Victory Over The Sun

Page 1

Victory Over the Sun






man-made hill

10.000 suns


brown coal mine (future lake)

squatted forest





10.000 SUNS DLR - Synlight Dialogue with a worker at the DLR facilities. Jülich, May 14th, 2018 Synlight - Synlight is a solar simulator, which means that we create artificial solar radiation very similar to the real sunlight. It’s the biggest in the world and it is even bigger or more powerful than all other solar simulators put together. It has a maximum radiation power of 310 kw. And it can be used for up to three simultaneously running experiments, so we have three testing chambers where three experiments can be run at once. The entire facility consists of 148 modules. Each module has a Xenon lamp which has an electric power of 7 kw, and from this we get approximately 2.7kw of radiation power. Each module has three movable axes, so we can set up lots of different flux configurations. If we focus the maximum possible amount of modules on one point we can melt a 50mm-thick steel plate within a minute. Which means that we can reach very high temperatures, at least 2000 degrees. The designed goal was over 3000 degrees Celsius. Elisa –What kind of experiments take place in Synlight? S - Experiments are coming from reactors and receivers from solar towers. The main advantage of Synlight is that we are able to test receivers or reactors full-scale. Synlight is so powerful that we don’t have to reduce the size of the reactor, thus, we can test it at the same size as it will later be used in a real application in solar towers. Another application is the testing of materials, especially


high-temperature materials like ceramics. The main applications for these are the coating of spacecraft for re-entering the atmosphere. The third experiment type is aging processes from extensive UV radiation, or exposure to very strong UV radiation, and these processes can be simulated in a very fast way here. We can simulate an aging process of 10 or 20 years in a matter of hours. We have also been asked for quotes for other high temperature applications like, for example, manufacturing of building materials, such as bricks from sand. E – How many times do you more less switch the Synlight on in a year? S – At the moment, we are running at least two experiments per week. So 2 days per week it’s running. E- What is the proportion of Synlight’s power, in terms of temperature and heat, to that of the actual sun?. S – The color temperature of our light sources of the Xenon lamps is almost the same as of the real Sun. Because the surface temperature of the Sun, or the core temperature is much much higher, but temperature related to the color is comparable to the real sun. So inside the lamp we have around about 6000 degrees Celsius. E – And what about in terms of radiation? S – The maximum heat flux that we can reach here in the facility is approximately 10,000 times higher than the natural radiation on Earth. So, to speak in a less precise scientific language we have a power of 10,000 suns here. E - Why did you choose this kind of lamps? S- The main reason was the spectrum of the lamps, which is comparable to the spectrum of the sun. This is why these lamps are also used for cinema projection, where




you need a light source that is very similar to the sun, in order to reach the most realistic colors on the screen. And our institute has already gained lots of experience with a smaller solar simulator which is situated in Cologne, where they’ve been using these this type of lambs for the last 10 or maybe 15 years. So, according to that opinion, of our colleagues, these lamps are the best. E – And in terms of power consumption, are these lamps larger or smaller than those used in cinemas? S – The lamps we use, the 7 kw lamps are standard lamps for, let’s say a midsize cinema projector. If you think of cinema projectors for big IMAX cinemas, they are even bigger: they use up to 20 or25 kw. -But the ones we use are standard lamps for just midsize cinema projectors. E –How much energy does Synlight consume and where does this energy come from? S – Well, about the consumption, as I said, the lamps have 7 kw of electric power including all the inefficiency which we have in the rectifiers in the cooling system and so we could say that each model has a total electric power of 8 kw. The entire facility has two transformers with one megawatt each and a typical radiation experiment consumes per hour the same amount of energy than a four-people household in a year. E - I’ve been in the surroundings of Jülich where the biggest coal mine in Europe is located, and there are lots of energy plants, and I was wondering if the energy of the simulator also comes from one of these sources, or if it’s connected to those energy plants in the surroundings. S – Yes, it is. Our energy comes from a very common source in this area and this is coal. This motivates us to work even harder to use this quite dirty energy source to


develop applications for the much much cleaner energy source like the sun. But the electricity comes from coal power plants. E – What are the hopes, the objectives, purposes of the artificial sunlight? What would you say it promises us for the future? S – Synlight, as a solar simulator is a very powerful tool which supports scientists during their research and development works, in order to create efficient and economically suitable power plants, which one day could replace the coal power plants or gas power plants, or any combustion-based power plants. E - Those are the so-called solar fuels, right? S – Yes. You have different ways to use solar energy. You can transform it directly into electricity, like the photovoltaic modules, then you have the possibility to concentrate the solar power, this is what we do at our institutes while we are also doing research on our solar power plant in Jülich, only 50 meters away from Synlight, where quite conventional steam processes are running. The only difference between a normal thermal power plant and the solar thermal power plant is the source of the heat. In a solar power plant, the heat comes from the Sun, and in a thermal power plant the heat comes from the combustion processes of coal or gas. But there are also ways to develop reactors which can use the concentrated heat coming from the Sun in order to generate or to produce fuels, which are at least more environmental-friendly a such as hydrogen. One of the applications that are being tested right now is a reactor what can split water into hydrogen and oxygen and uses concentrated solar heat for this process. E – Now, speculating into the future. Is there a vision or aspiration that you have for this project? Do you see


any other expansion beyond its uses as a laboratory to research and develop the technology? S – We do basic research at the moment. Of course we try to find applications and try to create a more or less working apparatus in which to operate. But we are considering hydrogen generation, although it is still very hard to say when solar processes could replace any oilbased ones. Because this is not only a question of the research or of the technology, but also a very political question. Unfortunately, we scientists have very little influence on the politics and therefore we can only create the technology and demonstrate that it works, and then we have to wait for the politicians to make the decisions. I very much hope that I will live long enough to see this, but I think we will need at least fifty years to see the results. E – Fifty? S – Fifty years, yeah. E – Why would you say that we need this building, this huge instrumentation to make an artificial sun instead of using the real sun for the same purposes. It might be difficult in places like Germany, but, say for example in the Atacama desert, where the sun shines almost every day. Why is it that you decided to build it in Jülich and in Germany instead of elsewhere? S – There are several reasons for that. First, the main advantage of a solar simulator is that you have an easy control over the power your experiment needs. If you are working on a solar tower with real radiation, it is quite difficult to set the power to specific levels. With the solar simulator you just define the steps to follow and you have very specific amounts of radiation. During the development process you have lots of aspects to pay attention to, and scientists need more control to achieve their goals in a more expedient manner. The second


reason is political: Jülich for a very long time has been the center of nuclear research in Germany and, especially after what happened in Fukushima, nuclear research is not very welcomed here. Therefore, it was a political decision to create a new research center in Jülich to respond to this re-structure in research from conventional thermal power plants to solar power plants. And the third reason is that our research institute in Cologne was recognized last year as the leading research facility in thermal fields. So for us it was quite convenient to build it not too far away from Cologne because we have the manpower and the know-how here. But you’re absolutely right, the Atacama Desert, considering the climate is a much much better place for solar research, naturally. E - Although in Atacama there might be the problem of generating the energy to power up the facility… S –That, too. But the main advantage of the solar simulator is the fact that you always have, regardless of the weather or time, constant conditions for preliminary testing, which is very very helpful when you develop a new system or a new process. E – Now that most of Germany has decided to stop using nuclear power source. What do you see as alternatives, as means to produce renewable energy? Is the Sun our biggest hope for the future? S – Yes, I think so. Because even if the sun only shines, let’s say approximately 12 hours a day, you have the possibility to storage the energy coming from the sun, especially as heat you can storage it quite well, more effectively than electricity. And I think this is the most reliable energy source that we have. Of course, if you compare it to a Coal Power Plant it is more reliable, because there is lots of coal in this big hole in the earth you can just get it out there and you have the total control about the amount of energy that you use in your


thermal plant, but sooner or later this source will end. It isn’t endless, and the only source we have on Earth that is more or less endless - one day the sun will explode, but this will happen in several million years so we don’t necessarily need to think about it at the moment. And this is the only reliable source of energy that we have on Earth. If we take coal and the origins of coal, this is also energy coming from the sun because what is coal, actually? These are plants that get their energy from the sun, so even if we use coal, we are using refurbished energy from the Sun. And that’s why I think the sun is the ultimate source that we must do the most research on. E – And it’s the only energy source that mankind will never get to tamper with, probably... S – The wind, for example is less reliable. With hydro power, well it also depends on whether you have a very dry summer, like this summer for example, you still get less power. So with the sun, especially in deserts for example it is much more reliable than any other source. E – And now, because of the heatwave you have had to switch it off to prevent a risk of fire from overheating, right? S – Well there is not, luckily enough, risk of fire. But the transformers, which is our main power supply were just too hot to run the facility at full power, that was the problem. The design of the cooling or ventilation system was made for an outside maximum temperature of 30 degrees and if we have higher outside temperatures, we have to significantly reduce the power. Otherwise, our transformers can overheat and then they just turn off. E – Are you or the researchers worried about climate change and what would happen if every summer becomes as hot as the current one? the future.


