Teen 01 2021-2022

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Your English Monthly

TEEN

B2/C1

®

Year XXXXII - N. 1 - September / October 2021 - Imprimé à Taxe Réduite

Teen People

Tom Holland

UK Today

Coventry –

UK City of Culture 2021

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Welcome to Teen! The summer is drawing to a close* and we’re at the start of autumn – a season of changing colours and moods. In this issue, we visit Coventry, the UK’s City of Culture 2021, take a fun look at some stereotypes about the UK, and meet the next generation of (high-tech) British farmers. We think about smart working, meet a marvellous Marvel movie actor, and explore the history of vaccines. And there are plenty of games and activities to help you on your way. Whatever you’re into*, there’s something for you here... happy reading!

N. 1 - September/October 2021 Common European Framework Intermediate Level (B2–C1) In this issue look out for: - idioms and expressions - present perfect v present tense - multi-word verbs - prefixes and suffixes - time expressions - the language of medicine, statistics, and the arts

Have fun,

Liz

Contents Audio A subscription to the magazine allows you to download for free, in MP3 format, the audio of all the magazines in the resources section of our website www.elilanguagemagazines.com.

Teacher’s guide For teachers, the subscription to the magazine allows you to download for free the audio material in MP3 format, as well as the teacher’s guide for all* the magazines available in PDF format.

NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS OR FOR ANY PURPOSES WITHOUT PRIOR PERMISSION. THE PUBLISHER IS PREPARED TO MAKE PAYMENT FOR ANY COPYRIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPHS WHERE THE SOURCE HAS BEEN IMPOSSIBLE TO TRACE. ALTHOUGH WE CHECK THE CONTENT AND SUITABILITY OF THE WEB SITES FEATURED OR REFERRED TO IN OUR MAGAZINES AT THE TIME OF GOING TO PRESS, WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY CHANGES WHICH MAY HAVE OCCURRED SINCE, AS THESE WEB SITES ARE IN NO WAY ASSOCIATED WITH ELI. ELI srl, C.P. 6, 62019 Recanati, Tel. (071) 750701, Fax (071) 977851 Direttore responsabile: Michele Casali. Realizzazione testi: Liz Ferretti. Autorizzazione Trib. di Macerata N. 237/84 del 4 luglio 1984. Realizzazione: Realizzazione: Tecnostampa, Loreto © ELI Italy 2021

Glossary drawing to a close: (idiom) coming to an end, finishing to be into (something): (idiom) to be really interested in raise the profile of: (multi-word verb) make better known cornerstone: (fig.) one of the most important parts of a thing then: at that time durum wheat semolina: hard central part of wheat grain, used to make couscous, pasta etc.

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Teen People Tom Holland UK Today Coventry – UK City of Culture 2021 Report Vaccines that Changed History Red, White and Blue Beyond the Stereotypes Around the World The Genius of Smart Working Culture and Society Back to the Land – With Robots Playstation

Around the World

World Pasta Day

On October 25th every year the world celebrates that most versatile and popular food – pasta. World Pasta Day started in 1995, when forty pasta producers from around the world met to discuss how to raise the profile of* this cornerstone* of the Mediterranean Diet. Pasta goes back to at least Roman times, when a mixture of water and flour similar to modern pasta was enjoyed. In 1787, Thomas Jefferson, the third American president, then* ambassador to France, visited Naples and discovered pasta. He fell in love with it, and took a pasta machine back with him to America. Today, pasta, made from durum wheat semolina* and water, is eaten on all five continents, as a nutritious, affordable and sustainable food. The Italians are most closely associated with pasta and between them have developed over 300 different types! Did you know that during lockdown top pasta brands had to increase production by 30–50%? Which type of pasta is your favourite?

True or false 1. International Pasta Day dates back to 1787. 2. Pasta is mainly consumed in Italy. 3. The Mediterranean diet excludes pasta. 4. Pasta is made from durum wheat semolina and water. 5. Italy produces 30-50% of the world’s pasta.

T

F

The answers are on page 15


idioms

Teen People

Tom Holland is Spider-Man, but what makes the half-man half-spider so agile* and acrobatic…? He’s a classically trained ballet dancer! Let’s meet this talented, funny, and sometimes shy, young actor.

