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Music

Victorian Certificate of Education Study Design

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority 2010


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Accredited by the Victorian Registration and Qualifications Authority Level 6, 35 Spring Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 Developed and published by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority 41 St Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 This completely revised and accredited edition published 2010. Š Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority 2010 No part of this publication may be reproduced except as specified under the Copyright Act 1968 or by permission from the VCAA. For more information go to: www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/aboutus/policies/policy-copyright.html The VCAA provides the only official, up-to-date versions of VCAA publications. Details of updates can be found on the VCAA website: www.vcaa.vic.edu.au This publication may contain copyright material belonging to a third-party. Every effort has been made to contact all copyright owners. If you believe that material in this publication is an infringement of your copyright please email the Copyright Officer: vcaa.copyright@edumail.vic.gov.au Edited by Ruth Learner Cover designed by Chris Waldron of BrandHouse Desktop published by Julie Coleman Music ISBN 978-1-921702-11-2


Contents 5

Important information

7

Introduction

8 9

Rationale Aims Structure Entry Duration Changes to the study design Monitoring for quality Safety Use of information and communications technology Employability skills Legislative compliance

10

Assessment and reporting

Satisfactory completion Authentication Levels of achievement

12

Units 1–4: Music Performance

13

Unit 1: Music Performance

18

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

19

Unit 2: Music Performance

26

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

28

Unit 3: Music Performance

35

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

37

Unit 4: Music Performance

44

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

47

Advice for teachers: Music Performance Units 1–4

51 52 53 77

Developing a course Suitable resources Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) Employability skills Learning activities School-assessed Coursework


79

Units 3 and 4: Music Investigation

81

Unit 3: Music Investigation

85

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

88

Unit 4: Music Investigation

92

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

95

Advice for teachers: Music Investigation Units 3 and 4

98 99 100 110

Developing a course Suitable resources Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) Employability skills Learning activities School-assessed Coursework

111

Units 1–4: Music Style and Composition

112

Unit 1: Music Style and Composition

113

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

117

Unit 2: Music Style and Composition

120

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

122

Unit 3: Music Style and Composition

125

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

127

Unit 4: Music Style and Composition

130

Areas of study and Outcomes Assessment

134

Advice for teachers: Music Style and Composition Units 1–4

138 139 140 161

Developing a course Suitable resources Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) Employability skills Learning activities School-assessed Coursework


IMPORTANT INFORMATION Accreditation period Units 1–4: 2011–2015

The accreditation period commences on 1 January 2011. Other sources of information The VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET is the only official source of changes to regulations and accredited studies. The VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET, including supplements, also regularly includes advice on VCE studies. It is the responsibility of each VCE teacher to refer to each issue of the VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET. The VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET is sent in hard copy to all VCE providers. It is also available as an e-newsletter via free subscription on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority’s website at www.vcaa.vic.edu.au

To assist teachers in assessing School-assessed Coursework in Units 3 and 4, the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. The current VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook contains essential information on assessment processes and other procedures. VCE providers Throughout this study design the term ‘school’ is intended to include both schools and other VCE providers. Photocopying VCE schools only may photocopy parts of this study design for use by teachers.

5


Introduction

Rationale

Music is an integral part of all cultures and societies, both contemporary and historical. The study of music develops students’ understanding of artistic processes and contributes to the development of the aesthetic, cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. VCE Music offers students opportunities to engage in the practice of performing, creating and studying music that is representative of diverse genres, styles and cultures. Students can specialise in one or more approaches to the study of music, depending on their VCE program overall and the post-VCE pathways they may be interested in following. Students develop knowledge of stylistic, aesthetic and expressive qualities and characteristics of music and develop their ability to communicate their understanding through music making: performing, composing, arranging and/or improvising; and musicianship: aural perception, analysis and music language. VCE Music offers students opportunities for personal development and to make an ongoing contribution to the culture of their community through participation in life-long music making.

Aims

This study enables students to: • perform, compose, arrange and/or improvise music from diverse styles and traditions • demonstrate musicianship • engage with diverse music genres, styles, contexts and practices • communicate understanding of cultural, stylistic, aesthetic and expressive qualities and characteristics of music • use electronic and digital technologies in making and sharing music and communicating ideas about music • explore and expand personal music interests, knowledge and experiences • use imagination, creativity and personal and social skills in music making • access pathways for further education, training and employment in music • participate in life-long learning in music and involvement in the musical life of their community.

7


Introduction

MUSIC 2011–2015

Structure

The study is made up of ten units. Each unit deals with specific content contained in areas of study and is designed to enable students to achieve a set of outcomes for that unit. Each outcome is described in terms of key knowledge and key skills. The study structure is Music Performance Units 1–2

Music Performance Units 3–4

Music Style and Composition Units 1–2

Music Investigation Units 3–4

Music Style and Composition Units 3–4

The units in the study are: • Music Performance Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 • Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 • Music Style and Composition Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 Students may enrol in all units or select specific combinations of units that cater for their interests and intended pathways. Examples of combinations of units are provided on page 50 of the ‘Advice for Teachers – Music Performance’. Students may also enrol in one or more units in the VCE VET Music program. Details of these units are provided in the VCE VET Music program booklet which can be downloaded from www.vcaa.vic. edu.au. A table showing examples of ways units drawn from VCE VET could be incorporated into a VCE program is provided on page 51 of the ‘Advice for Teachers – Music Performance’.

Entry

There are no prerequisites for entry to Units 1, 2 and 3 for Music Performance or Music Style and Composition, or for entry to Unit 3 of Music Investigation. Students must undertake Unit 3 prior to undertaking Unit 4 in these studies. Students are strongly recommended to undertake Units 3 and 4 Music Performance before or in the same year that they undertake Units 3 and 4 Music Investigation. Music Performance Units 1 to 4 and Music Style and Composition Units 1 to 4 are designed to a standard equivalent to the final two years of secondary education. Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 are designed for students with considerable music experience.

Duration

Each unit involves at least 50 hours of scheduled classroom instruction. In this study, scheduled classroom instruction might involve classroom music, instrumental lessons and/or ensemble rehearsals.

Changes to the Study design

During its period of accreditation minor changes to the study will be announced in the VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET. The VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET is the only source of changes to regulations and accredited studies and it is the responsibility of each VCE teacher to monitor changes or advice about VCE studies published in the VCAA Bulletin VCE, VCAL and VET.

8

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

MONITORING FOR Quality

As part of ongoing monitoring and quality assurance, the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority will periodically undertake an audit of VCE Music to ensure the study is being taught and assessed as accredited. The details of the audit procedures and requirements are published annually in the VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook. Schools will be notified if they are required to submit material to be audited.

Safety

It is the responsibility of the school to ensure that duty of care is exercised in relation to the health and safety of all students undertaking the study, including the use of electronic and electrical music performance equipment. Students should develop an understanding of safe lifting techniques, particularly when moving amplifiers, percussion instruments, large brass, woodwind or string instruments, and travel cases on and off shelves, up and down stairs, to and from buildings and in loading bays. Performance students need to practise and perform on their instrument and/or voice for sustained periods of time and should be mindful of overuse injury at all times. Care should be taken to develop safe approaches when using music instruments or their voice, including, as appropriate, posture, hand/ arm positions and breathing techniques. Care should be taken in regard to safe levels of sound at all times, particularly when using music technology such as amplifiers and PA systems, or in ensemble seating positions. Information about appropriate sound levels can be obtained from the Victorian WorkCover Authority website. Students listening to music need to be mindful of damage resulting from listening to sounds through speakers and head/earphones at sustained high volume levels.

USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

In designing courses for this study teachers should incorporate information and communications technology (ICT) where appropriate and applicable to the teaching and learning activities.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

This study offers a number of opportunities for students to develop employability skills. The ‘Advice for teachers’ sections provide specific examples of how students can develop employability skills during learning activities and assessment tasks.

LEGISLATIVE COMPLIANCE

When collecting and using information, the provisions of privacy and copyright legislation, such as the Victorian Information Privacy Act 2000 and Health Records Act 2001, and the federal Privacy Act 1988 and Copyright Act 1968, must be met.

vce study design

9

Introduction


Assessment and reporting

SATISFACTORY COMPLETION

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. Designated assessment tasks are provided in the details for each unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment for Units 3 and 4. Teachers must develop courses that provide opportunities for students to demonstrate achievement of outcomes. Examples of learning activities are provided in the ‘Advice for teachers’ sections. Schools will report a result for each unit to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority as S (Satisfactory) or N (Not Satisfactory). Completion of a unit will be reported on the Statement of Results issued by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority as S (Satisfactory) or N (Not Satisfactory). Schools may report additional information on levels of achievement.

Authentication

Work related to the outcomes of each unit will be accepted only if the teacher can attest that, to the best of their knowledge, all unacknowledged work is the student’s own. Teachers need to refer to the current VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook for authentication procedures.

LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT

Units 1 and 2 Procedures for the assessment of levels of achievement in Units 1 and 2 are a matter for school decision. Assessment of levels of achievement for these units will not be reported to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. Schools may choose to report levels of achievement using grades, descriptive statements or other indicators.

10


MUSIC 2011–2015

Assessment and reporting

Units 3 and 4 The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority will supervise the assessment of all students undertaking Units 3 and 4.

In the study of VCE Music Performance students’ level of achievement will be determined by Schoolassessed Coursework, an end-of-year performance examination and an end-of-year aural and written examination. In VCE Music Investigation students’ level of achievement will be determined by School-assessed Coursework and an end-of-year performance examination. In VCE Music Style and Composition students’ level of achievement will be determined by School-assessed Coursework, an Externally-assessed Task and an end-of-year examination. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority will report students’ level of performance on each assessment component as a grade from A+ to E or UG (ungraded). To receive a study score, students must achieve two or more graded assessments and receive S for both Units 3 and 4. The study score is reported on a scale of 0–50; it is a measure of how well the student performed in relation to all others who took the study. Teachers should refer to the current VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook for details on graded assessment and calculation of the study score. Percentage contributions to the study score in VCE Music are as follows: VCE Music Performance Units 3 and 4 • Units 3 and 4 School-assessed Coursework: 30 per cent • External end-of-year performance examination: 50 per cent • External end-of-year aural and written examination: 20 per cent VCE Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 • Unit 3 School-assessed Coursework: 25 per cent • Unit 4 School-assessed Coursework: 25 per cent • External end-of-year performance examination: 50 per cent VCE Music Style and Composition Units 3 and 4 • Units 3 and 4 School-assessed Coursework: 30 per cent • Units 3 and 4 Externally-assessed Task: 30 per cent • External end-of-year aural and written examination: 40 per cent Details of the assessment program are described in the sections on Units 3 and 4 in this study design.

vce study design

11


Units 1– 4: Music Performance

12


Unit 1: Music Performance This unit focuses on building performance and musicianship skills. Students present performances of selected group and solo music works using one or more instruments. They study the work of other performers and explore strategies to optimise their own approach to performance. They identify technical, expressive and stylistic challenges relevant to works they are preparing for performance and practise technical work to address these challenges. They also develop skills in performing previously unseen music. Students study aural, theory and analysis concepts to develop their musicianship skills and apply this knowledge when preparing and presenting performances.

SELECTION OF INSTRUMENT OR VOICE

In this study design, the term ‘instrument’ includes voice. The choice of instrument may vary within a unit or between units. Students who work with more than one instrument should select a main instrument for solo performance.

WORKS SELECTED FOR STUDY

In Unit 1 students select a program of group and solo works by a range of composers and/or performers that are representative of a range of styles and diversity of character. Students are able to select these works from a range of sources. The program should allow the student to meet a range of technical, stylistic and interpretative demands and should be appropriate to their level of technical expertise. Works chosen for group performance may, but are not required to, be selected from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Group Works. Works chosen for solo performance may, but are not required to, be selected from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. The prescribed lists are published annually on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Throughout the study the term ‘program’ refers to one or more programs, and the term ‘style’ refers to one or more styles.

13


Music Performance Unit 1

MUSIC 2011–2015

Area of study 1

Performance This area of study focuses on knowledge and skills that students use to present musically engaging performances. Students prepare and present performances in a variety of contexts. They use regular performances to explore ways of expressively shaping their chosen works and communicating their artistic intentions to an audience. They develop their instrumental skills through regular individual practice and develop ensemble skills through rehearsal with other musicians. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to prepare and perform a practised program of group and solo works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• • • • • • • •

ways to practise and perform a program of group and solo works tone qualities that are characteristic of the instrument and ways to achieve variation of tone strategies for developing flexibility, dexterity and security in performance the structure of works being prepared for performance and how elements of music contribute to the character of the works ways of shaping music performance through interpretation of expressive elements of music such as tempo, dynamics, phrasing, articulation, groove, feel, intonation, and balance and blend of instrumental voices and parts/lines in the texture as appropriate to the works historical and contemporary conventions and contextual influences relevant to the performance of selected works ways of using recordings, scores and transcriptions to make decisions when shaping performances presentation techniques, including conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space/s.

Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• practise and perform a program of group and solo works that are representative of a range of styles and diversity of character • demonstrate control of tone qualities characteristic of the instrument and variation of tone • demonstrate flexibility, dexterity and security in performance • demonstrate understanding of structure of works being performed • create shape in the performance of selected works through appropriate interpretation of expressive elements of music • use knowledge of performance conventions to present historically informed and contemporary interpretations of selected works • demonstrate communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to the performance of selected works • demonstrate presentation techniques and conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space/s.

14

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 1

AREA OF STUDY 2

Performance technique This area of study focuses on the development of techniques for group and/or solo performance.

Students systematically identify instrumental techniques required to perform selected group and/or solo works and practise relevant technical work and other exercises to support their performance. Students investigate influences relevant to the interpretation and performance of the selected group and/or solo works. They research and trial a range of performance and interpretation strategies used by other performers to identify approaches to developing their own skills as a solo performer and as a member of a group. They investigate and practise approaches to unprepared performance. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to demonstrate instrumental techniques used in performance of selected works, demonstrate unprepared performance skills and describe influences on their approach to performance.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• • • • • • • • •

strategies for developing effective instrumental practice routines strategies for developing effective rehearsals with other musicians strategies for developing instrumental techniques strategies for developing instrumental techniques required to meet specific technical, expressive and stylistic challenges in selected group and/or solo works strategies for practising technical work and exercises for development of flexibility, dexterity and control across the range of styles represented in selected group and/or solo works links between technical work and exercises and achieving flexibility, dexterity and control when performing selected group and/or solo works strategies used by other performers to optimise performance outcomes ways of improving identified aspects of performance ability strategies for achieving systematic development of unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/or improvisation.

Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• implement instrumental practice routines • rehearse with other musicians • prepare and perform a program of technical work and exercises relevant to achieving flexibility, dexterity and control when performing selected group and/or solo works • describe the impact of studying selected technical work on performance outcomes for selected group and/or solo works • identify and describe strategies used by other performers to optimise performance outcomes • reflect on processes used to improve aspects of performance practice

vce study design

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Music Performance Unit 1

MUSIC 2011–2015

• systematically develop unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/ or improvisation skills • present an unprepared performance by either sight reading previously unseen music, spontaneously imitating within a set style, or spontaneously improvising within a set style. AREA OF STUDY 3

Musicianship This area of study focuses on aural perception, music theory and analysis. Students study concepts in isolation and in the contexts of performing and listening. This approach develops students’ general musicianship ability and enables them to apply their learning to rehearsal and performance. Students develop their ability to sing intervals, scales, triads and short melodic phrases from sight and memory. They are introduced to strategies for identifying, recognising, notating and transcribing short music excerpts. They also practise and refine their ability to notate music by hand. Students use knowledge developed across this area of study to explore characteristics of works being prepared for performance and make decisions about approaches to interpretation. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify, re-create, notate and transcribe elements of music, and describe ways in which expressive elements of music may be interpreted.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• a system to assist the singing of scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, rhythmic phrases and diatonic chord progressions • music notation conventions including: – pitch identification in treble and/or bass clefs, key signatures, accidentals and chord symbols – rhythmic notation of semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, semi-quaver and associated rests, simple and compound time signatures, bar lines, rhythmic grouping and beaming • music terminology and language to identify and describe the interpretation of expressive elements of music Pitch (melody and harmony) • scales/modes: – naming conventions used to identify scale degrees – concepts of tonality and key – sound and intervallic structure of ascending and descending forms of the major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor and chromatic scales • intervals: – naming conventions used to identify size and quality of intervals – sound and structure of ascending and descending major, minor and perfect intervals within the compass of one octave • chords: – sound and intervallic structure of major and minor triads

16

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 1

• diatonic harmony: – naming conventions used to identify quality and diatonic function of chords within a key – sound, structure and function of the primary triads – I, i, IV, iv, V – in major keys and in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale – strategies to identify and notate diatonic, root position chord progressions in major keys and in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale Duration (pulse, beat, meter, rhythm) • naming conventions used to identify rhythmic values • conventions of rhythmic notation including grouping and beaming • organisation, value and subdivision of beat and pulse in simple duple, triple and quadruple meters and compound duple meter • strategies to identify and notate simple and compound rhythm patterns Interpretation • structural aspects of works chosen for performance, including melodic, harmonic and/or rhythmic organisation, form/sections, use of patterns and textural characteristics • ways that expressive outcomes in the performance of music works may be developed by exploring the idiomatic qualities and variations of instrumental tone colour, such as ways in which instrumental voices may blend to create tone colour, the relative balance of different music parts/lines or the structural and expressive roles of instrumental voices within the texture of the work • strategies to identify use of articulation patterns, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrase shaping and tempo choices. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• identify the size and quality of intervals that are presented either aurally or in writing, in treble and/or bass clef and in isolated and melodic contexts • identify ascending and descending major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor and chromatic scales that are presented either aurally or in writing, and in treble and/or bass clef • recognise and identify the tonality of a melody that is based on a major or melodic minor scale and which is presented either aurally or in writing, and in treble and/or bass clef • use conventional music notation to write intervals, scales and chords in treble and/or bass clef • use a system to sing intervals, scales, short melodic phrases and chord-tone arpeggios • use a process to imitate and/or improvise on three or four note melodic motifs by singing, humming or playing • use a process to imitate and/or improvise on one bar rhythmic patterns by clapping, tapping or playing • identify and use conventional music notation to transcribe missing notes in a short melody • identify major and minor triads presented aurally in block harmony or as arpeggios • identify diatonic progressions of up to three chords in major keys or in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale; that are in keys that use up to one sharp or one flat; that use root position primary triads only; that are presented homophonically; and that conclude with common cadences ending on the tonic chord • aurally recognise, and identify from a series of written alternatives, one bar of rhythm from a four-bar phrase presented by non-pitched percussion instruments in two parts and in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter

vce study design

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Music Performance Unit 1

MUSIC 2011–2015

• identify and use conventional music notation to transcribe missing notes and/or rests in a short rhythm exercise • listen analytically to excerpts of pre-recorded works and identify ways in which expressive elements of music, including tone colour, blend of instrumental voices, balance of music parts/ lines, articulation, ornamentation/embellishment, tempo choices, dynamics, and phrase length and shape, have been interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes • use appropriate music terminology and language to identify ways in which expressive elements of music may be interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes in works selected for performance. ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their assessment program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. For this unit students are required to demonstrate achievement of three outcomes. As a set these outcomes encompass all areas of study. Demonstration of achievement of Outcomes 1, 2 and 3 must be based on the student’s performance on a selection of assessment tasks. Where teachers allow students to choose between tasks they must ensure that the tasks they set are of comparable scope and demand. Assessment tasks for this unit are: • Performances of three works including at least one group work and one solo work with accompaniment as appropriate. The duration of the performances will vary depending on the works selected. • A demonstration of technical work and exercises, for example an assessment task that includes a test or other performance context. • An explanation of how selected technical work and exercises support the student’s development as an instrumentalist and their preparation of works performed for Outcome 1. The explanation may be presented in one or more of the following formats – oral – multimedia – written. • A performance of unprepared material in a test or other performance context. • Aural, written and practical tasks, for example – a folio of exercises or – a test – a workbook of class activities.

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Unit 2: Music Performance In this unit students build their performance and musicianship skills. They present performances of selected group and solo music works using one or more instruments. Students study the work of other performers through listening and analysis and use specific strategies to optimise their own approach to performance. They also study strategies for developing technical and expressive performance skills. They identify technical, expressive and stylistic challenges relevant to works they are preparing for performance and practise related technical work. They develop skills in performing previously unseen music and study specific concepts to build their musicianship knowledge and skills. Students also devise an original composition or improvisation.

SELECTION OF INSTRUMENT OR VOICE

In this study design, the term ‘instrument’ includes voice. The choice of instrument may vary within a unit or between units. Students who work with more than one instrument should select a main instrument for solo performance.

WORKS SELECTED FOR STUDY

In Unit 2 students select a program of group and solo works. Students are free to select these works from a range of sources. The program should allow the student to demonstrate a range of technical, stylistic and interpretative demands and should be appropriate to their level of technical expertise. Works chosen for group performance may, but are not required to, be selected from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Group Works. Works chosen for solo performance may, but are not required to, be selected from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. The prescribed lists are published annually on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Throughout the study the term ‘program’ refers to one or more programs, and the term ‘style’ refers to one or more styles.

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Music Performance Unit 2

music 2011–2015

Area of study 1

Performance In this area of study students develop knowledge and skills that are required to present music performances in a group and as a soloist. They develop their ability to present musically engaging performances in a variety of performance contexts. Through regular performance they explore ways to expressively shape their chosen works and build on their ability to communicate artistic intentions convincingly to an audience. Students develop their instrumental skills through regular individual practice and develop ensemble skills through rehearsal with other musicians. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to prepare and perform a musically engaging program of group and solo works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for optimising effective performance practice routines relevant to selected group and solo works that are representative of a range of styles and diversity of character • strategies for optimising effectiveness of rehearsals with other musicians • idiomatic tone qualities and ways to achieve expressiveness, clarity and artistic variation of tone • strategies for developing fluency and control in group and solo performance • strategies for developing expressively shaped, cohesive interpretations of works that demonstrate appropriate balance between relevant personal, ensemble, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • ways of achieving shape in music through artistic variation of expressive elements of music • historical and contemporary conventions and contextual influences relevant to interpretation and performance of selected works • strategies for developing communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to performance of selected works • stylistic characteristics, musical structures and textures in works being prepared for performance and how elements of music can be interpreted to realise the character of the work • roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group works, or parts within the texture of solo works • presentation techniques, including conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• implement effective performance practice routines • rehearse effectively with other musicians • prepare and perform a program of group and solo works that demonstrates a range of music styles and diversity of character • demonstrate fluency and control in the performance of selected works

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music 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 2

• demonstrate idiomatic tone quality and artistic variation of tone in the performance of selected works • expressively and cohesively perform selected works demonstrating appropriate balance between personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • vary expressive elements of music to shape the performance of selected works and achieve artistic intentions • present historically informed and contemporary interpretations of selected works using appropriate performance conventions • demonstrate communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to the performance of selected work/s • demonstrate understanding stylistic characteristics in selected works • communicate awareness of musical structures and textures in the performance of selected works • demonstrate understanding of the roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group work/s, or parts within the texture of solo work/s • demonstrate presentation techniques and conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space/s. AREA OF STUDY 2

Performance technique This area of study focuses on continuous development of techniques for group and solo performance. Students systematically practise technical work and exercises to enhance their ability to realise the character and style of selected group and solo works. They trial different rehearsal strategies and identify those that achieve the most effective outcomes. Students research and trial performance and interpretation strategies used by other performers and apply approaches to optimise their own performances. They build their skills in unprepared performance and apply these when learning and rehearsing group and solo works. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to demonstrate instrumental techniques used in performance of selected works, demonstrate unprepared performance skills and describe influences on their approach to performance.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for developing effective instrumental practice routines, including ways of incorporating use of ICT • strategies for developing effective rehearsals with other musicians • strategies for developing instrumental techniques relevant to specific technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges in selected group and/or solo works • strategies for developing control of instrumental techniques • strategies for practising exercises and technical work for development and maintenance of fluency and control across the range of styles represented in selected group and/or solo works

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Music Performance Unit 2

music 2011–2015

• links between selected technical work and exercises and achieving fluency and control in the performance of selected group and/or solo works • strategies to research interpretations of selected works by other performers • strategies for incorporating research findings from recordings, scores and/or transcription into preparing performance of works • strategies used by other performers to optimise performance outcomes • ways of improving identified aspects of own performance ability, including reflection and evaluation • strategies for achieving systematic development of unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading, imitation and/or improvisation. Key skills These skills include the ability to

• implement effective instrumental practice routines • rehearse effectively with other musicians • prepare and perform a program of technical work and exercises relevant to achieving fluency and control when performing selected group and/or solo works • describe the impact of studying selected technical work and exercises on performance outcomes for selected group and/or solo works • identify, describe and evaluate strategies used by other performers to optimise performance outcomes • describe how use of selected strategies to develop technical skill has improved identified aspects of own performance ability • systematically develop unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/ or improvisation skills • present a fluent unprepared performance by either sight reading previously unseen music or imitating within a set style or spontaneously improvising within a set style. AREA OF STUDY 3

Musicianship In this area of study students build their knowledge and skills in music theory, aural comprehension and music analysis. Students build on their knowledge and skills through systematic study of aural and theoretical concepts in isolation and in the context of performing or listening. They develop their ability to sing intervals, scales, triads and short melodic phrases from sight and memory, and they extend their ability to identify, recognise, notate and transcribe short music excerpts. Students practise and refine their ability to notate music by hand. They investigate and comment on a variety of ways in which elements of music can be interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes in the performance of music works. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify, re-create, notate and transcribe elements of music, and describe how selected elements of music have been interpreted in performance.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3.

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music 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 2

Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• a system to assist the singing of scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, rhythmic phrases and diatonic chord progressions • music notation conventions, including: – pitch identification in treble and/or bass clefs, key signatures, accidentals and chord symbols – rhythmic notation of semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, semi-quaver and associated rests, simple and compound time signatures, bar lines, rhythmic grouping and beaming • music terminology and language to identify and describe the interpretation of elements of music Pitch (melody and harmony) • scales/modes: – naming conventions used to identify scale degrees – concepts of tonality and key – sound and intervallic structure of ascending and descending forms of the major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, major (do) pentatonic, minor (la) pentatonic and blues (minor pentatonic plus flat 5) scales • intervals: – naming conventions used to identify size and quality of intervals – sound and structure of ascending and descending major, minor, perfect, diminished and augmented intervals within the compass of one octave, presented aurally, in isolation and in melodic contexts • chords: – sound and intervallic structure of major, minor, augmented and diminished triads and dominant 7th chords • diatonic harmony: – naming conventions used to identify quality and diatonic function of chords within a key – sound, structure and function of • tonic (I major), supertonic (ii minor), mediant (iii minor), sub-dominant (IV major), dominant (V major) and sub-mediant (vi minor) triads in a major key • tonic (i minor), supertonic (ii diminished), sub-dominant (iv minor), dominant (V major) and sub-mediant (VI major) triads in a minor key where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale • dominant 7th chord in major keys and minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale • strategies to identify and notate diatonic, root position chord progressions in major keys and minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale Duration (pulse, beat, meter, rhythm) • naming conventions used to identify rhythmic values • conventions of rhythmic notation, including grouping and beaming • organisation, value and subdivision of beat and pulse in simple duple, triple and quadruple meters and compound duple meter • strategies to identify and notate simple and compound rhythm patterns

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Music Performance Unit 2

music 2011–2015

Interpretation • structural aspects of works chosen for performance, including melodic, harmonic and/or rhythmic organisation, form/sections, use of patterns and textural characteristics • ways that expressive outcomes in the performance of music works may be developed by exploring – idiomatic qualities and variations of instrumental tone colour, including ways in which instrumental voices blend to create tone colour – the relative balance of different music parts/lines – the structural and expressive roles of instrumental voices within the texture of the work – use of articulation, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrase shaping and tempo choices • strategies to identify and describe ways in which performers interpret expressive elements of music, including tone color, blend of instrumental voices, balance of music parts/lines, articulation patterns, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrase shaping and tempo choices in order to achieve expressive outcomes. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• identify the size and quality of intervals that are presented either aurally or in writing, in treble and/or bass clef and in isolated and melodic contexts • identify ascending and descending major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, major (do) and minor (la) pentatonic and blues (minor pentatonic plus flat 5) scales that are presented either aurally or in writing in treble and/or bass clef • recognise and identify the tonality of a melody that is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, and presented aurally or in writing in treble and/or bass clef • use conventional music notation to write intervals, scales and chords in treble and/or bass clef • use a system to sing intervals, scales, short melodic phrases and chord-tone arpeggios • use a process to imitate and/or improvise on three- or four-note melodic motifs by singing, humming or playing • use a process to imitate and/or improvise on one- or two-bar rhythmic patterns by clapping, tapping or playing • use conventional music notation to transcribe up to two bars of a two-bar diatonic melody that is based on a major or melodic minor scale, in keys that use up to two sharps or two flats, presented in treble clef, in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter and where the pitch of the first note and the rhythm of the melody are given • identify major, minor, augmented and diminished triads, and dominant 7th chords presented aurally in block harmony and as arpeggios • identify diatonic progressions of up to three chords in major keys or in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, that are in keys that use up to two sharps or two flats, that use combinations of root position triads and dominant 7th chords, that are presented homophonically, and that conclude with common cadences that end on either the tonic, dominant or submediant chords • aurally recognise, and identify from a series of written alternatives, two bars of rhythm from a four-bar phrase presented by non-pitched percussion instruments in two parts and in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter

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music 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 2

• transcribe rhythms of up to two bars from an excerpt that is no longer than four bars, and that is in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter • listen analytically to excerpts of pre-recorded works and identify ways in which expressive elements of music, including tone colour, blend of instrumental voices, balance of music parts/lines, articulation, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrase shaping and tempo choices, have been interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes • use appropriate music terminology and language to describe ways in which expressive elements of music may be interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes in works selected for performance. AREA OF STUDY 4

Organisation of sound This area of study focuses on devising original work as a composition or an improvisation, inspired by analysis of music in selected works being prepared for performance.

The creative process is individual and has many starting points for inspiration. Students study and listen to a wide variety of music. They explore a range of strategies to generate and extend music ideas, for example improvisation. Students are encouraged to use a broad structural element to focus their creative work, for example a key, chord progression, instrument and/or mood. As part of the process of generating music ideas, students analyse works they are preparing for performance. They identify characteristics that can be used in their composition or improvisation and relevant influences on composers/performers. Students use various strategies to experiment with, develop and refine the musical ideas. Aspects of music language used in devising original work include range and characteristics of selected instruments; use of instruments in combination, including balance of dynamics and tones, and blend of tones; music forms and structures, such as binary, ternary and popular song; conventions in staff notation, including shape of music notes, groupings, phrase marks, treble and bass clefs, relevant key signatures and time signatures. Where possible, students should practise notating music on manuscript to develop their skill in writing notation. Information and communications technology tools should be used for keying-in (sequencing), review, playback and refinement, as appropriate. Outcome 4 On completion of this unit the student should be able to devise a composition or an improvisation that uses music language evident in work/s being prepared for performance.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on knowledge and related skills outlined in Area of Study 4. Key knowledge This knowledge includes

• melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, structural and expressive aspects of music language used in work/s being prepared for performance AND

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Music Performance Unit 2

music 2011–2015

For composition • techniques for composing melodies • techniques for composing harmonic parts that can be performed in combination with a melody • techniques for harmonising a given melody using appropriate chords • conventions in notation, including shape of music notes, grouping, phrase marks, treble and bass clefs, relevant key signatures and time signatures • techniques to input and edit work, including transposition as appropriate, using appropriate ICT OR For improvisation • techniques for improvising using a given structure or source material such as motif/s, patterns or a chord progression • techniques for improvising over progressions that feature a range of triads and seventh chords and their associated scale patterns • techniques for improvising on selected memorised structures using spontaneously created rhythmic and/or melodic motifs or patterns • techniques to record the improvised performance and edit by, for example, using appropriate ICT hardware and software such as a computer, digital keyboard and a sequencing software application. Key skills These skills include the ability to • aurally and/or visually analyse music language of work/s being prepared for performance

AND For composition • use composition and part-writing techniques to compose and notate a short, original work based on analysis of works being prepared for performance • input and edit work using ICT OR For improvisation • improvise using given source material • improvise over a range of triads and seventh chords and their associated scale patterns • improvise on selected structures that are memorised, spontaneously creating rhythmic and/or melodic motifs or patterns • record the improvised performance and edit using appropriate ICT. assessment

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately.