E – Are you or the researchers worried about climate change and what would happen if every summer becomes as hot as the current one? S – Yes, if every summer is like the one we have we could get some problems. Or maybe we could run the facility during nights. But I think at the moment the outside temperatures are absolutely okay, and I think that more than 30 degrees Celsius is not that common in Jülich, so I very much hope that we won’t have many constraints in the future.






















TAYPI Silvia Rivera MONTE SOPHIA Cusicanqui Living species (plants) on a Santiago, recultivated mining waste Chile dump or the largest artificial hill Sophienhรถhe, July 10th, 2019



Nachgewiesene Gefäßpflanzen (ohne Orchideen) auf rekultivierten Flächen des Rheinischen Braunkohlenreviers. S/V: Südrevier/ Ville, BE/FR: Berrenrath/ Frechen, BM: Bergheim, FO: Fortuna, G: Garzweiler (Frimmersdorf/ Garzweiler 1 und 2), H: Hambach, Z/I: Zukunft/Inden; RL: Rote Liste, D: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, NRW: Nordrhein-Westfalen, NB: Niederrheinische Bucht, 0: ausgestorben oder verschollen, 1: vom Aussterben bedroht, 2: stark gefährdet, 3: gefährdet, V: zurückgehend, Art der „Vorwarnliste“ (in NRW insbesondere für das Tiefland), N: dank Naturschutzmaßnahmen gleich oder geringer gefährdet, R: durch extreme Seltenheit gefährdet, D: Datenbasis nicht ausreichend, --: im Naturraum nicht nachgewiesen, *: Unsicherer Nachweis; ST: Status in Deutschland, kein Eintrag: einheimische Art, E: eingebürgerter Neophyt, I: in Einbürgerung befindlicher Neophyt, L: lokal eingebürgerter Neophyt, U: Unbeständiger Neophyt, G: Garten- oder Kultur-Pflanze, (N): nicht heimische Pflanze ohne Statusangabe nach WISSKIRCHEN & HAEUPLER (1998). Nomenklatur und Statusangaben für einheimische Arten und Neophyten nach WISSKIRCHEN & HAEUPLER (1998) sowie BFN (www.floraweb.de). Stand: 04.06.2017

S/V

BE/FR

Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

BM

Abies alba

Weiß-Tanne

Abies grandis

"Küsten-Tanne"

Abutilon theophrasti

Chinesische Samtpappel

Acer campestre

Gewöhnlicher Feld-Ahorn

Acer negundo

Eschen-Ahorn

Acer platanoides

Spitz-Ahorn

x

x

x

Acer pseudoplatanus

Berg-Ahorn

x

x

x

Achillea filipendulina

Hohe Gelbe Scharfgarbe

Achillea millefolium

Wiesen-Schafgarbe

Achillea millefolium agg.

Artengruppe Wiesen-Schafgarbe

Acinos arvensis

Feld-Steinquendel

Aconitum napellus

Blauer Eisenhut

Acorus calamus

Kalmus

Adoxa moschatellina

Moschuskraut

x

Aegopodium podagraria

Gewöhnlicher Giersch

x

Aesculus hippocastanum

Gewöhnliche Roßkastanie

x

Aethusa cynapium

Hundspetersilie

Agastache mexicana

"Mexikanische Minze"

Agrimonia eupatoria

Kleiner Odermennig

Agrimonia procera

Großer Odermennig

Agropyron cristatum

Gewöhnliche Kammquecke

Gewöhnliche Kornrade

Agrostis canina

Sumpf-Straußgras

Agrostis capillaris

G

H

D

NRW

NRBU

Z/I

96

2010

2010

x

x

x

x

G

8d

9a

x

x

x

x

x

6b

x

x

x

x

x

10b

x

*

*

*

*

x

*

*

x

*

*

*

*

3

3

x 10b x

7a

x

10b

10b

9a

x

x

x

x

7a

*

0

9a

9a

*

*

9a

8d

*

*

7a

x

8b

7d

*

*

6b

x

7a

9a

x

6b

8d

7d

*

*

x

7a

6b

x

7c

*

*

10b

*

*

x

E

E

8b x

E

G

7a

16b

ST

3

x

G

U

Agropyron cristatum subsp. pectinatum Unechte Kammquecke Agrostemma githago

FO

RL:

9a

I x

10b x

Rotes Straußgras

7a

7a

7a

0

0

x

7c x

1

V

*

x

3a

*

*

3a

*

*

16c 10c

*

*

x

Agrostis capillaris x vinealis Agrostis gigantea

Riesen-Straußgras

Agrostis stolonifera

Weißes Straußgras

Agrostis stolonifera agg.

Artengruppe Weißes Straußgras

Agrostis vinealis

Sand-Straußgras

Aira caryophyllea

Nelken-Haferschmiele

Aira praecox

Frühe Haferschmiele

Ajuga genevensis

Heide-Günsel

Ajuga reptans

Kriechender Günsel

Alcea rosea

Gewöhnliche Stockrose

Alchemilla mollis

Weicher Frauenmantel

Alchemilla xanthochlora

Gelbgrüner Frauenmantel

x

x

9a

10b

7a

x

x

x 11a

x 16b

x

x

x x

V

*

x

x

3

3

3

3

1

_

*

*

x

x

V

10a x

16b 10a

9a

x

6b

8d

x

7d 7c

G

7a

E 8b

Alisma lanceolatum

Lanzettblättriger Froschlöffel

Alisma plantago-aquatica

Gewöhnlicher Froschlöffel

x

x

10b

6b

6b

Alliaria petiolata

Gewöhnliche Knoblauchsrauke

x

x

16b

x

10b

Allium oleraceum

Kohl-Lauch

Allium schoenoprasum

Schnitt-Lauch

Allium ursinum

Bär-Lauch

Allium vineale

Weinbergs-Lauch

V

x x

5a

x

7d

x 9a

x

x

Alnus glutinosa

Schwarz-Erle

x

Alnus incana

Grau-Erle

x

Alopecurus aequalis

Rotegelbes Fuchsschwanzgras

Alopecurus geniculatus

Knick-Fuchsschwanzgras

x

3

*

*

*

*

*

*

3

3

*

*

9a

*

*

7c

*

*

*

*

12a

7a x

x

x

7c

x

3a

*

*

x

7c

*

*

x

7a

x

x

x

7a

6b

x

10b

10b 7a

6b

x

*

*


Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Carlina vulgaris

Golddistel

Carlina vulgaris agg.

Artengruppe Golddistel

Carpinus betulus

Gewöhnliche Hainbuche

Carum carvi

Wiesen-Kümmel

Castanea sativa

Eßkastanie, Marone

Celtis australis

"Südlicher Zürgelbaum"

Centaurea australis

Südliche Flockenblume

Centaurea cyanus

Kornblume

Centaurea jacea

Wiesen-Flockenblume

Centaurea jacea agg.

Artengruppe Wiesen-Flockenblume

Centaurea jacea ssp. angustifolia

Ungarische Flockenblume

Centaurea jacea ssp. jacea

Gewöhnliche Wiesen-Flockenblume

Centaurea montana

Berg-Flockenblume

Centaurea scabiosa

Skabiosen-Flockenblume

Centaurea scabiosa ssp. scabiosa

Gewöhnliche Skabiosen-Flockenblume

Centaurea solstitialis

Sonnenwend-Flockenblume

Centaurea stoebe

Rispen-Flockenblume

Centaurium erythraea

Echtes Tausendgüldenkraut

Centaurium pulchellum

Gewöhnliches Kleines Tausendgüldenkraut

Centranthus ruber

Rote Spornblume

S/V

BE/FR

BM

FO

G

16b

9a

10b x

x

x

x x

x

x

9a

10b

10b 6b

*

*

10c

*

*

7c

*

3

10b

x

7c

*

*

x

x

*

_

7d

*

*

x 12a

7a

E

6b

16c

13b 6b

U

10b x

x

7c x

9a

x

5a

x

V

V

*

V

3

3S

7a

E x

Ceratophyllum demersum

Rauhes Hornblatt

Chaenomeles japonica

"Japanische Scheinquitte"

7a

Chaenorhinum minus

Kleiner Orant, Kleines Leinkraut

7a

Chenopodium glaucum

2

8b

Sand-Hornkraut

Feigenblättriger Gänsefuß

*

*

10b

Gewöhnliches Hornkraut

Artengruppe Weißer Gänsefuß

*

x

x

16b

Cerastium semidecandrum

Chenopodium ficifolium

V

G

Cerastium holosteoides

Chenopodium album agg.

