L. Prodromou with R. Elliott
For the Teacher Step-by-step teaching notes, tips and background notes on cultural issues Wide offer of photocopiable testing materials Editable tests in the Multi-ROM Test Maker FLIP BOOK An interactive, IWB-compatible version of the Coursebook containing all recordings, links, reference materials and extras
INTERMEDIATE STUDENT ’S BOOK
Clearly-structured units Double linguistic input in each unit Focus on authentic real-world language Clearly structured grammar presentations Extensive recycling and review of language Exploitation of different learning styles and mixed-ability features Culture, CLIL and Literature lessons in every unit Graded and practical study-skills guide Grammar reinforcement with extensive explanations and practice in the Workbook
FL ASH on English
FLASH on English is a motivating, easy-to-use, four-level course which takes teenage learners from Elementary through to Upper Intermediate level. The comprehensive syllabus provides thorough grammar, vocabulary and skills work, builds students’ language awareness and encourages fluency and self-confidence. The combination of printed, digital and online material enhances the learning experience and helps teachers respond to students’ needs.
Course components Student’s Book Workbook with Audio CD Teacher’s Resource Pack Class Audio CDs Multi-ROM Test Maker Teacher’s FLIP BOOK Flash on English Online Resources Common European Framework
A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
Welcome to Flash on English Flash on English is your new English language course. On these two pages you will find some information to help you learn to use your text book. Flash on English contains 10 units, organised in this way: Double linguistic input
Flash Forward activities
Each unit opens with a first presentation text which can be in various formats (article, email, report). The second presentation text is in the form of a dialogue with a photostory. This follows the daily life of a group of London teenagers who are dealing with their day-to-day problems and aspirations for the future. Examples of grammatical structures and functions are presented in the Grammar and the Functions boxes, in a concise and clear form to allow the student full autonomy in carrying out the activities. The Flashpoint box highlights particular language structures that are commonly used.
keep fast finishers busy.
Listen â&#x20AC;&#x2122;nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speak page help to further develop and consolidate listening techniques to improve oral production. The Spoken English section familiarises students with colloquial expressions used by native speakers. The Flash on Grammar page is dedicated to presenting the grammar structures.
P T PET and Trinity exam practice
WB p. 8 refers to the correspondent exercises in the Workbook
The Flash on Skills section helps the students to develop their four language skills. Placed at the end of each unit, it alternately presents three types of text material. CULTURE Focuses on social and cultural aspects of the English-speaking world. CLIL Texts targeted to an interdisciplinary approach to language learning on contemporary topics of interest to students. LITERATURE Texts aimed at familiarising students with literary genres, in both prose and verse. Effective study and learning techniques are presented in each unit.
The main grammar items are presented schematically in the Grammar Reference at the end of the book, with information about grammar rules and extensive examples.
The Flash on CLIL section contains reading passages covering cross-curricular topics. It aims to stimulate the interest of students by providing them with content that is genuinely accessibile, interesting and meaningful. The activities help students develop reading and vocabulary skills. It can be used as extra reading material in the classroom or at home for self-study.
Present perfect continuous Purpose and reason
Sports equipment Sporting locations Football phrases
Talking about sport Expressing purpose
Second conditional too/enough
Global problems Word building
Talking about global problems Expressing ideas
used to for past actions and states would vs used to
Childhood Negative feelings
Talking about states in the past Describing fears
The passive (1) Question tags
Electronic media Computers
Describing simple processes Expressing surprise and disbelief
Relative pronouns Relative clauses
Art and styles Parts of a picture
Describing a picture
Past perfect Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns
Music Musical instruments
Talking about past events
A Better World p. 16
Popular Legends p. 26
The Food of Love p. 52
Pronunciation/ Spoken English
/T/ vs /f/
Culture – The Olympic Games
Second conditional – stress and intonation Giving examples
used to vs use Hyperbole
Reading An article about the Olympic Games Listening A talk about an international sports charity Speaking A fundraising speech Writing A website article about a sporting event
CLIL – What was the Great Depression?
Tips for speaking
Listening Americans talking about the Great Depression Reading A text about the Great Depression Speaking An explanation of the Great Depression Writing An election manifesto
Literature – Dracula by Bram Stoker
Tips for listening
Reading A plot summary Listening An extract from the book Writing A first-person account by one of the characters in the book Speaking A first-person account by one of the characters in the book
Culture – Smart Surfing – How can I be safer on the Net?