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music 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 2

Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their assessment program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. For this unit students are required to demonstrate achievement of four outcomes. As a set these outcomes encompass all areas of study. Demonstration of achievement of Outcomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 must be based on the student’s performance on a selection of assessment tasks. Where teachers allow students to choose between tasks they must ensure that the tasks they set are of comparable scope and demand. Assessment tasks for this unit are: • Performances of three works including at least one group work and one solo work with accompaniment as appropriate. The duration of the performances will vary depending on the works selected. • A demonstration of technical work and exercises, for example an assessment task that includes a test or other performance context. • An explanation of how selected technical work and exercises support the student’s development as an instrumentalist and their preparation of works performed for Outcome 1. The explanation may be presented in one or more of the following formats – oral – multimedia – written. • A performance of unprepared material. • Aural, written and practical tasks, for example – a folio of exercises or – a test – a workbook of class activities. • Composition and/or improvisation exercises and accompanying documentation that describes use of music language in the exercise/s. The documentation may be presented in one or more of the following formats – multimedia – written.

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Unit 3: Music Performance This unit prepares students to present convincing performances of group and solo works. In this unit students select a program of group and solo works representing a range of styles and diversity of character for performance. They develop instrumental techniques that enable them to interpret the works and expressively shape their performances. They also develop an understanding of performance conventions they can use to enhance their performances. Students develop skills in unprepared performance, aural perception and comprehension, transcription, music theory and analysis. The focus for analysis in Area of Study 3 is works and performances by Australian musicians. Performance examination Students choose whether they will present their external end-of-year performance examination program as a member of a group OR as a soloist. Instruments selected for study Students who elect to present their end-of-year performance examination as a soloist must select an instrument from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. Students wishing to perform on an instrument not included in this list, and use a suitable program of works for that alternative instrument, must receive prior approval from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority before commencing the study.

Students who elect to present their end-of-year performance examination as a member of a group may select any instrument and do not require approval for their choice. In this study design the term ‘instrument’ includes voice. Students may use a different instrument for study and performance for each of the group and solo works. Works selected for study In Unit 3 the program should include contrasting works representing a range of musical styles and diversity of character, including music composed since 1910. The program must be based on requirements for the end-of-year performance examination for group and solo contexts, in the Prescribed List of Group Works or the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works for the selected instrument as published annually on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website.

The Unit 3 school-based performance program presented for assessment of Outcome 1 will be about 15 minutes in duration for soloists and groups of 1–3 assessed performers. For groups of 4 or more assessed performers the program should be about 20–25 minutes in duration.

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 3

For students who have elected to perform their end-of-year performance examination as a member of a group, solo work/s for Outcome 1 may, but are not required to, be selected from the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. For students who have elected to perform their end-of-year performance examination as a soloist, group works for Outcome 1 may, but are not required to, be selected from the Prescribed List of Group Works.

Area of study 1

Performance In this area of study students develop knowledge and skills required to present musically engaging performances of music works. Students select a program of contrasting group and solo works that demonstrate a range of music styles, diversity of character and a range of technical, stylistic and interpretative demands.

Students develop their ability to present performances of group and solo works in a variety of performance contexts. They develop effective ensemble performance skills through rehearsal with other musicians. They present performances throughout the unit to develop their ability to communicate their artistic intentions to an audience. Students investigate relevant stylistic characteristics, performance techniques and performance conventions. They analyse the structural characteristics and use of the elements of music in the works, investigate relevant contextual issues and research a range of existing interpretations. They decide how to interpret and expressively shape each work based on their investigation, analysis and trialling of different approaches. Through these activities, students develop awareness of the need for appropriate balance between relevant personal, ensemble, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences in shaping interpretations of their chosen group and solo works. They also develop awareness of relevant performance conventions. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to present an informed, accurate and expressive performance of a program of group and solo works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• a program of group and solo works that represents a range of music styles and diversity of character, including a work/s composed since 1910 and accompanied/unaccompanied works as appropriate to the instrument/group • strategies for preparing performances of selected group and solo works • strategies for developing accuracy, fluency and control in group and solo performance • idiomatic instrumental tone qualities and ways to achieve clarity and variation of tone • ways of achieving shape in music through control and variation of expressive elements of music • strategies for developing informed interpretations of works that demonstrate appropriate balance between relevant personal, ensemble, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences

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Music Performance Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

• historical and contemporary conventions and contextual influences relevant to interpretation and performance of selected works • strategies for developing communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to performance of selected works • stylistic characteristics, musical structures and use of other elements of music in selected works • roles of and relationships between instrumental voices in selected group works or parts within the texture of solo works • a variety of approaches to interpretation of selected works by other performers • presentation techniques, including conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• prepare and present performance/s of a program of group and solo works that demonstrates a range of music styles and diversity of character • demonstrate accuracy, fluency and control in the performance of selected group and solo works • demonstrate idiomatic tone quality, clarity and variation of tone in the performance of selected group and solo works • shape the performance of selected group and solo works through control and variation of expressive elements of music • present informed interpretations of selected group and solo works that demonstrate balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • use relevant historical and contemporary performance conventions to interpret and perform selected group and solo works • demonstrate communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to the performance of selected work/s • demonstrate stylistic characteristics and communicate awareness of musical structures in the performance of selected group and solo works • demonstrate understanding of the roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group work/s, or parts within the texture of solo work/s • demonstrate presentation techniques and conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space/s • perform using effective sound production and/or sound reinforcement techniques as appropriate to acoustic properties of performance venues, style and character of selected works and performance contexts. AREA OF STUDY 2

Performance technique In this area of study students develop knowledge and skills to achieve consistency and control of idiomatic instrumental and performance techniques in group and solo performances. Students practise a range of technical work and exercises selected to extend and improve command of instrumental and performance techniques. They develop an understanding of the relevance of technique to their performance of selected group and solo works. Students also systematically develop skills in unprepared performance, including improvisation and/or sight reading.

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 3

Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to demonstrate performance techniques, technical work and exercises, and describe their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for developing effective technical practice routines, including ways of incorporating use of ICT • idiomatic instrumental techniques to develop accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and tone • performance techniques relevant to technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges in selected group and/or solo works • strategies for optimising group rehearsals and presenting group performances, including rehearsal time management, and ways of communicating within the group and with the audience • performance techniques associated with developing ways of achieving appropriate blend, balance, intonation, tempo, dynamics, articulation, leading and following in performance of selected group and/or solo works • strategies related to physical and psychological wellbeing that improve performance outcomes • strategies for reflecting on and evaluating personal development as an instrumentalist and ability to perform technical, expressive and/or stylistic aspects of selected group and solo works • strategies for achieving systematic development of unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/or improvisation as relevant to selected performance contexts • technical considerations relevant to sound production and/or sound reinforcement as appropriate to acoustic properties of performance venues, style and character of selected works and performance context. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• implement effective technical practice routines • develop and demonstrate instrumental and performance techniques to achieve accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination, tone and other relevant idiomatic instrumental techniques in group and/or solo works selected for performance • develop and demonstrate instrumental and performance techniques relevant to technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges in selected group and/or solo works • prepare and present technical work that demonstrates a variety of idiomatic instrumental techniques at appropriate tempi, with appropriate expressive shape and characteristic tone • implement strategies to optimise effectiveness of group rehearsals and present effective group performances • demonstrate effective ways of achieving appropriate blend, balance, intonation, tempi, dynamics and articulation, and of leading and following in the performance of selected group and/or solo works • describe links between the selected technical work and improved outcomes in the performance of selected group and/or solo works

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Music Performance Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

• reflect on and evaluate strategies used to build personal development as an instrumentalist, including physical and psychological wellbeing and ability to perform technical, expressive and/or stylistic aspects of selected works • systematically develop unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/ or improvisation skills • present a fluent and expressive unprepared performance by either sight reading previously unseen music or spontaneously improvising within a set style. AREA OF STUDY 3

Musicianship In this area of study students systematically develop music theory knowledge and skills in aural comprehension and analysis. They develop and refine their ability to identify, recognise, notate and transcribe short music excerpts, as well as to re-create short sections of music by singing, humming and/or playing. Students practise and refine their ability to notate music by hand. They develop an understanding of ways expressive elements of music can be interpreted in the performance of music works. They apply this knowledge to their analysis of ways in which Australian performers have interpreted a variety of works by Australian composers/songwriters that have been created after 1910. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify, re-create, notate and transcribe short excerpts of music, and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music in pre-recorded works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• a system to assist the singing of scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, rhythmic phrases and diatonic chord progressions • music notation conventions including: – pitch identification in treble and bass clefs, key signatures, accidentals and chord symbols – rhythmic notation of semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, semi-quaver and associated rests, simple and compound time signatures, bar lines, rhythmic grouping and beaming • music terminology and language to identify, describe and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music Pitch (melody and harmony) • scales/modes: – naming conventions used to identify scale degrees – concepts of tonality, key and modality • sound and intervallic structure of ascending and descending forms of the major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, major (do) pentatonic, minor (la) pentatonic, blues (minor pentatonic plus flat 5) scales, and dorian and mixolydian modes

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 3

• intervals: – naming conventions used to identify size and quality of intervals – sound and structure of ascending and descending major, minor, perfect, diminished and augmented intervals within the compass of one octave, presented aurally, in isolation and in melodic contexts • chords: – sound and intervallic structure of major, minor, augmented and diminished triads, suspended 4th chords, major 7th, minor 7th, dominant 7th, half diminished/minor 7 flat 5 and diminished 7th chords • diatonic harmony: – naming conventions used to identify quality and diatonic function of chords within a key – sound, structure and function of • tonic (I major), supertonic (ii minor), mediant (iii minor), sub-dominant (IV major), dominant (V major), sub-mediant (vi minor) and leading note (vii diminished) triads in a major key • tonic (i minor), supertonic (ii diminished), mediant (III augmented), sub-dominant (iv minor), dominant (V major), sub-mediant (VI major) and leading note (vii diminished) triads in a minor key where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale • scale tone 7th chords in major keys (I major 7th, ii minor 7th, iii minor 7th, IV major 7th, V dominant 7th, vi minor 7th, vii half-diminished/minor 7 flat 5) • scale tone 7th chords in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, excluding 7th chords built on the first and third degrees (ii half-diminished/ minor 7 flat 5, iv minor 7th, V dominant 7th, VI major 7th, vii diminished 7th) – strategies to identify and notate diatonic, root position chord progressions in major keys and minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale Duration (pulse, beat, meter, rhythm) • naming conventions used to identify rhythmic values • conventions of rhythmic notation including grouping and beaming • organisation, value and subdivision of beat and pulse in simple and compound duple, triple and quadruple meters and asymmetric meters with 5 pulses per bar • strategies to identify and notate simple and compound rhythm patterns Interpretation • strategies to identify ways that expressive outcomes in the performance of music works are realised including – idiomatic qualities and variations of instrumental tone colour – ways in which instrumental voices blend to create tone colour – the relative balance of different music parts/lines – the structural and expressive roles of instrumental voices within the texture of the work – use of articulation, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrasing and tempo choices • strategies to identify and analyse interpretive decisions that are evident in pre-recorded performances by Australians of works created after 1910 by Australian composers/ songwriters.

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Music Performance Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• identify the size and quality of isolated intervals that are presented either aurally or in writing in both treble and bass clefs • identify ascending and descending major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, major (do) and minor (la) pentatonic and blues (minor pentatonic plus flat 5) scales, and dorian and mixolydian modes that are presented either aurally or in writing in both treble and bass clef • recognise and identify the tonality of a melody that is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, or a dorian or mixolydian mode presented aurally • identify the size and quality of the opening and closing intervals of a melody that is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, or a dorian or mixolydian mode presented aurally or in writing in either treble or bass clef • use conventional music notation to write intervals, scales, modes and chords in treble and bass clef • use a system to sing intervals, scales, short melodic phrases and chord-tone arpeggios • use a process to improvise on three- to four-note melodic motifs by singing, humming or playing • use a process to imitate by singing, humming or playing, a two-bar diatonic or modal melodic phrase that is presented as either a recording or as a live performance, accurately reproducing intervallic and rhythmic characteristics • use a process to improvise on two- or three-bar rhythmic patterns by clapping, tapping or playing • use a process to imitate by clapping, tapping or playing, regular and syncopated rhythm patterns of two- to four-bars in simple, compound and/or asymmetric meters • aurally recognise and identify from a series of written alternatives, two bars from a four-bar melody in treble clef presented without a key signature, with an accompanying bass line and where the melody is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, or a dorian or mixolydian mode • use conventional music notation to transcribe, in the treble clef, up to two bars of a four-bar diatonic melody based on a major or melodic minor scale, in keys that use up to three sharps or three flats, in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter, where the pitch of the first note and the rhythm of the melody are given and which is presented with a bass line and a chordal and/or rhythmic accompaniment • identify major, minor, augmented and diminished triads, suspended 4th and 7th chord types presented aurally in block harmony and as arpeggios, and in writing in both treble and bass clef • aurally recognise and identify from a series of written alternatives, up to three chords from a fourchord, diatonic progression that is in a major key or a minor key where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, uses up to three sharps or three flats, is presented homophonically, uses combinations of root position triads and 7th chords and begins on the tonic chord • identify in writing, diatonic progressions of up to four chords in major keys or minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, that are in keys that use up to three sharps or three flats, that are presented homophonically using combinations of root position triads and 7th chords, beginning on the tonic chord and concluding with common cadences that end on either the tonic, dominant or submediant chords • aurally recognise and identify from a series of written alternatives, two bars of rhythm from a twopart eight bar phrase presented by non-pitched percussion instruments, in simple or compound duple, triple and quadruple meters

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 3

• transcribe rhythms of up to two bars from an excerpt that is no longer than eight bars, presented with up to four single-line parts in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter • listen analytically to pre-recorded performances by Australians of works that were created after 1910 by Australian composers/songwriters, and identify and discuss ways in which expressive elements of music, including tone colour, blend of instrumental voices, balance of music parts/lines, articulation, tempo choices, ornamentation/embellishment, dynamic range and shape and phrasing, have been interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes and create character in performance • use appropriate music terminology and language to discuss interpretive decisions that are evident in pre-recorded excerpts of music performances. Assessment

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook for this study that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment of levels of achievement The student’s level of achievement in Unit 3 will be determined by School-assessed Coursework and two end-of-year examinations. Contribution to final assessment School-assessed Coursework for Unit 3 will contribute 20 per cent. School-assessed Coursework Teachers will provide to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority a score representing an assessment of the student’s level of achievement.

The score must be based on the teacher’s rating of performance of each student on the tasks set out in the following table and in accordance with the assessment handbook published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. The assessment handbook also includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Where teachers provide a range of options for the same assessment task, they should ensure that the options are of comparable scope and demand. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles.

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Music Performance Unit 3

Outcomes

Marks allocated*

Assessment tasks

10

A demonstration of performance techniques, technical work and exercises. And A description of how selected performance techniques, technical work and exercises support the student’s development as an instrumentalist and their preparation of works for Outcome 1. The description may be presented in one or more of the following formats: • oral • multimedia • written. And A performance of unprepared material – sight reading or improvisation.

10

A test that includes aural, written and practical components.

Outcome 2 Demonstrate performance techniques, technical work and exercises, and describe their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

Outcome 3 Identify, re-create, notate and transcribe short excerpts of music, and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music in pre-recorded works. Total marks

MUSIC 2011–2015

20 *School-assessed Coursework for Unit 3 contributes 20 per cent.

End-of-year examination Description The level of achievement for Units 3 and 4 is also assessed by an end-of-year performance examination, which will contribute 50 per cent, and an end-of-year aural and written examination, which will contribute 20 per cent. Further advice The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes specifications for all VCE examinations on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Examination specifications include details about the sections of the examination, their weighting, the question format/s and any other essential information. The specifications are published in the first year of implementation of the revised Units 3 and 4 sequence together with any sample material.

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Unit 4: Music Performance In this unit students refine their ability to present convincing performances of group and solo works. Students select group and solo works that complement works selected in Unit 3. They further develop and refine instrumental and performance techniques that enable them to expressively shape their performance and communicate their understanding of the music style of each work. Students continue to develop skills in aural perception and comprehension, transcription, theory, analysis and unprepared performance. Students continue to study ways in which Australian performers interpret works that have been created since 1910 by Australian composers/songwriters. Performance examination Students continue preparation to complete the end-of-year performance examination as a member of a group OR as a soloist. Instruments selected for study Students who elect to present their end-of-year performance examination as a soloist must select an instrument from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. Students wishing to perform on an instrument not included in this list, and use a suitable program of works for that alternative instrument, must receive prior approval from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority before commencing the study.

Students who elect to present their end-of-year performance examination as a member of a group may select any instrument and do not require approval for their choice. In this study design the term ‘instrument’ includes voice. Students may use a different instrument for study and performance for each of group and solo works. Works selected for study In Unit 4 the program should include contrasting works representing a range of musical styles and diversity of character, including music composed since 1910. The program must be based on requirements for the end-of-year performance examination for group and solo contexts, in the Prescribed List of Group Works or the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works for the selected instrument as published annually on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website.

The Unit 4 school-based performance program presented for assessment of Outcome 1 will be about 10 minutes in duration for soloists and groups of 1–3 assessed performers. For groups of 4 or more assessed performers the program should be about 10–15 minutes in duration.

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Music Performance Unit 4

Music 2011–2015

For students who have elected to perform their end-of-year performance examination as a member of a group, solo work/s for Outcome 1 may, but are not required to, be selected from the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. For students who have elected to perform their end-of-year performance examination as a soloist, group works for Outcome 1 may, but are not required to, be selected from the Prescribed List of Group Works.

Area of study 1

Performance In this area of study students prepare a program of works and refine their ability to present musically engaging performances to an audience. They select a program of contrasting group and solo works that represent a range of styles and diversity of character and complement works selected for Unit 3. The works should allow students to demonstrate a range of technical, stylistic and interpretative demands in performance.

Students refine their ability to present performances in a variety of contexts. Through regular performance they consolidate their ability to expressively shape their interpretation of each work, and communicate informed interpretations of the works to an audience. They extend and refine their instrumental skills relevant to group and solo performance through regular practice, and consolidate effective ensemble skills through rehearsal with other musicians. Students build on their understanding of relevant stylistic characteristics, performance techniques and performance conventions, and refine their ability to apply this understanding in performance. They analyse the structural characteristics and use of elements of music in works being prepared for performance in this unit. They investigate relevant contextual issues and research existing interpretations. They develop awareness of the style and characteristics of, and contrast between, each work in their program. They consider how to demonstrate these understandings through performance. Students enhance their understanding of the need for appropriate balance between relevant personal, ensemble, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences in shaping interpretations of their chosen group and solo works. They apply this understanding along with their understanding of relevant performance conventions to present informed interpretations. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to prepare and present accurate and expressive performances of informed interpretations of a program/s of group and solo works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• a program of works that represents a range of music styles and diversity of character, including a work/s composed since 1910 and accompanied/unaccompanied works as appropriate to the instrument/group • strategies for preparing and refining performances of selected group and solo works • strategies for refining accuracy, fluency and control in group and solo performance • idiomatic instrumental tone qualities and ways to achieve clarity and variation of tone

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 4

• ways of achieving shape in music through control and variation of expressive elements of music • strategies for developing and refining informed interpretations of works that demonstrate appropriate balance between relevant personal, ensemble, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • historical and contemporary conventions and contextual influences relevant to interpretation and performance of selected works • strategies for developing and refining communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to performance of selected works • stylistic characteristics, musical structures and use of other elements of music in selected works • roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group works, or parts within the texture of solo works • a variety of approaches to interpretation of selected works by other performers • presentation techniques, including conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• prepare, refine and present performances of a program of group and solo works that demonstrates a range of music styles and diversity of character • demonstrate accuracy, fluency and control in the performance of selected group and solo works • demonstrate idiomatic tone quality, clarity and variation of tone in the performance of selected group and solo works • shape the performance of selected group and solo works through control and variation of expressive elements of music • present informed interpretations of selected group and solo works that demonstrate balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • use relevant historical and contemporary performance conventions to interpret and perform selected group and solo works • demonstrate communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians as appropriate to the performance of selected work/s • demonstrate stylistic characteristics and refine ability to communicate awareness of musical structures in the performance of selected group and solo works • demonstrate understanding of the roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group work/s, or parts within the texture of solo work/s • demonstrate presentation techniques and conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space/s • perform using effective sound production and/or sound reinforcement techniques as appropriate to acoustic properties of performance venues, style and character of selected works and performance contexts.

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Music Performance Unit 4

Music 2011–2015

AREA OF STUDY 2

Performance technique In this area of study students refine their ability to consistently control use of idiomatic instrumental and performance techniques. Students practise a range of technical work and exercises chosen to consolidate and refine command of instrumental and performance techniques as relevant to selected group and solo works. They build and refine their understanding of the relevance of technique to their performance of selected group and solo works. Students continue to systematically develop skills in unprepared performance. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to demonstrate performance techniques, and technical work and exercises, and discuss their relevance to the performance of selected group and/ or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for developing effective technical practice routines, including ways of incorporating use of ICT • idiomatic instrumental techniques to achieve accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and tone • performance techniques relevant to technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges in selected group and/or solo works • strategies for optimising group rehearsals and presenting effective group performances, including rehearsal time management and ways of communicating within the group and with the audience • performance techniques associated with developing ways of achieving appropriate blend, balance, intonation, tempo, dynamics, articulation, leading and following in performance of selected group and/or solo works • strategies related to physical and psychological wellbeing that improve performance outcomes • strategies for reflecting on and evaluating personal development as an instrumentalist and ability to communicate musical intentions in performance of selected works • strategies for achieving systematic development of unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/or improvisation as relevant to selected performance contexts • technical considerations relevant to effective sound production and/or sound reinforcement as appropriate to acoustic properties of performance venues, style and character of selected works and performance context. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• implement effective technical practice routines • develop and demonstrate instrumental and performance techniques to achieve accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination, tone and other relevant idiomatic instrumental techniques in group and/or solo works selected for performance

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 4

• apply and demonstrate instrumental and performance techniques for mastering relevant technical, expressive and stylistic challenges in selected group and/or solo works • implement strategies to optimise effectiveness of group rehearsals and present effective group performances • refine and demonstrate effective ways of achieving appropriate blend, balance, intonation, tempi, dynamics and articulation, and of leading and following, in the performance of selected group and/ or solo works • discuss links between the study of selected technical work and improved outcomes in the performance of selected group and/or solo works • reflect on and evaluate strategies used to build personal ability to communicate musical intentions in performance • systematically develop unprepared performance skills, including, as appropriate, sight reading and/ or improvisation skills • present a fluent and expressive unprepared performance by either sight reading previously unseen music or spontaneously improvising within a set style. AREA OF STUDY 3

Musicianship In this area of study students consolidate knowledge and skills developed in Unit 3 Outcome 3. Students continue systematic work to develop skills in theory, aural comprehension and analysis. They further develop and refine their ability to identify, recognise, notate and transcribe short music excerpts, as well as to re-create short sections of music by singing, humming and/or playing. Students practise and refine skills in notating music by hand. They develop a more sophisticated understanding of ways in which expressive elements of music can be interpreted in music works. They apply this knowledge to their analysis of ways in which Australian performers have interpreted works by Australian composers/ songwriters created after 1910. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify, re-create, notate and transcribe short excerpts of music, and analyse the interpretation of expressive elements of music in pre-recorded works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• a system to assist the singing of scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, rhythmic phrases and diatonic chord progressions • music notation conventions including: – pitch identification in treble and bass clefs, key signatures, accidentals and chord symbols – rhythmic notation of semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, semi-quaver and associated rests, simple and compound time signatures, bar lines, rhythmic grouping and beaming • music terminology and language to identify, describe and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music

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Music Performance Unit 4

Music 2011–2015

Pitch (melody and harmony) • scales/modes: – naming conventions used to identify scale degrees – concepts of tonality, key and modality – sound and intervallic structure of ascending and descending forms of the major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, major (do) pentatonic, minor (la) pentatonic, blues (minor pentatonic plus flat 5) scales, and dorian and mixolydian modes • intervals: – naming conventions used to identify size and quality of intervals – sound and structure of ascending and descending major, minor, perfect, diminished and augmented intervals within the compass of one octave, presented aurally, in isolation and in melodic contexts • chords: – sound and intervallic structure of major, minor, augmented and diminished triads, suspended 4th chords, major 7th, minor 7th, dominant 7th, half diminished/minor 7 flat 5 and diminished 7th chords • diatonic harmony: – naming conventions used to identify quality and diatonic function of chords within a key – sound, structure and function of • tonic (I major), supertonic (ii minor), mediant (iii minor), sub-dominant (IV major), dominant (V major), sub-mediant (vi minor) and leading note (vii diminished) triads in a major key • tonic (i minor), supertonic (ii diminished), mediant (III augmented), sub-dominant (iv minor), dominant (V major), sub-mediant (VI major) and leading note (vii diminished) triads in a minor key where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale • scale tone 7th chords in major keys (I major 7th, ii minor 7th, iii minor 7th, IV major 7th, V dominant 7th, vi minor 7th, vii half-diminished/minor 7 flat 5) • scale tone 7th chords in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, excluding 7th chords built on the first and third degrees, (ii half-diminished/minor 7 flat 5, iv minor 7th, V dominant 7th, VI major 7th, vii diminished 7th) – strategies to identify and notate diatonic, root position chord progressions in major keys and minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale Duration (pulse, beat, meter, rhythm) • naming conventions used to identify rhythmic values • conventions of rhythmic notation including grouping and beaming • organisation, value and subdivision of beat and pulse in simple and compound duple, triple and quadruple meters and asymmetric meters with 5 pulses per bar • strategies to identify and notate simple and compound rhythm patterns Interpretation • strategies to analyse ways that expressive outcomes in the performance of music works are realised including: – idiomatic qualities and variations of instrumental tone colour – ways in which instrumental voices blend to create tone colour – the relative balance of different music parts/lines – the structural and expressive roles of instrumental voices within the texture of the work – use of articulation, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrasing and tempo choices

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance Unit 4

• strategies to identify and analyse interpretive decisions that are evident in pre-recorded performances by Australians of works created after 1910 by Australian composers/songwriters. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• identify the size and quality of isolated intervals that are presented either aurally or in writing in both treble and bass clefs • identify ascending and descending major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, major (do) and minor (la) pentatonic and blues (minor pentatonic plus flat 5) scales, and dorian and mixolydian modes, presented either aurally or in writing in both treble and bass clef • recognise, and identify, the tonality of a melody that is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, or a dorian or mixolydian mode, presented aurally • identify the size and quality of the opening and closing intervals of a melody that is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, or a dorian or mixolydian mode, presented either aurally or in writing in either treble or bass clef • use music notation conventions to clearly and unambiguously write intervals, scales, modes and chords in treble and bass clef • use a system to sing intervals, scales, short melodic phrases and chord-tone arpeggios • use a process to improvise on five- to six-note melodic motifs by singing, humming or playing • use a process to imitate by singing, humming or playing, a two-bar diatonic or modal melodic phrase that is presented as either a recording or as a live performance, accurately reproducing intervallic and rhythmic characteristics • use a process to improvise on three or four bar rhythmic patterns by clapping, tapping or playing • use a process to imitate by clapping, tapping or playing regular and syncopated rhythm patterns of four bars in simple, compound and/or asymmetric meters • aurally recognise, and identify, from a series of written alternatives four bars from an eight-bar melody in treble clef, presented without a key signature, with an accompanying bass line and where the melody is based on a major, melodic minor, major pentatonic or minor pentatonic scale, or a dorian or mixolydian mode • use conventional music notation to transcribe, in the treble clef, a diatonic melody of no more than four bars, based on a major or melodic minor scale, in keys that use up to three sharps or three flats, in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter, where the pitch of the first note and the rhythm of the melody are given and which is presented with a bass line and a chordal and/or rhythmic accompaniment • identify major, minor, augmented and diminished triads, suspended 4ths and 7th chord types presented aurally and in writing as block harmony and as arpeggios, in both treble and bass clef • aurally recognise, and identify, from a series of written alternatives, up to four chords from an eight-chord diatonic progression that is in a major key or a minor key where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, that is in a key that uses up to three sharps or three flats, that is presented homophonically, that uses combinations of root position triads and 7th chords and that begins on the tonic chord • identify in writing, diatonic progressions of up to six chords in major keys or minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale, that are in keys that use up to three sharps or three flats, that are presented homophonically, using combinations of root position triads and 7th chords, that begin on the tonic chord and conclude with common cadences ending on either the tonic, dominant or submediant chords

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Music Performance Unit 4

Music 2011–2015

• aurally recognise, and identify, from a series of written alternatives, four bars of rhythm from a two-part eight-bar phrase presented by non-pitched percussion instruments in simple or compound duple, triple and quadruple meter • transcribe rhythms of up to four bars from an excerpt that is no longer than eight bars, presented with up to four single-line parts in simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple or compound duple meter • listen to pre-recorded performances by Australians of works that were created after 1910 by Australian composers/songwriters and analyse ways in which expressive elements of music, including tone colour, blend of instrumental voices, balance of music parts/lines, articulation, tempo choices, ornamentation/embellishment, dynamic range and shape and phrasing, have been interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes and create character in performance • use appropriate music terminology and language to analyse interpretive decisions that are evident in pre-recorded excerpts of music performances, and discuss ways in which these contribute to the character of the performance. assessment

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook for this study that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment of levels of achievement The student’s level of achievement for Unit 4 will be determined by School-assessed Coursework and two end-of-year examinations. Contribution to final assessment School-assessed Coursework for Unit 4 will contribute 10 per cent. School-assessed Coursework

Teachers will provide to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority a score representing an assessment of the student’s level of achievement. The score must be based on the teacher’s rating of performance of each student on the tasks set out in the following table and in accordance with the assessment handbook published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. The assessment handbook also includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Where teachers provide a range of options for the same assessment task, they should ensure that the options are of comparable scope and demand. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles.

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Music Performance Unit 4

MUSIC 2011–2015

Outcomes

Marks allocated*

Assessment tasks

10

A demonstration of performance techniques, technical work and exercises. And A discussion of how selected performance techniques, technical work and exercises support the student’s development as an instrumentalist and their preparation of works for Outcome 1. The discussion may be presented in one or more of the following formats: • oral • multimedia • written. And A performance of unprepared material – sight reading or improvisation.

Outcome 2 Demonstrate performance techniques, and technical work and exercises, and discuss their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

10 *School-assessed Coursework for Unit 4 contributes 10 per cent.

End-of-year examinations The level of achievement for Units 3 and 4 is also assessed by an end-of-year performance examination that contributes 50 per cent, and an end-of-year aural and written examination that contributes 20 per cent. End-of-year performance examination Description The student will give a live performance in only one of the following contexts:

• as a member of a group OR • as a soloist. The live performance will draw on knowledge and skills from Unit 3 Outcome 1 and Unit 4 Outcome 1. The examination will be assessed by a panel of examiners using criteria published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. An examination is defined as a single assessment period. Group performance examination Students will present a live performance of at least four contrasting works that represent a range of styles and diversity of character. At least two works in the program must be selected from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Group Works published annually on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Details of examination and program requirements are published in the prescribed list. Solo performance examination Students will present a live performance of works selected from the Units 3 and 4 Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works published annually on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Details of examination and program requirements specific to each instrument including the number of works to be performed are published in the prescribed list.

