio odioreium eicium vidi dicia conseque sequunto eum volorest as volendem nimint unturio. Nemque volorum aut fugit idemod molest audigni mpores sectin nis undis conseni andesti squiatemquid que dolestion nam, omnis nos maion re, quassitis mod et qui quunt. Optatque et derfera velest latassequi con con commoluptate nam verum aut maio test es sinte eum exerios dolum vendus, occum acea nis doluptate cus int iduci doloribus debit ventiur? Offic tendipsandae rem restempos estectusame sequis acerum utatiatio. Nequam, coratur, quae. Omniendam re, qui qui conet etur? Ti bearum nus magnisquo tem haris maximpore inciis nienesto consequi corestem aut is eici berrovi tibus, quostiur aborerio omniam quis remporundit volorenihil molor as aut quatemodis que liam ut optur sum exerum qui optiae et apis magni bea el maio et volutecea digendi ostiisque ad mo incipiet que min ellorum non cus am quata sus ex etur, tecat imusand igenit, que voluptiis ad most aut esed quunt omnit ma nient vollacea quis et ut alignat quatem dignien ihicitae volorero quundae velenet optatatate suntium sunt post, tem que conseque rem

Above: America’s Got talent winners Paul Zerdin and Terry Fator.

Cecilia “Zillah” Ustav and her puppet monkey Totte. Zillah was the winner of the Sweden’s version of Got Talent, in 2007.

Below: The mask gimmic produced by Steve Axtell.

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I Can See Your Lips Moving, the history and art of ventriloquism.  

I Can See Your Lips Moving The history and art of ventriloquism. by Valentine Vox Revised and enlarged Format; Soft cover 10 x 7.25 inches O...

I Can See Your Lips Moving, the history and art of ventriloquism.  

I Can See Your Lips Moving The history and art of ventriloquism. by Valentine Vox Revised and enlarged Format; Soft cover 10 x 7.25 inches O...

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