Tom Holland

Passport

Name: Thomas Stanley Holland Place and Date of Birth: London (United Kingdom) 1 June 1996 Profession: actor and dancer Distinguishing Marks: the face of Peter Parker, aka* Spider Man, since 2016

Who is Tom Holland?

Tom was born into an artistic family. His mother is a photographer, his father a comedian and writer. He is the oldest of four children and lives near his parents in Kingston-upon-Thames in southwest London. In 2012 and 2013, he won several awards for his role in the film The Impossible, directed by J.A. Bayona, and since then has continued to win prizes for his appearances in Captain America – Civil War, as well as the Spider-Man movies. This has continued into 2021, with a nomination for ‘Best Voice Actor in an Animated Movie’ for Pixar animation, Onward, directed by Dan Scanlon. For all that, he’s still best known as the face of Spider-Man. Tom Holland hasn’t always felt at ease with* his fame, though. In an interview with magazine British GQ he revealed that he was uncomfortable at first when meeting fans.

Dancing and Singing

He began his career as a dancer and stage actor, learning street dance at a dance school in the London suburb of Wimbledon. Then he got a place at the famous BRIT School for Performing Arts & Technology. He was noticed by a choreographer from Billy Elliot the Musical and appeared in the West End* show first as Billy’s best friend, and then as Billy between 2008–2010. He began his film career as a voice actor, but in 2012 got an important part in the film The Impossible. International fame came when he played a teenage Peter Parker – the man behind Spider-Man – in Captain America: Civil War (2015). From that time, he’s been SpiderMan in Avengers: Infinity War (2018), Avengers: Endgame (2019), and a series of movies dedicated to the masked hero: Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), SpiderMan: Far from Home (2019), with the third

film in the series eagerly awaited* later this year – Spider-Man: No Way Home (2021).

What’s next for this young superhero?

After Spider-Man: No Way Home, Tom Holland will be starring in the action film adaptation of video game, Uncharted. But the youngest Spider-Man to date* also needs time to himself. Our superhero recently revealed to USA Today that once he’s finished filming current projects, he’ll be taking a break to travel and do some sport. He’d like to go skiing, which he’s never been able to do because of the risk of getting injured. Avoiding injury is one reason why Tom Holland likes golf so much – it’s practically impossible to get hurt playing golf! In the same interview, however, he also says he’d be happy to shoot ten more Marvel movies.

Tom Behind the Scenes*

His background in dance, with his athleticism, strength and agility, has been crucial in the most physically demanding scenes of the Spider-Man movies. Tom has a good sense of humour and doesn’t take himself too seriously*. He’s admitted that he was rejected by Disney for the role of Finn in Star Wars: The Force Awakens because he couldn’t stop laughing when he was rehearsing with someone pretending to be a robot and saying “Bleep, bloop bloop, bleep bloop”. Since 2012, he has been part of a campaign by the Anthony Nolan Trust aimed at young people, to raise awareness about bone marrow* donation. Tom loves his Staffordshire Bull Terrier, called Tessa. When he’s away he stays in touch with her

via FaceTime, and she even accompanies him to interviews.

Can You Keep a Secret?

Tom Holland found out he’d landed* the role of Spider-Man via Instagram! The actor told Hollywood Reporter that a month after his audition, he was sitting at home one evening when he read a post from Marvel saying they were revealing the new Spider-Man on their website. And who was it? “The new Spider-Man is Tom Holland”. Tom was on cloud nine* when he found out! It might surprise you to learn that Tom has a hard time* not letting the cat out of the bag* about the movies he’s in! On one famous occasion he revealed important details about Avengers: Infinity War just before the first screening. He is so well known for his spoilers* that Marvel filmed him with his mouth taped over* in a promotional video called “Say No to Spoilers”. He clearly doesn’t take himself too seriously!