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Music Performance Unit 4

Music 2011–2015

Contribution to final assessment The performance examination will contribute 50 per cent. Conditions The following conditions will apply for all examinations:

• Date and time: to be notified by Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority through the school. • Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority examination rules will apply as published annually in the VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook. • The performance will be assessed by a panel of examiners using criteria published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. • Students presenting for assessment may be assessed in only one examination. Duration of examination • One assessed performer – 25 minutes • Two or three assessed performers – 30 minutes • Four assessed performers – 35 minutes • Five or six assessed performers – 40 minutes. End-of-year aural and written examination Description Students will answer a series of questions set by an examination panel based on Unit 3 Outcome 3 and Unit 4 Outcome 3. Students will respond to aural and written stimulus material. Conditions The examination will be completed under the following conditions:

• Duration: one and a half hours. • Date: end-of-year, on a date to be published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. • Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority examination rules will apply. Details of these rules are published annually in the VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook. • The examination will be marked by a panel appointed by the by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. Contribution to final assessment The aural and written examination will contribute 20 per cent. Further advice The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes specifications for all VCE examinations on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Examination specifications include details about the sections of the examination, their weighting, the question format/s and any other essential information. The specifications are published in the first year of implementation of the revised Units 3 and 4 sequence together with any sample material.

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vce study design


Advice for teachers: Music Performance Units 1– 4 DEVELOPING A COURSE

A course outlines the nature and sequence of teaching and learning necessary for students to demonstrate achievement of the set of outcomes for a unit. The areas of study broadly describe the learning context and the knowledge required for the demonstration of each outcome. Outcomes are introduced by summary statements and are followed by the key knowledge and key skills which relate to the outcomes. Teachers must develop courses that include appropriate learning activities to enable students to develop the key knowledge and key skills identified in the outcome statements in each unit. For Units 1 and 2, teachers must select assessment tasks from the list provided. Tasks should provide a variety and the mix of tasks should reflect the fact that different types of tasks suit different knowledge and skills and different learning styles. Tasks do not have to be lengthy to make a decision about student demonstration of achievement of an outcome. In Units 3 and 4, assessment is more structured. For some outcomes, or aspects of an outcome, the assessment tasks are prescribed. The contribution that each outcome makes to the total score for School-assessed Coursework is also stipulated. Developing a VCE Music Performance course Students enrol in VCE Music Units 1, 2 and 3 with varied music interests, musicianship and performance knowledge and skills. Some students will have an extensive background. Others will have limited experience. Courses need to allow students with differing musical interests equal opportunity to achieve the outcomes. As they develop the course of study teachers should consider each student’s needs in relation to their level of experience. When designing Units 1 and 2 courses, teachers should consider the Units 3–4 sequence or sequences students are likely to undertake. Student learning plans are a useful tool to align course requirements and individual student needs. Where possible students should be directly involved in developing their learning plan for VCE Music Performance. For example, students might use a graphic organiser or a series of questions to identify their learning needs and goals within a broad course.

Additionally, advice including sound and notation files is provided via the Music study page on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website.

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Group and solo performance In Music Performance Units 1 to 4 students perform group and solo repertoire. In Units 1 and 2 the balance between group and solo work will vary between students in the class, depending on students’ prior music experience and the context they are likely to select for Music Performance Units 3 and 4 and/or Music Investigation Units 3 and 4.

For all students, work undertaken on an individual basis to develop technical expertise and facility challenges them to develop a range of music performance skills they can use when performing group or solo repertoire. Each student should have a technical work program designed to meet their needs as an instrumentalist and to support their learning and performance of repertoire. Students may use different instruments for the solo and group components of their program in all units. Students who complete Units 3 and 4 as a member of a group may use more than one instrument to perform group works for Outcome 1 and the end-of-year performance examination. All students should complete all or at least a substantial majority of technical work and exercises for Outcome 2 using their main instrument. Group work allows all students to experience the complexity of music produced by an ensemble, and to develop an ability to work collaboratively with others to achieve musical outcomes. Structured rehearsals should be a part of each student’s VCE Music Performance program. These rehearsals are also an opportunity for students to apply aural perception skills, for example by listening to all parts being performed and refining intonation to accurately perform specific chords across a music texture. To complete requirements for Outcome 1, students may perform in an existing ensemble such as the school choir or concert band or in an ensemble specifically formed for the completion of these sections of the study. In planning students’ involvement in the selected ensemble, consideration should be given to the requirements outlined in the areas of study, and key knowledge and skills. Practical and analytical work Each area of study combines practical and analytical, theoretical and aural work. This enhances students’ ability to control and own their learning and consequently improves their presentation of the performance program/s. Opportunities for students to reflect on connections between practical and other learning should be embedded throughout the course. For example, students might use a journal or blog or respond at intervals to structured questions that link aspects of different outcomes. Teaching roles Planning should consider how relationships between areas of study will be developed, particularly where there is more than one teacher involved in teaching the course. Communication between student and teacher/s should also be planned and monitored. Ideally instrumental and classroom music teachers will combine their specialist skills and knowledge to deliver a course that meets the needs of individual students. Whilst the starting point for each student will vary within general guidelines, courses developed for Units 2, 3 and 4 should reflect development in work undertaken in earlier units.

Teachers who may be involved in the teaching and learning program and the assessment process for these units include: • Instrumental music teachers – employed by the school or private studio teachers • Classroom teacher/s • Ensemble directors – of school or community ensembles • Director of Music Teachers’ specific roles will vary from school to school and in some cases from student to student within a school. The following table outlines ways that different teachers may be involved in implementing the study design.

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vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Responsibility for teaching and learning program

Assessment responsibilities

Performance

Instrumental music teacher and/or ensemble conductor/director (school or community based) and/or classroom teacher and/or a teaching team.

Instrumental music teacher who taught the student or classroom teacher or director of music or two or more of these teachers acting as a panel.

Performance technique

Instrumental music teacher and/or ensemble director and/or classroom master classes focusing on presenting works in performance.

Instrumental music teacher or classroom teacher or director of music or two or more of these teachers acting as a panel: ensemble directors/conductors of community ensembles can be involved in the assessment process at the invitation of the school.

Musicianship and creative organisation of sound

Classroom teacher and/or instrumental teacher/s or other specialists.

Classroom teacher or instrumental teacher or other specialist teacher/s or two or more of these teachers acting as a panel.

Area/s of study

It is recommended that one teacher, usually a teacher based full time in the school, oversee all assessment tasks with reference to input from studio/specialist teachers and ensemble directors. Often this teacher will be a classroom music teacher, but the role can be undertaken successfully by an instrumental music teacher. Every effort should be made to develop students’ awareness of the relationship between work undertaken in the classroom, in rehearsals, and work undertaken as part of private instrumental tuition, through regular communication between the student and all teachers involved in study delivery. This might occur through meetings, or an online information sharing tool like a wiki or blog. Selecting a program In addition to specific requirements such as inclusion of group and solo works in each student’s performance program, program choice should be underpinned by:

• the student’s knowledge of and ability in technical, expressive and/or stylistic performance techniques in potential performance repertoire • the student’s interest/preferences • genuine variety; the program for these units should include works with a wide range of styles, characters and performance techniques • future programs – works presented for assessment in one unit cannot be presented for assessment in another unit. Works presented for assessment in any unit can be presented for an externally assessed performance examination as long as they meet other requirements; for example, are on the relevant Prescribed List. For Units 3 and 4 the Prescribed List of Group Works or the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works should be used to plan performance programs for Outcome 1 and the end-of-year performance examination.

vce study design

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Performance techniques, technical work and exercises Throughout the study the term ‘performance technique’ refers to methods and processes applied to realise technical, expressive and/or stylistic aspects of selected music works. A significant part of student learning in these units focuses on application of performance techniques required to realise selected works in performance. Practice strategies and material to support technical development should be selected on the basis of the student’s needs in terms of general development as an instrumentalist, relevant key knowledge and skills, and performance techniques required to perform each work in the program. The overall aim of Outcome 2, Performance skill development, in these units is to enhance the student’s ability to interpret and perform music in a range of styles and contexts. For example, subtleties of interpretation in performance are not going to be evident if technical issues limit the student’s ability to realise an element of interpretation relating to expression or style.

Teachers and students should together identify aspects of the works that present challenges for the student, and devise practice strategies to implement a technical work program to address each challenge. Musicianship In Music Performance Units 1 to 3, Area of Study 3, Musicianship, includes content designed to build students’ aural, theoretical and analytical knowledge and skills. All concepts and skills included in this area of study should be studied in isolation and in the context/s of performing and/or listening. Connections between this area of study and other aspects of each unit should be made in planned, systematic and ongoing ways. Information about aural and music theory definitions and conventions used in the study is provided online. Program choices Students may enrol in all units or select specific combinations of units that cater for their interests and intended pathways. Examples of combinations of units appropriate for specific groups of students include: Focus

Units

Composing, arranging or improvising

Music Style and Composition Units 1–4 or Music Style and Composition Units 1 and 2 and Music Investigation Units 3 and 4

General including some group and solo performance

Music Performance Units 1 and 2, and Music Style and Composition Units 1–4

General with an emphasis on group performance

Music Style and Composition Units 1 and 2, and Music Performance Units 3 and 4 and/or Music Investigation Units 3 and 4

General with an emphasis on solo performance

Music Style and Composition Units 1 and 2, and Music Performance Units 3 and 4 and/or Music Investigation Unit 3

Performance of music works and creative practices from different times and places

Music Performance Units 1–4, Music Investigation Units 3 and 4; and Music Style and Composition Units 1–4

Students may also enrol in one or more units in the VCE VET Music program. Details of these units are provided in the VCE VET Music program booklet which can be downloaded from www.vcaa.vic. edu.au. The table below shows examples of ways units drawn from VCE VET could be incorporated into a VCE program.

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Focus

Units

Composing, arranging or improvising

Music Style and Composition Units 1 and 2, and/or Music Style and Composition Units 3 and 4, and/or Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 and VCE VET Music (Technical Production)

General with an emphasis on group performance

VCE VET Music and Music Style and Composition Units 1 and 2 and/or 3 and 4, or VCE VET Music and Music Performance Units 3 and 4

General with an emphasis on solo performance

VCE VET Music and Music Style and Composition Units 1 and 2 and/or 3 and 4 or VCE VET Music and Music Performance Units 3 and 4

SUITABLE RESOURCES

Courses must be developed within the framework of the study design: the areas of study, outcome statements, and key knowledge and key skills. A list of suitable resources for this study has been compiled and is available via the Music study page on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website: www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/ index.html

VICTORIAN ESSENTIAL LEARNING STANDARDS (VELS)

VCE Music Performance builds on the skills and knowledge developed in a number of domains within each of the three strands of the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS). Knowledge, skills and behaviours fostered through learning in The Arts domain in the Disciplinebased learning strand of VELS directly prepare students for all aspects of VCE Music Performance. The ‘Creating and making’ dimension in The Arts domain prepares students for the performance and composition/improvisation/arrangement aspects of the study through focus on development of a personal style, development and refinement of interpretations and aesthetic qualities of students’ performances, and exploration of personal interests when creating new work. This dimension also develops students’ ability to use a range of skills, techniques and processes to investigate, learn and refine performances of existing repertoire, develop general musicianship and create original works. In the ‘Exploring and responding’ dimension students focus on critical analysis and interpretation of the stylistic, technical, expressive and aesthetic features of works they are preparing for performance. The knowledge, skills and behaviours that students develop through learning in this dimension also informs the analytical component of work undertaken in the Musicianship outcomes. The interdependent nature of the two dimensions in The Arts is reflected throughout VCE Music Performance, where students’ performance work is informed by study of the works and interpretations by other musicians. The Personal Learning domain in the Physical, Personal and Social Learning strand of the VELS develops knowledge and skills required to be an autonomous learner. These are crucial to successful learning in VCE Music Performance, where students are required to develop performance programs over an extended period of time. This requires goal setting, time and resource management skills as well as the ability to monitor and reflect on development and refinement of interpretations, and development of performance techniques through seeking and responding to feedback from teachers and others. Learning from the Interpersonal Development domain prepares students for the group performance aspects of Music Performance. Students use knowledge, skills and behaviours from the ‘Working in teams’ dimension to work collaboratively, negotiate roles, respect and build on ideas from each member of the group when developing and refining performances that showcase the strengths of the group and are fully prepared within agreed timelines. vce study design

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Three domains in the Interdisciplinary learning strand in the VELS provide connections to VCE Music Performance – Communication, Thinking processes and Information and Communications Technology. Aspects of learning from the ‘Presenting’ dimension in the Communication domain support students’ ability to complete analytical and reflective tasks for Outcome 2, Performance technique. In the Thinking processes domain, knowledge, skills and behaviours relating to critical thinking, inquiry, analysis and evaluation, using imagination to generate possibilities, risk-taking and reflection, prepare students for learning in all outcomes of VCE Music Performance. Throughout the study there are opportunities for students to use and extend their learning from the Information and Communications Technology domain. For example, students might use hardware and software tools to record works they are preparing for performance and seek feedback from peers or other performers through the Internet. They might also use tools that facilitate visual thinking to analyse music works or use aural comprehension software to support their learning in Outcome 3, Musicianship.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

Units 1 to 4 of the Music Performance study provide students with the opportunity to engage in a range of learning activities. In addition to demonstrating their understanding and mastery of the content and skills specific to the study, students may also develop employability skills through their learning activities. The nationally agreed employability skills* are: Communication; Planning and organising; Teamwork; Problem solving; Self-management; Initiative and enterprise; Technology; and Learning. Each employability skill contains a number of facets that have a broad coverage of all employment contexts and are designed to describe all employees. The table below links those facets that may be understood and applied in a school or non-employment related setting, to the types of assessment commonly undertaken within the VCE study. Assessment task

Employability skills: selected facets

Performance

Initiative and enterprise (generating a range of options; initiating innovative solutions; being creative) Planning and organising (planning the use of resources including time management; managing time and priorities – setting time lines, coordinating tasks for self and with others) Problem solving (developing practical solutions; testing assumptions taking the context of data and circumstances into account) Self management (evaluating and monitoring own performance) Team work (working as an individual and as a member of a team; knowing how to define a role as part of the team)

Multimedia presentation

Communication (sharing information; speaking clearly and directly) Technology (having a range of basic IT skills; using IT to organise data; being willing to learn new IT skills)

Report (oral/written/visual)

Communication (sharing information; speaking clearly and directly; writing to the needs of the audience) Planning and organising (collecting, analysing and organising information) Technology (using IT to organise data)

*The employability skills are derived from the Employability Skills Framework (Employability Skills for the Future, 2002), developed by the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Business Council of Australia, and published by the (former) Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training.

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vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Assessment task

Employability skills: selected facets

Composition and/or improvisation folio

Initiative and enterprise (generating a range of options; initiating innovative solutions; being creative) Planning and organising (planning the use of resources including time management) Problem solving (developing practical solutions; testing assumptions, taking the context of data and circumstances into account) Self management (evaluating and monitoring own performance)

Test

Communication (writing to the needs of the audience) Problem solving (using mathematics to solve problems)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Examples of learning activities for each unit are provided in the following sections. Shaded examples are explained in detail in accompanying shaded boxes.

Unit 1: Music Performance Area of study 1: Performance

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Prepare and perform a practised program of group and solo works.

identify personal and group/ensemble performance goals for the semester; use this information to shape practice and rehearsal plans Interview other students and musicians about their approach to performance preparation and rehearsal; identify similarities and differences with personal approach; use a journal to reflect on possible approaches for personal/group performance research characteristic tone qualities for selected instrument/s and ways of varying tone; create a podcast to report findings use examples from recordings from sources such as CD, DVD, YouTube, radio/TV, podcasts to define terms such as ‘dexterity’, ‘flexibility’ and ‘security’ for specific instrument, group, music style and/or works identify a range of solo and group works that could be included in a performance program; chart composer/performer, music style and character of each work; use this information to select a performance program that includes a range of styles and diversity of character explore ways of conveying emotional meaning and expression appropriate to the selected repertoire and within stylistic conventions of the music; consider the mood or atmosphere intended by the composer, energy levels, dramatic intent, characterisation, use of stillness or silence, imagining a scene or colour that helps to convey intended emotion or expression prepare a selection of solo works that represent a range of styles and are diverse in character to present in a performance of about three to five minutes

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

rehearse and perform work/s with an accompanist, rhythm section or other members of an ensemble set up and record performances of selected group and solo works for peer review and discussion of effectiveness of the performances devise questionnaire to seek audience feedback about presentations of workin-progress; include questions to check on audience perception of attempts to shape expressive elements or use specific conventions; use information to update practice plan

Detailed example REHEARSE AND PERFORM WITH AN ACCOMPANIST, RHYTHM SECTION OR OTHER MEMBERS OF AN ENSEMBLE Students establish a rehearsal schedule taking into account number and complexity of works being prepared for performance, performance goals and performance date/s. Students then trial, discuss and refine approaches to rehearsal. Individually, they listen to live performances or recordings of work/s and follow score/chart. They listen to accompaniment/other lines whilst following score or chart, ‘inner hearing’ their part, noting: • the relationship between their part and the other parts • unison melodic /rhythmic passages and performance techniques used to achieve unison • similarities or differences in performance of expressive elements such as phrasing, articulation and dynamics between parts • technical matters such as breathing points, bowing, pedalling, choice of specific equipment, for example (drum) sticks, effects pedals. Repeat as pair/group activity and discuss/trial possible approaches to performance. Students prepare/annotate rehearsal sheet music, score or chart; for example, notate rhythmic cues

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from other part/s onto their part to aid accurate entries and ensemble playing; identify (for example, draw a pair of glasses) where it is necessary to have eye contact with the accompanist or other ensemble members. Trial approaches to setting and maintaining tempo; for example, giving clear tempo indications, upbeats and cut-offs; rehearse preferred option. Trial possibilities for optimal placement of performers, instruments and other equipment in performance space. Rehearse beginning and ending performance of each work and, as appropriate, rehearse transition between works in the program. Memorise sections where it is necessary to communicate visually or via clear body language with the accompanist or other members of the group. Record a rehearsal or performance and listen back, checking for accuracy of intonation, balance, dynamic variation and tempo, in addition to the accuracy, clarity and fluency of notes and rhythms. Present a work-in-progress performance. Seek audience feedback, discuss responses, and revise rehearsal plan.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Area of study 2: Performance technique

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Demonstrate instrumental techniques used in performance of selected works, demonstrate unprepared performance skills and describe influences on their approach to performance.

keep a journal to identify practice and rehearsal habits and routine; identify personal and group/ensemble performance goals for the semester; devise an individual practice plan; maintain a record of progress and reflections throughout the semester interview other students and musicians about their approach to practice and, as appropriate, links between personal practice and rehearsal; identify similarities and differences with personal approach; use a journal to reflect on possible approaches for personal/group performance identify performance techniques used in each work in performance program; choose technical work to meet the technical and musical challenges, for example published studies, self or teacher devised exercises devise a technical work program to develop overall instrumental technique, including scales, arpeggios, and exercises to develop expressive performance techniques such as phrasing, articulation, shaping dynamics practise scales, arpeggios and exercises with a variety of articulation patterns and long note or tone exercises prepare a checklist of strategies to promote fluency and accuracy in unprepared performance use the Internet to research and communicate with performers; discuss strategies they use to optimise performance outcomes, their use of performance techniques and their interpretive approach to works being prepared for performance research selected solo or group works: when was the work written, why it was written, who by and for whom?; investigate the intended performance context for the work, for example private home or court, concert hall, church service, commercial radio/record/CD release, pub/club setting, film music; consider ways that the context might influence the style of performance develop skills in organisation, planning and goal-setting to improve identified aspects of solo and group performances

vce study design

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Detailed example ORGANISATION, PLANNING AND GOAL-SETTING Students set a date for a work-in-progress performance of a new work/s (6–8 weeks ahead). They: • Choose a program (at least two works). • Analyse the music to identify technical and expressive challenges and devise strategies/ exercises to overcome these problems. • Research approaches used by other performers to perform selected works and/or present performances of works in similar style/s. • Devise a timeline for learning, rehearsing and refining the performance of the work/s by the set date.

• Maintain a regular practice schedule in the weeks leading up to the performance. • Keep a record of progress made in learning the work/s, noting when and how various sections were practised, and with what success. • Seek feedback from teacher/s and peers; reflect on the feedback in relation to practice program and evaluate progress towards meeting identified challenges. Students record their performance and review and evaluate its success or otherwise. They then set goals for the next performance of the work/s.

Area of study 3: Musicianship

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Identify, re-create, notate and transcribe elements of music, and describe ways in which expressive elements of music may be interpreted.

research, share and discuss information about formal and informal systems for singing scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, rhythmic phrases and diatonic chord progressions discuss the meaning, implications and relationships between the terms ‘diatonic’, ‘scale’, ‘key’, ‘tonality’, ‘interval’ practice using naming conventions to identify ascending and descending intervals by size and quality in written and spoken contexts investigate and learn the intervallic structure of major, harmonic minor, melodic minor and chromatic scales investigate and discuss formal and informal counting systems; experiment with different systems to find one that is suitable and the music styles of works being prepared for performance identify use of conventions of music notation on manuscript (stave or tablature) by annotating sheet music of works being prepared for performance; investigate particular conventions such as rhythmic grouping by referring to appropriate texts; create a reference list of conventions used in works being studied for performance and those used in class activities compile a list of terms and definitions of musical terminology or descriptive words useful for discussing ways expressive elements of music can be interpreted to achieve expressive outcomes compile a workbook of writing, recognition and practical activities undertaken in class

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vce study design


Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Detailed example WORKBOOK OF WRITING, RECOGNITION AND PRACTICAL AURAL AND THEORY ACTIVITIES Task 1 Students compare the interval structure of each type of scale listed for study, notating all scaletypes from the same tonic and labelling the intervals between successive notes. They complete this exercise in various keys using treble and bass clef notation. Students: • Practise singing (and/or playing) any given interval from a selected note, ascending and/or descending. • Identify the opening interval of various four-bar diatonic melodies – aurally and/or in writing. • Use a system to sing scales set for study beginning on ‘tonic’ notes of works being prepared for performance. • Compose and sing two-bar melodies which begin and end on the tonic note; use major and melodic minor scales. • Visually recognise each interval found in short melodic excerpts, canons or folk songs; practise singing these melodies with accurate intonation. • Listen to short melodies and aurally identify the opening and closing intervals. • Listen to a short melodic phrase, sing the phrase and then transcribe missing note/s. • Learn to write on the stave, to aurally recognise, to play from memory on the instrument selected for solo performance and to sing in letter names major, harmonic minor, melodic minor and chromatic scales. • Use graphic symbols or coloured brackets to represent the different intervals found in scales set for study. • Learn to play the primary triads (I, IV, V) in keys of works being prepared for performance on a keyboard instrument. • Create ten different chord progressions of three to five successive chords using primary triads, beginning and ending on the tonic chord; play these for the class as a chord recognition activity. • Notate the progressions using a software program and playback and listen. • Using an instrument or singing, practise echoing short (unseen) melodic phrases played or sung by another student or a teacher. • Use a counting system to practise reading and accurately performing (clapping/saying/playing on an instrument) short rhythms in simple duple,

vce study design

simple triple, simple quadruple and compound duple meter that use various combinations of notes and rests of crotchet, minim, quaver and semiquaver value. • Create a series of one-bar rhythms in two parts – use simple duple, simple triple, simple quadruple and compound duple meters. Use body percussion and/or a verbal counting system to perform the rhythms. • Identify rhythmic patterns performed by other class members. • Add time-signatures to written rhythmic patterns. • Identify meter of rhythmic patterns in performance. • Listen to a short rhythmic phrase, re-create the phrase and then transcribe the missing note/s. Task 2 Students listen to examples of music written and/ or arranged for various types of musical ensemble; using a listening diary format, they identify the composer/arranger of each piece, the title of the piece and the type of ensemble performing it. They then list the instruments that they hear in each piece; describe the way in which texture, duration, scale forms and harmony are used in each piece; use diagrams to graphically describe the texture where possible. Students select one piece being performed by a student group and annotate a score/chart to show the composer’s/performer’s use of expressive elements – tone colour, blend of instrumental voices, balance of music parts/lines, articulation, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), dynamic range and shape, phrasing and tempo choices Students keep a listening diary noting use of expressive elements in works being prepared for performance and other works in similar music styles, for the same instrument or instrumental combination. They study examples of printed sheet music to ascertain conventions of musical notation for treble and bass clef such as size, placement and grouping of notes, beam and stems; placement of clef, key signature and time signature; use of bar-lines, double bar-lines and repeat signs; use of 1st and 2nd time bars; use of DC, DS and coda directions; dynamic indications and tempo indications; practise accurately hand-writing musical notation in bass and treble clefs (using a sharp pencil!).

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Unit 2: Music Performance Area of study 1: Performance

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Prepare and perform a musically engaging program of group and solo works.

review performance goals from Unit 1; identify goals for Unit 2 focusing on developing fluency and control in performance plan a series of practice or work-in-progress performances; chart goals for each, plan a way to monitor and reflect on progress towards goals participate in a master class focusing on experimentation with a variety of interpretations that draw on different articulations, dynamics, and/or tempi use recordings/performances of selected works by other performers/groups to identify approaches to shaping expressive elements of the works; chart use of historical, contemporary conventions and presentation techniques; trial and reflect on possible approaches taking personal skill as a performer into account research contextual influences on works being prepared for performance; use a journal to record reflections about impact of this research on approach to performing the works; share reflections with teacher/peers record a group rehearsal and review to identify strategies being used to foster communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy between members of the group; discuss observations and develop an action plan to address identified issues and problems research strategies used by other performers to foster communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy between members of the group; evaluate findings and refine rehearsal, performance practice use a graphic organiser or other drawing software to visually show roles and relationships between instrumental voices in group works being prepared for performance or parts within the texture of solo works investigate video/DVD recordings of works chosen for group and solo performance, or other works of the same composers or works in a similar style; use as starting points for discussion about possibilities for using performance conventions to present performances that are musically engaging

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Detailed example MASTER CLASS FOCUSING ON EXPERIMENTATION wiTH A VARIETY OF INTERPRETATIONS Over 3 to 4 weeks, students in a group or as a soloist select:

Using the work being prepared for performance, students:

• a well-known melody such as an advertising jingle, children’s song or folk song

• apply research findings

• a style being prepared for performance. Research performance conventions relevant to interpreting specific elements of music in the selected style, for example interpreting rhythms using conventions such as ‘swing’ or ‘doubledotting’, applying terrace dynamics or specific articulations. Present a research report that demonstrates findings through performance of the well-known melody supported by examples from other performances.

• develop different interpretations of specific sections of the work, present options to class and provide rationale for each interpretation based on an understanding of stylistic characteristics and how each interpretation communicates the character of the work • use a questionnaire to obtain feedback from the class; evaluate responses; select preferred approach to interpretation of specific elements of music and/or sections of the work; refine performance of the work • present performance of the work to the class and explain approach to interpretation. Note: a similar approach can be used to focus on development of idiomatic tone qualities and achieving expressiveness, clarity and artistic variation of tone.

Area of study 2: Performance technique

Outcome 2 Demonstrate instrumental techniques used in performance of selected works, demonstrate unprepared performance skills and describe influences on their approach to performance.

Examples of learning activities devise and practise selected exercises to develop technique appropriate to the instrument and level of facility; choose material relevant to the technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges of the group and/or solo performance program draw a diagram, chart or table that outlines the structure and features of the elements of music for two works selected for performance; or where no score exists for a work (such as a contemporary song learnt aurally), create a graphic or musical score indicating bars, key, chords, drum part, rhythm and lyrics, bass line and melody line; annotate the score, indicating features of the musical style; draw a graphic representation showing the structure of the work, clearly indicating each different section; then listen to two or more interpretations of the work and note similarities and differences on the diagram; use information to discuss approaches to interpretation in instrumental lessons, rehearsals, class discussions contact other musicians who have performed work/s in the performance program; discuss approaches to interpretation and strategies used to optimise performance outcomes

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

research the background of composers/performers and select two contrasting works in different styles; looking at the historical and social context, geographical, musical, technological, economic and/or political influences; use the Internet, reference texts, CD notes and compile a multimedia report to present to the class use the strategy checklist prepared in Unit 1 to practise an unprepared performance on an ongoing basis in weekly instrumental lessons and/or ensemble rehearsals

Detailed example DEVISING A TECHNICAL WORK PROGRAM The purpose of the technical program is to support the student in the learning and skill development required for the performance of their solo and group program, in addition to developing their vocal or instrumental facility. Tasks

• Using articulation/bowing patterns found in the selected works, for example all slurred, staccato, two slurred – two staccato. • Using accent patterns found in the selected works and using rhythmic patterns or devise own rhythmic patterns.

Analyse the selected solo/group repertoire to determine keys, dynamic range, pitch range, articulation patterns, length of phrases, use of thematic material and rhythmic features. Establish a journal format – paper or online – to record aims, intentions and progress, for example a podcast, blog, practice diary. Identify specific challenges in works and areas for overall development as a solo instrumentalist and as a member of a group. Select material for a technical work program such as scales, arpeggios, exercises, studies, and record each item in a journal. Note links between each item and specific works or challenges. Develop a practice plan to address challenges, and maintain and develop fluency and control. The plan might include, for example: • Practising long notes over the pitch range required in the selected works, at varying dynamic levels, and with or without dynamic changes. Use a tuning machine to check consistency of pitch. Aim for an excellent tonal quality over the whole range of the instrument/ voice.

• Practising scales, arpeggios, broken arpeggios, interrupted scales, etc. in the keys and related keys of the selected solo/group repertoire.

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• Isolating difficult intervals within melodic phrases and devising repetitive drills to improve performance of these. Memorise all technical work associated with the selected repertoire. Memorise main melodic themes or chord progressions from selected repertoire and transpose these to new keys. Use a metronome when practicing all technical work. Aim for evenness and fluency in tone and rhythm. As vocal or finger technique improves, gradually increase the speed of the metronome. Maintain journal, for example recording exercises, studies, scales etc practised in a session, indicating the metronome marking, articulation pattern and rhythmic pattern. Include comments about progress towards goals. Use information from journal in discussion about specific challenges during instrumental lessons, master classes, rehearsals, and class discussions.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Area of study 3: Musicianship

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Identify, re-create, notate and transcribe elements of music, and describe how selected elements of music have been interpreted in performance.

compile and maintain a workbook of theoretical principles, including conventions in traditional Western notation and practical activities undertaken in class, such as melodic and rhythmic transcription exercises, interval and chord recognition exercises and harmonic progression exercises practise using a system when singing scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, rhythmic phrases and diatonic chord progressions sing a variety of melodies based on tonalities drawn from the scales listed for study; analyse the melodies, noting common melodic patterns and cadences create short melodic motifs diatonic to scales set for study; perform for class, lead process of imitation and improvisation on the motifs from a series of given alternatives (two or more of scales set for study), identify the tonality of various short melodies; repeat over time, gradually increasing the number of alternatives find examples of major, minor, augmented and diminished triads and dominant 7th chords in works being prepared for performance create a chart showing intervallic structure of major, minor, augmented and diminished triads and dominant 7th chords sing and analyse scale tone triads on I, ii, iii, IV, V, V7 and vi degrees in major scales sing and analyse scale tone triads on i, iidim, iv, V, V7, VI in minor keys where the basis for chord building is the harmonic minor scale build a taxonomy of naming conventions used to identify quality and diatonic function of chords within a key research and share approaches to identifying and notating diatonic, root position chord progressions use a system to sight read rhythmic exercises in simple duple, triple and quadruple and compound duple time; analyse these, noting the use of common rhythmic patterns create a list of all possible rhythmic groupings (not exceeding four subdivisions per beat) relevant to simple duple, triple and quadruple time-signatures and compound duple time-signatures create two-bar rhythms in meters set for study using a limited range of note values, for example dotted crotchets, crotchets, quavers and semiquavers; perform these with accuracy while maintaining a steady tempo combine two-bar rhythms to create four-bar phrases; perform and transcribe imitate two-bar rhythms performed by other class members; use a process to improvise on the rhythms; transcribe resulting extended rhythms

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compose four-bar sight-singing melodies for performance in class; analyse these in terms of ease/difficulty of performance and underlying harmonic structure; comment on refinements that could be made; explore ways of interpreting melodies using a range of expressive elements; repeat focusing on rhythm listen to a variety of group and solo works and analyse (either aurally or using a score) the treatment and interpretation of expressive characteristics, including idiomatic qualities and variations of instrumental tone colour, ways instrumental voices blend and resulting tone colours, balance between different parts/lines, use of articulation, ornamentation/embellishment (melodic, harmonic and rhythmic), and dynamic range and shape, use a chart to record interpretation of selected elements and resulting effects experiment with phrase shaping, articulation, dynamics, blend of tone colour and balance of musical lines/parts through performance of a homophonic work or excerpt using conventional and non-conventional combinations of instruments; repeat this activity using a music technology, for example a sequencing program

Detailed example COMPOSE SIGHT-SINGING MELODIES Students select a series of folk songs or sightsinging exercises. Tasks Prior to singing, analyse the melodies looking for common melodic patterns and aural reference points (for example tonic, dominant). Sight sing these melodies, providing guidance where necessary with the piano. Sing as many times as is necessary in order to ensure good intonation and maintenance of tonality. Analyse the intervals, phrasing and rhythmic patterns of melodies. Compose a four-bar melody based on a tonality selected from those listed for study. Begin and end on the tonic note and use a variety of rhythmic values (no longer than a dotted crotchet).