ST

x

6b

Bleiches Zwerg-Hornkraut

Artengruppe Weißer Gänsefuß

*

x

Cerastium glutinosum

Chenopodium album

*

7c

7c

Knäueliges Hornkraut

Schöllkraut

2010

7c

Artengruppe Gewöhnliches Hornkraut

Chelidonium majus

2010

x

Cerastium glomeratum

Nootka-Scheinzypresse

96

8b

Cerastium fontanum agg.

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis

Z/I

9a

Acker-Hornkraut

Taumel-Kälberkopf, Hecken-Kälberkropf

NRBU

7a

Gewöhnliches Hornkraut

"Lawsons Scheinzypresse"

NRW

x

Cerastium arvense

Chaerophyllum temulum

D

x

Cerastium fontanum

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

H

RL:

10b

7a

10b x

x

x

7a

*

7d

x

x

x

x

10b

7c

*

*

7c

*

* *

x

x

x

*

7a

7a

7d

*

*

x

8a

*

*

*

*

*

*

10b

x

V

10b

12a

x

x

G x

x

x

x

G

9a

G 7d

10b

10b

9a

10c

x

x

x

*

*

7a

*

*

Graugrüner Gänsefuß

7a

*

*

Chenopodium hybridum

Stechapfelblättriger Gänsefuß

6b

3

*

Chenopodium polyspermum

Vielsamiger Gänsefuß

6b

*

*

Chenopodium rubrum

Roter Gänsefuß

Chenopodium strictum

Gestreifter Gänsefuß

Chionodoxa luciliae

Gewöhnliche Sternhyazinthe

6b

Chrysanthemum segetum

Saat-Wucherblume

8d

Cichorium endivia

"Endivie"

x

10b

x

x

x

x 7a

6b

6b

7c 7c

10b

*

*

*

*

3

3

I x

10b

Cichorium intybus

Gewöhnliche Wegwarte

Circaea lutetiana

Gewöhnliches Hexenkraut

x

10b

7a

7a

G

6b

x

7c

*

*

x

9a

7d

*

*

Cirsium arvense

Acker-Kratzdistel

x

x

7a

x

x

x

x

*

*

Cirsium palustre

Sumpf-Kratzdistel

x

x

7a

7a

x

x

x

*

*

Cirsium vulgare

Gewöhnliche Kratzdistel

x

x

7a

x

x

x

x

Claytonia perfoliata

Gewöhnliches Tellerkraut

*

*

Clematis vitalba

Gewöhnliche Waldrebe

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

x

7d

*

*

*

*

x

Clinopodium vulgare

Wirbeldost

x

6b

Colutea arborescens

Gewöhnlicher Blasenstrauch

10a

7a

Conium maculatum

Gefleckter Schierling

7a

6b

10b

E

3

E


RL:

D

NRW

NRBU

H

Z/I

96

2010

2010

3a

*

*

deutscher Name

S/V

BE/FR

BM

FO

G

Daucus carota

Wilde Möhre

9a

x

10b

x

x

x

Daucus carota ssp. carota

Wilde Möhre

x

x

x

x

Gattung; Art

Deschampsia cespitosa

Rasen-Schmiele

x

Deschampsia flexuosa

Draht-Schmiele

x

Deutzia scabra

Rauhe Deutzie

Dianthus armeria

Büschel-Nelke

7a

Dianthus barbatus

"Bart-Nelke"

7a

Dianthus carthusianorum

Kartäusernelke

Dianthus carthusianorum agg.

Artengruppe Kartäusernelke

9a

7a

x

x

x

*

*

x

7d

*

*

x

7c

V

3

2

x

7c

10a

7b

V

3

0

3

G

V

3

2S

3

3S

-

*

_

9a

G 6b

7a

6b

6b

x

6b

x

Dianthus deltoides

Heide-Nelke

Dianthus giganteus

Riesen-Nelke

11b

Dianthus superbus

Pracht-Nelke

6b

Digitalis lutea

Kleinblütiger Gelber Fingerhut

6b

9a

8b

Digitalis purpurea

Roter Fingerhut

16b

7a

6b

x

8b

16b

8d

7c

G

E

Digitaria ischaemum

Faden-Fingergras

*

*

Digitaria sanguinalis

Blutrote Fingerhirse

9a

*

*

Diplotaxis tenuifolia

Schmalblättriger Doppelsame

9a

*

*

Dipsacus fullonum

Wilde Karde

*

*

Dipsacus laciniatus

Schlitzblättrige Karde

x

10a

16b

6b

x

x

x

Dipsacus pilosus

Behaarte Karde Gewöhnlicher Dornfarn

x

Dryopteris dilatata

Breitblättriger Dornfarn

x

x

9a

16b

x

x

x

x

10b

Dryopteris filix-mas

Gewöhnlicher Wurmfarn Artengruppe Gewöhnlicher Wurmfarn

Echinochloa crus-galli

Gewöhnliche Hühnerhirse

Echinops exaltatus

Drüsenlose Kugeldistel

Echinops sphaerocephalus

Drüsige Kugeldistel

Echium plantagineum

"Wegerichblättriger Natternkopf"

Echium vulgare

Gewöhnlicher Natternkopf

Egeria densa

Grossblüten-Wasserpest

Elaeagnus angustifolia

"Ölweide"

Elaeagnus commutata

"Silber-Ölweide"

Elaeagnus umbellata

"Korallen-Ölweide"

Eleocharis acicularis

Nadel-Sumpfbinse

Eleocharis engelmannii

Engelmanns Sumpfsimse

Eleocharis palustris

Gewöhnliche Sumpfbinse

Eleocharis palustris agg.

Artengruppe Gewöhnliche Sumpfbinse

x

x

Eleocharis palustris ssp. vulgaris

Großfrüchtige Gewöhnliche Sumpfbinse

10b

10b

16c

x

Eleocharis uniglumis

Einspelzige Sumpfsimse

10b

10b

13b

Kanadische Wasserpest

Elodea nuttallii

Schmalblättrige Wasserpest

Elymus caninus

Hunds-Quecke

Elymus hispidus ssp. barbulatus

Graugrüne Quecke

Elymus obtusiflorus

Stumpfblütige Quecke

E E

7d x

Dryopteris filix-mas agg.

Elodea canadensis

7d 7d

Dryopteris carthusiana

ST

16b x

x

9a

x

x

x

10b

6b

6b

10b

6b

16b

7a

9a

*

*

10b

*

*

7c

*

*

7c

*

*

x x 8b

*

*

x

*

*

6b 7a

G x

5a

9a

I 7c

G

7a 8d

G

7a

G x

3

3

3

G

2

3

2

10c 7a x

x

10c 10c

x

x

10b 10b

V

x

10b

*

*

E

x

10c

*

*

E

*

*

*

_

10b

9a

6b

6b

8b

7c

x

x

x

x

7c 10a

U

5a

x

E

E

Elymus repens

Kriechende Quecke

Elymus x mucronatus

Quecke

Epilobium angustifolium

Schmalblättriges Weidenröschen

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

Epilobium ciliatum

Drüsiges Weidenröschen

x

x

10b

x

x

x

x

*

*

Epilobium hirsutum

Zottiges Weidenröschen

x

x

9a

7a

x

x

x

*

*

Epilobium lamyi

Graugrünes Weidenröschen

10c

*

*

Epilobium lanceolatum

Lanzettblättriges Weidenröschen

x

*

*

Epilobium montanum

Berg-Weidenröschen

x

Epilobium obscurum

Dunkelgrünes Weidenröschen

x

Epilobium palustre

Sumpf-Weidenröschen

x

Epilobium parviflorum

Kleinblütiges Weidenröschen

x

Epilobium roseum

Rosenrotes Weidenröschen

x

10b

10b

13b

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

7a

x

x

x

*

*

x

*

*

x

3

3

x x

x

x

*

*

*

*

E


RL:

D

NRW

NRBU

96

2010

2010

Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

S/V

BE/FR

BM

FO

G

H

Z/I

Fragaria vesca

Wald-Erdbeere

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

Frangula alnus

Faulbaum

x

x

x

x

x

x

7c

*

*

Fraxinus excelsior

Gewöhnliche Esche

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

Freesia sp.

