Visual Essay: Arts Influence on Fashion

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ARTISTIC INFLUNCE ON FASHION ELLA SWANSON - WORD COUNT: 2559


I confirm that this work has gained ethical approval and that I have faithfully observed the terms of the approval in the conduct of this project. Signed (student N0827963) ...............................................


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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................

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SURREALIST MOVEMENT Schiaparelli and Dali .......................................................................................................................

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MIRRORING ARTWORK IN CAMPAIGNS Historical artwork ...........................................................................................................................

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Dior’s 2013 Secret Garden Campaign .......................................................................................

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Vogue 1999 Nicole Kidman ......................................................................................................... 11 CREATING ARTWORK IN CAMPAIGNS Fashion campaigns using art ........................................................................................................ 15 Gucci SS18 Utopian Fantasy Campaign ................................................................................... 19 Campaigns using traditional art materials .............................................................................. 21 COLLABORATIONS Pop art influence .............................................................................................................................. 23 Louis Vuitton X Yayoi Kusama .................................................................................................... 25 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 27


INTRODUCTION For decades there has been a debate as to whether art influences fashion, fashion influences art or whether they have evolved to influence one another. Some may argue that, ‘art of an inherently revolutionary character can manifest its ideas in fashion’ (Richard Martin, Fashion and Surrealism). Where as, others may believe that fashion should be considered an art in its own right. This essay will explore how the relationship between art and fashion has evolved, whether art in fact influences fashion and how the relationship between these two creative fields has changed throughout the last century. The origin of art and fashion crossing paths was the collaboration between the Surrealist artist Salvador Dali and Elsa Schiaparelli. This essay will also identify how the art and fashion worlds influence one another in a modern context by looking at how art is used within fashion photography and campaigns in terms of both inspiration and being used as a material e.g. Gucci SS18 Utopian Fantasy campaign.

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SURREALIST

movement


‘SURREALISM WAS TO CHANGE BOTH THE DECORATIVE FEATURES OF FASHION AND THE PRESENTATION OF ITS IMAGE’ (Florence Muller, Art and Fashion). 3

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SCHIAPARELLI & DALI

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urrealism is defined as a movement in art and literature which sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images. The surrealist movement allowed art and fashion to combine in a way that it had never done before as ‘art of an inherently revolutionary character can manifest its ideas in fashion’ (Richard Martin, Fashion and Surrealism).

One of the most recognisable icons known for combining surrealist art and fashion is Elsa Schiaparelli who used this movement as a ‘new and exciting canvas on which to articulate her ideas’ (Alice Mackrell, Art and Fashion). Schiaparelli partnered with surrealist artist, Salvador Dali, to create dresses that not only were beautiful but represented something more. An examples of their work together is the ‘Tear Dress’ which was released in 1938 and inspired by a piece of Salvador Dali’s panting, ‘Three young surrealist women holding in their arms the skins of an orchestra (1936)’. Schiaparelli was inspired by the middle figure and the couture dress may imply the idea of ‘luxury meets poverty’ as the design of the dress includes features such as the ‘openings’ which remind us of the ‘body’s vulnerability while the torn fabric suggests a kind of violence’ (Icon). In addition, the veil which continues the ‘tear’ pattern could symbolise a cry for protection and/or imply that women need to hide their inner selves in that society. Salvador Dali was a Spanish artist and this collaboration was released at the time of the Spanish civil war. This dress must have made a ‘powerful statement not only for the fashion and art worlds, but the political world as well- and a harbinger of worse to come’ (Alice Mackrell, Art and Fashion). The successful impact that Schiaparelli and Dali’s collaboration made may have paved way for future collaborations between artists and fashion houses/designers.

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MIRRORING

artwork in campaigns


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ne way that fashion can be influenced by art is by taking influence from artistic works. Fashion houses can take inspiration from/or mirror a piece of artwork in their campaign whilst adding their own twist to make it identifiable to their brand.

Using previous artwork within a campaign can be extremely impactful. The campaign will become instantly more recognisable to the brands target market as they will identify the similarities with the previous artwork. In addition to this, ‘artists are commenting on themes such as identity, social issues or stereotypes’ (Alice Mackrell, Art and Fashion) and these themes will be carried through from their original artwork into the fashion campaign and the brands identity. An example of this is Harper’s Bazaar 2015 ‘ICONS’ series featuring Maria Carey.