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Compile these melodies onto one sheet for distribution among the class. Sing each melody and analyse it for relative ease/difficulty of performance. This analysis should focus on issues such as the quality and accuracy of the notation, logical progression of the melody, security of tonality and rhythmic aspects. Experiment with different ways of interpreting each melody, for example compile a list of styles from works being prepared for performance, list characteristic uses of expressive elements of music (tempo, tone colour, dynamics, articulation, phrasing, ornamentation, individually and in combination) in those styles and apply to performance of the melodies; discuss expressive outcome of each interpretation.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Area of study 4: Organisation of sound

Outcome 4

Examples of learning activities

Devise a composition or an improvisation that uses music language evident in work/s being prepared for performance.

Composition aurally and visually analyse the development of melody and the harmonic implications of melody in a work being prepared for performance; create a diagram showing use of melodic patterns, relationship of melody to underlying chords and relationship of melody to tonal centre investigate the use of common compositional devices such as augmentation, diminution, inversion, retrograde, repetition, sequence, etc. and apply these to a given (or an original) melody take an existing melody and chord progression and reharmonise it using substitute chords and/or chord extensions arrange a given melody in four-part vocal style, pianoforte style or write another part of equal importance to be performed in combination using part-writing techniques; use a music notation software program to present the arrangement complete exercises to improve facility in using available sequencing software to input and edit, including transposing parts, adding markings relevant to expressive elements Improvisation listen to various examples of music featuring a range of improvisation techniques; analyse the improvisation techniques used by the musicians on these recordings transcribe and/or imitate from recordings various styles of improvised solos or sections of improvised solos visually study transcribed improvisations analysing factors such as relationships between note choice and harmonic progression, melodic development, rhythmic development, use of motifs, riffs or licks, stylistic characteristics, use of tone colour investigate the relationship between chords and associated scales, for example use of mixolydian mode in conjunction with dominant 7 chords, use of dorian mode as an alternative to natural minor investigate common forms used in mainstream improvisational styles, for example 12-bar blues, 32-bar popular song form, AABB undertake improvisation exercises which focus specifically on one aspect at a time, for example melody, rhythm, harmony, tone, colour

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Detailed example 1 COMPOSITION Students choose a work that is being prepared for performance and analyse the musical language.

• analyse the notes of each chord and the relationship between the chords

Identify various musical ideas used within the work and undertake a study of one or more of these in theoretical terms, for example:

• observe the structural characteristics of the progression

• particular chords and chord progressions • a rhythmic motif/s • idiomatic for an instrument/s • the relationship between rhythm and melody in one phrase or section. Analyse the musical idea in order to understand how it is constructed. Select one idea to experiment with ways of shaping it into a new structure or form, for example take a chord progression and:

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• analyse the relationship between the chords and the associated melody • play the chord progression several times, experimenting with different voicing, compose a melody using a complementary scale. Begin by playing/singing the idea then input and edit options using sequencing software. Use one of the options as the basis for a short composition. Create a podcast commenting on ways that the composition uses music language from a work being prepared for performance.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Detailed example 2 IMPROVISATION Pitched instruments Students learn the chord progression and melody (head) of a standard within the jazz repertoire and experiment with improvisational techniques focusing on melody, rhythm and tone colour. Create variations of the melody by experimenting with different aspects in each improvised chorus, for example: • vary the rhythm of the original melody

Create a podcast commenting on ways that selected exercises use music language from a work being prepared for performance. Non-pitched instruments Students learn the chord progression and melody (head) of a standard within the jazz repertoire and experiment with improvisational techniques focusing on relative pitch, rhythm and tone colour.

• vary the phrasing of the original melody

Create variations of the rhythmic accompaniment for the head by exploring:

• add ornaments and/or passing notes to the melody.

• different rhythmic ‘feels’

Analyse the harmonic progression and identify key areas and modulations. Investigate scales that may be utilised in each key area. Play scales/arpeggios over chord progression, experimenting with rhythmic patterns.

• rhythmic interplay between drums and chordal instruments.

Restrict the notes available for use to the TONIC ONLY of each key area and improvise rhythmic patterns over one complete chorus using this note only. Extend this exercise gradually by exploring dynamic variations, by exploring the tone colour possibilities that are available on the one note, and by increasing the number of available notes. For chordal instruments, explore variations in chord voicing and rhythmic performance of chords. Record each exercise and edit using appropriate ICT.

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• use of different drums to outline/accent melodic phrases and/or harmonic progression

Restrict the sounds available for use to one drum only and create rhythmic patterns over one complete chorus using this drum only. Extend this exercise gradually by exploring dynamic variations and the tone colour possibilities that are available on the one drum, and by increasing the number of drums available for use. Explore ‘melodic’ possibilities by creating ‘melodies’ using variously pitched drums. Record each exercise and edit using appropriate ICT. Create a podcast commenting on ways that selected exercises use music language from a work being prepared for performance.

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Unit 3: Music Performance Area of study 1: Performance

Many activities described below can be used or adapted to support preparation of group and/or solo works for performance. Students who elect to perform as a member of a group for the end-of-year performance examination might form a group with other members of the class or use a group they already perform with to complete study requirements. Further advice is provided online. Students who elect to perform as a soloist for the end-of-year examination might form a group specifically for Units 3 and 4 Outcome 1, but might also participate in an existing ensemble such as a school chamber choir or stage band. Where possible, the group/ensemble used for this work should be ‘one player per part’. If not, then assessment should be undertaken with a cut-down ensemble where there is ‘one player per part’.

Outcome 1 Present an informed, accurate and expressive performance of a program of group and solo works.

Examples of learning activities select, research and prepare performances of works in a range of music styles and with diversity of character from the Prescribed List of Group Works or the relevant instrument list in the Prescribed list of Notated Solo Works use a journal – paper or digital – to record aims for the performance program; research findings and options for interpreting works; monitor progress and reflect on strategies used in lessons, practice and rehearsals, timeline for learning, rehearsing, trialling performance of work/s prior to assessment performance listen to different interpretations of group and solo works, compare and appraise the interpretations, experimenting with selected ideas in practice and performance re-arrange an existing musical work to suit the instrumentation of the performance group in a way that preserves the essential elements of style; discuss and workshop the merits of differing arrangement strategies and instrumental combinations analyse works being prepared for performance; identify structure, including overall form and formal features within the work or movement such as harmonic progression, use of rhythmic or melodic motifs, melodic structure; identify characteristics of the work that place it within a particular style develop informed interpretations of works in the performance program; identify different past performance practice compared with today, including differences between original instruments the work was written for at the time and today’s instruments; develop knowledge of ways the work was originally thought to be performed, the individual composer’s style and the original artist’s style of performing as relevant to selected works use IT to chart characteristics of the music style of each work in the program; identify music style and describe character of each work; note performance techniques that can be used to communicate character and style of each work use sectional rehearsals as a means for developing accuracy within the ensemble, for example rhythm section, acoustic, and vocal rehearsals perform on a regular basis to the rest of the class (with accompanist where appropriate); discuss and evaluate each other’s performances, identifying strengths and weaknesses and commenting on ways one can perform to an audience with particular consideration to continuity and presentation of the program; seek and evaluate feedback from the audience; adjust organisation of performance in response

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Detailed example 1 RESEARCH MUSIC STYLES Students select and listen to a work from the Prescribed List of Group Works or the relevant instrument list from the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. As appropriate, locate sheet music, backing tracks, published scores, TAB charts and transcribe as necessary, for example solos, ornamentation/ embellishment. Listen to alternative interpretations of the work and a range of other works in the selected style, note characteristic use of elements of music in a journal, and discuss the defining elements of the chosen style. Create a folio that comprises recorded examples of the style and commentary, identifying the relevant stylistic conventions and relevant performance techniques, particularly techniques used to realise expressive elements of music. For group works, particular attention should be placed

on the individual role of each instrument and/or voice in the arrangement. Students undertake the following tasks as appropriate to the work, context (group or solo) and style: • Identify timbral/tonal characteristics relevant to the style for each instrument. • Establish articulation and phrasing in melodic lines to realise the conventions of the style. • Identify structural elements relevant to style. • Determine appropriate beat patterns and fills for style. • Determine chord progression and chord voicing commonly used in the styles. • Establish possible scales to be used in improvisations over chord progression/s. Repeat as appropriate for other works in the program.

Detailed example 2 STUDY OF DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS OF WORKS Baroque work Students choose a work in Baroque style, for example one of the preludes from the J.S. Bach Well Tempered Clavier. Research the nature of the instrument/s used, in this case, harpsichord – its construction, method of sound production, acoustic properties, use in performance and performance venues. Listen to a number of recordings of the prelude under study as performed on the harpsichord. Make notes on: • articulation and phrasing • tempo • length of detached notes • projection to listener of thematic material and/or particular notes and/or harmonies • dynamic effect created through changes in texture, register and rhythmic complexity • use of rubato and flexibility of phrasing to give importance to beginnings of sections, cadence points, modulations. Study the introduction to an edition or a recording of the selected work, for example the Alfred edition

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of the Well Tempered Clavier which gives the performance practice of a range of famous pianists who have performed these works on piano. Listen to, compare and appraise a variety of recordings of the work, for example listen to a prelude from the Well Tempered Clavier as performed on piano using the above list as the basis for comparison. Take note of: • the use of the sustaining and soft pedals • means by which the performers explore the dynamic and tonal capabilities of the modern piano in their performance • projection of thematic material and/or particular notes and/or harmonies that cannot be achieved in performance on harpsichord. Draw conclusions about the success of each performance on piano in realising an authentic performance on a modern instrument. Develop strategies for informed personal interpretation based on the knowledge and insight gained through the above research. Note: this activity can be adapted for other music styles.

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Area of study 2: Performance technique

Outcome 2 Demonstrate performance techniques, technical work and exercises, and describe their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

Examples of learning activities identify performance goals; select group and/or solo works being prepared for performance; identify technical challenges in works and performance techniques relevant to works; devise and/or collect a series of exercises that can be used to progressively address each challenge; focus on meeting technical challenges related to interpreting expressive qualities brainstorm strategies for optimising effectiveness of group rehearsals or rehearsals with accompanists; research strategies used by similar ensembles; evaluate possibilities, use ICT to develop a rehearsal plan and collaborative journal (WIKI, podcast) to monitor progress against performance goals and specific technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges; use the plan to develop an individual practice routine; monitor and adjust throughout semester establish ways of monitoring progress, including seeking and responding to feedback from teachers, peers, other performers use ICT to develop a practice plan and journal to monitor progress against performance goals and specific technical, expressive and/or stylistic challenges; use the plan to develop a practice routine; monitor and adjust throughout semester select and practice a study or work with a technical focus that supports overall development as an instrumentalist and/or focuses on a specific performance technique used in one or more works in the selected performance program identify and analyse technical requirements necessary for the realisation of the works selected for performance; develop personal performance strategies to improve technical control devise a plan to develop facility in unprepared performance on an ongoing basis; include in weekly instrumental lessons or ensemble rehearsals investigate and compare a variety of music styles being prepared for performance from a study of their stylistic elements such as rhythm, accent and tempo, instrumentation, quality of timbre, use of harmony and melody, structure/form discuss and note procedures and techniques used by performers in a particular ensemble to perform convincingly in a variety of styles discuss ideas and methods the group has used to maximise the impact of their performances, and to minimise performance problems prepare a demonstration of the acoustic qualities of the rehearsal area, and show how these can be used or manipulated to obtain the desired acoustic effect discuss strategies for practice and rehearsal using excerpts from texts as starting points, such as Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance edited by Aaron Williamson demonstrate ways technology can be used in performance presentation, and show how it can be used to maximise performance impact

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Detailed example 1 technical work and exercises to prepare for performance of danse de la chÈVRE Instrument: Flute Composer: Alfred Honegger Category: Unaccompanied solo work Individual performance techniques: Slurring Chromatic slides Single tonguing Harmonics Bent notes Technical challenges: Accuracy – combining scale passage and other melodic motifs Rapid articulation of scale passages Fluency across variety of rhythmic patterns, changing meter, changing tempo Expressive challenges: Sense of lightness and playfulness Stylistic challenges: Impact of jazz influence Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arthur_Honegger_-_ Danse_de_la_Ch%C3%A8vre.ogg performance by Sarah Bassingthwaite Developing a practice routine: analyse work to identify performance techniques and technical, expressive, stylistic challenges, ask questions such as: What sort of music did Arthur Honegger write? ... he wrote music ranging from satire to intensely religious works that are marked by incisive rhythms and sharp dissonances, often the result of his use of polytonality. Which of these features are evident in this work? Identify examples. How can the dance qualities of this work be communicated? What tone quality is most suited to performance of this work? What techniques are needed to achieve expressive variation of tone when performing this work? Using information from the analysis, complete a chart that documents techniques, resources, and exercises to develop technical knowledge and skill AND monitor progress in learning and interpreting this work.

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Sample exercises: Technical Slurred exercises using intervals of 4ths and 5ths over two octave range ascending and descending, beginning on different starting notes. Perform at a slow tempo and concentrate on developing a smooth changeover from one note to another. Chromatic exercise from The Flute Player’s Book by Vernon Hill (p.131). Concentrate on short sections at a time and practise with a variety of rhythmic patterns. (Effective for achieving a smooth chromatic slide.) Chromatic scale, ascending and descending, between lowest and highest notes in the work – use rhythm and articulation patterns found in the work, practice at a variety of tempi. Five-note exercises in semiquavers ascending and descending using pitch material from the piece. (This will help students familiarise themselves with fingering patterns based on non-traditional scale patterns.) Single tonguing exercises from Practise Book for the Flute Vol. 3, ‘Articulation’ by Trevor Wye. (Effective for developing a light clear tonguing technique.) Harmonics exercise from Practise Book for the Flute Vol. 1, ‘Tone’ by Trevor Wye (p.6) and The Flute Player’s Book by Vernon Hill (p.33). (Effective for developing ease in playing 3rd register notes and the ability to play the last note of the piece correctly.) Expressive ‘Bending note’ exercise. On the same note, adjust the pitch above and below the note in order to increase awareness of and control of pitch. Long note exercises held for a minimum of ten seconds with a well-measured crescendo and diminuendo throughout. Stylistic Develop approach to communicating expressive qualities of each section of the work – slow, dreamlike introduction, dance-like main section, focus on breathing, articulation and using silence effectively. Study Study no. 6 from ‘24 Caprices’ op.26 by Boehm. This study will help develop rapid articulation.

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Detailed example 2 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE TECHNIQUE Work: ‘Schism’ by Tool Instrument: bass Style: metal

• reflect on how knowledge/skill level relating to this technique fits with overall development as an instrumentalist

Individual performance techniques: Chordal playing (double triple stops), hammer on and hammer offs, changing positions, ‘drop D’ tuning, finger plucking – muting, plectrum playing – range of techniques – holding, using. Ensemble performance techniques: Maintaining groove through metre changes, balancing effect pedals, placing instrumental line within music texture. For each individual technique: Use key questions to identify and reflect on instrumental knowledge about the technique and skill in using it. Students: • collect and/or devise resources such exercises, or tutorials designed to explain and/or develop facility in using the technique

• develop a practice routine that incorporates development of the technique over time, focus on development of accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and tone when using each performance technique. Analyse relationship between a particular technique and other technical and expressive elements of the work. Use a journal to monitor progress in using the technique, in isolation and in the context of the song. For each ensemble technique: Discuss and evaluate group’s ability to realise the technique in this work. Investigate and adopt rehearsal strategies to systematically improve use of performance techniques over time.

Detailed example 3 DEMONSTRATE THE ACOUSTIC QUALITIES OF THE REHEARSAL AREA Tasks Draw a plan of a room used in performance using graphic or CAD software. Label the drawing with particular attention to the room’s acoustic features. Use vector lines and arrows to show the direction and behaviour of sounds in the room. Demonstrate the way sound behaves in the room through performance of work/s from performance program. Explore, demonstrate and list practical strategies to maximise positive acoustic properties of the

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room when performing these works and to minimise acoustic problems (for example, re-positioning of amplifiers, drum kit). Use graphics or CAD software to draw another labelled plan of the room, showing the optimum performance set-up. Use vector lines and arrows to show the direction and behaviour of sounds in the room. Prepare an oral report explaining how sound behaves in the room, and how it can be controlled. Include checklist of relevant rehearsal and performance strategies.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Area of study 3: Musicianship

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Identify, re-create, notate and transcribe short excerpts of music, and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music in prerecorded works.

investigate and evaluate systems to assist singing of scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, diatonic chord progressions and re-creating rhythms using singing/vocal sounds and body percussion; identify systems that work in particular contexts; build regular use of these systems into a range of learning and practice activities, for example in class, rehearsal, instrumental lessons, individual practice create a taxonomy for this area of study, include definitions and examples relating to terminology, theoretical concepts, notation conventions, sound and structure of intervals, scales, modes and chords, set for study, rhythmic organisation in relevant meters and time-signatures, as well as related naming conventions and language to identify, describe and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music create a bank of diatonic chord progressions; use software to re-arrange voicings within each chord; print and distribute arrangements to class evaluate ability to demonstrate key skills required to meet this outcome; develop a personal learning plan to address specific challenges; apply knowledge to specific tasks and develop general musicianship throughout semester; work collaboratively with peers and teachers to implement learning plan through class and individual activities complete activities of aural comprehension and music notation using appropriate software; keep a log/journal to record progress and questions on specific content, use of strategies compile and maintain a workbook of notes on excerpts of Australian music created post 1910 and performed by Australian performers, for example: • use appropriate language and terminology to identify and describe melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, expressive and structural characteristics • transcribe short, significant melodic, harmonic and rhythmic themes/motifs • create charts showing use of dynamics over the duration of the excerpt, texture and changes in texture, tone colour and variation of tone colour, tempo and variation of tempo, phrasing • describe use of expressive elements of music such as articulation, ornamentation/embellishment • describe the character of the excerpt using examples from notes about treatment of specific elements of music to support description • use notes to plan and write responses to structured questions about the excerpts

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Detailed example sing chord progressions in four-part harmony As a class, create a bank of diatonic chord progressions that use triads and 7th notes. Each progression should begin on the tonic chord. The progressions might, but do not have to end with a cadence. The progressions should be presented with close position voicings. Using sequencing software, re-arrange voicings within each chord. Chords should always remain in root position; however, SAT voices may be voiced openly. While it may also be useful to study the principles of four-part harmony writing and to follow these in re-arranging the progressions, students should also be encouraged to try individual approaches.

Assign parts and sing each progression. Where written ranges are beyond student vocal ranges, they should be encouraged to transpose the part by an octave in order to sing it. All students should sing all parts. Discuss strategies maintaining tuning and intonation while singing progressions. Listen to other progressions from the ‘bank’ and learn aurally. Discuss strategies for identifying notes to be sung by specific parts, for example the bass note, the next highest note, the second highest note, the highest note or, the root, the third, the fifth, the seventh, the doubled note.

Print some of these arrangements and distribute to the class.

Unit 4: Music Performance Area of study 1: Performance

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Prepare and present accurate and expressive performances of informed interpretations of a program/s of group and solo works.

review performance goals, recordings of previous performances and other interpretations of works being prepared for performance; establish process for monitoring progress towards goals evaluate potential strategies for preparing and refining performance of selected works, particularly in relation to accuracy, fluency and control create a podcast using excerpts from the works (performed by student or other performers) and commentary explaining aims for achieving shape in music through interpretation of expressive elements of the music evaluate other musicians use of idiomatic tone qualities in performances of selected work/s; consider implications for own performance analyse interpretation of stylistic characteristics of each work, and document interpretive approach focusing on how balance between personal, ensemble, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and/or cultural influences is achieved across the program work with accompanist (where appropriate) on a regular basis; discuss, experiment and refine dynamics, balance, tempi, phrasing and other aspects of interpretation perform on a regular basis to the rest of the class with accompanist, where appropriate; discuss and evaluate each other’s performances, identifying strengths and weaknesses and commenting on improvement on past performances

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

monitor technical requirements necessary for the realisation of the works selected for performance; use personal performance and practice strategies to improve technical control and stylistic understanding investigate presentation techniques and performance conventions that define the stylistic roles of each instrument in the ensemble for a chosen work utilise a range of performing opportunities such as concerts, battle of the bands, eisteddfods/competitions, school assemblies to perform a variety of works record and evaluate a performance of a program of group works

Detailed example 1 SOLO PERFORMANCE Students schedule regular performances with accompanist where appropriate. Establish routine for rehearsal and preparation prior to each performance.

Reflect on each performance using a structured format – paper or digital. Use excerpts from recordings of the performances and accompanist, and gain audience feedback where possible.

Participate in ongoing discussion about strategies for communicating /interacting with accompanist, presentation techniques.

Observe and perform in master classes organised by various instrument associations.

Seek feedback about each performance, for example through an audience questionnaire. Focus on response to presentation techniques, communication, how the audience perceived the range of styles and characters across the program.

Organise guest performer to evaluate performances in a master class situation. Organise guest performer to give written evaluations of each performance of a whole program at a scheduled evening concert.

Detailed example 2 RECORD AND EVALUATE A PERFORMANCE BY A GROUP Students select an appropriate venue, paying particular attention to the acoustic properties of the performance space and the nature of the performing ensemble and works selected for performance. Organise appropriate technology to undertake a live recording (4/8 track, amplifiers, microphones etc.). The use of multi-track recording is optimal. Individually ‘sound check’ the recorded sound of each instrument in the group. Record the performance. Establish criteria for evaluating the performance including, for example:

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• Evidence of accuracy, fluency and control as appropriate to the style and character of each work in the program. • Success of strategies for communication, cooperation, empathy between members of the group. • Use of idiomatic tone quality and variation of expressive elements of music. Each member of the group and selected others (peers, teachers, audience) reviews the recording and also adds any comments about aspects of the performance not evident in the recording. Discuss feedback, noting performance aims that were achieved. Develop strategies for maintenance or further development of individual and ensemble skills.

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Area of study 2: Performance technique

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Demonstrate performance techniques, and technical work and exercises, and discuss their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

use activities in Unit 3 Outcome 2 in relation to learning additional works for the end-of-year performance program maintain and develop ability to use performance techniques, and technical, expressive and stylistic skills to refine performance of work learnt in Unit 3, for example, • create a chart to document techniques, resources, knowledge and skill level progression/development for each work in performance program; develop evaluation criteria to monitor progress; make adjustments to practice plan in response to monitoring • create a bank of listening examples that demonstrate performance techniques used to interpret and realise works in program; analyse relevance of approach taken in examples in relation to own interpretive approach; use analysis to refine application of specific techniques analyse use of specific performance techniques in practice performances; evaluate which techniques were secure, which require further development and/ or modification as well as how the techniques contributed to communicating style and character of the work; use information to refine practice plan analyse performance techniques used in improvised solos and use as a basis for developing own solo review and refine use of specific strategies for unprepared performance, for example use of a ‘checklist’ of information such as clef, time-signature, keysignature, rhythmic, melodic, phrasing, articulation, dynamic patterns, using a sight-singing system to memorise melody, analysing chord progression to identify primary triads, cadences, 7th chords etc, using a counting system to interpret rhythms accurately and maintain regular beat/pulse/meter

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Detailed example DEVELOPING AN IMPROVISED SOLO IN A SPECIFIC MUSIC STYLE Using recorded examples, students undertake a series of listening tasks which seek to identify and investigate characteristics of improvised solos in the style of work being prepared for performance. Record characteristics in a listening diary – paper or digital. Students: • Learn the chord progression and melody and develop the ability to freely perform all chords included in the work in scale and arpeggio forms (ascending and descending across the entire practical range of the instrument). • Investigate the various tonal possibilities for each chord/key area by learning the various scales/modes that might be utilised in an improvisation over the given chord progression. • Investigate specific performance techniques used to communicate characteristics of the music style. • Transcribe a selected improvised solo within the work (or at least sections of a selected improvised solo). This will require multiple

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listenings in order to achieve accuracy of pitch and rhythm as well as to take note of expressive nuances such as dynamic contrast and use of accent. • Learn to play this selected solo with the aim of memorising it. • Analyse the solo and identify significant melodic and/or rhythmic motifs. Develop new improvised choruses which explore these motifs and create personalised licks/motifs/phrases that can be freely quoted during actual performance. Create a midi backing track incorporating other parts of the arrangement and use it during individual practice to explore and develop improvised choruses which incorporate characteristics of, and ideas developed from, the transcribed solo. Trial possible solos during group rehearsals. Seek and evaluate feedback focusing on how consistent the group is in realising specific characteristics of the style, as well as developing the relationship between this and other solos/ in the arrangement. Refine solo in response.

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Area of study 3: Musicianship

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Identify, re-create, notate and transcribe short excerpts of music, and analyse the interpretation of expressive elements of music in prerecorded works.

review preferred system for singing of scales, intervals, chords, melodic phrases, diatonic chord progressions and re-creating rhythms using singing/vocal sounds and body percussion in different contexts or for completing specific tasks; refine and practise use of system/s review and refine taxonomy for this area of study evaluate ability to demonstrate key skills required to meet this outcome; develop a personal learning plan to address specific challenges; apply knowledge to specific tasks and develop general musicianship throughout semester; work collaboratively with peers and teachers to implement learning plan through class and individual activities complete activities of aural comprehension and music notation using appropriate software; keep a log/journal to record progress and questions re specific content, use of strategies and so on. create and improvise on five or six note melodic motifs and three or four bar rhythmic patterns analyse ways that expressive outcomes are realised in performance, focusing on idiomatic tone qualities and variations of tone colour, ways instrumental voices blend to create tone colour, relative balance between music parts/lines, structural and expressive roles of instrumental voices within a music texture, use of articulation, different forms of ornamentation/embellishment, dynamic range and shape, phrasing, tempo and variation of tempo; share and discuss analysis during class discussion or through a WIKI; use appropriate language and terminology to describe specific examples from the music that support analysis

Detailed example IMPROVISE USING MELODIC MOTIFS AND RHYTHMIC PATTERNS Each student creates two or three melodic motifs and two or three rhythmic patterns. Each melodic motif should be five or six notes and be built on a scale or mode set for study; each rhythmic pattern should be three or four bars in length and use a meter set for study; at least one pattern should feature syncopation. Use IT to prepare notation for each motif and pattern.

Students select one or more motifs and patterns and improvise by: • extending using repetition and varying one or more aspect of the material • combining motifs and patterns to create specific textures

In pairs, students perform the motifs and patterns they have created and learn the complete set through imitation, this step can be also be undertaken as a whole class activity, perhaps using a small selection of the material.

Print/display a random subset of notation files then ask students to identify motifs or patterns from the series of alternatives.

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• performing in a different scale, mode or meter • harmonising using root notes of appropriate triads • using expressive elements to refine phrasing, articulation, dynamics in response to specific instructions.

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

School-assessed coursework

In Units 3 and 4 teachers must select appropriate tasks from the assessment table provided for each unit. Advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors to assist teachers in designing and marking assessment tasks will be published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority in an assessment handbook. The following is an example of a teacher’s assessment program using a selection of the tasks from the Units 3 and 4 assessment tables. Outcomes

Marks allocated

Assessment tasks

10

A performance/s that demonstrates: • application of individual and, as appropriate, ensemble, technical, stylistic and expressive techniques used in performance of works • a study or work with a technical focus chosen to develop specific aspects of overall ability as an instrumentalist • technical work and exercises selected to develop skills required to meet specific technical, expressive and stylistic challenges in works selected for performance • unprepared performance skills, for example sight reading or improvisation And A podcast or other multimedia report that describes how performance techniques, technical work and exercises demonstrated in the performance link to informed, accurate and expressive performance of works being prepared for Outcome 1.

10

A test that includes: • questions requiring identification and writing of intervals, scale/modal forms, tonality, chord progressions, rhythmic patterns and rhythms, melodic patterns and melodies presented aurally and in writing and transcription of melodic and rhythmic excerpts • use of music notation conventions • improvisation on given three or four note melodic patterns and two or three bar rhythmic patterns • imitation of melodic and rhythm patterns by singing, humming or playing • discussion of interpretive decisions relating to expressive elements of music evident in prerecorded excerpts of performances by Australians of works created after 1910 by Australian composers/ songwriters.

Unit 3 Outcome 2

Demonstrate performance techniques, technical work and exercises, and describe their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

Outcome 3

Identify, re-create, notate and transcribe short excerpts of music, and discuss the interpretation of expressive elements of music in pre-recorded works.

Total marks for Unit 3

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20

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Music Performance – Advice for teachers

Outcomes

Marks allocated

Assessment tasks

10

A performance/s that demonstrates: • application of individual and, as appropriate, ensemble, technical, stylistic and expressive techniques used in performance of works • technical work and exercises selected to develop skills required to meet specific technical, expressive and stylistic challenges in works selected for performance • unprepared performance skills, for example sight reading or improvisation And An oral report accompanied by music examples (live or recorded) that discusses how performance techniques, technical work and exercises demonstrated in the performance link to work undertaken to prepare and refine informed interpretations of performance of works for Outcome 1.

Unit 4 Outcome 2

Demonstrate performance techniques, and technical work and exercises, and discuss their relevance to the performance of selected group and/or solo works, and present an unprepared performance.

Total marks for Unit 4

MUSIC 2011–2015

10

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Units 3 and 4: Music Investigation Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 involves both performance research in a Focus Area selected by the student and performance of works that are representative of that Focus Area. Students’ research of music characteristics and performance practices representative of the Focus Area underpins the Investigation, Composition/arrangement/improvisation and Performance areas of study. Aural and theoretical musicianship skills are developed across all areas of study. Students use a work they have selected from a prescribed list as a starting point, and design an investigation into a specific area of music which becomes their Focus Area. This Focus Area is the basis for study of repertoire, performance, technique and general musicianship. Students should select a Focus Area that is of particular interest to them and that complements their experience and abilities as a performer. The Focus Area should also provide scope for students to develop their performance expertise and musicianship. The repertoire associated with the Focus Area needs to be broad enough for the student to build a performance program that meets the requirements of Unit 3 Outcome 3 and Unit 4 Outcome 3. Works selected for the performance program should allow students to demonstrate interpretive mastery of the repertoire as well as highly developed technical skills on their chosen instrument/s. Students’ interpretation of works in the performance program for these units is informed by: • study of repertoire that is representative of the Focus Area yet diverse in character • research into and application of performance practices relevant to the Focus Area • investigation and analysis of characteristics of a range of works that are representative of the Focus Area • insights from composing/improvising/arranging and performing an original work that incorporates music characteristics typical of the Focus Area These units build on knowledge and skills developed over Music Performance Units 1 to 4. Students electing to undertake this study choose whether they will present their end-of-year performance examination program as a member of a group OR as a soloist. All students will complete a Focus Statement outlining their Focus Area and the relationship of the selected performance program to this area. At least one work in the program must be selected from either the Prescribed List of Group Works or the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works as published on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website.