Glossary agile: elegant, moves easily aka: also known as (pronounced a, k, a) feel at ease with: be comfortable with West End: London’s famous theatre district eagerly anticipated: when people are excited about a future event to date: to now behind the scenes: out of sight of the public doesn’t take himself seriously: can laugh at himself bone marrow: soft,

central part of our bones landed: (informal) got, was given to be on cloud nine: (idiom) to be incredibly happy to have a hard time doing something: (idiom) to find something difficult let the cat out of the bag: (idiom) reveal a secret spoilers: details about surprising or tense parts of a story or film mouth taped over: with sticky tape covering his mouth

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UK Today

prefixes and suffixes; language of sociology

Coventry – UK City of Culture 2021

An old industrial town, known in the past for its bicycles and cars, as well as for what happened to it during the Second World War and a famous eleventhcentury woman, is reinventing itself thanks to a successful bid to be the UK’s City of Culture 2021. What is Coventry and what makes it special? The Phoenix* From the Fire

Coventry’s large Jamaican population – with added elements of Punk and New Wave. A small settlement was established on Bands like Madness, The Specials and The the banks of the River Sherbourne many Selector, whose lead singer was Pauline Black, centuries ago in Shakespeare’s magical were at the forefront* of this new, multiracial Forest of Arden. It sounds heavenly, but musical sound. The name Two Tone came since then the forest has been cut down from the record label set up by The Specials’ and replaced by a concrete jungle, and in front man Jerry Dammers, and references the the 1960s, the river was sent underground where it flows slow and polluted through a fact that Two Tone bands, unlike the majority tunnel, only emerging again at the edges of of other bands at the time, were made up of the city. That just about sums up* Coventry. black, white and multiracial musicians. Two Tone had a huge influence on the Hidden and undervalued… During the 70s and 80s, as the old industries moved abroad fashion, politics and culture of the time, and to countries where the labour was cheaper, is a central part of Coventry’s City of Culture celebrations. Two good examples of Two Coventry entered a dark period. There was Tone are Madness’ One Step Beyond and The social unrest*, high unemployment and a lot of ugliness and unhappiness. On top of that, Coventry had been pretty much flattened* during the War, including its famous cathedral, and a lot of the historic centre was rebuilt in grey concrete. But out of the ashes* of those fires – real and metaphorical – a phoenix is emerging. In the 60s the city got an incredible new cathedral, and this year, it will get another boost from being the City of Culture.

Two Tone

Multicultural Coventry was the birthplace of Two Tone music. Born from a desire to heal the divisions of the Thatcher* era, this music has its roots firmly in Jamaican Ska of the 1960s – the result of the influence of

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Specials’ hit Ghost Town, both of which you can hear on YouTube.

Innovation

Coventry is in the Midlands – an area of England at the heart of the Industrial Revolution due to it having lots of coal. Coventry was known for being a centre of innovation. It was particularly famous for producing watches and clocks, then as technology developed, bicycles, and later motorbikes and cars. All modern bicycles are descended from the Rover Safety Cycle invented in Coventry in 1885! Most of that is gone now, of course, but one type of vehicle is still produced in


The new Coventry Cathedral is a fine example of modernist architecture. Built next to the shell of the old, fourteenth century cathedral, it is famous for its stained glass, modern art, and powerful tapestry of Christ in Glory – one of the biggest tapestries in the world – which hangs behind the altar. Coventry is a city of peace. In fact, it created the concept of twinning cities in different countries. During the War, the people of Coventry built links with Volgograd (then called Stalingrad), in recognition of the shared suffering of these two cities. After the war, the city twinned with Kiel and Dresden, two German cities that had also been almost destroyed by during the 1939-1945 conflict. Today, Coventry is twinned with 26 towns and cities around the world!

Coventry – the famous London taxis, known as black cabs. This amazing past has, like the River Sherbourne, been rather forgotten and buried. The City of Culture is changing those perceptions.

The Art of Culture

This year, as you might expect, the city has been given a new face. Colour and shape, and a large public fountain, have been added to its rather drab 1960s concrete centre, and there’s been a multi-million-pound revamp* of the city’s main theatre. Throughout the year of culture there is street theatre, music, circus, art and interactive exhibitions. The energy of the arts is also giving a voice to the marginalised*, with exhibitions involving homeless

Add prefixes to the words in brackets to fill in the gaps. Then match each sentence with its end. 1.

An old industrial city is _____________ (invent) itself…

2.

The River Sherbourne flows underground through the city centre...

3.

During the 70s and 80s, with the decline of Britain’s industries,...

4.

Coventry’s historic cathedral was bombed during the War…

5.

The Specials and The Selector were at the forefront…

6.

Twelve modern Lady Godivas have been selected...