"Freesie"

Fumaria officinalis

Gebräuchlicher Erdrauch

6b

6b

x

*

*

Galanthus nivalis

Kleines Schneeglöckchen

7a

7a

*

*

8d

6b

7a 7b

Galega officinalis

Gewöhnliche Geißraute

Galeopsis bifida

Zweispaltiger Hohlzahn

x

Galeopsis pubescens

Weichhaariger Hohlzahn

x

Galeopsis tetrahit

Gewöhnlicher Hohlzahn

x

Galinsoga ciliata

Behaartes Knopfkraut

x

7a

9a

Galinsoga parviflora

Kleinblütiges Knopfkraut

Galium album

Großblütiges Wiesen-Labkraut

x

Galium aparine

Kletten-Labkraut

x

x

x

Galium mollugo

Wiesen-Labkraut

x

10a

10b

Galium odoratum

Waldmeister

x 9a

x

*

*

*

_

6b

x

7c

*

*

6b

x

7c

*

*

E

6b

x

7c

*

*

E

x

16c

*

*

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

7d

*

*

10b

8b

*

*

7a

x

Sumpf-Labkraut

Galium palustre ssp. palustre

Sumpf-Labkraut

Galium parisiense

Pariser Labkraut

Galium saxatile

Harzer Labkraut

Galium spurium ssp. spurium

Kleinfrüchtiges Kletten-Labkraut

Galium sylvaticum

Wald-Labkraut

x

8b

Galium uliginosum

Moor-Labkraut

x

8b

7c

x

7c

Echtes Labkraut

Genista anglica

Englischer Ginster

Genista tinctoria

Färber-Ginster

7a

E x

Hohes Labkraut

Wirtgens Labkraut

8d

7a

3

x

Galium palustre

Galium verum

16b

7d

Galium palustre ssp. elongatum

Galium wirtgenii

ST

x

10b

*

*

*

*

*

*

1

0

x x

6b

0 x 9a

6b

D

8b

V

x

3

10a

Geranium dissectum

Schlitzblättriger Storchschnabel

16b

Geranium macrorrhizum

Felsen-Storchschnabel

7a

Geranium molle

Weicher Storchschnabel

Geranium pratense

Wiesen-Storchschnabel

Geranium pusillum

Kleiner Storchschnabel

Geranium pyrenaicum

Pyrenäen-Storchschnabel

Geranium robertianum

Stink-Srorchschnabel, Ruprechtskraut

Geranium sylvaticum

Wald-Storchschnabel

x

*

*

6b

7a

16c

7c

*

3

6b

x

x

7c

*

*

6b

6b

x

*

*

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

*

*

x

7d

*

*

x

10b

12a 16b

x

x

10b

7a

x

x

x

Glyceria declinata

Blaugrüner Schwaden

Glyceria fluitans

Flutender Schwaden

Glyceria maxima

Großer Schwaden, Wasser-Schwaden

10b 10b

x

E

8d

7a

x

Glyceria notata

Falt-Schwaden

Gnaphalium sylvaticum

Wald-Ruhrkraut

Gnaphalium uliginosum

Sumpf-Ruhrkraut

Gratiola officinalis

Gottes-Gnadenkraut

Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Eichenfarn

Gypsophila elegans

"Schleierkraut"

Hedera helix

Gewöhnlicher Efeu

Helianthus annuus

Gewöhnliche Sonnenblume

Helianthus x laetiflorus

Blühfreudige Sonnenblume

Helianthus petiolaris

"Prärie-Sonnenblume"

Helianthus rigidus

"Rauhe Sonnenblume"

Helianthus tuberosus

Topinambur

7a

Helictotrichon pubescens

Flaumiger Wiesenhafer

14b

Heliopsis scabra

"Rauhes Sonnenauge"

8b

Helleborus foetidus

Stinkende Nieswurz

8b

7a

10b

10b

7c

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

x

*

*

x

*

*

7a

10c

x

2

1

1

*

R

*

*

7c x

x 10a

16b

E

7c

x

x

3S 3S

7c

x

Gewöhnlicher Gundermann

3S 3S

x

x

Gewöhnliche Nelkenwurz

_

x

6b

x

Glechoma hederacea

*

0

*

x

Geum urbanum

V

*

x x

*

7c

10b

7a

*

V

x

9a

10b

*

7a

x

x

10b

6b

6b

x

7c

9a

7a

G U G

7c x

G

7d

x 10c

G *

*

*

3

R

R

E G


Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Hypericum dubium

Stumpfliches Hartheu

Hypericum hirsutum

Behaartes Johanniskraut

Hypericum maculatum

Geflecktes Johanniskraut

Hypericum maculatum ssp. obtusiusculum

Stumpfblättr. Geflecktes Knabenkraut

Hypericum perforatum

Tüpfel-Johanniskraut

Hypericum pulchrum

Schönes Johanniskraut

Hypochaeris radicata

Gewöhnliches Ferkelkraut

Hypopitys hypophegea

Kahler Fichtenspargel

S/V

BE/FR

BM

FO

G

H

10b 8d x

x

x

x

10a

x

x

16b 9a

10b

7a

6b

RL:

D

NRW

NRBU

Z/I

96

2010

2010

*

*

*

*

*

*

10b x

9a

x

x

8b

7d x

x

x

9a

x

x

x

7c

*

*

*

*

*

*

13b x

Ilex aquifolium

Gewöhnliche Stechpalme

Impatiens glandulifera

Drüsiges oder Indisches Springkraut

Impatiens noli-tangere

Großes Springkraut

x

Impatiens parviflora

Kleinblütiges Springkraut

x

Inula conyzae

Dürrwurz

x

Ipheion uniflorum

"Einblütiger Frühlingsstern"

Iris pseudacorus

Sumpf-Schwertlilie

7a

7a

8b

7a

7c

*

*

7c

*

*

*

*

10b 7a x

10b

x

x

10b

6b

x

x

*

*

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

7c

*

*

V

*

3

3

7a

Isatis tinctoria

Färber-Waid

Isolepis setacea

Borstige Moorbinse

Jasione laevis

Ausdauerndes Sandglöckchen

Jasione montana

Berg-Sandglöckchen

Juglans nigra

"Schwarznuss"

Juglans regia

Echte Walnuß

x

Juncus acutiflorus

Spitzblütige Binse

x

Juncus articulatus

Glieder-Binse, Glanzfrüchtige Binse

x

x

x

10b

x

V

10a 16c 6b

x

6b

10b

6b

10b

x

10b

7a

10b

7a

16c

Kröten-Binse Gewöhnliche Rasen-Binse

10b

Juncus compressus

Zusammengedrückte Binse

10b

14b

G 7c

x

7c

*

*

x

3a

*

* *

x

5a

*

x

8a

*

*

*

*

Juncus conglomeratus

Knäuel-Binse

x

x

7a

7a

11a

x

7c

*

*

Juncus effusus

Flatter-Binse

x

x

7a

6b

x

x

3a

*

*

x

x

7c

*

*

7a

7a

6b

x

10b 3

2S

*

*

Blaugrüne Binse Zarte Binse

Juniperus communis

Heide-Wacholder

Knautia arvensis

Wiesen-Witwenblume

Koelreuteria paniculata

Rispen-Blasenbaum

Laburnum anagyroides

Gewöhnlicher Goldregen

Lactuca serriola

Kompaß-Lattich

Lamium album

Weiße Taubnessel

Lamium amplexicaule

Stengelumfassende Taubnessel

Lamium argentatum

Silberblättrige Goldnessel

Lamium galeobdolon

Gewöhnliche Goldnessel

Lamium maculatum

Gefleckte Taubnessel

Lamium montanum

Berg-Goldnessel

Lamium purpureum

Purpurrote Taubnessel

Lappula squarrosa

Kletten-Igelsame

x

x

9a

10b

x 16b

9a

10b

10b

10b

16b

7b

7c

U

7a

7a

x

x

x x

x

*

-

*

*

x

x

7d

*

*

10a

7a

7d

*

*

7a

10b

10b

E

E

7d 7b

x

x

8d

Gewöhnlicher Rainkohl

x

x

x

x

Larix kaempferi

"Japanische Lärche"