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Music Investigation Units 3 and 4

MUSIC 2011–2015

Students who choose to present their program as a soloist must: • select an instrument from the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works and a work from that list or a work from Section A of the Prescribed List of Group Works. This work is the basis for the program and Focus Area. Students wishing to perform on an instrument not included in this list must receive prior approval for the instrument and at least ONE work from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority before commencing the study • present all works on this instrument • base their Investigation and Composition/improvisation/arrangement study around the selected work and the Focus Area they have chosen. Students who choose to present their end-of-year examination program as a member of a group must: • select any instrument or instruments (no approval is required) • select a work from either Section A or Section B of the Prescribed List of Group Works. This work is the basis for the program and Focus Area. Students wishing to perform a work that is not on a prescribed list must receive prior approval from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority before commencing the study • base their Investigation and Composition/improvisation/arrangement study around the selected work and the Focus Area they have chosen. Examples of Focus Areas and their associated programs are: The influence of baroque keyboard works on 20th century composition • Instrument: Pianoforte (soloist) • Works selected from a prescribed list: Suite – Opus 25 (Arnold Schoenberg) • Other works: Fantasia in c minor BWV 906 (J S Bach); Air with Five Variations ‘Harmonious Blacksmith’ from Suite no. 5 in E major (G F Handel;) Toccata (Aram Khachaturian), or other contemporary works that pay homage to Baroque style. Creating mood and character in music theatre • Instrument: Voice – Classical or Voice – Contemporary popular or Group performance • Works from prescribed lists – Group list of arrangements Section B – ‘Tonight’ from West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein) – Voice – Classical – ‘Since I Reached’ from Kiss Me Kate (Cole Porter) – Voice – Contemporary popular – ‘Popular’ from Wicked (Stephen Schwartz) • Other works: selected as appropriate to voice type. Virtuosity in improvised guitar solos: 1965 to the present day • Instrument: Electric guitar (solo or group) • Works selected from a prescribed list: – Guitar – Contemporary popular – For the Love of God (Steve Vai) – Group list of arrangements Section A – ‘The Thrill is Gone’ from The Definitive Greatest Hits (BB King) • Other works: solo or group compositions by guitarists such as: – Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Larry Carlton, John Williams and Tommy Emmanuel – Jeff Beck, Van Halen, Joni Mitchell, Frank Zappa and David Gilmore – Mark Knopfler, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Keith Richards, Leo Kottke and Eric Johnston – Robert Fripp, BB King, Ralph Towner, Carlos Santana and John McLaughlin – Kirk Hammet, Joe Pass, Emily Remler, George Benson and Robben Ford – John Schofield, Jimmy Page, Pat Metheny, Yngwie Malmstee and Tuck Andress – Jim Hall, Marc Ribot, Joe Satriani, Gary Moore and Angus Young.

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Unit 3: Music Investigation In this unit students select a work from a prescribed list as the basis for an investigation of a Focus Area. They explore the Focus Area through three complementary areas of study: Investigation, Composition/ arrangement/improvisation and Performance. Area of Study 1, Investigation involves research into background contextual issues relevant to performance practice, critical listening to recordings of performances and examination of texts including musical scores. Area of Study 2, Composition/ arrangement/improvisation involves applying these research findings to create a folio of exercises, sketches or recorded improvisations that demonstrate understanding of the characteristics of the Focus Area. Students plan, rehearse and perform a program of works that are representative of the Focus Area and in doing so develop relevant instrumental and performance techniques and apply performance practices. Together, these areas of study require students to apply extensive skills in performance, aural awareness, transcription, music theory and analysis. Performance examination Students choose whether they will present their end-of-year performance examination program as a soloist OR as a member of a group. Instruments selected for study An instrument/s is selected for study in this unit. If students elect to present their external end-ofyear performance examination as a soloist, they must select an instrument from the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. Students wishing to perform as a soloist on an instrument not included in this list must receive prior approval for the instrument and one work from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority before commencing the study. Students who elect to present their end-ofyear performance examination as a member of a group may select any instrument and do not require approval for their choice of instrument. Works selected for study In Unit 3 the performance program must consist of at least two works including the work selected from the appropriate prescribed list. All works in the program must relate to the Focus Area. The number of works will be dependent upon the length and complexity of typical works in the selected Focus Area. In addition to relating to the selected Focus Area, the program should represent a diversity of character and allow students to demonstrate a range of technical skills and artistic knowledge. The works may be in different music styles and/or from different cultures, eras and geographical locations.

The Unit 3 school-based performance program presented for assessment of Outcome 3 will be about 15 minutes duration for soloists and groups of 1–3 assessed performers. For groups of 4 or more assessed performers the program should be about 20–25 minutes duration.

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Music Investigation Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

AREA OF STUDY 1

Investigation In this area of study, students select and describe a Focus Area and research issues relevant to performance practice in that Focus Area. They use aural comprehension, music theory and general musicianship knowledge and skills as they listen critically to recordings of performances and examine relevant texts including musical scores. Students research and analyse, aurally and visually, a sample of music works that includes works selected for performance, as well as other works that are representative of the Focus Area, to gain a broad understanding of stylistic and structural characteristics. They develop knowledge of performance practices used by leading practitioners associated with the Focus Area. They also develop knowledge of relevant influences on the works that are representative of the Focus Area. Students use appropriate music terminology and language to describe and discuss characteristics of selected works. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to demonstrate understanding of performance practices, context/s and influences on music works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• aural and theoretical concepts that underpin ways in which elements of music, including structure, melody, harmony, rhythm, tone colour, texture, dynamics, tempo, articulation and instrumentation, are characteristically treated within a sample of works representative of the Focus Area • idiomatic instrumental techniques associated with the sample of works • performance practices and conventions associated with the Focus Area and sample of works • leading composers/performers associated with the selected Focus Area and sample of works • social, cultural, personal, historical, geographical and commercial influences that impact on the selected Focus Area and sample of works • ways in which works chosen for performance are representative of the Focus Area • issues that impact on interpretation of works selected for performance • music terminology and language appropriate to the identification, description and discussion of characteristic features of the sample of works and works selected for performance. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• describe the Focus Area • aurally and visually analyse a sample of music works that are representative of the Focus Area, including works selected for performance in Area of Study 3 • apply aural and theoretical knowledge to identify, describe and discuss – ways in which elements of music are characteristically treated in the sample of works – ways in which works selected for performance are representative of the Focus Area – idiomatic instrumental techniques associated with the selected Focus Area and ways in which they are applied within the sample of works, including works chosen for performance – social, cultural, personal, historical, geographical and commercial influences that have had an impact on both the Focus Area and the sample of works

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Investigation Unit 3

– performance practices and conventions associated with the Focus Area and ways in which these might be applied in performance of the selected program of works – issues that influence interpretation of works selected for performance • use appropriate music terminology and language. AREA OF STUDY 2

Composition/improvisation/arrangement In this area of study students apply research findings from Outcome 1. They create a folio of composition or arrangement exercises, sketches, or recorded improvisations that demonstrate understanding of the Focus Area. They undertake a variety of composition/improvising/arranging tasks to explore characteristics typical of the sample of works studied in Outcome 1 and works selected for performance. They also develop an understanding of the influence of idiomatic instrumental techniques, performance conventions, the skill levels of performers and other practical considerations that may have an impact on the compositional process. Students create a score or recording that can be used to prepare and present a performance of selected exercises. They also discuss characteristics of their completed exercises in relation to research findings from Outcome 1. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to compose, improvise and/or arrange and discuss music characteristics and performance practices.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for completing composition, improvisation and/or arrangement exercises • aural and theoretical concepts that underpin ways in which elements of music, including structure, melody, harmony, rhythm, tone colour, texture, dynamics, tempo, articulation and instrumentation, are characteristically treated within the sample of works analysed in Area of Study 1 • practical factors that influence the preparation for performance of the composition, arrangement and/or improvisation exercises, including idiomatic writing for instruments, accommodating the skill levels of performers and refining exercises through rehearsal • ways of keeping a record of written and practical exercises, including relevant notation/scoring conventions and use of ICT • music language and terminology appropriate to the identification, description and discussion of characteristic features of exercises. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• create short composition, improvisation and /or arrangement exercises that demonstrate understanding of the characteristic use of elements of music and performance practices representative of the Focus Area • notate or record the exercises in a form that can be used to prepare for a performance • perform selected exercises • use music language and terminology to identify, describe and discuss how characteristic features and performance practices relevant to the Focus Area are evident in the exercises. vce study design

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Music Investigation Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

AREA OF STUDY 3

Performance In this area of study students plan, rehearse and perform a program of works representative of the selected Focus Area. They develop relevant instrumental and performance techniques and apply performance practices to build their expertise as performers.

Students consolidate their ability to present musically engaging performances using the performance practices and conventions relevant to their selected Focus Area. Through regular performance in a variety of contexts, they explore ways of expressively shaping their chosen works and develop their ability to communicate their artistic intentions to an audience. They extend their instrumental skills through regular practice and explore ways to develop empathy and other ensemble skills though rehearsal with other musicians, as appropriate. Students refine their understanding of ways to expressively shape their chosen works by applying research findings from Outcome 1 regarding stylistic characteristics, performance techniques, practices and conventions, and approaches to interpretation. Based on their research findings, students explore possibilities for performance of each work in the program. They develop interpretations that balance relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences. Study of technical work and exercises supports students as they develop their performance program and their overall ability as performers. Students who select a group performance context study individual and ensemble performance techniques. Depending on the instrument, students who select a solo performance context study individual and ensemble (accompaniment) techniques. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to present a performance of music works that communicates understanding of the Focus Area.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for planning a performance program that communicates understanding of a selected Focus Area • strategies for developing and refining accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and clarity in performance as relevant to the selected works and instrument/s • idiomatic tone qualities and variation of tone relevant to the selected repertoire • stylistic characteristics, musical structures and textures, and use of other elements of music in selected works as they relate to the Focus Area • ways of achieving purposeful shape in music through artistic variation of expressive elements of music, including tone quality, tempo, phrasing, articulation, dynamics and texture • strategies for developing expressively shaped, informed interpretations of works that demonstrate understanding of relevant historical and contemporary performance practices, conventions and an artistic balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group works, or parts within the texture of solo works in achieving artistic balance, blend and variation of texture

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Investigation Unit 3

• strategies for communicating artistic intent and direction in performance • strategies for developing communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians and an audience as appropriate to performance of selected works • strategies for reflecting on and evaluating development of a performance program • presentation techniques, including specialist knowledge of performance practices that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, repertoire, style or genre and the performance space. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• prepare and perform a program of group or solo works that communicates understanding of a selected Focus Area • demonstrate accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and clarity in the performance of selected works • control idiomatic tone quality and artistic variation of tone in the performance of selected works • demonstrate artistic intent • create shape in performance of selected works through artistic variation of expressive elements of music • communicate direction in performance through considered, expressive contrasts between structural and textural sections of each work and across the program of selected works • demonstrate developing mastery of historical and contemporary performance conventions in interpreting and performing selected works • perform informed interpretations of selected works that demonstrate understanding of artistic balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • demonstrate understanding of the roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group work/s, or parts within the texture of solo work/s to achieve artistic balance, blend and variation of texture • demonstrate communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians and audience as appropriate to the performance of selected work/s • reflect on and evaluate development of a performance program. ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook for this study that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately.

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Music Investigation Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

Assessment of levels of achievement The student’s level of achievement in Unit 3 will be determined by School-assessed Coursework and an end-of-year performance examination. Contribution to final assessment School-assessed Coursework for Unit 3 will contribute 25 per cent. School-assessed Coursework Teachers will provide to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority a score representing an assessment of the student’s level of achievement.

The score must be based on the teacher’s rating of performance of each student on the tasks set out in the following table and in accordance with the assessment handbook published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. The assessment handbook also includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Where optional assessment tasks are used, teachers must ensure that they are comparable in scope and demand. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. Outcomes

Marks allocated*

Assessment tasks

20

Present a report that discusses characteristics, techniques and performance practices of works representative of a Focus Area. The report should define the Focus Area and include: • analysis of a sample of works • audio/video excerpts to support analysis • discussion of characteristics and practices and other issues that influence interpretation of works.

Outcome 1 Demonstrate understanding of performance practices, context/s and influences on music works.

The report may be presented in one of the following formats: • performance and commentary • multimedia • written • a combination of the formats listed above. Outcome 3 Present a performance of music works that communicates understanding of the Focus Area.

Total marks

5

Performance of technical work and exercises relevant to the Focus Area and description of how this technical work is informing development of the performance program.

25 *School-assessed Coursework for Unit 3 contributes 25 per cent.

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Investigation Unit 3

End-of-year examination The level of achievement for Units 3 and 4 is also assessed by an end-of-year performance examination, which will contribute 50 per cent. Further advice The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes specifications for all VCE examinations on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Examination specifications include details about the sections of the examination, their weighting, the format/s and any other essential information. The specifications are published in the first year of implementation of the revised Units 3 and 4 sequence together with any sample material.

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Unit 4: Music Investigation In this unit students continue the exploration within the Focus Area they began in Unit 3. In Unit 4 the Investigation involves the preparation of program notes to accompany their end-of-year performance program. In Area of Study 2, the Composition/improvisation/arrangement involves creating and performing a composition, improvisation or arrangement that draws on musical characteristics of the Focus Area. This composition, arrangement or improvisation builds on and extends exercises completed in Unit 3. Students rehearse and perform works for inclusion in a performance program of works that relates to the Focus Area. They develop mastery of relevant instrumental techniques and apply advanced performance conventions to realise their intended interpretations of each work. They continue to use skills in aural awareness, transcription, music theory and music analysis to support their work. Performance examination Students choose whether they will present their end-of-year performance examination program as a member of a group OR as a soloist. Instruments selected for study An instrument/s is selected for study in this unit. If students elect to present their end-of-year performance examination as a soloist, they must select an instrument from the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works. Students wishing to perform on an instrument not included in this list and use a suitable program of works for that alternative instrument, must receive prior approval for the instrument and one work from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority before commencing the study. Students who elect to present their end-of-year performance examination as a member of a group may select any instrument and do not require approval for their choice. Focus Area Students continue to concentrate their study in this unit on the Focus Area selected for study in Unit 3. Works selected for study In Unit 4 the performance program consists of at least two works that relate to the Focus Area. All works in the program should represent a diversity of character and allow students to demonstrate a range of technical skills and artistic knowledge. The works may be from different music styles and/ or from different cultures, eras and geographical locations.

The Unit 4 performance program presented for assessment of Outcome 3 will be about 10 minutes duration for soloists and groups of 1–3 assessed performers. For groups of 4 or more assessed performers, the program should be about 10–15 minutes duration.

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Investigation Unit 4

AREA OF STUDY 1

Investigation In this area of study students use their learning from Unit 3 Outcome 1 and further research to reflect on and evaluate their interpretive approaches to the music works being prepared for performance. This research extends students’ understanding of the possibilities for performance that balance relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences. They prepare program notes based on their research and evaluation that may be used to introduce the Outcome 3 performance program. These notes will inform the Focus Statement provided by the student for the end-of-year performance examination. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to evaluate and present their interpretive approach to a program of music works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• • • • • •

musical characteristics of the works idiomatic instrumental techniques evident in the works relevant influences on the composers’ musical intentions for the work performance practices and conventions relevant to the works ways in which works chosen for performance are representative of the Focus Area music terminology and language appropriate to the identification, description and discussion of characteristic features of the works • strategies for reflecting on and evaluating interpretive approaches to the selected works. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• aurally and visually analyse the program of music selected for performance • apply aural and theoretical knowledge to identify, describe and discuss – ways in which selected works are representative of the Focus Area – musical characteristics of selected works – idiomatic instrumental techniques used to perform the works – relevant influences on the composers’ musical intentions for the selected works – performance practices and conventions associated with the Focus Area and ways in which these might be applied in performance of the works – artistic intentions in performing the selected works • prepare and present program notes that evaluate interpretive approaches to selected works • use appropriate music terminology and language.

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Music Investigation Unit 4

MUSIC 2011–2015

AREA OF STUDY 2

Composition/improvisation/arrangement This area of study builds on the knowledge and skills developed by students in completing composition, improvisation and/or arranging tasks in Unit 3. Students complete an original composition, improvisation and/or arrangement that demonstrates music characteristics of the Focus Area and works selected for performance. Students apply their understanding of idiomatic instrumental techniques, performance conventions, performer abilities and other practical considerations as they create and refine the work for performance. They create a score or recording that is used to prepare the work for performance. Students perform the work and explain its context in relation to the Focus Area. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to compose/improvise/arrange and perform a music work and discuss the use of music characteristics, instrumental techniques, performance techniques and conventions in the work.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for creating compositions, improvisations and/or arrangements • aural and theoretical concepts that underpin ways in which the elements of music, including structure, melody, harmony, rhythm, tone colour, texture, dynamics, tempo, articulation and instrumentation, are characteristically treated within a sample of works that are representative of the Focus Area • practical factors that influence performance techniques and conventions relevant to the Focus Area generally and in relation to the instrument/s and performers who will perform the work • ways of keeping a record of the work and work-in-progress to communicate performance intentions including use of ICT and relevant notation/scoring conventions • ways of refining the work in preparation for a live performance • music terminology and language appropriate to the explanation of music characteristics, instrumental techniques, performance techniques/conventions and the context of the work in relation to the Focus Area. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• create a composition, improvisation or arrangement • demonstrate, through performance, ways in which elements of music, compositional devices and performance techniques have been used in the work, including understanding of relevant idiomatic instrumental characteristics, technical ability of performer/s and performance conventions • keep a record of the work-in-progress through video, notation, chart and/or journal • reflect on and evaluate work-in-progress to inform refinement of the work and preparation for performance • notate or record the work • rehearse and refine the work for performance • perform the work • use music terminology and language to discuss use of music characteristics, instrumental techniques, performance techniques and conventions of the work in relation to the Focus Area.

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Investigation Unit 4

AREA OF STUDY 3

Performance In this area of study students prepare and present a program of works of diverse character that are relevant to their selected Focus Area. The selected program supports students in strengthening their expertise as instrumentalists and performers, and further develops their knowledge of relevant performance practices and conventions.

Students refine their ability to present musically engaging performances using the performance practices and conventions relevant to their selected Focus Area. Through regular performance in a variety of contexts, they explore ways of expressively shaping their chosen works and consolidate their ability to communicate their artistic intentions convincingly to an audience. They analyse the structural characteristics and use of the elements of music in the works, investigate relevant contextual issues and explore the relationship between these and performance techniques associated with the style of the works. They also research and evaluate a range of existing interpretations to enhance their awareness of the variety of possible approaches and apply this awareness to their own interpretations. They continue to extend their instrumental skills through regular practice and consolidate effective ensemble skills though rehearsal with other musicians, as appropriate. Through their research, students enhance their understanding of the possibilities for performance of the selected works. They consider how to achieve balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences in shaping interpretations of chosen works. They also study ways of applying performance conventions relevant to the Focus Area. They demonstrate this understanding through their performances. Students continue to study technical work and exercises to support preparation of the performance program and develop their ability as performers. Depending on the instrument and performance context students select technical work and exercises to develop performance stamina, achieve unified interpretation within a group or with an accompanist, and/or extend and refine mastery of performance techniques associated with particular works. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to demonstrate artistic intent and understanding of the Focus Area in a cohesive and engaging performance of music works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for planning a cohesive performance program that communicates understanding of a selected Focus Area • strategies for developing and refining accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and clarity in performance as relevant to the selected works and instrument/s • idiomatic tone qualities and variation of tone relevant to the selected repertoire • stylistic characteristics, musical structures and textures, and use of other elements of music in selected works as they relate to the Focus Area • ways of achieving purposeful shape in music through artistic variation of expressive elements of music, including tone quality, tempo, phrasing, articulation, dynamics and texture

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Music Investigation Unit 4

MUSIC 2011–2015

• strategies for developing expressively shaped, informed interpretations of works that demonstrate understanding of historical and/or contemporary performance practices, conventions and an artistic balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group works, or parts within the texture of solo works to achieve artistic balance, blend and variation of texture • strategies for communicating artistic intent and direction in performance • strategies for developing communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians and audience as appropriate to performance of selected works • strategies for reflecting on and evaluating development of a performance program • presentation techniques, including specialist knowledge of performance practices that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, repertoire, style or genre and the performance space. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• prepare and perform a cohesive program of group or solo works that demonstrates artistic intent and understanding of characteristics of selected works and the Focus Area • demonstrate accuracy, control, fluency, flexibility, dexterity, security, coordination and clarity in the performance of selected works • control idiomatic tone quality and artistic variation of tone in the performance of selected works • create shape in performance of selected works through artistic variation of expressive elements of music • communicate direction in performance through cohesive, expressive contrasts between structural and textural sections of each work and across the program of selected works • demonstrate mastery of historical and contemporary performance conventions in interpreting and performing selected works • perform expressively shaped, cohesive and informed interpretations of selected works that demonstrate understanding of artistic balance between relevant personal, stylistic, practical, technological, historical and cultural influences • demonstrate understanding of the roles of, and relationships between, instrumental voices in selected group work/s, or parts within the texture of solo work/s to achieve artistic balance, blend and variation of texture • demonstrate communication, interaction, cooperation and empathy with other musicians and an audience as appropriate to the performance of selected work/s • demonstrate presentation techniques, stagecraft and conventions of performance that are appropriate to the instrument/s, ensemble/s, works, styles and performance space/s • reflect on and evaluate effective communication of artistic intent and musical understanding in a performance. ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook for this study that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment.

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Music Investigation Unit 4

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The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment of levels of achievement The student’s level of achievement for Unit 4 will be determined by School-assessed Coursework and an end-of-year performance examination. Contribution to final assessment School-assessed Coursework for Unit 4 will contribute 25 per cent. School-assessed Coursework Teachers will provide to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority a score representing an assessment of the student’s level of achievement.

The score must be based on the teacher’s rating of performance of each student on the tasks set out in the following table and in accordance with the assessment handbook published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. The assessment handbook also includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Where optional assessment tasks are used, teachers must ensure that they are comparable in scope and demand. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. Outcomes

Marks allocated*

Outcome 2 Compose/improvise/arrange and perform a music work and discuss the use of music characteristics, instrumental techniques, performance techniques and conventions in the work.

Present a composition, improvisation or arrangement of a music work that uses characteristics, performance techniques and other conventions relevant to the Focus Area. And 20

Outcome 3 Demonstrate artistic intent and understanding of the Focus Area in a cohesive and engaging performance of music works.

Total marks

Assessment tasks

5

An explanation of how the work is representative of the Focus Area. The explanation may be in one or more of the following formats: • written • oral • multimedia. Demonstration of performance techniques, technical work and exercises relevant to preparing for performance of a program of works that relate to the Focus Area, and discussion of how this technical work relates to the Focus Area.

25 *School-assessed Coursework for Unit 4 contributes 25 per cent.

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End-of-year examination The level of achievement for Units 3 and 4 is also assessed by an end-of-year performance examination which will contribute 50 per cent. End-of-year performance examination Description The student will give a live performance in one only of the following contexts:

• as a member of a group OR • as a soloist. The live performance will draw on knowledge and skills from Unit 3, Outcome 3, and Unit 4, Outcome 3. Students will present a live performance of at least four contrasting works that relate to the Focus Area which underpinned their study in Units 3 and 4. All students will complete a Focus Statement outlining their Focus Area and the relationship of the selected performance program to this area. At least one work in the program must be selected from either the Prescribed List of Group Works or the Prescribed List of Notated Solo Works as published on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. The student, in consultation with the school, will select the instrument/s and performance program in accordance with the requirements of the examination. The examination will be assessed by a panel of examiners using criteria published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. An examination is defined as a single assessment period. Contribution to final assessment The performance examination will contribute 50 per cent. Duration of examination • One assessed performer – 25 minutes • Two or three assessed performers – 30 minutes • Four assessed performers – 35 minutes • Five or six assessed performers – 40 minutes. Conditions The following conditions will apply for all examinations:

• Date and time: to be notified by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority through the school. • Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority examination rules will apply as published annually in the VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook. • The performance will be assessed by a panel of examiners using criteria published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. Further advice The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes specifications for all VCE examinations on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Examination specifications include details about the sections of the examination, their weighting, the format/s and any other essential information. The specifications are published in the first year of implementation of the revised Units 3 and 4 sequence together with any sample material.

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Advice for teachers: Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 DEVELOPING A COURSE

A course outlines the nature and sequence of teaching and learning necessary for students to demonstrate achievement of the set of outcomes for a unit. The areas of study broadly describe the learning context and the knowledge required for the demonstration of each outcome. Outcomes are introduced by summary statements and are followed by the key knowledge and key skills which relate to the outcomes. Teachers must develop courses that include appropriate learning activities to enable students to develop the key knowledge and key skills identified in the outcome statements in each unit. In Units 3 and 4, assessment is structured. For some outcomes, or aspects of an outcome, the assessment tasks are prescribed. The contribution that each outcome makes to the total score for School-assessed Coursework is also stipulated. Developing a VCE Music Investigation course Students enrol in VCE Music Investigation Units 3 and 4 with varied but extensive music interests, musicianship knowledge and performance skills. Many students will have completed VCE Music Performance Units 1 and 2 and/or Music Performance Units 3 and 4. Courses need to allow students with differing musical interests equal opportunities to achieve the outcomes. As they develop the course of study for Music Investigation Units 3 and 4, teachers should consider each student’s needs in the Focus Area the student has selected for study. Student learning plans are a useful tool to align course requirements and individual student needs. In these units students must be directly involved in developing and documenting their learning plan. Examples of appropriate focus statements and learning plans are included in the learning activities section of this advice.

Additionally, advice including sound and notation files is provided via the Music study page on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website.

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Selecting a Focus Area When they select these units, students’ first task is to nominate a Focus Area and a work from a prescribed list that is representative of the Focus Area. Students must choose a Focus Area in which they have a particular interest and that will allow them to complete study requirements at the highest level. The Focus Area should also complement the student’s experience and abilities as a performer and challenge them to develop their knowledge and expertise. The repertoire associated with the Focus Area needs to be broad enough for the student to build a performance program of works that are diverse in character and that meets study design requirements.

Students who are undertaking these units as a member of a group are most likely to select a Focus Area that is different from, but complementary to, Focus Areas selected by other group members, for example bass solos in jazz fusion. Linking areas of study These units use the pedagogy of Performance Research which connects theoretical and experiential learning. The three areas of study in these units are interrelated and interdependent, linked by study of a sample of works selected to represent the Focus Area. Opportunities for students to reflect on connections between theoretical and experiential learning and performance practice should be embedded throughout the course. Students might use a journal or blog or respond at intervals to a series of questions designed to reinforce these connections. Selecting a sample of works For Unit 3, Outcomes 1 and 2, students study a group of works that are representative of the Focus Area through listening, analysis and creative work. The sample of works should include at least one work selected for performance and must include works that are not part of the performance program. The number of works in the sample will vary according to the Focus Area. Most students will study 5 to 8 works or sections of works.

In Unit 4, students apply this learning in Outcome 1 as they prepare program notes for each work being prepared for Outcome 3. This learning is also applied to complete the Focus Statement students provide to assessors before the end-of-year performance examination. Teaching roles Schools should determine whether these units will be delivered primarily through the instrumental program or the classroom music program or whether instrumental and classroom teachers will work collaboratively to deliver the study. The roles of each teacher must be clear to the teacher/s and the student. Where a student’s instrumental music teacher is not on the school staff, establishing expectations about delivery of specific aspects of these units will be crucial. In this situation a plan that outlines how information and requirements will be communicated, including expectations regarding monitoring of teaching and learning and assessment requirements, should be used. Decisions about teaching roles should reflect the complex interrelationships between the areas of study, and planning should consider how this relationship will be developed, particularly where there is more than one teacher involved in teaching the course. While the starting point for each student will vary within general guidelines, courses developed for Units 3 and 4 should reflect development across the units.

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The following models are provided as a guide for delivery of these units: Learning approach

Description

Teacher/s

Self-directed learning using a negotiated learning plan

Students would undertake sequential and developmental activities for Outcomes 1 and 2 in addition to study of performance repertoire. The learning will be supported by questioning and feedback from the teacher/s. This approach is most appropriate for students who will complete the performance examination as a soloist. There are strong similarities between this approach and the approach used in visual arts education.

• Instrumental music teacher based at school.

Students will individually respond to a general learning outline provided by a teacher. This approach is most appropriate for students who will complete the performance examination as a member of a group.

• Classroom music teacher takes responsibility for Outcomes 1 and 2 and instrumental music teacher/s has responsibility for Outcome 3.

Class approach

Or • Classroom and instrumental music teacher based at school. Or • Classroom and instrumental music teacher not based at school. • Classroom teacher (where student does not have an IM teacher – will require student to identify and access resources and mentors who guide performance study).

• Classroom teacher may deliver all outcomes acting as performance coach or mentor for a group/s.

Specific examples of each learning approach are provided in the learning activities section of this advice. Irrespective of the teaching model used, assessment can be undertaken by one or more teachers. For example, where an instrumental music teacher has led delivery of Outcomes 1 and 2, School-assessed Coursework tasks might be assessed by the instrumental music teacher and a classroom teacher. The classroom teacher might also contribute to an on-balance decision regarding achievement of Outcome 3. However it is advised that one teacher, usually a teacher who works at the school for a significant time each week, oversee all assessment tasks with reference to the learning plan and Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority assessment advice. Every effort should be made to develop awareness of the relationship between work undertaken for each outcome. This might occur through student-teacher conferences, meetings of teachers, or an online information sharing tool like a wiki or blog. Selecting a performance program Students begin the process of developing a performance program while selecting and developing a Focus Area. For example, as part of a school’s subject selection process, students could be asked to nominate a Focus Area and select a work that is representative of the area from a prescribed list. Ideas for developing Focus Areas are included in the learning activities. The following considerations should influence program choice:

• connection to the Focus Area, that is the work is representative of the Focus Area • student’s knowledge of and ability in technical, expressive and/or stylistic performance techniques in potential performance repertoire • diversity of character and range of performance techniques required to interpret the works within the scope of the Focus Area.

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For each work in the program students should also develop a practice plan to ensure that they develop technical and expressive skills to realise their intended interpretation of the work. The practice plan should include technical work and exercises and might also include sight reading and improvisation/ imitation exercises. Technical work and exercises might include scales and arpeggios, studies and/or short works that focus on particular technical challenges. This material might be drawn from commercial sources or written specifically for the student.

Suitable Resources

Courses must be developed within the framework of the study design: the areas of study, outcome statements, and key knowledge and key skills. A list of suitable resources for this study has been compiled and will be available via the Music study page on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website: www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/ studies/index.html

VICTORIAN ESSENTIAL LEARNING STANDARDS (VELS)

VCE Music Investigation builds on the skills and knowledge developed in a number of domains within each of the three strands of the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS). Knowledge, skills and behaviours fostered through learning in The Arts domain in the Disciplinebased learning strand of VELS directly prepare students for all aspects of VCE Music Performance. The ‘Creating and making’ dimension in The Arts domain prepares students for the performance and composition/improvisation/arrangement aspects of the study through focus on development of a personal style, development and refinement of interpretations and aesthetic qualities of students’ performances and exploration of personal interests when creating new work. This dimension also develops students’ ability to use a range of skills, techniques and processes to investigate, learn and refine performances of existing repertoire, develop general musicianship and to create original works. In the ‘Exploring and responding’ dimension students focus on critical analysis and interpretation of the stylistic, technical, expressive and aesthetic features of works they are preparing for performance. The knowledge, skills and behaviours that students develop through learning in this dimension also informs the analytical component of work undertaken in the Musicianship outcomes. The interdependent nature of the two dimensions in The Arts is reflected throughout VCE Music Investigation where students’ performance work is informed by study of the works and interpretations by other musicians. The Personal Learning domain in the Physical, Personal and Social Learning strand of the VELS develops knowledge and skills required to be an autonomous learner. These are crucial to successful learning in VCE Music Investigation, where students are required to select a Focus Area for investigation and develop performance programs over an extended period of time. This requires goal setting, time and resource management skills as well as the ability to monitor and reflect on development and refinement of interpretations, development of performance techniques through seeking and responding to feedback from teachers and others. Three domains in the Interdisciplinary learning strand in the VELS provide connections to VCE Music Investigation – Communication, Thinking processes and Information and Communications Technology. Aspects of learning from the ‘Presenting’ dimension in the Communication domain support students’ ability to complete analytical and reflective tasks for Outcome 1, Investigation.