A. Coventry was forgotten and _____________ (value). B. and _____________ (emerge) at the edges of the city . C. but was _____________ (build) during the 1950s and 60s. D. for their work with _____________ (advantage) and marginalised groups. E. thanks to a successful bid to be the UK’s City of Culture 2021. F. of this new, _____________ (race) musical sound, known as Two Tone.

Underline things modern Coventry is associated with. 1. 2. 3. 4.

its riverside culture concrete Jamaican culture the green economy

The answers are on page 15.

5. 6. 7. 8.

reconciliation and peace the modern bicycle social justice black cabs

people, as well as Pride* events, and a festival dedicated to positive action, run by the city’s young people.

And Coventry’s Most Famous Woman…?

Lady Godiva and her husband, the Earl Eofric, ruled this area of England during the eleventh century. She was, according to legend, unhappy that her husband was raising unfair taxes from the people of the area. Eofric got so sick of her complaining about it, he promised he would reduce taxes if she rode through the city naked… What do you think Lady Godiva did next? She kept him to his promise of course! The townspeople were told to look away, and Godiva rode through the city naked except for her famously long hair. Her actions to help the local people have never been forgotten. As part of the City of Culture celebrations, the city launched a search to find modern-day Lady Godivas. They asked the people of Coventry to nominate women who embody* the spirit of activism and social justice that Lady Godiva was famous for. Twelve women were chosen for their work helping their communities, fighting for the rights of disadvantaged people, campaigning for mental health support for health workers, helping the city’s large Asian population, and providing support for struggling* families. Through these 12 amazing women, the original Godiva, usually only remembered for being naked, is now being commemorated above all for her fight to improve the lives of the people.

Glossary phoenix: mythical bird that is born in the fire sum up: describe something in a few words unrest: public demonstrations and disorder flattened: destroyed (literally ‘made flat’) ashes: the dust left after a fire Thatcher: UK’s first female Prime Minister (1979-1990); she was / is a divisive political

figure at the forefront: (here) were the leaders revamp: make something look new and more modern marginalised: people seen as unimportant, on the edges of society Pride: (here) with a focus on LGBTQi+ / gay rights embody: are examples of struggling: having a lot of difficulties

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Report

Vaccines that Changed History

Vaccines have been one of the most important ways that we have improved our health and extended our average life span. Let’s take a closer look at this scientific success story.

The current pandemic has created a lot of uncertainty. Some people have worried about the effectiveness of the new vaccines against COVID-19, or about possible side effects, while others have been concerned about the slow rollout* of vaccines. But, if we take a step back from the immediate crisis and look into the history of medicine we see that vaccinations are safe, and have saved many millions of lives, especially children. In ancient times it was understood that people who’d been ill with a disease didn’t usually contract* the same disease again. This discovery led to the development of ‘variolation’ which, as far back as the 15th century, was already widespread* in China. In the first documented examples, doctors in China took dried and powdered* scabs*

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years earlier, English doctor Edward Jenner created the world’s first proper vaccine – against smallpox, one of the world’s most feared diseases at the time. Jenner’s discovery came from his observation that people who milked cows and fell ill with cowpox – a mild form of smallpox – did not become seriously ill, but were afterwards immune to human smallpox. Jenner decided to test this discovery on an eight-year-old boy, the son of his gardener, injecting* him with pus* Smallpox While reports of variolation arrived in Europe he’d scraped from pustules* on the hands of a farm worker called Sarah Nelms who was from China, India and Sudan, it wasn’t until suffering from cowpox. The result? The child the seventeenth century that the practice became immune to the human smallpox of inoculation became more widespread in Europe. In 1796, basing his work on pioneers, virus. The world’s first organised vaccination such as the now-forgotten Sutton family programme was conducted against smallpox from the English county of Suffolk who had in the Spanish colonies of South America in developed safe inoculation practices a few from people with a mild form of smallpox* and administered* them to healthy people. However, this practice was quite unsafe because it used a live virus and that carried the risk of spreading the disease. The idea behind variolation was good but our understanding of the causes of disease, and the tools to combat them, were still primitive! Let’s find out what happened next.


time expressions; language of medicine

What does the phrase ‘herd immunity’ mean? Also known as population immunity, herd immunity is when the majority of a population has been vaccinated, protecting them as well as people who cannot be vaccinated for medical or other reasons, from a particular disease.