Lathyrus latifolius

Breitblättrige Platterbse

Lathyrus linifolius

Berg-Platterbse

x

7a

x

16b

x

x

7d

x

x

x

*

*

*

*

0

_

*

*

7a

16b 10a

6b

x

G x

E

8b

Lathyrus pratensis

Wiesen-Platterbse

x

10b

Lathyrus sylvestris

Gewöhnliche Wald-Platterbse

x

10b

Lathyrus tuberosus

Knollen-Platterbse

9a

10b

Lavandula angustifolia

"Echter Lavendel"

Lavatera thuringiaca

Thüringer Strauchpappel Buckelige Wasserlinse

16c

x

Europäische Lärche

Kleine Wasserlinse

x

x

Lapsana communis

Lemna gibba

7a

E

10a

Larix decidua

Lemna minor

E G

7a

Juncus bufonius

Juncus inflexus

E

7a x

Juncus bulbosus

Juncus tenuis

ST

12a

x

x

6b

x

7c

*

x

10b

*

*

7c

*

*

7a 7a

*

7a

G

8d x

10a

7a

x

x

7c

*

*

8a

*

*


S/V

BE/FR

BM

Blut-Weiderich

x

x

10b

Mahonia aquifolium

Gewöhnliche Mahonie

x

x

x

Maianthemum bifolium

Zweiplättriges Schattenblümchen

x

x

9a

Malus domestica

Kultur-Apfel

Malus sargentii

"Kleinfrüchtiger Zierapfel"

Malus sylvestris

Holz-Apfel, Wild-Apfel

Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Lythrum salicaria

Malva alcea

Rosen-Malve

Malva moschata

Moschus-Malve

Malva neglecta

Weg-Malve, Käsepappel

Malva sylvestris

Wilde Malve

Malva sylvestris ssp. mauritiana

Mauretanische Malve

9a

FO

2010

*

*

*

*

*

*

x

10b

x

6b

6b

7a

6b

x

7a

x

x

x

7d

12a

7c

8d 10b

7a

12a

9a

7a

7a 7a

6b

6b

7c

*

*

10b

*

*

*

*

7c

*

*

x

10b

7a

x

x

x

x

x

10b

6b

x

x

7c

10a

9a

x

x

x

Melica uniflora

Einblütiges Perlgras

Melilotus albus

Weißer Steinklee

Melilotus altissimus

Hoher Steinklee

Melilotus officinalis

x

7a

7c

6b

x

x

12a

*

*

x

x

7c

*

*

10a

10b

Gewöhnlicher Steinklee

9a

x

10b

Melissa officinalis

Zitronen-Melisse

9a

Mentha aquatica

Wasser-Minze

Mentha arvensis

Acker-Minze

Mentha spicata

Grüne Minze

8d

Mentha suaveolens

Rundblättrige Minze

7a

Mentha villosa

Zottige Minze

Mentha x gracilis

Edel-Minze

10c

Mentha x piperita

Pfeffer-Minze

7c

Mentha x verticillata

Quirl-Minze

x

Menyanthes trifoliata

Fieberklee

16c

Mercurialis annua

Einjähriges Bingelkraut

Mercurialis perennis

Wald-Bingelkraut

Mespilus germanica

Mispel

Metasequoia glyptostroboides

"Urwelt-Mammutbaum"

Milium effusum

Gewöhnliches Flattergras, Waldhirse

x

7a

7a

x

7d

10b

9a

x

x

7c

*

*

x

x

x

7d

*

*

8d

7c

2

16b

7b

6b

6b

x

*

*

G

D

*

*

7c 2 * *

*

*

*

*

*

_

9a

x

x

7c

3 *

x x

x

Mimulus guttatus

Gefleckte Gauklerblume

Miscanthus sinensis

Japanisches Stielblütengras

Moehringia trinervia

Dreinervige-Nabelmiere

x

Molinia caerulea

Gewöhnliches Pfeifengras

x

Monotropa hypophegea

Buchenspargel

Muscari armeniacum

Armenische Traubenhyazinthe

Mycelis muralis

Mauerlattich

x

Myosotis arvensis

Acker-Vergißmeinnicht

x

x

16b

x 16b

8d

x

6b 10b

7c

x

x

x

9a

7a

7a

8d x

10b

x

10c

* V

Myosotis arvensis ssp. arvensis

Acker-Vergissmeinnicht (Unterart)

Myosotis discolor

Buntes Vergißmeinnicht

x

Myosotis laxa

Rasen-Vergißmeinnicht

x

Myosotis nemorosa

Scharfkantiges Sumpf-Vergißmeinnicht

Myosotis ramosissima

Hügel-Vergißmeinnicht

Myosotis scorpioides

Sumpf-Vergißmeinnicht

Myosotis stricta

Sand-Vergißmeinnicht

Myosotis sylvatica

Wald-Vergißmeinnicht

Myosurus minimus

Kleines Mäuseschwänzchen

6b

Myriophyllum aquaticum

"Brasilianisches Tausendblatt"

7a

x

10b

10b

10b 7a

*

*

3

R

*

*

*

*

x

16b

x

*

E 7c

x

3

3

*

3

3S

x

*

*

x

3

*

x

x

5a

*

*

11b

x

7c

3

*

x V x

E U

x

7a 7a x

x

E

G

10c x

E

E 3

*

6b

E

E

8b 10a

E

G

9a

9a

6b

*

*

x

x

*

*

x

Wiesen-Wachtelweizen

*

*

x

Melampyrum pratense

*

3

*

x

x

2

*

G

6b

Saat-Luzerne

3

0

7a

Bastard-Luzerne

D

1

7a

Medicago sativa

E

E 2

10b

Medicago varia

3

7c

x x

ST

G

x

9a

Hopfenklee

2010

x

Gewöhnlicher Andorn

Medicago lupulina

96

x

"Quirl-Malve" Strahlenlose Kamille

NRBU

Z/I

Marrubium vulgare

Echte Kamille

NRW

H

Malva verticillata Matricaria discoidea

D

G

7a

Matricaria recutita

RL:

*

*

*

*S G


Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Persicaria lapathifolia ssp. lapathifolia

Gewöhnlicher Ampfer-Knöterich

Persicaria lapathifolia ssp. pallida

Acker-Ampfer-Knöterich

Persicaria maculosa

Floh-Knöterich

Persicaria minor

Kleiner Knöterich

S/V

x

BE/FR

BM

10b

10b

x

10b

FO

G

RL:

D

NRW

NRBU

H

Z/I

96

2010

2010

x

7c

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

ST

7d 6b

6b

10a

x

x

x x

Persicaria x hybrida x

Petasites hybridus

Gewöhnliche Pestwurz

Petrorhagia prolifera

Sprossende Felsennelke

8b

Petrorhagia saxifraga

Steinbrech-Felsennelke

x

Phacelia tanacetifolia

"Büschelschön"

Phalaris arundinacea

Rohr-Glanzgras

Philadelphus coronarius

Gewöhnlicher Pfefferstrauch

Phleum bertolonii

Knolliges Lieschgras

Phleum pratense

Wiesen-Lieschgras

Phragmites australis

Gewöhnliches Schilf

Physalis alkekengi

Wilde Blasenkirsche

7a x

6b

x

x

7a

x

5a 7d

x

10a

7a

7a

x

9a

6b

7a

x

x

*

x

x

3a

*

*

*

_

*

*

*

_

11a

Physocarpus opulifolius

Virginische Blasenspiere Asiatische Kermesbeere

Picea abies

Gewöhnliche Fichte

Picea omorika

"Serbische Fichte"

Picea pungens

Stech-Fichte

Picris echioides

Natterkopf-Bitterkraut, Wurmlattich

Picris hieracioides

Gewöhnliches Bitterkraut

Picris hieracioides ssp. hieracioides

Gewöhnliches Bitterkraut (Unterart)

10b

10b

10b

6b

6b

x

x

x

16c

10a

7a

x x

U

6b 9a

12a

6b

7c x

x

I

x *

*

11a

10b

Dorniges Bitterkraut

Pimpinella peregrina

Fremde Bibernelle

6b

7a

Pimpinella saxifraga

Kleine Bibernelle

6b

x

x

Pinus nigra

Schwarz-Kiefer

10a

x

x

x

7c

Pinus strobus

"Weymouths-Kiefer"

x

Pinus sylvestris

Gewöhnliche Wald-Kiefer

x

10a

9a

16c

x

7c

Pistia stratiotes

Wassersalat

9a

9a

Pisum sativum

Futter-Erbse

Plantago altissima

Hoher Wegerich

U

x

9a

10c

I *

* I G

*

* (N)