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DIOR 2013 SECRET GARDEN CAMPAIGN

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his campaign is a pastiche of Édouard Manet’s ‘Luncheon on the Grass,’ which was painted between 1862-1863. Manet used his artwork to ‘break French academic tradition’ and experimented with bringing societal normalities and issues into his art work. Within traditional French paintings, before Manet’s work, naked women were used to represent mythology only however Manet placed an ordinary naked women within a prosaic setting to show refusal ‘to conform to convention’ (Kelly RichmanAbdou, My Modern Met). Within Dior’s campaign, they have recreated the ‘luncheon’ scene with the models lounging on the forest floor in an orderly manner. The two models who are representing the men from Manet’s work are dressed in black, professional office wear that tailor their bodies connoting their power and authority. As well as this, the front model is positioned to have her legs spread across the photo which may suggest control over the female as it is obstructing the view and hiding part of her body. In contrast to this, the two models

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are blind folded inferring that the males are only able to see the female for her sexuality and are blind to her intelligence and strength. The model representing the female juxtaposes the other models as she has blonde hair, lighter complexion and is wearing a bright red, feminine gown. The use of the colour red immediately draws attention to the model and connotes being strong and aggressive. Dior may have chosen this colour to reference upcoming female empowerment and how the freedom of women has progressed since Monet’s artwork in the 1800s. In addition to this, she is the only character making eye contact with the camera which hints at her bold character and her willingness to stand out from the crowd. Manet’s work can be considered ‘the departure point for modern art’ (Kelly Richman-Abdou, My Modern Met) so Dior may have chosen to recreate this campaign to show their state of transition within their business as they announced their new artistic director, Raf Simons.

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n 1999, Yves Saint Laurent also decided to recreate the ‘Luncheon on the Grass’ by Manet. YSL decided to swap the identities of the males and females within the original artwork; the males were left nude whilst the female, modelled by Kate Moss, is in an androgynous pin stripe suit and sitting higher than the two males. As the late 90s was the time of the ‘third wave of feminism’ (Afua Hirsch, The Guardian) YSL may have released this campaign to show their support to the movement as well as implying that their brand is about female empowerment. Many of the campaigns that have mirrored classical art are from high end fashion houses. This may be because these luxury brands want to associate themselves with the prestige of classical paintings through both their branding and their market prices. Whereas, high street brands may be less likely to choose this route of marketing as it may not adhere to their branding style. As well as influencing many fashion campaigns, previous artwork has also influenced many magazine editorials including Vogue, Vanity Fair and Harpers Bazaar. This includes using celebrities such as Nicole Kidman and Mariah Carey to act as significant faces of history such as Marie Antoinette. Magazines may choose to use celebrities to enact these roles in order to captivate their consumers as well as to making their magazine seem more desirable and prestigious.

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VOGUE 1999: NICOLE KIDMAN

his magazine editorial was photographed by Steven Meisel and pays homage to John Singer Sargent, an artist from the 1800s. It includes Nicole Kidman who is posing as Lady Agnew which was painting by Sargent in 1893. Kidman is poised in an identical style to the original painting but has been styled in richer fabrics such as ochre which be a way of injecting Kidman’s own personality into the shoot. Sargent was famous for ‘capturing conscious realism and his attention not to only detail, but the characters of his sitters’ (Zuzanna Stanska, Daily Art magazine). This may have inspired Meisel to ‘capture some of Nicole Kidman’s personality’ into the editorial (Zuzanna Stanska, Daily Art magazine).

‘Meisel has a prodigious talent for scripting story lines that reference and reflect culture’ (Fotobodega). His consistency with positively capturing culture within his photography may have influenced why he was chosen for this editorial. Whilst adapting it to a more modern audience and adding personality he has enhanced key aspects from the original painting. Examples of this are the long necklace that sits between the females chest and the floral pattern of the background that symbolises wealth, fortune and prosperity.

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CREATING

artwork in campaigns


The advancement in technology has helped the progression of using art within fashion campaigns. Some fashion houses are now creating their own individual pieces of artwork to be used as a campaign. Where as other campaigns are using digital artwork and design as part of their campaign for example Moschino’s SS19 campaign. 15

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MOSCHINO’S SS19 CAMPAIGN

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GUCCI SS18 UTOPIAN FANTASY

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iversity and inclusion, which are the real grounds for creativity, must remain at the centre of what we do. Creativity is our North Star’ (Marco Bizzari, WWD). This quotation is at the forefront of the design of this campaign. The three women that appear to be floating in the air are of three different heritages. This is shown through the colour of their skin and their hairstyles but not in difference of dress inferring that Gucci is an inclusive brand and products can be adapted to different cultures. In addition to this, the positioning of the three in the air may suggest that no culture gives you a higher status over others but wearing Gucci products gives you a feeling of being out-of-this-world. The construction in the background of the image is unidentifiable for a specific famous landmark but shares architectural features with buildings such as the Vatican and the Taj Mahal. This may reiterate ideas of inclusivity but could also suggest that these women are of equal importance and power as they are the main focus of the image and the same height as the structure.