Rabies

the early 1800s. The plan included twentytwo orphaned* children aged between 3 and 9 who were infected with cowpox and shipped out from Spain as a living source of virus! Napoleon had his army vaccinated against smallpox and gave Edward Jenner a medal, even though France and Britain were at war, saying “Jenner! Ah, we can refuse nothing to this man”. Between 1966 and 1980 the World Health Organisation ran the Smallpox Eradication* Programme. The programme ended in 1980 when this deadly disease was officially declared eradicated.

In the late 1800s, Louis Pasteur demonstrated that infectious diseases are caused by tiny living things which we now know as bacteria, and he made a chance discovery which proved that the effect of these diseases can be mitigated*. Pasteur noted that some old cultures of chicken cholera in his laboratory produced an attenuated, or weakened, version of the virus after they were exposed to oxygen for a period of time. Pasteur tested this attenuated, but still live, virus on chickens. The birds gained immunity* to the disease without showing severe symptoms. In 1885, Pasteur used the same procedure to attenuate the dog-borne* rabies virus, successfully testing the vaccine, made using material grown in live rabbits, on a nine-year-old boy who had been bitten by an infected dog. The young boy recovered from this severe disease after 12 injections and 2 weeks in bed. After this, vaccines began to be prepared in laboratory conditions. However, vaccination was still carried out on a voluntary basis.

Explain the following terms associated with vaccination. a. b. c. d.

Variolation ……………………………………………………………………….......….......................... Serum therapy ……………………………………………………………….…………..........................    Attenuated virus …………………………………………………………………………....................... Vaccination programme …………………………………………………………………………..........

Fill in the gaps with the correct word. • smallpox • Louis Pasteur • Edward Jenner • South America • China • tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis (polio)

The answers are on page 15.

1. The practice of variolation was widespread in …………….......………… at least as early as the fifteenth century. 2. Vaccine pioneer, …………….......………… , developed a vaccine against smallpox. 3. The first international vaccination programme was conducted in …………….......………… in the early 1800s. 4. …………….......………… developed a vaccine against Rabies. 5. In the second half of the twentieth, a global vaccination programme led by the WHO, succeeded in eradicating …………….......………… . 6. In the first half of the twentieth century, serum-based vaccines against …………….......………… were developed.

The four biggest producers of Covid vaccines currently are China, followed by the US, Germany/Belgium, and India.

Diphtheria, Tetanus and Poliomyelitis

In 1901, German physiologist, Emil von Behring, received the first Nobel Prize for Medicine for research, carried out with Shibasaburo Kitasato, on an effective serum (serum is the fluid part of blood that includes antibodies, antigens, proteins and hormones) against tetanus. These ‘serum’ vaccines, which included a serum against diphtheria, were prepared using the blood serum of infected animals that had developed antibodies to the disease. Serum therapy has been reused during recent Ebola epidemics, and is currently under investigation as a possible therapy against Covid-19. Both von Behring and Kitasato were students of Robert Koch in Berlin. Koch is credited with isolating the different bacteria that cause tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax. In 1950, Polish virologist Hilary Koprowski working in the US, demonstrated the first live attenuated polio vaccine. Later in the 1950s, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin made vaccines against polio using different techniques, including in vitro* replication of the virus. These discoveries and the development of many other vaccines have lead to the systematic vaccination of billions of people around the world. By training the immune system to develop antibodies to diseases without causing serious symptoms, vaccines have significantly improved, and saved, the lives of millions of people. What do you think about vaccines?

Glossary factors: (here) parts, ingredients rollout: when a new product (here, vaccine) is made available to many people contract: get (a disease; emphasis on second syllable) widespread: found in a large area/number of people powdered: dried and in very small pieces, like dust scabs: dry surface of a wound on skin when healing smallpox: acute, contagious, viral disease administered: given (by a doctor to a patient) injecting: put a liquid, e.g. vaccine, into the body via

a syringe pus: thick yellow/green liquid produced by the body when infected pustules: spot containing pus (above) orphaned: without a mother or father eradication: when you remove something completely immunity: when the body resists infection using antibodies in the blood mitigated: when you make something less bad dog-borne: carried by dogs in vitro: work carried out in a laboratory (e.g. in a glass test tube)

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