9a 11b

10b

G 7c

Plantago lanceolata

Spitz-Wegerich

9a

x

7a

6b

x

x

x

Plantago major

Breit-Wegerich

x

10a

7a

6b

x

x

x

Plantago major ssp. intermedia

Vielsamiger Breit-Wegerich

x

x

10b

x

x

x

7d

Plantago major ssp. major

Gewöhnlicher Breit-Wegerich

10b

10b

x

x

Plantago media

Mittlerer Wegerich

9a

10b

U *

*

7c

*

*

10b

*

*

*

*

16b 10b

Poa angustifolia

Schmalblättriges Wiesen-Rispengras

x

10b

Poa annua

Einjähriges Rispengras

x

x

7a

Poa compressa

Zusammengedrücktes Rispengras

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

6b

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

x

x

*

* *

Poa humilis

Bläuliches Wiesen-Rispengras

x

7c

*

Poa nemoralis

Hain-Rispengras

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

Poa palustris

Sumpf-Rispengras

x

x

16b

x

x

x

x

*

*

Poa pratensis

Gewöhnliches Wiesen-Rispengras

x

x

x

x

x

x

7c

*

*

Poa trivialis

Gewöhnliches Rispengras

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

*

*

Polemonium caeruleum

Blaue Himmelsleiter

Polygonatum multiflorum

Vielblütige Weißwurz

9a

9a

x

x

7a

x

Polygonum arenastrum

Gewöhnlicher Vogelknöterich

Polygonum aviculare

Acker-Vogelknöterich

Polygonum aviculare ssp. aviculare

Breitblättriger Acker-Vogelknöterich

Polypodium vulgare

Gewöhnlicher Tüpfelfarn

Polypogon monospeliensis

"Bürstengras"

E G

11a

Große Bibernelle

Kleiner Wegerich

I

10b

Picris hieracioides ssp. spinulosa

Gewöhnliche Platane

*

7d

8d

Pimpinella major

Plantago uliginosa

I

10b

Phytolacca esculenta

Platanus x hispanica

G

7a x

3 7c

x

16b

13b 16b

6b 8d

6b

x

2

-

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

x

G


Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Rumex conglomeratus

Knäuelblütiger Ampfer

Rumex crispus

Krauser Ampfer

Rumex hydrolapathum

Fluß-Ampfer

Rumex obtusifolius

Stumpfblättriger Ampfer

Rumex obtusifolius ssp. obtusifolius

Gewöhnlicher Stumpfblättriger Ampfer

Rumex obtusifolius ssp. transiens

Mittlerer Stumpfblättriger-Ampfer

Rumex palustris

Sumpf-Ampfer

Rumex patientia

Garten-Ampfer

Rumex sanguineus

Hain-Ampfer, Blut-Ampfer

Rumex thyrsiflorus

Straußblütiger Sauerampfer

Sagina apetala

Kronblattlose Mastkraut

Sagina nodosa

Knotiges Mastkraut

Sagina procumbens

Niederliegendes Mastkraut

S/V

x

BE/FR

BM

x

16b

x

7a

x

7a 10b

x

10b x

10c

*

x

x

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

x

x

10b

x

7c

x

7c

x

9a

16b

x x

7a

x

x

x

10b

Salix dasyclados

Filzast-Weide

10a

Salix fragilis

Bruch-Weide

x

Salix purpurea

Purpur-Weide

Salix repens ssp. dunensis

Dünen-Weide, Sand-Weide

Salix rosmarinifolia

Rosmarin-Weide

Salix rubens

Hohe Weide

x

7a x

x x

7c

*

*

7c

*

*

V

D

D

2

2

1

*

*

x x

7c

*

*

x

7c

*

*

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

7c

*

* E

x x

9a

ST

E

10a * x

7c

*

*

*

8b

3

3

x

3

3

*

*

*

*

10a x

Salix triandra

Mandel-Weide

Salix viminalis

Korb-Weide

Salix x holosericea

Seidenblatt-Weide

10a

Salix x multinervis

Vielnervige Weide

10a

Salix x rubens

Bastard-Weide

Salix x smithiana

Kübler Weide

Salvia nemorosa

Steppen-Salbei

Salvia pratensis

Wiesen-Salbei

Salvia sclarea

"Mukateller-Salbei"

Sambucus nigra

Schwarzer Holunder

x

Sambucus racemosa

Trauben-Holunder, Roter Holunder

x

Sanguisorba minor

Kleiner Wiesenknopf

x

x

x

x 10b

x

x

x

7c

9a

x

x

7d

x

x

-

x

7a

7a 10b

12a

6b

x

*

_

3S

3

*

*

*

*

16c

*

_

x

*

*

8b

7c

x

x

V

6b x

16b

x

x

12a

x

x

G x

Sanguisorba minor ssp. balearica

Weichstachliger Wiesenknopf

Sanguisorba minor ssp. minor

Kleiner Wiesenknopf

10b

Sanguisorba minor ssp. polygama

Höckerfrüchtiger Wiesenknopf

10b

Sanguisorba officinalis

Großer Wiesenknopf

Sanicula europaea

Wald-Sanikel

Saponaria officinalis

Gewöhnliches Seifenkraut

Saxifraga granulata

Knöllchen-Steinbrech

Saxifraga tridactylites

Dreifinger-Steinbrech

Scabiosa columbaria

Tauben-Skabiose

Schoenoplectus lacustris

Gewöhnliche Teichsimse; Seebinse

Schoenoplectus lacustris x tabernaemontani

Teichsime

10b 10b

Wasser-Braunwurz

x

x

7a

7a

Sal-Weide

Einjähriger Knäuel

*

13b

16b

10b

Grau-Weide

Scrophularia auriculata

2010

Z/I

7a

10b

Salix caprea

Scleranthus annuus

2010

H

7a

x

Salix cinerea

Wald-Simse

96

G

7c

Silber-Weide

Scirpus sylvaticus

NRBU

8b

Ohr-Weide

Salz-Teichsimse

NRW

x

Salix alba

Sibirischer Blaustern

x

10b

x

Salix aurita

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

x

D

x

x

Scilla siberica

FO

RL:

16b 10b

10b

12a

x

7c

E

8d x

9a 7a

6b

7d x x

8d

6b 10b

10b

10b

6b

7a

V

8d 6b

12a x

7d

16c 10c x

5a

x x

10c

V

6a

16c x

Scrophularia nodosa

Knotige Braunwurz

x

x

Scrophularia umbrosa

Geflügelte Braunwurz

8d

x

Scutellaria galericulata

Sumpf-Helmkraut

9a

x

Secale cereale

"Roggen"

7a

x

* *

*

*

3

3

*

*

*

2

*

*

3S

3

-

7a x

* *

10c

10a x

E

7c x

x

x

10c

x

7c

3

E

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

* G


Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Sorbus x pinnatifida

Bastard-Eberesche

S/V

BE/FR

Sorghum halepense

Wilde Mohrenhirse Einfacher Igelkolben

10b

Sparganium erectum

Ästiger Igelkolben

10b

Sparganium erectum agg.

Artengruppe Ästiger Igelkolben

Sparganium erectum ssp. neglectum

Unbeachteter Igelkolben

Spergula arvensis

Acker-Spark

Spergularia rubra

Rote Schuppenmiere

Spiraea sp.

Spiere

Spiraea x bumalda

"Rote Sommerspiere"

x

7a

"Woll-Ziest"

Stachys palustris

Sumpf-Ziest

x

10b

Stachys sylvatica

Wald-Ziest

x

x

7a

7a 6b 7a

7a

7a 10b

6b

x

10b

*

*

7d

*

*

x

x

10b

*

*

x

x

Krebsschere

x

Symphoricarpos albus

Gewöhnliche Schneebeere

x

Symphoricarpos x chenaultii

"Niedrige Purpurbeere"

Symphytum asperum

Rauher Beinwell

Symphytum officinale

Gewöhnlicher Beinwell

Symphytum officinale agg.