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Music Investigation – Advice for teachers

In the Thinking processes domain, knowledge, skills and behaviours relating to critical thinking, inquiry, analysis and evaluation, using imagination to generate possibilities, risk-taking and reflection, prepare students for learning in all outcomes of VCE Music Investigation. Throughout the study there are opportunities for students to use and extend their learning from the Information and Communications Technology domain. For example, students might use hardware and software tools to record works they are preparing for performance and seek feedback from peers or other performers through the Internet. They might also use tools that facilitate visual thinking to analyse music works or present multimedia reports.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

Units 3 and 4 of the VCE Music Investigation study provide students with the opportunity to engage in a range of learning activities. In addition to demonstrating their understanding and mastery of the content and skills specific to the study, students may also develop employability skills through their learning activities. The nationally agreed employability skills* are: Communication; Planning and organising; Teamwork; Problem solving; Self-management; Initiative and enterprise; Technology; and Learning. Each employability skill contains a number of facets that have a broad coverage of all employment contexts and are designed to describe all employees. The table below links those facets that may be understood and applied in a school or non-employment related setting, to the types of assessment commonly undertaken within the VCE study. Assessment task

Employability skills: selected facets

Performance

Self management (having knowledge and confidence in own ideas and visions; evaluating and monitoring own performance; taking responsibility; articulating own ideas and visions) Planning and organising (managing time and priorities – setting timelines, coordinating tasks for self and with others; establishing clear project goals and deliverables; planning the use of resources including time management; collecting, analysing and organising information) Teamwork (working as an individual and as a member of a team; knowing how to define a role as part of the team; identifying the strengths of the team members; coaching and monitoring skills including giving feedback) Learning (managing own learning; having enthusiasm for ongoing learning; being open to new ideas and techniques; acknowledging the need to learn in order to accommodate change)

Composition, improvisation and/or arrangement

Self management (having knowledge and confidence in own ideas and visions; evaluating and monitoring own performance; taking responsibility; articulating own ideas and visions) Planning and organising (managing time and priorities – setting timelines, coordinating tasks for self and with others; establishing clear project goals and deliverables; planning the use of resources including time management; collecting, analysing and organising information) Learning (managing own learning; having enthusiasm for ongoing learning; being open to new ideas and techniques; acknowledging the need to learn in order to accommodate change) Technology (having a range of basic IT skills; being willing to learn new IT skills)

*The employability skills are derived from the Employability Skills Framework (Employability Skills for the Future, 2002), developed by the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Business Council of Australia, and published by the (former) Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training. vce study design

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Assessment task

Employability skills: selected facets

Multimedia presentation

Planning and organising (managing time and priorities – setting timelines, coordinating tasks for self and with others; establishing clear project goals and deliverables; planning the use of resources including time management; collecting, analysing and organising information) Communication (sharing information; persuading effectively) Problem solving (developing creative, innovative solutions; developing practical solutions) Technology (having a range of basic IT skills; using IT to organise data)

Report (oral/written)

Communication (sharing information; speaking clearly and directly; writing to the needs of the audience; using numeracy) Planning and organising (collecting, analysing and organising information) Technology (using IT to organise data)

Student-designed investigation

Initiative and enterprise (generating a range of options; initiating innovative solutions; being creative) Planning and organising (planning the use of resources including time management; establishing clear project goals and deliverables) Problem solving (developing practical solutions; testing assumptions taking the context of data and circumstances into account) Self management (evaluating and monitoring own performance)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Examples of learning activities for each unit are provided in the following sections. Shaded examples are explained in detail in accompanying shaded boxes. Most learning activities provided here are not linked to specific Focus Areas. Some modifications may be needed depending on the selected Focus Area.

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Unit 3: Music investigation Area of study 1: Investigation

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Demonstrate understanding of performance practices, context/s and influences on music works.

define area of investigation and write a statement that outlines Focus Area and scope of investigation compile a journal of characteristics of music style/s relevant to the Focus Area; include examples from listening, practice, performance, analysis, concert attendance activities complete detailed aural and/or visual analysis of the work selected from a prescribed list as the basis of the investigation attend/view a performance of works that are representative of the area create a playlist/discography of works that are representative/considered important in the style identify leading composers/performers associated with the area of investigation create a chart that compares two works that are representative of the area; identify similarities and differences create listening taxonomy for use of elements of music in style/s that are representative of the area being investigated create a list of performance techniques/practices/conventions central to the style/s represented in the area of investigation; define key characteristics of each technique and how they connect to the conventions of the style research the historical and cultural context of a range of works and its impact on performance practice research performance practices relevant to the area of investigation investigate influences on the area of investigation: earlier styles, related styles, trends, changes in the styles over time, historical positioning and/or commercial influences; chart connections to works that are representative make a list of literature available for research performance in this area of investigation identify where the area of investigation sits within the wider musical spectrum identify significant works that are precursors to the area of investigation and later works that can be said to have been influenced by the area

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Detailed example DETAILED AURAL AND/OR VISUAL ANALYSIS OF THE WORK SELECTED FROM A PRESCRIBED LIST Tasks Students gather a comprehensive collection of source material – scores, sheet music (one or more editions), chart, recordings (CD, DVD, different performers, same performer on different occasions), commentaries such as recording notes. If no score, sheet music or chart is available, create a chart or diagram showing structure of the work. Listen to the work and note on sheet music, score, chart or create a diagram to show treatment of elements of music, for example: • Structure – macro and micro form • Melody – main, motifs, accompanying • Harmony and tonality – key, modulations, chord progression • Rhythm – harmonic rhythm, motifs, patterns • Texture, dynamics, articulation, instrumentation, tone colour, tempo, ornamentation/ embellishment, improvisation. Use a checklist of characteristic treatment of elements of music in this music style, tradition, and/ or genre and compare which aspects of the work are characteristic.

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Identify examples of idiomatic writing for the instrument/s, and annotate score to indicate nature of idiomaticity (how is this writing idiomatic?). Identify evidence of influences on the work – social, cultural, personal, historical, geographical and/or commercial. Identify aspects of work open to interpretation by the performer. Note variations between sheet music/ score and specific recordings and consider how interpretative decisions evident in the recordings fit with the checklist of ‘characteristics’. Identify examples of use of performance conventions. Review commentaries about the work and consider the extent to which the author supports the student’s own analysis of the work. Consider reasons for different views. Record findings in a multimedia journal, including examples from score/sheet music, recordings and commentaries, Report on extent to which this work can be categorised as representative of selected Focus Area.

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Music Investigation – Advice for teachers

Area of study 2: Composition/improvisation/arrangement

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Compose, improvise and/or arrange and discuss music characteristics and performance practices.

compose exercises to assist technical development for a work in a performance program create a chord progression that is typical; improvise over the progression; re-write varying the voicings transcribe a typical melodic or rhythmic motif and extend through composition or improvisation analyse a typical chord progression and improvise/compose and use a scale or mode/chord tones create a series of short sections that are typical of the part an instrument will play in each section of a work in a characteristic structure improvise a melody over a chord progression; begin with the first two bars of a melody from a work in the performance program and create three to four alternative extensions of the melody improvise a second ‘verse’ for a short Baroque work that has a decorated repeat for a chamber group, expand short passages of piano works for the area of investigation for the ensemble create a two-stave reduction of an orchestral, a chamber or a small ensemble work take a piano score and revoice for an ensemble for a popular/jazz drummer, write a series of short rhythmic studies that explore the ‘feel’ typical of works in a performance program create a melodic or rhythmic phrase and use a set of articulations that are typical of the area to create a set of variations to establish the style or feel compose/arrange/improvise a walking bass line from a chord sequence write lyrics and devise rhythmic structure for a melody rework a phrase into a different metrical feel

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Detailed example CREATE A SERIES OF SHORT SECTIONS FOR A WORK IN A CHARACTERISTIC STRUCTURE Students select a form that is typical/representative of works selected for performance. Identify sections of the form – include main and ‘connecting’ or subsidiary sections. Make decisions about aspects of the work such as instrumentation, tonality, time-signature.

• Trial options for adding other elements of music to complete each section. Seek feedback, compare possibilities with sample of works studied in Outcome 1 and/or works being prepared for performance.

Using a notation system appropriate to the music work and, as appropriate, ICT:

• Select preferred option and develop further, for example adding further expressive elements, refining to enhance idiomatic writing or extending music ideas.

• Create a required set of music ideas, for example melody, harmonic progression, key rhythmic motifs.

• Rehearse each section and review/refine as needed to address technical issues and/or further enhance expressive qualities.

• Apply relevant material to form an outline for each section of the work.

Area of study 3: Performance

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Present a performance of music works that communicates understanding of the Focus Area.

sing selected parts of each work in the performance program to develop possibilities for phrasing, articulation, intonation, rhythmic feel and understand different roles/parts transcribe/annotate score for short excerpts showing use of melodic motifs, harmonic rhythm, rhythmic patterns, dynamics, phrasing, pedalling, bowing rehearse ‘unplugged’ rehearse selected instrument lines within an ensemble, for example without drums or just rhythm section or just melody parts undertake performance research: listen, observe, analyse, consult with experts to understand or comprehend conventions of performance appropriate to each work in the program experiment with performance conventions to achieve a creative and engaging interpretation of each work in the program explore possible repertoire to identify works that offer options for a thorough and comprehensive exploration of the Focus Area create a flow chart that shows a purposeful relationship between each work in the program; justify how each work relates to the Focus Area and how the works relate to each other articulate connections between research findings from Outcome 1 and the performance program

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at regular intervals during the semester analyse strengths and weaknesses in the performance of each work; identify technical, expressive goals and plan approach to further refinement or addressing issues relating to control fluency and clarity and tone production investigate performance etiquette and stagecraft relevant to the Focus Area establish a mentor relationship with performers who work in this Focus Area; evaluate use of performance conventions, rehearsal strategies, ways of communicating within the group experiment with different acoustic environments; evaluate changes to performance techniques to communicate effectively in each space devise a practice program to achieve performance aims – include technical and expressive components; demonstrate a typical practice session and describe role/ function of each activity in relation to overall performance aims

Detailed example flow chart showing relationship between works in program Students write a performer’s focus statement outlining the focus of studies for Music Investigation Units 3 and 4.

how specific elements of music are realised in the performance and how this relates to the area of investigation.

Make a recording of each work in the program. Analyse and note how each is representative of the Focus Area. Identify similarities and differences between character and, as appropriate, music style/s of the works. Include information about

Use ICT to build a flow chart showing this information. Include annotations to highlight how specific aims of the investigation are demonstrated in the performance of each work.

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Unit 4: Music Investigation Area of study 1: Investigation

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Evaluate and present their interpretive approach to a program of music works.

create a chart showing characteristics of each work in the program; focus on use of elements of music use a description of the Focus Area from Unit 3 as the basis for creating a list of similarities and differences between works in the program prepare a two-minute introduction to each work in the program, outlining its connection to the Focus Area prepare a podcast highlighting examples of idiomatic writing and/or use of performance techniques/conventions that are characteristic of the Focus Area debate a rationale for selection of a work/s in the program as representative of the Focus Area with another musician (student, teacher, mentor)

Detailed example INTRODUCING WORKS IN THE PERFORMANCE PROGRAM Resources/materials needed: Analysis of works in the program, analysis of how works are representative of the Focus Area, recordings – self and others used as reference in preparing the program; glossary of terms/language relevant to the Focus Area, information about context of each work.

Instructions to students Format for introducing the works: Printed? Online? Spoken? Multimedia? Consider audience, venue and nature of information; for example, is there a particular work/performance that is the inspiration for the work being discussed? Do the audience need to hear that work to understand the work to be performed? Draft of the introduction:

Consider the interpretive decisions made about this work and how these relate to the Focus Area. Which decisions do you wish to highlight for the audience? What is the best way to do this – by informing? By giving a listening cue? Review notes and synthesise to create an introduction of about two minutes for each work. Seek feedback: Develop questions for reviewer/s to check if key messages about the works have been communicated. As necessary, rehearse spoken presentation and/or prepare multimedia presentation.

Using available source material, write 50–100 words describing the Focus Area that is the basis for study. Identify 3 to 4 key points that

highlight characteristics of each work. Analyse information about the context for each work and write a paragraph about contextual issues that the audience needs to know about to understand the nature of the work.

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Music Investigation – Advice for teachers

Area of study 2: Composition/improvisation/arrangement

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Compose/improvise/ arrange and perform a music work and discuss the use of music characteristics, instrumental techniques and conventions in the work.

select an exercise created in Unit 3 and add other aspects such as harmony and texture to create a complete work combine a number of exercises created in Unit 3 to create a complete work improvise/compose/arrange a piece of music that extends and combines one or more exercises created in Unit 3 annotate a score or chart to show examples of where/how specific conventions, techniques are used in the created work compare examples from created work with excerpts from works by other composers that are representative of the Focus Area map development of music ideas from Unit 3 exercises to completed work through versions/work-in-progress scores create a commentary about how development of the work has refined and strengthened connection to the Focus Area observe effect of refinements to work during rehearsal and make adjustments, for example to phrasing, dynamics, articulation, voicings, register critique the work against research findings from Outcome 1; identify examples from the created work of specific conventions, techniques and so on analyse the appropriateness of parts for each group member: playability, use of idiomatic techniques and so on

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Detailed example CREATING A COMMENTARY ABOUT AN ORIGINAL MUSIC WORK Students select a format for documenting development of the work such as a journal, hard-copy or digital, podcast, visual diary, slide presentation or a combination of formats. Consider how to include relevant examples – from the score and audio material. Create a checklist of issues and requirements for the work: What is your aim in creating this work? Which aspects of the Focus Area is the work based on? Describe your intention for the work. As the work is developed, using notation, audio recording, writing, and/or diagrams: • record initial music ideas – melodies, chord progression, motifs, textural design • track development, for example through trialling or exploration and refinement of ideas; show iteration of specific music ideas such as treatment of an element of music, development of voicings, creating accompanying parts, shaping music phrases through use of expressive elements and performance

techniques – articulation, dynamics, bowing, pedalling, use of effects. • document process used to compose/improvise/ arrange, for example use of works studied/being prepared for performance as stimulus material, process for trialling ideas through playing/ improvising • describe reasons for decisions, for example refining a section to enhance use of a performance technique in a manner that is typical of works studied or in performance program, or to manipulate an element of music to achieve a particular stylistic effect • document changes made so that the work can be performed accurately, expressively and in a way that reflects style appropriate to the Focus Area. For group works, include commentary about consultation with other performers, for example researching specific performance techniques or other idiomatic issues.

Area of study 3: Performance

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Demonstrate artistic intent and understanding of the Focus Area in a cohesive and engaging performance of music works.

evaluate merits of different program orders perform the program at different times and in different venues for different audiences and evaluate evaluate how research is informing performance; identify specific examples over the semester, document and evaluate refinements to the way each work is being performed justify the approach to performing each work in relation to the Focus Statement prepare notes for an introduction or a narration for practice performance experiment with presentation techniques typically associated with the Focus Area to develop and rehearse appropriate stagecraft to communicate artistic intent of the program create a stage plan showing placement of performer, instrument, equipment refine practice program to reflect changes in ability to use performance conventions relevant to the works

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Music Investigation – Advice for teachers

record and critique performance of each work and performance of complete program; send recording to musicians who work in this area and seek specific feedback rotate different members of the ensemble to lead rehearsal during a single session and provide feedback about balance, intonation, consistency, arrangement, stylistic interpretation, interaction of parts relevant to performance aims; at the end of the session, evaluate approaches that worked, did not work, are worth refining

Detailed example EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF WORKS For students in a group, this activity will include individual reflection and evaluation relating to personal contribution to the performance. Students look at performance of own part and approach to realising group intentions for each work in the program. Depending on the instrument, students performing as soloists might incorporate aspects of discussions with their accompanists into their evaluation, for example how interactions such as establishing, maintaining and varying tempo or cueing are managed. For each work, describe aims and intentions for the performance. Link the description to an analysis of how the work is representative of the Focus Area, and similarities and differences in the character and/ or style of each work in the program.

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Create a series of questions based on the aims for the performance, for example questions about interpretation of expressive elements of music such as phrasing, the nature of specific instrumental parts within the overall texture, use of performance conventions, realisation of idiomatic writing. Include questions relating to individual works and the program as a whole. Present a performance of the works. Ask the audience to respond to the questions. Record the performance and complete feedback questionnaire personally. Evaluate feedback responses and identify aspects of the performance for change and/or refinement. Consider the extent to which the audience responses are driven by knowledge of the Focus Area. Compare the rationale for refinement in the context of the initial intention for the performance, and the decisions made about how to communicate understanding of the Focus Area through the performance.

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School-assessed coursework

In Units 3 and 4 teachers must select appropriate tasks from the assessment table provided for each unit. Advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors to assist teachers in designing and marking assessment tasks will be published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority in an assessment handbook. The following is an example of a teacher’s assessment program using a selection of the tasks from the Units 3 and 4 assessment tables. Outcomes

Marks allocated

Assessment tasks

Unit 3 Outcome 1

Demonstrate understanding of performance practices, context/s and influences on music works.

A multimedia report that uses examples from a representative sample of works to define characteristics and context/s of works that are representative of a selected Focus Area.

20

Outcome 3

A performance/s that demonstrates: • application of individual and, as appropriate, ensemble, technical, stylistic and expressive techniques used in performance of works to communicate understanding of the Focus Area • technical work and exercises selected to develop skills to communicate technical, expressive and stylistic characteristics of works being prepared for performance.

Present a performance of music works that communicates understanding of the Focus Area. 5

Total marks for Unit 3

25

Unit 4 Outcome 2

Compose/improvise/arrange and perform a music work and discuss the use of music characteristics, instrumental techniques, performance techniques and conventions in the work.

An oral report that discusses how a composition/ improvisation/arrangement created and performed by the student is representative of the Focus Area. The report should draw on examples from a score/chart of the work and a recording of a performance.

20

Outcome 3

A performance/s that demonstrates: • application of individual and, as appropriate, ensemble, technical, stylistic and expressive techniques and performance conventions to communicate artistic intent in performance of works that are representative of a Focus Area • technical work and exercises selected to refine skills and performance practices required to communicate technical, expressive and stylistic characteristics of works being prepared for performance.

Demonstrate artistic intent and understanding of the Focus Area in a cohesive and engaging performance of music works. 5

Total marks for Unit 4

25

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Units 1– 4: Music Style and Composition In Music Style and Composition Units 1 to 4 students explore the ways sound can be organised in music. As they develop an understanding of ways music is designed, created and performed in a range of styles and traditions, they create their own music. Students listen and respond to a wide variety of music excerpts and develop skills in aural analysis by focusing on how the elements of music are treated and the way compositional devices are used. In each unit students undertake focused aural and/or visual analysis of selected works. They uncover the music characteristics of the works and their associated styles, the context from which the works emerged and the processes composers/creators used to create the finished works. Students create their own music in direct response to the music and the creative processes they have studied. Music style For the purposes of this study and associated assessment, music style is defined by the way in which the elements of music are treated. Works within an identifiable style should exhibit similar treatment of the elements of music.

A style may encompass music of: • an era/period (for example, contemporary popular, bebop jazz, grunge, baroque, romantic, nationalist, impressionist, neoclassical) • a geographical area (for example, Indonesian gamelan music, Australian Aboriginal music) • a composer (for example, Lennon/McCartney, Arcadelt, Beethoven, Carl Vine) • a performer/s (for example, Aretha Franklin, U2, Louis Armstrong, Jimi Hendrix, Paganini).

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Unit 1: Music Style and Composition This unit involves an exploration of a wide range of music styles. Students listen to music excerpts from different styles, traditions, times and places. They analyse specific works from three distinct music styles including music from a non-western style or tradition. They become familiar with the elements of music and consider the various ways composers/music creators treat these elements and use compositional devices to create music works. Students compose and/or arrange brief creative exercises in response to the practices of other composers/creators. Works selected for study in this unit should be different from those selected for study in Units 2, 3 and 4.

AREA OF STUDY 1

Responses to music This area of study examines characteristics of music in different styles and traditions. Students develop skills in aural analysis to explore ways that composers and performers use elements of music and compositional devices. Students undertake a brief visual analysis of some excerpts as appropriate to the selected music style/s. Development of skills in forming and presenting critical responses underpins this area of study. Students use appropriate music terminology to describe what they hear in the music and communicate their responses. Selection of works A wide range of excerpts of varying duration in differing styles and traditions should be selected. Study of the excerpts focuses on the use of specific elements of music and/or compositional devices. Music selected for study should include excerpts:

• from styles and traditions that are familiar and unfamiliar to students • that use a range of instrumental and vocal combinations • from a non-western music style/s. Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to aurally analyse characteristics of music and describe their responses to music.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and related skills outlined in Area of Study 1.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 1

Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• treatment of elements of music such as structure/form, instrumentation, tone colour, texture, tonality, time/rhythm, melody, harmony, dynamics/volume and articulation • use of compositional devices such as imitation, modulation and re-orchestration • ways music can be categorised, including historical, for example Mediaeval ballad, and/or geographical, for example music of North India, and/or stylistically, for example grunge • music terminology and language appropriate to different music styles and/or traditions. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• aurally analyse music from a range of music styles and traditions • describe treatment of elements of music and use of compositional devices in selected music excerpts • categorise music excerpts on the basis of musical, historical and/or contextual evidence • use appropriate music terminology and language. AREA OF STUDY 2

Organisation and context This area of study focuses on the technical and aesthetic organisation of selected music works representative of three music styles and/or traditions. Students investigate the treatment of elements of music and use of compositional devices in the works. They consider the context/s of the works and interrelationships between the music and other aspects of a culture. Selection of works At least three short works, single movements and/or small collection/s of minor works should be studied for Outcome 2, each from a different style or tradition. Works selected for study do not need to be major works although they should be representative of an identifiable music style or tradition. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify and describe the music characteristics and the contexts of selected works.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• treatment of the elements of music in selected works from three different music styles such as – music structures/forms – instrumentation/sound sources – rhythm/time and its organisation in music – characteristics and structures of melody – tonal organisation and harmony

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Music Style and Composition Unit 1

• • • •

MUSIC 2011–2015

– texture – tone colour – expressive elements including dynamics and articulation use of compositional devices to develop music material in selected works such as the use of sequence, modulation, re-orchestration, addition/subtraction or imitation the ways music relates to other aspects of a culture, for example its connection with other art forms or its place in relevant social, political, religious, economic and aesthetic contexts appropriate music terminology and language ways music examples can be used to support discussion.

Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • •

describe treatment of elements of music and use of compositional devices describe the relationship between music and other aspects of a culture use appropriate music terminology and language use music examples such as audio files, score extracts and/or live performances to support analysis and description.

AREA OF STUDY 3

Creative responses In this area of study, students make creative responses to music by composing and/or arranging a folio of short creative exercises. Students complete two brief creative responses that each focus on a different element of music and/or compositional device. For example, creative responses focusing on melody might involve varying or arranging an existing melody. Alternatively, a response could use a standard chord progression as a starting point for creating a new melody. Students may use improvisation as part of the composition or arrangement process.

Students investigate ways other music creators, for example composers/creators of works they are studying in Outcome 1 or 2, have used elements of music and compositional devices. By using these creators’ approaches as a starting point, students find potential directions and solutions for their own work. They become aware of technical factors such as idiomatic writing for instruments and/or sound balance considerations involved in the composing and/or arranging process. They also develop appropriate methods of recording and preserving their music. Students reflect on creative processes they have used by documenting the use of elements of music and compositional devices in their creative responses. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to compose and/or arrange music exercises and describe creative process/es used.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 1

Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• ways other music creators use elements of music and compositional devices • technical/practical factors involved in composing and/or arranging, for example the range of specific instruments, a performer’s vocal style and/or performance conventions associated with a specific style such as soloing, accompaniment, comping and fills in a jazz trio performance • ways of recording and preserving music such as using music technology to develop and refine ideas or the processes used to prepare a score and/or parts for use by performers. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• compose and/or arrange creative responses based on specific ways of using elements of music and compositional devices • document use of elements of music and compositional devices in creative responses • reflect on how works studied have influenced creative response/s • use an appropriate method to record and preserve the music. ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their assessment program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. For this unit students are required to demonstrate achievement of three outcomes. As a set these outcomes encompass all areas of study. Demonstration of achievement of Outcomes 1, 2 and 3 must be based on the student’s performance on a selection of assessment tasks. Where teachers allow students to choose between tasks they must ensure that the tasks they set are of comparable scope and demand. Assessment tasks for this unit are: • A folio of four to eight responses based on aural analysis of excerpts of music from a range of styles and/or traditions, including a non-western style or tradition. Responses may be: – written – oral – in a multimedia format including a written component.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 1

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• A selection from the following: – a report – short-answer responses – a test – a multimedia presentation – an annotated visual report – an oral presentation. • A folio that includes at least two creative responses and accompanying documentation.

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Unit 2: Music Style and Composition This unit explores how composers and/or creators use music to create effects and elicit responses in multi-disciplinary forms. Students listen to music excerpts from diverse styles and respond to the ways elements of music and compositional devices are used to create specific effects. Students study multi-disciplinary works that combine music and non-musical elements, and investigate how music is used in combination with these other elements. Students also consider the role and function of music in the complete work, for example ways it advances a narrative, provides commentary on a narrative or communicates a mood or feeling. Students create music for a multi-disciplinary work in a form of their choice. Works and their associated styles selected for study in this unit should be different from those selected for study in Units 1, 3 and 4.

AREA OF STUDY 1

Responses to music This area of study focuses on use of elements of music and compositional devices to create effects and elicit responses. Students develop aural analysis skills and use appropriate music terminology and language. They begin to link subjective responses with objective analytical information evident in the music to present written critical responses. Selection of works Music excerpts of varying duration in a range of styles and traditions, including some multi-disciplinary works, should be selected for Outcome 1. Music selected for study should include excerpts:

• in styles and traditions that are familiar and unfamiliar to students • that use a range of instrumental and/or vocal combinations • from works that combine music and non-musical elements.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 2

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Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse ways in which elements of music and compositional devices are used to create effects and elicit responses.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• ways elements of music such as structure/form, instrumentation, tone colour, texture, tonality, time/ rhythm, melody, harmony, dynamics/volume and articulation can be used to create specific effects and elicit responses • how compositional devices such as imitation, modulation, re-orchestration are used to create specific effects and elicit responses • ways of forming and presenting critical responses that include subjective responses to music justified by objective analytical information evident in the music • appropriate music terminology and language. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • • •

aurally analyse music in selected excerpts describe treatment of elements of music describe use of compositional devices critically respond to selected excerpts use appropriate musical terminology and language.

AREA OF STUDY 2

Music created for multi-disciplinary forms In this area of study students focus on the ways the music interrelates with the non-musical features in two works, each in a different multi-disciplinary form. Appropriate works may include music theatre works, multimedia works such as installations, dance works, operas, and incidental music for theatre works and films. Students undertake aural and/or visual analysis of the treatment of elements of music and compositional devices. They also investigate processes used to create music for the selected forms and contextual issues associated with the music, including the role and function of the music in the complete work. Selection of works The music in the works selected for study must have been specifically composed for that work. Works such as songs, program music or soundtrack compilations are not within the scope of this area of study.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 2

Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to describe characteristics of music in two works that combine music and non-musical features, and discuss the context and processes used to create the music.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• treatment of elements of music in selected works, including structure/form, instrumentation, tone colour, texture, tonality, harmony, melody, rhythm/time, dynamics/volume, articulation • ways compositional devices are used to create music in selected works • processes used to create music for selected forms • ways music interrelates with other features of selected works • contextual issues associated with the music, including the role and function of music in the complete selected work, and other relevant issues such as social and commercial considerations • appropriate music terminology and language • ways music examples can be used to support discussion. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • •

describe treatment of elements of music in selected works describe use of compositional devices in selected works describe processes used in creating music for the selected multi-disciplinary works identify and discuss ways in which the music interrelates with other features of the selected works • use appropriate music terminology and language • use music examples from the selected works such as audio and audio-visual files, score extracts and live performances to support descriptions and discussion. AREA OF STUDY 3

Creative processes in music for multi-disciplinary forms In this area of study students create music for a multi-disciplinary work, for example music for a short, real or imagined visual sequence or song/s for performance in a dramatic stage work. As they compose and/or arrange music for the work, students develop understanding of the creative processes that can be used to create music in multi-disciplinary works.

Students explore and experiment with uses of elements of music and compositional devices to create specific effects and responses. Students also address practical considerations that arise when working with other forms, for example synchronising music with film or choreography. Students use ICT to assist or inform their creative process. As well as using an appropriate system to record and preserve their music, students document their creative process and describe the practical considerations that influenced their work.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 2

MUSIC 2011–2015

Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to create music for a work that combines music and non-musical features, and describe the creative process/es used.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• creative processes used in creating music for a multi-disciplinary work • ways of using elements of music and compositional devices to create music for use in a multidisciplinary work • technical/practical considerations influencing the creation of music for multi-disciplinary works • ways ICT can be used to create music in multi-disciplinary works. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • • • •

compose music for use in a multi-disciplinary work use elements of music and compositional devices to create specific effects and elicit responses document creative processes used to compose music for a multi-disciplinary work describe technical/practical considerations that influence the creative process/es used evaluate the effectiveness of the music in relation to other aspects of the work use an appropriate system of recording and preserving the music, for example a music notation or sequencing software application.

ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their assessment program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. For this unit students are required to demonstrate achievement of three outcomes. As a set these outcomes encompass all areas of study. Demonstration of achievement of Outcomes 1, 2 and 3 must be based on the student’s performance on a selection of assessment tasks. Where teachers allow students to choose between tasks they must ensure that the tasks they set are of comparable scope and demand.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 2

Assessment tasks for this unit are: • A folio of four to eight written responses based on aural analysis of excerpts of music from works that combine music and non-musical features. • A selection from the following: – a report – short-answer responses – a test – a multimedia presentation – an annotated visual report – an oral presentation. • Creation of music for use in a work that combines music and non-musical features and accompanying documentation, including a record of the music. Students are not required to create the non-musical features of the work.

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Unit 3: Music Style and Composition In this unit students develop an understanding of the diverse practice of music creators working in different times, places and stylistic traditions. Students develop skills in making critical responses to music excerpts. They analyse ways the compositional devices of contrast, repetition and variation are used in the excerpts. Students develop knowledge about the music characteristics and style of two selected works or collections of minor works, one of which must be by an Australian composer/creator. They develop an understanding of the way contextual issues can influence works. Contextual issues may include cultural influences, social issues, practical issues, musical influences, commercial considerations and issues relating to the performer/s of the work. Students create music in response to the music characteristics and creative approaches evident in the music studied. Works and their associated styles selected for study in this unit should be different from those selected in Units 1, 2 and 4.

AREA OF STUDY 1

Responses to music This area of study focuses on listening, aural analysis and making critical responses. Students develop their skills in critical response by analysing the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in a wide range of music excerpts. By focusing on contrast, repetition and variation, students develop an understanding of various ways music creators use these compositional devices to achieve their creative aims. Selection of works Music excerpts of varying duration in a range of styles and traditions should be selected for Outcome 1. Music selected for study should include excerpts:

• in styles and traditions which are familiar and unfamiliar to students • that use a range of instrumental and/or vocal combinations. Collectively, excerpts selected for study should demonstrate different approaches to the treatment of specific elements of music and ways of using particular compositional devices. A number of excerpts selected for study should focus on the use of the compositional devices of contrast, repetition and variation.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 3

Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to aurally analyse music and make critical responses to music.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for aurally analysing music • how the elements of music, including structure/form, instrumentation, tone colour, texture, tonality, harmony, melody, rhythm/time, dynamics/volume and articulation, may be treated across a range of music styles • ways compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation, are used • ways of forming and presenting critical responses that include subjective responses to music justified by objective analytical information evident in the music • appropriate music terminology and language. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • • •

aurally analyse music in a range of styles and instrumental and vocal combinations discuss treatment of the elements of music discuss ways compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation, are used formulate and present critical responses use appropriate music terminology and language.

AREA OF STUDY 2

Organisation and context In this area of study, students explore two short works, movements and/or collection/s of minor works in differing styles. They investigate how the music is organised through aural and/or visual analysis of the treatment of elements of music and compositional devices, including contrast. Students develop knowledge of the characteristics of the style of the selected works. They also develop their ability to identify and discuss relevant contextual issues. They use appropriate music terminology, language and specific music examples to support description, discussion and analysis. Selection of works For Outcome 2, two short works, single movements and/or small collection/s of minor works in different styles should be studied, including one work or collection of minor works by an Australian creator/ composer. In the works studied, the compositional device of contrast should be a major feature. Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse and describe the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in music works, and discuss the style and the context from which the works emerged.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. vce study design

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Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• • • • •

the way the elements of music are treated within the works the ways compositional devices, including contrast, are used within the works characteristics of the music style of each work contextual issues associated with each work ways of using appropriate music terminology, language and music examples to support analysis and discussion.

Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • • •

analyse and describe the treatment of elements of music in the works analyse and describe the use of compositional devices including contrast in the works describe ways in which works are representative of particular music styles discuss relevant contextual issues and how these influence the works use appropriate music terminology, language and music examples to support analysis and discussion.

AREA OF STUDY 3

Creative responses In this area of study students develop creative exercises in response to characteristics of music studied in this unit. These composition and/or arrangement exercises explore ways of treating the elements of music and using compositional devices, including at least one of contrast, repetition and/or variation. Students investigate technical factors that influence the composing and/or arranging process/es they are using. They develop appropriate methods to record and preserve their music.

Students document the relationship between music studied in this unit and the treatment of elements of music and compositional devices in their exercises. The creative responses completed in this area of study may be used as preparatory material for Unit 4, Area of Study 3. Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to create original music exercises and discuss influences on their creative processes and responses.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• ways the elements of music may be treated in making a creative response • ways compositional devices, including at least one of contrast, repetition and/or variation, can be used to develop music ideas • relevant music characteristics of studied works that may inspire and influence creative responses • relevant technical/practical factors

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Music Style and Composition Unit 3

• the system/s of recording and preserving the music as appropriate to the work/s that have influenced the creative response • appropriate music terminology and language to document creative processes and describe music ideas. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• create music based on the music characteristics of studied work/s • use elements of music based on the music characteristics of studied work/s • use compositional devices, including at least one of contrast, repetition and/or variation, to develop music ideas in the creative responses • describe technical/practical factors that influenced the creative responses • document processes used to make the creative responses, including the relationship between the creative responses and the works studied that have influenced the creative responses • notate the response in an appropriate format • preserve each creative response in audio format • use appropriate music terminology and language to document creative processes and describe music ideas. ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook for this study that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately. Assessment of levels of achievement The student’s level of achievement in Unit 3 will be determined by School-assessed Coursework, an Externally-assessed Task and an end-of-year examination. Contribution to final assessment School-assessed Coursework for Unit 3 will contribute 15 per cent.

An Externally-assessed Task for Units 3 and 4 will contribute 30 per cent. School-assessed Coursework Teachers will provide to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority a score representing an assessment of the student’s level of achievement.

The score must be based on the teacher’s rating of performance of each student on the tasks set out in the following table and in accordance with the assessment handbook published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. The assessment handbook also includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 3

MUSIC 2011–2015

Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Where optional assessment tasks are used, teachers must ensure that they are comparable in scope and demand. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. Outcomes Outcome 1 Aurally analyse music and make critical responses to music.

Outcome 2 Analyse and describe the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in music works, and discuss the style and the context from which the works emerged.

Total marks

Marks allocated*

Assessment tasks

15

Aural analysis of and written critical responses to four previously unheard excerpts of music in any one or a combination of the following formats: • a test • responses to structured questions.

15

Analysis and discussion of selected works in any one or a combination of the following formats: • a report • a test • responses to structured questions • a multimedia presentation.

30 *School-assessed Coursework for Unit 3 contributes 15 per cent.

Externally-assessed Task Assessment for Music Style and Composition includes an Externally-assessed Task to assess Unit 3 Outcome 3 and Unit 4 Outcome 3. For this assessment students will submit a folio that contains exercises, an original work, audio recordings and documentation. The task will be assessed by a panel appointed by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. Criteria published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority will be used to assess the task.

Details of the Externally-assessed Task are provided on page 132. End-of-year examination The level of achievement for Units 3 and 4 is also assessed by an end-of-year aural and written examination which will contribute 40 per cent.

The examination will be set by a panel appointed by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. All the key knowledge and skills that underpin Outcomes 1 and 2 in Units 3 and 4 are examinable. Further advice The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes specifications for all VCE examinations on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Examination specifications include details about the sections of the examination, their weighting, the question format/s and any other essential information. The specifications are published in the first year of implementation of the revised Units 3 and 4 sequence together with any sample material.

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Unit 4: Music Style and Composition In this unit students create an original music work inspired by the study of music from different styles and traditions. They document their creative process/es from initial intention. Students develop skills in forming and presenting critical responses to music excerpts. They also analyse use of the compositional devices of contrast, repetition and variation. Students investigate the music characteristics and style of two selected works or collections of minor works, one of which was created after 1910. They develop an understanding of the process/es used to create the works and how contextual issues may have influenced the creative process. Works and their styles selected for study in this unit should be different from those selected in Units 1, 2 and 3.

AREA OF STUDY 1

Responses to music In this area of study, students listen to and aurally analyse music. Students develop their skills in critical response by analysing treatment of the elements of music and use of compositional devices in a wide range of music excerpts. Students extend their understanding of ways contrast, repetition and variation are used by music creators to achieve their compositional aims. Selection of works Music excerpts of varying duration in a range of styles and traditions should be selected for Outcome 1. Music selected for study should include excerpts:

• in styles and traditions which are familiar and unfamiliar to students • that use a range of instrumental and/or vocal combinations. Collectively, excerpts selected for study should demonstrate different approaches to the treatment of specific elements of music and ways of using particular compositional devices. A number of excerpts selected for study should focus on the use of the compositional devices of contrast, repetition and variation.

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Music Style and Composition Unit 4

MUSIC 2011–2015

Outcome 1 On completion of this unit the student should be able to aurally analyse music excerpts, and form and present critical responses to the music.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 1. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• strategies for aurally analysing music • how the elements of music, including structure/form, instrumentation, tone colour, texture, tonality, harmony, melody, rhythm/time, dynamics/volume and articulation, may be treated across a range of music styles • how compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation, can be used • ways of forming and presenting critical responses that include subjective responses to music justified by objective analytical information evident in the music • appropriate music terminology and language. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• • • • •

aurally analyse music discuss the treatment of the elements of music discuss use of compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation form and present critical responses use appropriate music terminology and language.

AREA OF STUDY 2

Organisation and context In this area of study students analyse and evaluate how the music is organised in two short works, movements and/or collection/s of minor works in differing styles, and study the context of each work. One work must have been created after 1910.

Students extend their understanding of ways music is organised through aural and/or visual analysis of the treatment of elements of music within the selected works. They also investigate ways the compositional devices of repetition and variation are used to develop music ideas in the works. Students examine the works in relation to their associated styles and investigate the influence of contextual issues on the works. Students use appropriate music terminology and language as well as specific music examples to support their description, discussion and analysis. Selection of works For Outcome 2, two short works, single movements and/or small collection/s of minor works in different styles should be studied, including one work or collection of minor works created since 1910. Both of the works/movements/sections/collections of minor works selected for study should use the compositional devices of variation and repetition in significant ways.

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Outcome 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse and discuss the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in the selected works, and discuss the style of the works and relevant contextual issues.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• ways the elements of music are treated within the selected works • ways compositional devices, including repetition and variation, are used to develop music ideas in the selected works • characteristics of the music style of each work • contextual issues relevant to each work • appropriate music terminology, language and music examples Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• analyse and discuss the treatment of elements of music in the selected works • analyse and discuss how compositional devices, including repetition and variation, are used to develop music ideas within the selected works • describe ways in which selected works are representative of particular music styles • discuss relevant contextual issues and how these influence the works • use appropriate music terminology, language and music examples to support analysis and discussion. AREA OF STUDY 3

Creative processes In this area of study students compose and/or arrange a short work. Students develop a creative intention and manipulate the elements of music to achieve their aims. They employ contrast, variation and repetition as well as other compositional devices to develop their music ideas. They document the creative process/es they use, from original intention, through development and refinement, to final realisation, including decisions made and the technical and practical factors that had an impact on the work. They record and preserve the work in notated and audio formats.

The music work may build on the exercises completed in Unit 3 Outcome 3, or use ideas inspired by works studied in Unit 3 and/or Unit 4 Outcome 1 and/or Outcome 2. The work could be the result of the student’s artistic goals and interests, a work created for a specific purpose, a response to an abstract technical challenge, a work in a specific historical style, or a more subjective work exploring an idea, issue or feeling of interest to the student.

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Outcome 3 On completion of this unit the student should be able to create an original work and evaluate the creative processes used to develop the work.

To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 3. Key knowledge This knowledge includes:

• processes used to compose and/or arrange music works from starting point/s to final realisation • how the elements of music may be treated to fulfil creative intentions in a music work • how compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation, can be used to develop music ideas • ways in which creative intention may shape decision making at different stages through the creative processes • technical/practical factors that influence creative processes, including issues of instrumental/ technical capabilities, sound balance and blend, and performance context • ways of notating a music work appropriate to the style/context • ways of preserving a music work in audio format • appropriate music terminology and language to document creative processes and describe music ideas. Key skills These skills include the ability to:

• employ a creative process/es to create an original music work that includes contrast, repetition and variation • manipulate the elements of music to fulfil creative intentions in a completed music work • use appropriate compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation, to develop music ideas • describe technical/practical considerations that influence the creative process/es • document the creative process/es from original intention through development and refinement, to final realisation, and evaluate decisions made at different stages in the creative process/es • notate the work in an appropriate format • preserve the work in an audio format • use appropriate music terminology and language to evaluate creative processes and music ideas. ASSESSMENT

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s overall performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit. The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes online an assessment handbook for this study that includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. The key knowledge and key skills listed for each outcome should be used as a guide to course design and the development of learning activities. The key knowledge and key skills do not constitute a checklist and such an approach is not necessary or desirable for determining the achievement of outcomes. The elements of key knowledge and key skills should not be assessed separately.

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Assessment of levels of achievement The student’s level of achievement for Unit 4 will be determined by School-assessed Coursework, an Externally-assessed Task and an end-of-year examination. Contribution to final assessment School-assessed Coursework for Unit 4 will contribute 15 per cent.

An Externally-assessed Task for Units 3 and 4 will contribute 30 per cent. The level of achievement for Units 3 and 4 is also assessed by an end-of-year aural and written examination, which will contribute 40 per cent. School-assessed Coursework Teachers will provide to the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority a score representing an assessment of the student’s level of achievement.

The score must be based on the teacher’s rating of performance of each student on the tasks set out in the following table and in accordance with the assessment handbook published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. The assessment handbook also includes advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors for assessment. Assessment tasks must be a part of the regular teaching and learning program and must not unduly add to the workload associated with that program. They must be completed mainly in class and within a limited timeframe. Where optional assessment tasks are used, teachers must ensure that they are comparable in scope and demand. Teachers should select a variety of assessment tasks for their program to reflect the key knowledge and key skills being assessed and to provide for different learning styles. Outcomes Outcome 1 Aurally analyse music excerpts, and form and present critical responses to the music.

Outcome 2 Analyse and discuss the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in the selected works, and discuss the style of the works and relevant contextual issues.

Total marks

Marks allocated*

Assessment tasks

15

Aural analysis of and written critical responses to four excerpts of music in any one, or a combination of, the following formats: • a test • responses to structured questions.

15

Analysis of selected works in any one, or a combination of, the following formats: • a written report • a test • written responses to structured questions • an annotated visual report.

30 *School-assessed Coursework for Unit 4 contributes 15 per cent.

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Externally-assessed Task Assessment for Music Style and Composition includes an Externally-assessed Task to assess Unit 3 Outcome 3 and Unit 4 Outcome 3. For this assessment students will submit a folio that contains exercises, an original work, audio recordings and documentation as outlined below. The task will be assessed by a panel appointed by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. Criteria published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority will be used to assess the task. Format A folio that contains:

• two creative exercises in notated and audio form that were completed in response to studied music • description and/or annotation of the relationship between the creative exercises and the music studied, including the treatment of relevant elements of music and the use of at least one compositional device of contrast, repetition and/or variation AND • a statement of intention for a complete work • evidence of the development and refinement of the work from starting point to final realisation • explanation of decisions made at stages of the creative process • explanation of technical and practical factors that influenced the creative process • description and/or annotation of the treatment of the elements of music to achieve the stated aim in the final work • description and/or annotation of the use of compositional devices, including contrast, repetition and variation, in the final work AND A music work of 2–4 minutes presented in notated and audio form. Contribution to final assessment The Externally-assessed Task will contribute 30 per cent. End-of-year aural and written examination Description The examination will be set by a panel appointed by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. All the key knowledge and skills that underpin Outcomes 1 and 2 in Units 3 and 4 are examinable. Conditions The examination will be completed under the following conditions:

• Duration: two hours. • Date: end-of-year, on a date to be published annually by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. • Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority examination rules will apply. Details of these rules are published annually in the VCE and VCAL Administrative Handbook. • The examination will be marked by a panel appointed by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. Contribution to final assessment The aural and written examination will contribute 40 per cent.

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Further advice The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority publishes specifications for all VCE examinations on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website. Examination specifications include details about the sections of the examination, their weighting, the question format/s and any other essential information. The specifications are published in the first year of implementation of the revised Units 3 and 4 sequence together with any sample material.

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Advice for teachers: Music Style and Composition Units 1– 4 DEVELOPING A COURSE

A course outlines the nature and sequence of teaching and learning necessary for students to demonstrate achievement of the set of outcomes for a unit. The areas of study broadly describe the learning context and the knowledge required for the demonstration of each outcome. Outcomes are introduced by summary statements and are followed by the key knowledge and key skills which relate to the outcomes. Teachers must develop courses that include appropriate learning activities to enable students to develop the key knowledge and key skills identified in the outcome statements in each unit. For Units 1 and 2, teachers must select assessment tasks from the list provided. Tasks should provide a variety and the mix of tasks should reflect the fact that different types of tasks suit different knowledge and skills and different learning styles. Tasks do not have to be lengthy to make a decision about student demonstration of achievement of an outcome. In Units 3 and 4, assessment is more structured. For some outcomes, or aspects of an outcome, the assessment tasks are prescribed. The contribution that each outcome makes to the total score for School-assessed Coursework is also stipulated. The central focus of Music Style and Composition Units 1 to 4 is the exploration of the way sound can be organised in music. Students are asked to examine specific works in different styles, explore and respond to a wide range of other music via aural analysis, and create music in response to their study of the work of music creators across time and place. Three broad areas are covered across all four units: • Responding to music: where students experience a wide range of music works in different styles and build skills in aural analysis and critical response. • Organisation and context: where there is a focused study of specific works, which are analysed in terms of their musical characteristics and stylistic context. • Creative responses/processes: where students create music in response to the musical ideas uncovered in the music they have studied and document the processes used. The basis of all analysis of musical characteristics throughout the four units is a development of understanding about the treatment of the elements of music and the use of compositional devices.

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It is essential that both teachers and students have a firm understanding of the nature of these two fundamentals. In Units 1, 3 and 4, the works selected for Area of Study 2 should be short works, single movements and/or small collection/s of minor works, for example a movement of a symphonic work or two to three songs from the same artist or two to three pieces from a geographical location. Students should focus on the musical characteristics of the work rather than undertaking any comprehensive analysis of the style from which it comes. In Unit 2, works from two different multidisciplinary forms must be used in Area of Study 2. The music selected for study should be small selections of music from each form, for example two to three pieces of underscore from a film or an aria, a recitative and a chorus from an opera or two to three songs from a musical. In Unit 3, one work must be Australian. In Unit 4, one work must have been created after 1910. For Area of Study 3 in Units 1 and 3, students make creative responses which may be defined as short musical exercises created in response to a given musical idea or task, for example exploring an idea from a work studied in Areas of Study 1 and 2. They also need to document the links between their music and the music studied. For Area of Study 3 in Units 2 and 4 students are required to take part in a creative process that will lead to a completed short work. They are also required to document the processes used to arrive at the end result. Assessment requirements for the Externally-assessed Task must be considered when planning teaching and learning activities for Outcome 3 in Unit 3 and Outcome 3 in Unit 4. Elements of music The elements of music are the components or building blocks used to create music works. Characteristic use or treatment of the elements of music is the key identifier of music style for the purposes of this study. Different music styles typically emphasise different elements of music and use them in different combinations. The elements of music, depending on the style being studied, may be analysed with reference to:

• structure/form; for example, large-scale structures such as symphonies, dance suites, and operas; medium-scale structures such as twelve-bar blues, sixteen and thirty-two bar song form, verse/ chorus, strophic, sonata form, binary, ternary, rondo, theme and variations, through-composed, fugue, round, canon, cantus firmus, metrical and/or harmonic cycles; small-scale structures such as motives and motivic development, phrasing, chord patterns, textural components, modulatory systems • instrumentation; for example, the list of instruments/sound sources used • tone colour; for example, the effect of the way in which the instruments/sound sources are used and the effect of techniques employed; combinations of instruments used at various stages in the work or excerpt; particular instrumental techniques employed such as muting, pizzicato, glissandi, flutter tonguing; production techniques such as reverb, chorus, distortion • texture; for example, layers of sound (contrapuntal, polyphonic, chordal, homophonic, monophonic, heterophonic, pointillistic, unison); the density of sound (from light/thin to heavy/thick); tessitura (effect of pitch height on texture) • tonality; for example, modal, diatonic (major/minor – functional), pentatonic, polytonal, whole tone, chromatic, atonal, serial • harmony; for example, triads, triadic extensions, cluster chords, organum, vertical pitch combinations and the interrelationship of chords (functional or non-functional), modulation, ostinato, harmonic rhythm (rate of harmonic change per bar), pitch centres

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• melody; for example, the tune, tone rows, themes, horizontal pitch patterns and the characteristics of a melody such as intervals, phrasing, tessitura, shape, motives and, where appropriate, influence of text • rhythm/time; for example, metre/time signature, pulse, length of notes, tempo, rhythmic motives and rhythmic devices such as syncopation, ostinato, augmentation/diminution, polymetres and cross rhythms • dynamics/volume • articulation; for example, the attack, release and decay of the sound; staccato; marcato; legato. Compositional devices Compositional devices are inextricably linked to the treatment of the elements of music and represent the means by which a music work is developed.

These may be seen at the: • micro level; for example, ornamentation, inversion, augmentation, diminution, fragmentation • medium level; for example, imitation, use of sequence, modulation, re-orchestration, re-harmonising, addition/subtraction of melodic lines, rhythmic accompaniment, instruments or layers of sound • global level; for example, contrast, repetition, variation. Compositional devices at the global level may occur in relation to the treatment of all the elements of music, individually and in combination. They may also involve specific devices at the lower level/s. Contrast Contrast may be achieved via changes to the treatment of dynamics, orchestration, melodic shapes and registers, rhythms, metres, harmonies, textures, articulation and forms. This may include such devices as modulation, re-orchestration and the addition or subtraction of layers of texture. Repetition Repetition can be seen in repeating such things as entire formal sections, melodic lines or phrases, rhythms, intervals, melodic shapes, harmonic patterns, timbres, riffs, ostinati. Variation Variation includes any change to an established pattern when heard again. This might include such things as shifting a melodic pattern to a new starting pitch, adding ornaments, expanding or contracting intervals in a melody, retaining melodic contour but changing pitches, changing to a new key area, tempo changes (gradual or sudden), adding or removing rubato or metrical changes, using a rhythmic figure in different places within the bar, adding harmonic accompaniment, changing harmony, adding or subtracting melodic lines or layers of sound, re-orchestration, changing register, changing articulation and sound effects. Conventions Common practices within music styles in the creation and performance of music. For example, improvisation in jazz styles, figured bass in Baroque works, lead drum calls in the music of Ghana, guitar effects and distortion in rock styles, sampling and editing techniques in techno music.

Performance conventions may also include expected behaviours of both performers and audience; for example, the formality and silence within a concert hall setting, applause at the end of solos in many jazz styles, dramatic flair and aggression within heavy metal, the structure of a North Indian raga performance in three parts.

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Context The context of any music should involve a study of influences on works and music styles, including cultural influences, social issues, practical issues, musical influences, practical and commercial considerations, and issues relating to the likely performer/s of the work.

Some examples might be: • the geographical move of blues-based music from a southern rural context (Mississippi delta) to urban centres (Chicago) resulting in new instrumentation, stricter rhythms and expanded band arrangements • the technological advances in the pianoforte from the eighteenth century through the nineteenth century, resulting in works exploiting the instrument’s range and dynamic capabilities • the influence of Asian music on Debussy, The Beatles, John Coltrane, or Phillip Glass; the rise of computer-based music and sound production techniques resulting in new and sampled sound sources used in hip-hop, house and techno music • the role of the French Revolution on social thinking and structure in Europe, and its effect on the music of the nineteenth century • the early twentieth century recording industry which allowed for only three- to four-minute recordings and its effect on the structures of popular music of the time • the cultural integration of music in the North Indian classical tradition resulting in the religious/ mood/temporal qualities of the Indian raga • the systems of patronage, commissions, dedications and contracts in different periods and their effect on music created. Critical response Critical responses link a subjective response/s to music justified by objective analytical information evident in the music. Following are some examples of critical responses:

• The driving, energetic feeling evoked in the Police song ‘Synchronicity’ is created by the rapid, consistent regular rhythms of the hi-hat and kick drum aligned with the unison rhythm of the bass. • The lush, rich and lyrical atmosphere of the final theme of Gershwin’s ‘Rhapsody in Blue’ is achieved by the use of unison, legato full string orchestration. The adjectives in these two examples – ‘driving, energetic’ and ‘lush, rich and lyrical’ – are subjective responses to music. The analytical information is given in the statements ‘the rapid, consistent regular rhythms of the hi-hat and kick drum aligned with the unison rhythm of the bass’ and ‘unison, legato full string orchestration’. Integrating content While the three areas of study in each unit are presented separately and all aspects must be covered in developing a course, the design of Music Style and Composition is most suited to an integration of content across areas of study in each unit.

For example, a work chosen for focused study for Area of Study 2 ‘Organisation and context’, may lead to further listening activities using excerpts from other works that use similar (or contrasting) treatment of music elements or devices. These listening activities may then form part of Area of Study 1 ‘Responses to music’. Essential musical features uncovered in both these areas of study may then become the focus of a creative response in Area of Study 3.

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In developing any unit, teachers should approach the selection of works for focused study in terms of how their characteristics may lead to further listening and creative activities. In Unit 1, for example, Area of Study 2 ‘Organisation and context’ might focus on study of a Mozart Piano Sonata first movement (for example, K545 or K257) involving: • analysis of characteristics, including sonata form structure, nature of contrasting melodic material, harmonic progressions of main themes and overall modulation system, use of imitation, overall clarity of sectional design (contextualised by an outline of features of Classical and eighteenth century architecture). Area of Study 1 ‘Responses to music’ might include listening to: • a Beethoven sonata movement in the same form • an excerpt to hear the contrast in two themes from a Mozart symphonic movement in sonata form • excerpts/performances of simple nursery rhymes using primary triadic harmony • a country song using the same three chords • a gospel choir excerpt using call and response imitation • an excerpt from a Bach invention focusing on the imitation between parts. Area of Study 3 ‘Creative responses’ might involve: • creating a contrasting melody to a given one via contrasting contour, dynamics, articulation, key and register • creating three separate melodies over the same primary triad harmonic progression • creating a 30-second piece to be performed by the class, built on one melodic idea and which must include imitation and contrast. Suitable Resources

Courses must be developed within the framework of the study design: the areas of study, outcome statements, and key knowledge and key skills. A list of suitable resources for this study has been compiled and will be available via the Music study page on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website: www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/ studies/index.html

VICTORIAN ESSENTIAL LEARNING STANDARDS (VELS)

VCE Music Style and Composition builds on the skills and knowledge developed in a number of domains within each of the three strands of the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS). The most direct connection is with The Arts domain in the Discipline-based learning strand of VELS. The ‘Creating and making’ dimension in The Arts domain prepares students for the creative aspects of Music Style and Composition through focus on areas of specialisation, development of a personal style, justification and refinement of the content and aesthetic qualities of students’ own works and exploration of personal interests when creating new work. This dimension also develops students’ ability to use a range of skills, techniques and processes to generate ideas, develop and refine music works.

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In the ‘Exploring and responding’ dimension students focus on critical analysis, interpretation and description of the stylistic, technical, expressive and aesthetic features of their own works and works created by a range of other composers, improvisers, arrangers and performers. The knowledge, skills and behaviours that students develop through learning in this dimension informs the analytical and reflective aspects of the work they undertake in each unit of VCE Music Style and Composition. The interdependent nature of the two dimensions in The Arts is reflected in VCE Music Style and Composition, where students’ composition, improvisation and/or arrangement work is informed by study of the works and practice/working methods of other musicians. The Personal Learning domain in the Physical, Personal and Social Learning strand of the VELS develops knowledge and skills required to be an autonomous learner. These are crucial to successful learning in VCE Music Style and Composition, where students are required to complete extended creative tasks requiring use of goal setting, time and resource management skills, monitoring and reflecting on development and refinement of ideas and seeking and responding to feedback. Three domains in the Interdisciplinary learning strand in the VELS provide connections to VCE Music Style and Composition – Communication, Thinking processes and Information and Communications Technology. Aspects of learning from the ‘Presenting’ dimension in the Communication domain support students’ ability to complete analytical and reflective tasks for each area of study in Music Style and Composition. In particular, students draw on knowledge and skills about ways to effectively present information, ideas and opinions in forms that are relevant to the purpose and audience. In the Thinking processes domain, knowledge, skills and behaviours relating to critical thinking, inquiry, analysis and evaluation, using imagination to generate possibilities, risk-taking and reflection prepare students for learning in VCE Music Style and Composition. Throughout the study there are opportunities for students to use and extend their learning from the Information and Communications Technology domain. For example, students might use hardware and software tools to create music works, use tools that facilitate visual thinking when analysing music works or use ICT to seek and discuss alternative views about a music work, and plan and monitor the progress of extended tasks or document thinking and working practices.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

Units 1 to 4 of the VCE Music Style and Composition study provide students with the opportunity to engage in a range of learning activities. In addition to demonstrating their understanding and mastery of the content and skills specific to the study, students may also develop employability skills through their learning activities. The nationally agreed employability skills* are: Communication; Planning and organising; Teamwork; Problem solving; Self-management; Initiative and enterprise; Technology; and Learning. Each employability skill contains a number of facets that have a broad coverage of all employment contexts and are designed to describe all employees. The table below links those facets that may be understood and applied in a school or non-employment related setting, to the types of assessment commonly undertaken within the VCE study.

*The employability skills are derived from the Employability Skills Framework (Employability Skills for the Future, 2002), developed by the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Business Council of Australia, and published by the (former) Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training.

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Assessment task

Employability skills: selected facets

Report (oral, written, visual)

Communication (writing to the needs of the audience) Planning and organising (collecting, analysing and organising information) Technology (using IT to organise data)

Short-answer response/responses to structured questions

Communication (writing to the needs of the audience) Planning and organising (collecting, analysing and organising information)

Presentation (oral, multimedia)

Communication (sharing information; speaking clearly and directly) Technology (having a range of basic IT skills; using IT to organise data; being willing to learn new IT skills)

Folio (creative exercises, music works and accompanying documentation)

Initiative and enterprise (generating a range of options; initiating innovative solutions; being creative) Planning and organising (planning the use of resources including time management) Problem solving (developing practical solutions; testing assumptions taking the context of data and circumstances into account) Self management (evaluating and monitoring own performance)

Test

Communication (writing to the needs of the audience) Problem solving (applying a range of strategies to problem solving)

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Examples of learning activities for each unit are provided in the following sections. Shaded examples are explained in detail in accompanying shaded boxes.

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Unit 1 Area of study 1: Responses to music

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Aurally analyse characteristics of music and describe their responses to music.

provide a multiple-choice checklist of the treatment of elements of music using terminology appropriate to the style/tradition; tick which set of boxes fit the musical excerpts heard build a glossary of appropriate music terminology and descriptive words that can be used in written responses to a wide range of music; for example, present a series of activities focusing on use of a single element of music in selected excerpts; build a glossary of terms and descriptors relevant to the element build a journal of listening experiences, noting the treatment of elements of music and compositional devices model a focused listening strategy and process, for example jottings, identifying instrument/sound source roles, identifying sectional changes; breaking down treatment of individual elements of music, identifying ways elements of music are used in combination; apply the strategy when listening to excerpts of music from different times, places, styles, genres and/or traditions complete aural analysis charts showing the use of elements of music in selected excerpts visit a number of music websites and download music files such as midi, mp3; listen to the files to examine the ways the files are grouped in categories according to style, genre and tradition compare the use of elements and devices in three songs in the same tradition (for example, soul, rap, blues) from three different decades compare similarities and differences in the treatment of the music elements in three short works for the same instrumentation, from three different styles and/or eras provide guided listening charts which use tick boxes to identify specific characteristics of selected excerpts prepare guided listening activities for the rest of the class when using an excerpt of each student’s choice use the Internet to research reviews of music from different styles; discuss the language used; write reviews of concerts or of new CDs use the website www.thepuredrop.com.au to investigate and listen to the different instruments used around the world; complete class worksheets or use existing worksheets from the website

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Detailed example AURAL ANALYSIS CHARTS SHOWING USE OF ELEMENTS OF MUSIC Selected excerpt: Constant Craving (kd Lang) By focusing on two music elements, form and instrumentation, students learn a simple strategy for focused listening, in which they jot down observations under two headings. This activity could first be done with the teacher and whole class, over a number of listenings, using this song as a model. Below is an example of a completed aural analysis chart for this song. Students can then apply this strategy to other popular songs. Other columns can then be added to charts, such as texture, rhythm, melody, harmony.

Form

Instrumentation

Introduction

Piano, with soft hi-hat, for first half of this section; then accordion, acoustic guitar, drum kit (emphasis on beats 2 and 4), percussion (with ‘swish’ on beat 3) added

Verse 1

Solo voice and electric bass guitar added

Chorus (new melody and chord pattern)

Backing vocals added (on off-beats)

Verse 2

As for Verse 1, vibraphone fill added

Chorus (only half the chorus is used)

As for chorus above; accordion adds short driving chords on every beat

Chorus variation (new melody; includes ‘A-HA’ section)

Solo voice and backing vocals now the focus; thinner sound, some instruments drop out

Instrumental break (verse)

Drum fill leads into instrumental section; distorted electronic keyboard added and has focus; much fuller sound, with all instruments

Chorus (last line sung on higher pitch)

As for chorus above

Bridge (very short)

Drum kit alone (hi-hat only at first)

Chorus variation

As for chorus variation above

Chorus (with repeats of final line, more harmonies added, and fade out)

All instruments and voices

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Area of study 2: Organisation and context

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Identify and describe the music characteristics and contexts of selected works.

develop diagrams or charts outlining the main formal sections of a musical work studied analyse the harmonic make up of chords and their progression in one piece; analyse a melodic line with reference to the underlying chords provide a graphic representation of a work showing analysis of texture, instrumentation, tone colour, articulation and dynamics select an element of music (for example, rhythm), and provide a graphic that focuses on the variety of its treatment within the work discuss any differences between the three styles studied when the music is performed from sheet music/notations and when it is performed from an aural tradition, for example jazz or folk tradition complete an aural analysis and discussion of a short excerpt from a work focusing on instrument roles, interaction and playing techniques; use this as a basis for an analytical chart annotate a section of a score highlighting relevant treatment of one or two elements of music select an identifiable motive from a work and chart its progress and development find examples of the same compositional device across the three works studied explore the use and meaning of the music works being studied within the traditional culture in which they were created use the Internet and other sources to research the cultural background of a music work being studied; consider the relationship of the work to other parts of the culture produce an ‘overall’ chart that lists the main characteristics of the treatment of elements of music across the three music works studied create a multimedia presentation about similarities and differences between the organisation and context of the three chosen works

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Detailed example A graphic focusing on one musicAL element Selected work (style – West African): Agbadza – from CD Adzohu, by Melbourne-based African ensemble of the same name.

Listen to Agbadza, focusing on: • the unchanging ‘time-keeper’ part (played on an iron bell) that provides a rhythmic reference point for the players

Selected element: rhythm • Students attend a concert or workshop on African music presented by local ensembles.

• other ostinato patterns that interlock with this. Over repeated listenings, track the progress of each instrument (time-keeper bell, shaker, low drum, higher drums, flute).

• Listen to examples of drumming music, and other pieces that demonstrate the distinctive treatment of rhythm in much African music.