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A comedic feature used is the game being played where the women are catching aeroplanes out of the sky. Potentially, this is implying omnipotent, mythical powers which the consumer may feel if they purchase a Gucci item as these are the traits that are associated with Gucci’s recent branding. The artist has created a blue sky in the background which is being masked by orange tinted clouds. Orange is known for emoting excitement and energy as well as clouds often inferring magic and wonder. The orange could be created by the aeroplanes in the sky which may be a social comment on air pollution and global warming. However, it could also be implying that the arrival of the three women wearing Gucci are conveying excitement and energy; hinting at consumers that they would feel the same emotions themselves. This Gucci campaign is entirely ‘painting based’ which is a ‘first for a fashion label’ (Jasmine Cottan, Fashion Industry Broadcast). This shows the evolution of the extent to which fashion and art collaborates.

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s well as using technology to create digital art, campaigns have also been created in collaboration with a more traditional artist. Burberry, for example, launched a campaign with British artist Luke Edward Hall where a photograph and a portrait sat next to one another. Within this work, Hall used a ‘mixture of mediums including watercolour, oil pastels, and chalk for his interpretations for both the latest womenswear and menswear collections’ (Jessica Goodfellow, The Drum). This was an attempt to go back to their brands artistic essence as Testino stated, ‘In this digital world we are living, the softness and handmade feeling adds something intimate’ (Jessica Goodfellow, The Drum). The use of the drawings added a ‘human element’ which may attract consumers as millennials are seeking after authentic brands (The Financial Times).

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COLLABORATION

between artists and designers


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s previously discussed, the Surrealist movement opened up a new avenue for fashion designers to explore. The collaboration between Elsa Schiaparelli and Salvador Dali was one of the first notable designs inspired by art and there have been many artists who have gone on to work with fashion designers. A style of art that has grown in popularity and is commonly used within collaborations is pop art. A classic example of this art work is an Andy Warhol painting including Yves Saint Laurent from 1974. This piece of art is similar to other pieces of Warhol’s work in terms of style as it uses his signature ‘four equal quadrants’. The painting itself is not a ‘garment of accessory per se, the object stands a reflection of the intimate ties between the culture of fashion and art’ (Agnautacouture). This trend of pop art collaborations has been carried on years later with modern examples such as, the 2012 Jimmy Choo X Rob Pruitt collection where they created accessories that included ‘elements that define Pruitt’s own artwork… [including] plenty of glitter, sprinkles, vibrant degrade colour, and panda motifs’ (Carly Wolkoff, Interview magazine).

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YAYOI KUSAMA

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LOUIS VUITTON

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ouis Vuitton has collaborated with multiple artists since its first collaboration with Stephen Sprouse in 2001. A collaboration that sparked a lot of interest was the Louis Vuitton X Yayoi Kusama as it was extremely different from their previous campaigns. Kusama described her own life as ‘a dot lost among millions of other dots’ (Susannah Frankel, The independent) and so she uses her dots within her art to represent that emotion. Louis Vuitton used Kusama’s dot design on clothing, accessories as well as handbags which echoed ‘her message of obsession and seriality’ (Susannah Frankel, The independent).

In celebration of the launch, ‘Kusama … designed dramatic windows displays for the Bond Street shop, and a pumpkin pop-up shop for Selfridges on Oxford Street’ (Sheryl Garratt, The Telegraph). This method of mixing art, fashion and interior design is extremely affective at creating an alternate experience for consumers. By allowing consumers to step into an artistic environment, such as the pop up shop described as a ‘polka dot fantasy world’ (Dominic Cadogan, Dazed), they can truly understand and invest in the concept and the brand. It is also an effective communication tool as visitors are more likely to share their experience via social media such as instagram which promotes both the brand and the collaboration.

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CONCLUSION

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n conclusion, the fashion and art world are intertwined in more ways that one. Art can influence fashion in multiple ways. As discussed, art can be mirrored to create new campaigns such as Dior’s Secret Garden campaign as well as be used to create new pieces of art such as Gucci’s utopian fantasy.

The influence that art has goes further than fashion with it’s effect being used to create exciting and engaging interiors that engage consumers. Ultimately, ‘Fashion merged with art and art overlapped with fashion, so that its no longer possible to distinguish which belonged where’ (Florence Muller, Art and Fashion).

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