Artengruppe Gewöhnlicher Beinwell

Symphytum officinale ssp. uliginosum

Sumpf-Beinwell

Symphytum x uplandicum

Futter-Beinwell, Comfrey

7a

11b

Syringa vulgaris

Gewöhnlicher Flieder

7a

10a

Tanacetum parthenium

Mutterkraut

10a

Tanacetum vulgare

Rainfarn

Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

Schwielen-Löwenzähne

Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia

Wiesen-Löwenzahn

x

Taxodium distichum

"Sumpf-Zypresse"

x

Taxus baccata

Europäische Eibe

x

Stengelumfassendes Hellerkraut "Riesen-Lebensbaum"

Thymus pannonicus

Steppen-Thymian

Thymus pulegioides

Arzenei-Thymian, Feld-Thymian

Tilia cordata

Winter-Linde

Tilia petiolaris

Hänge-Silber-Linde

Tilia platyphyllos

Sommer-Linde

Tilia tomentosa

"Silber-Linde"

Torilis arvensis

Acker-Klettenkerbel

Torilis japonica

Gewöhnlicher Klettenkerbel

Trachystemon orientalis

"Orient-Rauhblatt"

Tradescantia x andersoniana

"Dreimasterblume"

G

x

Stratiotes aloides

x

x

x

10b

*

*

10b

*

*

*

*

x

10b x x

x

2

x

x

x

3

*

10b

16b

3 2S

*

Hain-Sternmiere

Thuja plicata

10a 10b

3

7c

Stellaria nemorum

Thlaspi perfoliatum

G

x

x

Salbei-Gamander

*

x

Großblütige Vogelmiere

Acker-Hellerkraut

*

*

10a

Stellaria neglecta

Teucrium scorodonia

*

x

*

x

Thlaspi arvense

6b

10b

*

Vogelmiere

Lauch-Gamander

*

x

7c

Stellaria media agg.

Teucrium scordium

*

ST

I

x

Große Sternmiere

Moor-Greiskraut

*

x

Vogel-Sternmiere

Breitblättriger Edel-Gamander

*

x

Stellaria holostea

Tephroseris palustris

2010

x

Stellaria media

Teucrium chamaedrys

2010

7a

Stachys byzantina

Gras-Sternmiere

96

7d x

Acker-Ziest

Stellaria graminea

Z/I

H

16b

Vielwurzelige Teichlinse

Bach-Sternmiere

NRBU

x

Stachys arvensis

Wasserdarm

G

NRW

7c

Spirodela polyrhiza

Stellaria alsine

FO

D

9a

Sparganium emersum

Stellaria aquatica

BM

RL:

x

7a

x

7a

7a

x

3 7d

*

*

0

--

*

*

G

x 10b

12a

7a

7a x

E

16d 10c

*

*

*

*

*

_

*

*

x

*

*

7c

*

*

3

--

x

*

*

8c

*S

-

1

0

x

x 7c

x

x

7a

6b

x x

x

x

10b x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

6b

E 7c

x

x

7a

10b

7a

x

6b

E

x G 7d

3

2 x

E

x

x

*

*

x

x

*

*

x x

G

10a 10c x

x

x

x

E

7a

x

7c

*

*

x

x

x

*

*

x

10b

*

_

2

2

*

*

9a x

10b

G 7c

6b x

10b

x

x

7a

7d

G

G 7a

G


Gattung; Art

deutscher Name

Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Blauer Wasser-Ehrenpreis

Veronica arvensis

Feld-Ehrenpreis

Veronica austriaca

Österreichischer Ehrenpreis

Veronica beccabunga

Bachbungen-Ehrenpreis

Veronica catenata

Roter Wasser-Ehrenpreis

Veronica chamaedrys

Gamander-Ehrenpreis

S/V

BE/FR

x

BM

x

FO

x

RL:

D

NRW

NRBU

96

2010

2010

G

H

Z/I

6b

x

8a

*

*

x

x

7d

*

*

6a

*

*

9a 10b

9a

9a 9a

10b 10a

7a

x

*

*

7d

*

*

7d

*

*

Veronica hederifolia

Efeu-Ehrenpreis

Veronica hederifolia agg.

Artengruppe Efeu-Ehrenpreis

Veronica hederifolia ssp. lucorum

Hain-Efeu-Ehrenpreis

Veronica montana

Berg-Ehrenpreis

x

*

*

Veronica officinalis

Wald-Ehrenpreis

x

x

7a

x

6b

x

x

*

*

Veronica persica

Persischer Ehrenpreis

9a

10b

x

x

x

9a

7d

*

*

Veronica polita

Glänzender Ehrenpreis

7d

*

*

3S

3S

x

x 10b

9a

Veronica scutellata

Schild-Ehrenpreis

Veronica serpyllifolia

Thymian-Ehrenpreis

Veronica teucrium

Großer Ehrenpreis

Viburnum lantana

Wolliger Schneeball

x

x

Viburnum opulus

Gewöhnlicher Schneeball

x

x

Viburnum rhytidiphyllum

"Runzelblättriger Schneeball"

Vicia angustifolia

Schmalblättrige Wicke

Vicia angustifolia ssp. angustifolia

Gewöhnliche Schmalblättrige Wicke

Vicia angustifolia ssp. segetalis

10d x

10b

Gewöhnliche Vogel-Wicke Hecken-Wicke

Vicia faba

"Acker-Bohne"

Vicia hirsuta

Rauhaarige Wicke

Vicia hybrida

"Haarfahnen-Wicke "

Vicia pannonica ssp. pannonica

Gewöhnliche Ungarische Wicke

Vicia sativa

Futterwicke

Vicia sativa ssp. sativa

Futterwicke

7a

7a

x

x

*

*

3S

2

x

x

x

x

*

--

x

x

x

x

*

*

x

10a

7a

x

10b x

10a

7a 16b

x

10b

11a

8b

7c

10b

11a

8b

7c

x

x

7c

7a

7a

E

G *

*

*

*

*

*

E

x 7a x

10a

10b

x

x

G x

x

*

*

x

G 9a

x

x 10a

9a

x

10b 16b

x

x

x

x

E x

9a

G

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

x

x

*

*

x

x

x

7c

*

*

9a

7d

E

7d

E

Vicia sepium

Zaun-Wicke

x

Vicia tetrasperma

Viersamige Wicke

x

Vicia villosa

Zottige Wicke

Vicia villosa ssp.varia

Bunte Wicke

Vicia villosa ssp.villosa

Zottige Wicke

Vinca minor

Kleines Immergrün

Vinca major

Großes Immergrün

Viola arvensis

Acker-Stiefmütterchen

Viola hirta

Rauhhaariges Veilchen

x

Viola odorata

Wohlriechendes Veilchen

x

Viola palustris

Sumpf-Veilchen

x

Viola reichenbachiana

Wald-Veilchen

Viola riviniana

Hain-Veilchen

Viola tricolor

Wildes Stiefmütterchen

8b

Viola tricolor ssp. tricolor

Wildes Stiefmütterchen (Unterart)

16c

Viola wittrockiana

"Garten-Stiefmütterchen"

Viscum album

Mistel

Viscum album ssp. album

Laubholz-Mistel

Vulpia bromoides

Trespen-Federschwingel

Vulpia myuros

Mäuseschwanz-Federschwingel

Zannichellia palustris

Teichfaden

10b 7a

6b

x

*

*

10b 6b

x

9a

6b

x

7a

x

x

7a

x

*

*

*

3

6b

7d

*

*

3

3

*

*

*

*

3

3

x V 10b x

G 10b

7a 10b

10b

6b 11a

x

10a

10b

x

x

x

x

365

422

587

769

769

659

7d 359

E

E

x

7a

Arten*: * echte Arten, Unterarten sowie Bastarde und Artengruppen

7c

7a

Acker-Schmalblatt-Wicke

Vicia cracca

10b

11b

Vicia austroccidentalis Vicia dumetorum

ST

V

*

*

3

*

*

*

3

2




HAMBACHER FORST A woman living in a tree house in the squatted forest Hambach, August 8th, 2018 For two, three years I have been living up on this tree for extended periods. Right now, I have actually been here again for just two weeks. I had not been here for six months. I have only just returned, and then the information that this would come to an end sooner than expected; everything feels very much like saying goodbye. I have a very bad feeling this year. I think that they are really going to clear the place. Last year, it was very strange indeed when they didn’t come in the end. Because of the clearance stop – which was super cool. For this year, I don’t have much hope. I hope that many more people are going to come to join the large number of people who are already here. And that we all jointly defend together the whole project. And that maybe a few influential people will start thinking again after all: namely that it is absolute nonsense to still destroy the forest – and all the countryside – everything now. The whole world, the Fiji Islands, for instance, are going under, everything is destroyed for a huge hole in the forest countryside. We could replicate this experiences in other places. For example, there is the Treburer Forest near Frankfurt right now, where an airport is supposed to be extended. A forest is also being occupied there. And you can build houses on almost all the trees. And that’s exactly what’s