Identify and discuss:

• Explore short, simple examples of African cross-rhythms and polyrhythms using body percussion and voices to learn and play 2-part or 3-part patterns in class.

• the variety and interest when patterns change • use of improvisation, freer solo flute part. Introduce the concept of a rhythm matrix as a way of notating these complex patterns. Use the plan below as an example.

• Investigate the importance of repetition within the music, and the momentum created by complex patterns of repeating and changing rhythms. Bars

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Time-keeper Rhythm 1 Rhythm 2 Students either continue to work with Agbadza, or choose a simpler piece of polyrhythmic African music. They: • study the piece aurally to discover the instrumentation, and rhythmic patterns played by each instrument • draw up a table for a rhythm matrix • fill in the instrumentation, and the actual rhythmic patterns found in time-keeper and one other part in a short section of the piece.

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Music Style and Composition – Advice for teachers

Area of study 3: Creative responses

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Compose and/ or arrange music exercises and describe creative process/es used.

create three melodies that have similar descriptive characteristics as those found in music studied (for example, soaring, lyrical, circular, repetitive); describe how each melody is similar to a melody in a studied work construct a series of short melodic ideas with specified characteristics that are the opposite of ideas contained in music studied (for example, symmetrical/ asymmetrical, arched/angular, diatonic/modal) add a repetitive bass line beneath a series of chords; describe the process used construct a simple melody over a chordal accompaniment similar to music studied; create a flow-chart to document the process/es used add layers of rhythm to a given rhythmic pattern taken from a studied work; create a podcast that documents the process/es used and reflects on how the studied work has influenced the creative response use a sequencing program to experiment with different instrumental combinations to explore tone colour possibilities of a given melody and harmonic accompaniment use a sequencing program to experiment with different drum patterns to change rhythmic feel of a given melody and harmonic accompaniment use a given music excerpt and arrange/transform it into an arrangement based on characteristic treatment of the elements of music in a work/style studied; use ICT to document the process/es used complete a series of exercises focusing on building up to a musical setting of text (for example, melody, a chord structure, bass line, rhythmic accompaniment) use music notation software to change a simple melody into a specific style by altering such aspects as rhythm, instrumentation, ornamentations, scale according to the chosen style; reflect on how the work studied influenced the creative response create an audio/visual timeline of the creative process used to alter a given motif according to a chosen style create a bass line which follows a 12-bar blues form create lyrics and a melody in a blues style, based on a blues scale use music notation software to arrange a melody from a style studied in Area of Study 2 for three instruments, adding a percussion line, a harmony part and a counter-melody or ostinato part as appropriate to the style; document the intended and resultant effects of choices made

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Detailed example ADD LAYERS OF RHYTHM TO A GIVEN RHYTHMIC PATTERN This example focuses on musical ideas identified through an initial study of the track Agbadza introduced in the detailed example for Area of Study 2. Agbadza, like most of the percussive music of West Ghana, features one to two constant rhythmic patterns that remain unchanged throughout and act as a form of time-keeping. The activity could begin as a whole class activity to explore possibilities before students make individual creative responses. Transcribe then record or sequence the constant pattern (this is a 12-beat recurring motive). Students play the pattern together. One student taps out the basic underlying pulse in the smallest division. Students experiment with accents within this rhythm.

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Individual students improvise and notate their own rhythm patterns that repeat across the required number of pulses. The class plays each student’s pattern. Combine patterns, adding one at a time. Discuss the way any repeated pattern may be varied – by adding an extra accent or two, or shifting the position of one beat only. Set the creative task of producing three distinct patterns and two variations of each to be notated over a piece of up to 64 ‘bars’. Students notate their ideas and use ICT, for example a graphic organiser, to document the process/es they have used and reflect on how the studied work influenced their creative response. Completed responses are recorded with the class as performers or by utilising sequencing technology.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Style and Composition – Advice for teachers

Unit 2 Area of study 1: Responses to music

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Analyse ways in which elements of music and compositional devices are used to create effects and elicit responses.

write personal responses to excerpts noting mood/mood changes; analyse the same excerpts noting element treatment and compositional devices that may have elicited these responses find two works known to relate to the same non-musical source (for example, the sea, the desert) and discuss musical means the composers/creators have chosen to reflect the source listen to a song from a musical (for example, Tradition from ‘Fiddler on the Roof’ or the first scene from ‘Into the Woods’) in which many characters are introduced; create a chart of the form of the song showing how the composer treats musical elements to establish each character in music listen to excerpts from a multidisciplinary work in which the same thematic material is repeated and varied in different contexts to create different moods, different aspects of one character; track changes across the work listen to an excerpt of film music that creates a distinctive and unusual soundworld for the story (for example, Lisa Gerrard’s score for Whale Rider); present an oral report on how and why this is achieved listen to two examples of orchestral music: an extract from a symphony, an extract from music for Looney Tunes cartoons; compare the rate of change of musical ideas between the works; discuss reasons for differences observed select two short excerpts in different styles that have the same overall mood and analyse how the mood is created in the different styles, noting similarities and differences listen to a dramatic scene from an opera or a musical and describe how the composer has used musical resources to create and enhance drama and character analyse a scene from a film; for example, the chase scene from Man from Snowy River II to examine how different themes and instruments are used to tell the story and convey information about the characters listen to a song from a musical, for example, ‘West Side Story’, and create a chart to analyse the treatment of the elements of music in creating effects and telling the story create a PowerPoint presentation on the different ways music can be used in films; visual and aural material from the film can be embedded in the presentation investigate Impressionism and early 20th century music and analyse the treatment of two specifically 20th century elements such as tone colour and rhythm, and how they are used to create an effect and convey the extra-musical meaning in works such as ‘La Mer’, ‘Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun’ and ‘Rite of Spring’

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Detailed example how the mood is created Students select two short excerpts in different styles that have the same overall mood and analyse how the mood is created in the different styles, noting similarities and differences. Mood: Relaxed and melancholic Works: • Eric Satie: Gymnopedie No. 1 (solo piano – 1888) • Miles Davis Group: Intro and Davis solo of ‘Flamenco Sketches’ (from CD ‘Kind of Blue’ – 1959). Listen to each piece and discuss the overall mood – are they in any way similar? Discuss the tempo of each piece and its effect. Aurally analyse the Satie work and discuss the opening four bars (it uses repetitive one-note-perbar left-hand bass on G–D which is continued throughout the first section. Right-hand chords repeat also, using major 7th structure). Do the same for the opening of Davis’ work (uses a falling two-note bass part which is repeated, piano plays basic two-chord motive, with variations, in answer). Discuss the use of repetition in each work. Focus on the melodies in each piece noting: • the rhythms employed, for example Satie’s is simple and crotchet based on-the-beat; Davis’ is freer, using slightly swung jazz syncopation, but generally hitting a sustained tone at the beginning of each bar • use of ‘Flamenco’ mode.

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Discuss: • these features in relation to changes in mood throughout • the differences between the written Satie music and the largely improvised and swung feel of the Davis piece • any other musical ideas that might contribute to the overall moods, for example the breathy tone of Davis’ muted trumpet and his general ‘laying back’ on the pulse. Write two responses to the pieces concentrating on the overall mood and how it is achieved in each. Note: • the contours of phrases in each, for example Satie follows step-based arches and final fall; Davis employs variations on a falling 5th, the first three phrases coming to rest on the same note • the tonal implications of each melody in relation to the accompaniment, for example Satie employs extensive use of 7th and 9th of underlying chords; Davis rarely uses the root, and also employs 7th and 9th over basic C Major accompaniment. From the above, discuss the effects of repetitive or regular melodic rhythms, the use of grounding pitches, the effect of melodic material ‘outside’ expected chord tones. Analyse the tonal make up of the pieces in different sections, for example Satie employs a shifting major to minor idea in sections – ending in minor; Davis employs different modal bases for four or eight bar sections, including a ‘Flamenco’ mode.

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MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Style and Composition – Advice for teachers

Area of study 2: Music created for multi-disciplinary forms

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Describe characteristics of music in two works that combine music and non-musical features, and discuss the context and processes used to create the music.

watch video/performances of the works selected for study investigate the relationship between the composer and other artists involved in the creation of the works, for example film director, choreographer, librettist, stage director, graphic artist use the Internet to find and review articles by composers who work in a multidisciplinary form and discuss their ways of working examine the use of music in a multidisciplinary form being studied (for example, animation) and create a chart of its function in this work (for example, reinforcing a character’s emotions, source music, providing geographical location, building tension, mimicking action/movement) annotate a written score using the elements of music and comment on the intended effects of the music; identify at least three different effects and/or emotions created by the music identify use of music in a short video or animation, and create a cue sheet outlining timing, description of action, music function, effect on audience and music element use using one multidisciplinary form (for example, the musical), analyse musical selections using the elements of instrumentation, texture, rhythm and harmony and the effect of their use

Detailed example musical: west side story by leonard bernstein Students select three excerpts from the musical ‘West Side Story’.

the high tessitura and major tonality of ‘I Feel Pretty’.

For each excerpt:

Note also the change in tonality, the use of even rhythms and Latin ornamentation in the middle section, sung by Maria’s friends.

• Describe the instruments used (including voices), their role and how they are combined in each excerpt. Examine the different effects achieved by the various combinations throughout the music. • Describe how particular instruments are featured and note any special effects achieved. Examples may include the clicking fingers and muted trumpets in ‘Cool’ and the trombone glissandi and vocal sound effects in ‘America’.

Describe the accompaniment in each excerpt, considering time, rhythms, riffs, articulation, tempo and volume, and its relationship to the melody. For example ‘A Boy Like That/I Have a Love’ uses two contrasting songs and moods that are first juxtaposed then superimposed. Consider the final bars where the two characters sing in harmony (representing Anita’s acquiescence).

• Analyse the melodies used in terms of range, phrasing, articulation, compositional ideas and changes made to the basic melody by the performer/s during the course of ‘America’.

Analyse the harmonic structure and tonality and discuss their effects. Examples may include the use of blues scales and chords contributing to the harmonic structure of ‘Cool’.

Note the relationship between the words and the melody, for example the light, short, staccato rhythmic motives, the emphasised waltz rhythms,

Note: Only one form is used in this example. Two forms should be studied for Outcome 2.

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Area of study 3: Creative processes in music for multi-disciplinary forms

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Create music for a work that combines music and nonmusical features, and describe the creative process/es used.

create a storyboard for a film and then create a cue sheet for the storyboard noting where music will be used and for what function provide the musical underscore for a storyboarded film create a 30-second radio advertisement that combines music, voiceover and effects for a specific purpose select a text to be performed and underscore a reading with music after noting moods/emotions that music should portray create two different soundtracks to be used for the same short digital video excerpt; test the result with an audience noting if the intentional mood/effect was created create two short dramatic songs using the same text as lyrics, but portraying different emotions compose a piece to a set brief, for example a fanfare for a sports event; a school song; advertising jingle use one musical idea such as a melodic motive or a rhythmic pattern and use it to create different effects, for example horror, melancholy, suspense, joy; document the reasons for choices made chart three moods that need to be conveyed for a dance piece using a constant tempo and pulse create a folio of short soundtracks behind short digital videos using Garage Band and Sibelius to identify ‘hit points’ in the videos, adding sound effects and backing tracks to enhance the videos and to help to tell stories; document the creative processes used, including the treatment of elements of music and compositional devices record an interview with students before and after composing a soundtrack for a given short film scene; document the process used and test whether intended effects were realised in the final compositions select a scene from a favourite computer game and sequence music to the action, matching timings and mood create music for a dance video selected from youtube

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Detailed example PROVIDE THE MUSICAL UNDERSCORE FOR A STORYBOARDED FILM Students choose or write a storyline for a twominute film.

Experiment with tempo and metre to accommodate the timing.

Steps include:

Use the created rhythmic, harmonic and melodic ideas to create a short musical sequence. Record the music and play it to others to ascertain their responses – does it work the way it should?

• Storyboarding the shots and dialogue for the film, including precise timing. • Discussing the type of effects that need to be created for sequences in the film. • Writing a rhythmic motive. • Putting chords to the rhythm. • Writing a short melodic motive. Students experiment with different orchestration for the above. Plan the timings for three short musical sequences to be used in the film.

Use the created sequence and vary it for other sequences for the film depending on the effect needed, for example change harmony/ instrumentation, augment the melody, use rhythmic motive as ostinato building to a climax, introduce new sound sources. Complete the sequences, noting the changes and effects.

Unit 3 Area of study 1: Responses to music

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Aurally analyse music and make critical responses to music.

listen to extracts in which repetition plays an important structural role (for example, minimalist music, African drumming music, Maninyas, gamelan music, techno/ house); note where repetition is exact; track how and where subtle/major changes occur listen to excerpts from works in established forms that use contrast as a fundamental structural device (for example, sonata form, rondo) listen to three improvised solos in a standard jazz performance; compare different treatments of musical elements and compositional devices that are used over the recurring harmonic pattern listen to an excerpt that provides a clearly audible example of one compositional device; build a library of such excerpts, covering many devices; use as reference points for aural recognition of these devices in unfamiliar works listen to short works with clearly defined sections (for example, overtures to operas and musicals; songs with contrasting sections); note musical characteristics of each section; create an audio/visual presentation to describe this formal analysis find two works in different styles that use contrast as a fundamental structural device; analyse musical means by which contrast is achieved in both works

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use guiding questions to focus listening on use of a particular element or compositional device in an excerpt; play the excerpt again, focusing on a different element; then repeat with another element compare two excerpts in different styles that use repetition and variation as fundamental structural devices; analyse musical means by which musical interest is maintained in both works respond to aural excerpts by completing a guided listening sheet which focuses on two elements and one compositional device

Detailed example GUIDED LISTENING Provide students with a series of guiding questions that focus their listening on use of a particular element or compositional device in an excerpt. Then play the excerpt again focusing on a different element. Excerpt: ‘Bambi Said’ (music of Egyptian Gypsies), on CD from film Latcho Drom; first 1.5 minutes Students draw up an analysis chart (as below), and over three listenings fill in their chart. This excerpt falls into two clear sections, with the second section beginning with the entry of the percussion. Using the chart below, list the musical characteristics of each section using the nominated elements of music. Following is an example of how such a chart might be completed.

PART 2

PART 1

INSTRUMENTATION AND TEXTURE

MELODY

RHYTHM

Clear three-part layering: string instrument playing constant drone; two wind (oboe-like) instruments, one of which is the lead melody instrument; the two melody instruments interweave with each other at the start, then the lead instrument continues on its own.

Freely and constantly changing, over unchanging drone; improvisatory melodic lines; varying phrases of repeated notes, repeated scalar fragments, fast alternations between two notes, circling round limited pitch range; builds to climax with use of ornamentation, shorter note values, fast virtuosic flurries, expressive slide up to a high note and down again.

No sense of regular pulse, free and improvisatory, long and irregular phrases, mainly short note values.

More complex texture; added layers: regular hand-clapping on the beat, drums with repeated pattern, voices singing along in background, more wind instruments (of same type) playing melody line in unison, highpitched small bells shaken rhythmically (near end).

Wind instruments play bouncy melody with dance-like feel; distinctive dotted figure at start, then descends and ascends back to starting note, regular phrase lengths, simple rhythm, same melody is repeated many times with no apparent variation.

Very strong, steady sense of pulse; regular phrase lengths, settled tempo, driving rhythmic momentum in all layers, simple and repetitive rhythmic patterns.

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Area of study 2: Organisation and context

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Analyse and describe the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in music works, and discuss the style and the context from which the works emerged.

annotate excerpts of a visual score with reference to element treatment and use of compositional devices, especially contrast build a library of musical motives (for example, melodic, rhythmic) from a work studied; chart their occurrences, and discuss the way they are used within the work analyse the harmonic and tonal organisation of the works studied research how and why the works being studied were written; investigate the time and/or place from which the represented style arose and create a PowerPoint presentation of results use the web to research other forms common at the time and/or place and note similarities to the music styles studied investigate the instrumental/technological capabilities at the time and place of the styles studied and identify musical outcomes select a work in which contrasting moods are an important feature; devise a chart outlining formal sections of the piece, showing musical means by which these contrasts are created work in a small group to create a wiki that records ideas and discussion of the key knowledge on the work studied; include a page for each of: the treatment of the elements of music, contextual issues, characteristics of the music style, appropriate music terminology

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Detailed example HOW CONTRAST IS CREATED Selected work: ‘Earth Cry’ by Peter Sculthorpe (1988)

rhythm; simple, clear texture; yearning legato melody on trombones and violas.

Background information:

Central fast section bars (21–166)

the fast section of ‘Earth Cry’ draws upon the earlier work ‘Song of Tailitnama’ (1974), which features an Aboriginal chant. In ‘Earth Cry’ Sculthorpe wanted to write a ‘quick and joyous’ response to the Australian landscape, but felt that the piece must also reflect his distress at the self-interest of our culture, and his belief that we should be listening to the ‘cry of the Earth, as the Aborigines have done for many thousands of years’. These contrasting moods of joy and pain are central to the structure of the work.

Bars 21–72 (first part); Bars 73–88 (transition); Bars 89–140 (second part); Bars 141–148 (transition); Bars 149–166 (slower climactic section)

Students explore this contrast via visual and aural analysis of the score. They track how contrast is achieved musically via the use of different material, and different treatment of elements, between the three main sections (what the composer calls ‘quick ritualistic music framed by slower music of a supplicatory nature’). Below are summaries of what students might find initially. This could then be organised into a complete chart with much more musical detail, categorised according to treatment of music elements, including descriptions of each sub-section, musical examples. Slow introduction (bars 1–20) Bars 1–12 (slow melodic section); Bars 13–20 (slow chordal section) Extremely slow tempo; restrained dynamics with occasional dramatic outbursts; open spacey chords with many open 5ths, 4ths; low Db drone throughout; powerful timpani triplet figure initiates phrases; occasional low gong sets a timeless feel; many long, sustained notes; simple, slow-moving

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Fast tempo; new key; loud throughout; violins play fast, frequently syncopated, accented, highly-rhythmic melodic ‘chant’ material with short repeated notes and limited melodic range; repeated driving accompaniment figures on percussion and strings; complex texture full of changing cross-rhythms/polyrhythms; busy, rippling accompaniment figures in woodwinds; transition sections break the melodic flow, but maintain rhythmic tension, with stabbing chords and pounding percussion; addition of a contrasting counter-melody with wide-range and long note values; texture becomes increasingly complex, and excitement builds, until ecstatic harmonic shift and sense of resolution in climactic section. Slow final section (bars 167–210) Bars 167–182 (modified introduction); Bars 183–210 (extended coda) Repetition and variation occurs: returns to key, tempo, mood, and material of introduction with modifications (melodic and rhythmic) and some re-orchestration; added coda in which material from the melodic and chordal sections of introduction is combined and expanded; tension in occasional accented brass/woodwind figures, and dissonances; drone returns in coda; varying dynamics with occasional outbursts; gradual wind-down to quiet and consonant resolution with spacey open 5th in whole orchestra.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Style and Composition – Advice for teachers

Area of study 3: Creative responses

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Create original music exercises and discuss influences on their creative processes and responses.

take a given melody and experiment with different accompaniment styles similar to those used in the music studied use a given harmonic pattern typical of the work/style studied in Area of Study 2 and compose a new melody over it, focusing on contrast as a main feature between sections use a sequencing program to experiment with different voicings and sounds; create a podcast to document creative processes create a melodic motive and use it in different ways to create variations of the motive, for example changing range, tessitura, instrumentation, rhythmic patterns, harmonic accompaniment use one small idea (rhythmic, melodic or harmonic) and set up a loop so that it is repeated constantly; attempt to keep musical interest by focusing on new ideas being added on top of the repeated idea experiment with creating music from different starting points, for example a given melody, a given rhythmic figure, a given harmonic outline; discuss techniques and problems raised; use a graphic organiser to show influence of works studied in Outcomes 1 and 2 identify compositional devices within the music studied (for example, imitation, ostinato, octave doubling, forms) and use these devices in short exercises create or use a given melodic motive to then create three exercises, each lasting for one minute and exploring one of the given compositional devices (contrast, repetition and variation); describe the process of altering the melodic idea by completing a Statement of Intention sheet repeat these activities using a given rhythmic motive use music notation software to create a verse in a similar style to a Rhythm and Blues song studied, then create a contrasting chorus use music notation software to create a chord based on twentieth century concepts of harmony; create a rhythm for the chord and arrange it for different instruments; use it to create a rhythmic motive; document processes used and reflect on connections with works studied in Outcomes 1 and 2 in a composer’s journal create a contrasting section by experimenting with different harmony, instrumentation and texture; describe influence of works studied in Outcomes 1 and 2 on decisions made about how to create contrast create an audio/visual presentation comparing a studied musical work with an original music exercise created as a response to that chosen piece

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Detailed example composing a new melody using a given harmonic pattern Work: Mozart Clarinet Quintet, Final movement

Create a melodic pattern over the first two bars.

Students study the main theme of the movement, noting the general treatment of melody (for example, even phrase lengths, question and answer structures, contrasting/balancing ideas, diatonic tonality, repetition).

Use the same rhythmic pattern of the above to create the second two bars, including pitch changes to accommodate harmony.

Provide a similar sixteen-bar harmonic outline using four bar sections as a basis. For example:

I

V II V II V I

I

V VI II V

I

II V I

Play the chord progression on available instruments. Note the repetition and variety within the even fourbar sections – the repetition of sections 2 and 4, the introduction of a new starting point and new chord in section 3. Discuss the above in terms of balance and contrast within the structure, and how it might relate to a melodic line written above it, for example the chances for repetition of motives, contrasting ideas, the return of original ideas.

Use the same four-bar melody over the second four-bar section – this time changing pitches to accommodate the final cadence. Review the above in terms of question and answer conventions, and adjust eight bars accordingly with attention to finishing pitches, melodic shapes and rhythmic motives. When satisfied, use the second four bars in direct repetition over the last four bars of the sequence. Turn to the third four-bar section, noting again the new starting point and harmony. Provide a melody over these four bars that uses different rhythmic ideas, melodic shape and note values to the other phrases. Note especially where the melody must head in terms of the return of the first idea. Attempt to include a musical sequence in this section. Complete the full sixteen-bar melody.

Write out or record (sequence) the harmonic pattern in basic form, noting the chordal tones for each bar.

Record or play the melody over the given harmonic progression.

Experiment with short melodic motives that fit within the harmonic make up of bars.

Write out the melody, and include phrase, articulation and dynamic markings.

Discuss and experiment with means of creating melodic contrast, for example staccato vs legato, leaps vs steps, chordal outlines vs scales, even rhythms vs dotted rhythms, sustained notes vs short note values.

Write out a brief description of each four-bar phrase, noting the main characteristics of each, and its place in the whole sixteen bars, with reference to the contrast between A and B sections.

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Unit 4 Area of study 1: Responses to music

Outcome 1

Examples of learning activities

Aurally analyse music excerpts, and form and present critical responses to the music.

listen to extracts from same era, style, location, or composer/creator as the work being studied in Outcome 2; discuss similarities of approach listen to a virtuoso improviser from a non-Western tradition (for example, Pakistani singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan); list ways soloist achieves variety and interest within repetitive structure, such as ornamentation, augmentation/diminution, wide vocal range after listening to examples of various compositional devices in a range of different styles, find examples of this device in selected music and share it with the class in a PowerPoint presentation apply focused listening skills to music heard outside the classroom (for example, on the radio or from a CD); share the results with class continue compiling a vocabulary of objective music terminology, and descriptive words, to use in critical responses; practise using vocabulary create a graphic representation of a piece of dance music, to be used by a choreographer who needs a plan of the form and musical content of the piece find two works in different styles that use repetition as a fundamental structural device; analyse musical means by which repetition is used, and how musical interest is maintained, in both works practise efficient aural analysis strategy in responses to music under time limit and test conditions

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Detailed example COMPARING USE OF REPETITION IN TWO EXCERPTS Excerpt: ‘Zefiro Torna’ by Claudio Monteverdi; from Madrigals, Book 9 Provide students with a brief background to this work: it is a madrigal for two tenors and basso continuo and comes from seventeenth-century Italy. It uses the popular Baroque device of ground bass, providing a unifying foundation for varying melodic line/s flowing over the top. In ‘Zefiro Torna’ the ground bass is short (2 bars), and is repeated 61 times. This piece was considered a particularly ingenious example of the use of ground bass in its time. Students listen to a short section, and identify the unchanging ground bass, and the other layers within this texture (two voices and harpsichord). Discuss how the composer creates and maintains interest amidst all this repetition. Why do you think it was called ‘ingenious’? Note that the vocal lines consist of constantly changing melodic fragments (rather than a firmlyestablished and repeated melody). Students then list the wide range of melodic ideas and textures that Monteverdi creates over the top of the ground bass. The list could include: • one voice announces a melodic idea • other voice answers with exact imitation • same, but second voice varies idea slightly; staggered entries; voices weave in and out contrapuntally • voices present a theme in rhythmic unison, harmonising in 3rds and 6ths

Excerpt: ‘Day is done’ by Charlie Hunter, featuring Norah Jones; from CD Songs from the Analog Playground. ‘Day is done’ was recorded in 2002; like the Monteverdi work, it uses a bass line repeated throughout the song. Students listen to an excerpt of the song, identify the repeating bass line, and describe the distinctive nature of this bass line (for example, 8-bars long, simple rhythm with first-beat and off-beat emphasis, chromatic descending line with an upward flick at the end, bass player occasionally varies rhythm and ending slightly). On repeated listenings, students note that the method of achieving variety and interest amidst this repetition is different from that used in the previous excerpt. Through this comparison they may note: • 8-bar melody in solo voice is firmly established (unlike Monteverdi work), and is repeated a number of times • interest is achieved by expanding instrumentation, adding textural layers of musical ideas, adding descending chord progression, singer and other players adding ornamentation/variation/improvisation around basic melody, fragmentation of melody, instrumental break, varying use of drum kit. Students complete an aural analysis chart showing form and instrumentation (see Unit 1 Outcome 1) to describe the song, noting all the changes that occur over the repeating bass line.

• voices sustain long notes and suspensions; ornamentation; legato and staccato melodic ideas; varying phrase lengths • some sections use both voices in their lowest register, other sections use higher register.

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Area of study 2: Organisation and context

Outcome 2

Examples of learning activities

Analyse and discuss the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in the selected works, and discuss the style of the works and relevant contextual issues.

annotate scores of two works studied, focusing on use of compositional devices, especially repetition and variation; discuss how unity and variety are achieved select an identifiable motive/theme/idea in one work and create a list of how the idea is varied chart the formal design of the two works chart the harmonic patterns used in the two works select one element (for example, melody or rhythm) and write a brief description of its treatment in various sections of the works compare the use of repetition and variation in two different styles, as seen in the two works studied use the Internet and print sources to research how and why the works were written; investigate other forms at the time and/or place of the style studied and note similarities/influences investigate outside musical influences on the works and discuss how the work may reflect these influences create a flow chart to show how repetition and variation create the structure of the work studied work in a small group to create a wiki that records ideas and discussion of the key knowledge on the work studied; include a page for each of: the treatment of the elements of music, contextual issues, characteristics of the music style, appropriate music terminology

Detailed example LIST OF HOW THE IDEA IS VARIED Selected work: Music for Strings, Percussion and Celeste, Movement 1 by Bartok

different starting note, slight change in length/ shape.

Brief students on the work, describing how the first movement of this work is a masterful exploration of one melodic idea. The formal design not only follows some traditional fugal structures, but there is also ample evidence of variation of one idea across a large number of elements. The following approaches might be taken.

• Chart the pitches of subsequent entries as the movement builds, noting the variation in pitch areas (akin to a Baroque fugue).

• Explore the character of the main theme by examining the way subsequent phrases build on the chromatic arch shape established in the first bars. • Look at the repetition of a grounding ‘home’ note despite the theme’s intense chromaticism. • List the changes that occur with the second entry of the theme – different instrumentation,

vce study design

• Search for and annotate fragmentation of the theme on the score. • Describe traditional devices such as inversion, imitation and stretto. • Explore the dynamic changes that occur to the theme. Construct a chart using the variation of the theme as a central focus, including examples of changes in pitch levels, instrumentation, dynamic, register and textural settings, as well as the use of fragmentation, inversion, imitation.

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Music Style and Composition – Advice for teachers

MUSIC 2011–2015

Area of study 3: Creative processes

Outcome 3

Examples of learning activities

Create an original work and evaluate the creative processes used to develop the work.

take a very short melodic fragment and create another three fragments by changing intervallic range, but keeping the same shape; use these in a short piece that follows the same shape dynamically using a given harmonic pattern, vary the chords, but keep the same overall sense of tension and resolution (for example, changing to minor/major /modal key; experimenting with substitutes chords) set up a repetitive harmonic cycle – record/notate five separate melodic lines on top of the pattern using a given melodic line, create at least three different settings with a focus on creating different textures construct a percussive piece by adding, subtracting and then changing rhythmic patterns, leaving one pattern unchanged construct a form based on mood contrast; note aspects of music element treatment that could be used to create the contrasting moods keep a diary of the changes that occur in the process of completing a piece use music notation software to create a melody based on a melodic idea from a work studied; experiment with different ways of varying the melody such as chordal harmony, adding an ostinato, varying the pitch, instrumentation create a ‘head’ based on a jazz style; experiment with different improvisations on the head, then transcribe the versions that you have decided to use create an audio/visual timeline of the creative process used to develop and refine ideas to create an original work

Detailed example CREATING AT LEAST THREE DIFFERENT SETTINGS FROM A GIVEN MELODIC LINE Allow the students to use their own or a given melodic line. Their task is to generate ideas to extend the existing melodic line so that it repeats three times in a continuous section/excerpt/short work. Contrast can occur only in the textures created around the melodic line. Students trial different melodic ideas, for example: • providing counter-melodies above/below the main line • including sustained sounds in the highest register as an accompaniment • providing a low shimmering pad as a backdrop • including distinctive rhythmic accompaniment • using exact rhythmic unison to the main melody • providing a series of arpeggiated chords as accompaniment

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• using silence and short flurries of sound • setting the sounds around the line in distinctive tone colours (for example, low brass, high strings, electronic loops) • using a drone • using an ostinato. After experimenting with different possibilities, students make decisions as to the three textural settings that they will use. They refine initial work to connect ideas and emphasise different textures of each section. They also document the reasons for deciding – by examining the nature of the original unchanging melodic idea as well as their intention in the piece. From this task, students would then be free to flesh these ideas out into a completed work.

vce study design


MUSIC 2011–2015

Music Style and Composition – Advice for teachers

School-assessed coursework

In Units 3 and 4 teachers must select appropriate tasks from the assessment table provided for each unit. Advice on the assessment tasks and performance descriptors to assist teachers in designing and marking assessment tasks will be published online by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority in an assessment handbook. The following is an example of a teacher’s assessment program using a selection of the tasks from the Units 3 and 4 assessment tables. Outcomes

Marks allocated

Unit 3

A listening test requiring critical responses to four excerpts of music each in a different music style. The test should include structured questions focusing on treatment of elements of music, individually and in combination, and use of compositional devices including contrast, repetition and/or variation.

Outcome 1

Aurally analyse music and make critical responses to music.

Assessment tasks

15

Outcome 2

Analyse and describe the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in music works, and discuss the style and the context from which the works emerged. Total marks for Unit 3

A multimedia presentation in response to structured questions about ‘Earth Cry’ and ‘Appalachian Spring Suite’ (Part 7: Variations on a Shaker Hymn) including questions requiring aural and visual analysis.

15

30

Unit 4

15

A listening test requiring critical responses to four excerpts of music each in a different music style. The test should include structured questions focusing on treatment of elements of music, individually and in combination, and use of compositional devices including contrast, repetition and/or variation.

15

A written report that: • analyses and discusses treatment of elements of music and use of compositional devices in ‘Music for Strings, Percussion and Celeste’, and a work from the Baroque era that features an antiphonal structure • discusses contextual issues relevant to each work and the influence of the issues on the works • compares the use of repetition and variation in the two works.

Outcome 1

Aurally analyse music excerpts, and form and present critical responses to the music.

Outcome 2

Analyse and discuss the use of the elements of music and compositional devices in the selected works, and discuss the style of the works and relevant contextual issues.

Total marks for Unit 4

vce study design

30

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musicSD2011-2015