going to happen. Living in the tree, you interact with nature in a completely different way. It really is quite nice. It always feels strange when I am downtown and there are spiders and insects crawling around. And here I live in a mass of spiders, and a dormouse lives up there which crawls over your body. The relationship with nature is completely different. You realize that you have to do something. Preparing your meals on your own is extremely time-consuming. All those things that you need for your daily needs involve work in one way or another. On the one hand, it is really great to live here, but on the other hand, the reason for living here is really sad. And as long as there are no bulls waiting for you below your tree, which can be a bit unnerving, it is indeed very enjoyable here strictly speaking. And you definitely stay fit. It’s quite exhausting, that’s 17 meters here right now. Which I have to climb with my rope, and so I have to plan ahead every time I am to go out. But you get used to it, like you get use to the light. Now in the summer with all the foliage it is generally of course a lot darker in the forest. And up there I also see the stars, the moon. That is quite beautiful. Building these houses is a collective effort. It’s a combination of collective know-how. And each tree house is highly individual. There are various techniques that can be applied when building. At the top the trunks are bound into it. What all tree houses have in common is the fact that we use techniques which do no harm to the trees. We bind everything together with ropes around it so that we can demolish it again without damaging the tree at all. Many techniques have developed over the years. However, it is also a matter of the material. You take what you can get. The building method and the idea behind






are always highly specific. Up there, for instance, you see a domed roof plaited from branches with blankets and insulation around the house. Here, nobody would come along and say “you should build it this way“, but people who want to build a tree house sit together, think about it and everybody who feels like it joins in. Then people look for the best solutions together and the structure grows bit by bit. It’s important to remember that this is not my house. Everything is collectively owned here. The tree houses are not privately owned, but the people living there just happen to live there for a while. The tree or the tree house is called Pyra. The name of this occupation, of this barrio is Oak Town. This is because there are very many oak trees here. This came into being four and a half years ago and was developed bit by bit. Pyra is one of the eldest houses here in Oak Town. There are already several barrios around. “Oaktown” and “Gaul” are the largest. And there are various individual ones. Around five or six. There are 1,312 persons here, although the amount varies a lot. But it’s always good if more people come and join us. Especially in the near future. The summer it’s quite pleasant really, although the heat was quite extraordinary. RWE pumped off the ground water at a depth of five meters, so it’s impossible to build wells, and we have to rely on water carried here by supporters from town. Winter is completely different. Last winter, was -15°C. There are stoves in some tree houses, which makes it a bit more pleasant. But apart from that, you have to keep moving a lot and simply manage somehow. It is indeed nicer here in the summer than in the winter.


I am absolutely enjoying the time up there. I have a panorama window, and annoyingly loud squirrels wake you in the morning and there is sunshine all over the place. It really is quite nice, but also sad every morning, knowing that this is all coming to an end real soon. I could start crying every time I think about it. I went to the edge again last night. I never go there because I always start crying immediately. I simply find it difficult right now to think somehow about a future when there is sort of an apocalyptic mood around here. But even as the houses are being cleared here, new people are coming. The resistance is not broken by the clearance. It is growing stronger, this was always the case in the last few years. Every attempt to break it made the resistance even stronger. There is still a spark of hope left that something will happen.




TAYPI time & space in andean cosmology after a diagram by Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui Santiago, November 11th, 2018


I am very inspired by the ritual, because I believe that this is the only space where the philosophical dimension of Aymara (Andean) thought has been kept. Today the pragmatic use of words predominate, and practically all metaphorical levels have been destroyed. The ritual is a place where this metaphorical dimension is recovered. The first metaphor of this diagram is that it is a microcosm that replicates the cosmos. The totality. The totality is incorporated in an order that is based on a first duality, which is “above” and “below”. But that duality finds an intermediate -in-between- third space, which is the Taypi, where a moment of shock, violence and contradiction is created between the two spaces. At the same time, this Taypi also unfolds into two, namely the Aka Pacha and Kä Pacha, that is to say the here-andnow, and the world of the unknown. The practice of walking, the so called Sarnaqawi, which is evidently a metaphor of the living, takes place in this here-and-now in the space of the now and this space is always related to making and distributing. So doing and walking are the two poles of the here-and-now.


All this seems very complex, but it is actually based in a simple method of praying that invokes the cosmos and its material realm within this shape. I have taken its way of arranging all elements as a starting point to trace the philosophical dimensions of the place were we are now, as a colonised culture living in the middle, in the quipanayra, the past-future of today. So for example, the “above” and “below” are not elements of a search for balance and a unity as in the ying-yang of oriental cultures, but are elements that refer to a historical contingency where all times are intertwined and represented in a helix, that is to say, that it is possible to walk in pursuit of fortune and misfortune, in pursuit of the sacred and the evil, where there is a risk and there is a sense of historical contingency. These are the elements I can give you about this cosmological arrangement, which displays the physical movements that the yatiris (shamans) make when they pray over the leafs on a cloth.






Victory Over The Sun* is an artistic-research project that explores the post-natural landscapes of the present. Rescuing old and new visions of the human relation to nature, power and technology, and projecting them into the present times we live in, the project seeks to explore current visions and understandings on our technological coexistence with the landscape, its visible and invisible materiality and the living cycles of the human and the non-human. The project was originally conceived as an intervention in public space, where a neon text was to be installed under the power lines in the outskirts of the city of Cologne, getting lit by the energy emanating from the high voltage cables. The idea was inspired by a demonstration that took place in Germany, where people demonstrated holding neon tubes in their hands under the power lines. The neon tubes would turn on as they connected the invisible flowing energy in the air with the earth, thus making this phenomenon visible to human eye. Given the negative from various energy companies to allow the installation of the intervention underneath their structures, the project became a long-term exploration of the landscape and the energy industry nearby Cologne. This location hosts both the world’s largest artificial sun and also Europe’s most infamous open-pit coal mine, which is located right beside a forest currently occupied by eco-activists living on trees as a means of resistance. A place that has become an icon in the struggle against extractivism and the exploitation of coal in the current times of energy transition. Victory over the Sun will be shown as an exhibition and an artist book gathering elements of these field-studies, bringing together topics such as electro-smog, radiesthesia, mining, resistance, shielding, time/space, occultism and re-naturalized landscapes; aiming to reflect on past, present and future visions on our material coexistence with man-made and natural energy fields, as well as their visible and invisible effects on the postnatural landscape of today. *The title of the project refers to the futurist opera written in 1923 by Aleksei Kruchenykh. In Victory Over the Sun, the sun is captured and brought from heaven to Earth, to be locked in a concrete bucket (symbolized on stage by Kazimir Malevich’s famous “Black Square”). The opera celebrated the dystopic independence of humankind from the sun and its cyclical system, through the -linear- generation of man’s own energy sources. By bringing this reference back to the present, the project also aimed at creating a crossover between the symbology of Russian futurism from the 20’s, the ancient cosmology of the pre-Hispanic Andean cultures and a speculative future as seen from the ecological crisis we are living today.


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Victory Over The Sun by Elisa Balmaceda

INTRODUCTION Inke Arns IMAGES Photos, collages, sketches, notes by the artist. ARCHIVE MATERIAL RWE Archiv (Essen). Rekultivierung RWE (Sophienhöhe). IGPP Institute - Feiburg (Occultism) DIALOGUES AND TEXT * Conversation with a worker at Synlight, recorded by the artist at the DLR facilities in Jülich (2018). * Dialogue with an occuper at the Hambacher Forest (identity not revealed), recorded by the artist in Hambach. * List of Living Species in the recultivated mountain of Sophienhöhe, RWE Archiv (2018). * Excerpt from the publication “Physical Factors of the Historical Process” (1926) by Alexander Chizhevsky, translated by Vladimir P. de Smitt (1976). * Explanation of “Taypi” based on a cosmological diagram by the andean sociologist and activist Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui, recorded by the artist in Santiago (2018). AKNOWLEDGMENTS Daniela Berglehn, DLR Synlight, IGPP Archiv, Hambacher Forest activists, DLR (Synlight), Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui, Inke Arns, Mario Gomes.

©elisabalmaceda 2020


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