Using study cards
Reading An article about internet safety Speaking A discussion about internet safety Listening A description of a well-known website Writing A description of a favourite website or device
w sound which
had/hadn’t Active listening
CLIL – The Italian Renaissance: Vasari’s Lives
Reading An article about Giorgio Vasari Listening An extract from Vasari’s Life of Michelangelo Writing A paragraph about Michelangelo, using linkers Speaking A discussion about a favourite artist
Literature – High Fidelity
Listening A radio programme about the author Reading A summary of the book Writing A compilation of songs; a message using connectors Speaking A description and explanation of a mix tape
Too Much TV
Reported speech Verb + infinitive/Verb + -ing
Hobbies and leisure TV programmes
Reporting what people say
Reported questions Causatives
Personality adjectives Jobs
Describing personal qualities Suggesting someone does something
The passive (2) Comparative adverbs
The environment Saving the environment
Describing simple processes Giving advice
Third conditional wish
Phrasal verbs Expressions with time
Expressing regrets and wishes
Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve Got Rights! p. 70
Flash on CLIL
Grammar Reference p. 108 Audioscripts
Media Studies: On air (p. 98), History: World War II (p. 100), Science: Units of measurement (p. 102), Geography: The Commonwealth (p. 104), Politics: The European Union (p. 106)
Pronunciation/ Spoken English
Voiced and unvoiced consonants
Culture – TV around the world
Tips for reading (1)
Compound words Impersonal you/one
Connected speech Repetition
Third conditional - connecting Saying goodbye
Listening An interview about global TV Reading A text on global TV Speaking A discussion and report about alternatives to watching TV Writing A paragraph about alternatives to watching TV
CLIL – Genes and genius
Tips for reading (2)
Listening A talk about genes Reading A text about genius Speaking A discussion about intelligence Writing A biographical text about a genius
Literature – Concrete poems
How to write a concrete poem
Reading A text about concrete poems Listening Three concrete poems Speaking A personal opinion of a concrete poem Writing A concrete poem
Culture – If Antony hadn’t fallen in love… Listening The story of Antony and Cleopatra Reading A text about the birth of globalisation Speaking A discussion about how Romans changed the world Writing A text about globalisation today
PET Listening PET Reading PET Speaking
It’s a sporting life!
Match the words to the photos.
motor racing 2
1.02 Now listen and read the interviews (1-4). Complete the blanks with the names of the sports.
Interviewer How long have you been ? Sportsman I’ve been ever since I was 12.
Interviewer Do you also enjoy watching
competitions? Sportsman Yeah, I’ve just been watching the final on TV,
but I prefer to do it, you know, to get on the slopes and feel the wind in my face. Interviewer (2) ______________ Sportsman Well, people in Norway have been for centuries, because of the snow.
Interviewer Why is so popular in France? Sportsman Well, we’ve been organising
competitions since 1894. It has been getting more popular but competition has also been getting tougher. Interviewer Has the sport been getting faster? Sportsman Yes, speeds now reach over 300 km an hour at some circuits. (5) ______________
Interviewer How long have you been managing
teams? Well, I retired as a player ten years ago and I’ve been training teams since then… Interviewer What do you look for in a good player? Trainer Well, (6) ______________ ; players have been getting taller and taller. Interviewer And faster? Trainer Yes, of course, speed on the court is important: players have been getting faster and they are better at getting the ball in the basket – scores have been getting higher and higher… Trainer
Interviewer Have you been playing long? Sportsman We’ve been playing for ten years. Interviewer You’ve won the Cup many times:
(3) ______________ Sportsman We get the most balls into the net! And we’ve been practising for years, you know, we train in a pool every day. We’re good swimmers! It’s been an Olympic sport for over 100 years. (4) ______________
1.02 Put the sentences (a-f) in gaps 1-6 in the
text. Then listen again and check your answers.
a how did you do that? b height is important; c It started in England in 1900. d My mum and dad taught me. e This makes it more dangerous. f When did people in Norway begin the sport?
FLASH FORWARD Write a brief description of the most popular sports in your country. Have your country’s athletes done well internationally in these sports? In which events?
Vocabulary: Sports equipment
1.03 Match the words to the correct photos, then listen and check. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
surfboard racket whistle basket skis net rugby ball boxing gloves golf ball golf club
Vocabulary: Sporting locations 5
1.04 Match the words in the boxes to make
compound nouns, then listen and check. racing car football basketball golf boxing ice-skating sports ski ring
rink stadium slope circuit court course pitch
Present perfect continuous We’ve been playing for ten years. How long have you been skiing? Find more examples of this structure in the interviews. Underline them.
Make questions using the words in brackets.
1 You’re wet. (walk / in / the rain?) Have you been walking in the rain? 2 Sorry, I’m late. (wait / a long time?) 3 You look tired. (how long / work?) 4 Your English is excellent. (how long / have / classes?) 5 Your boyfriend’s really cool. (go out / for a long time?) 6 You’ve got chocolate on your face. (eat / chocolate?)
Say it! 8
Complete the sentences with the Present perfect continuous.
1 I started playing football ten years ago. I still have been playing football for play football. I ________________ ten years. 2 People started playing football 150 years ago. They still play football. People _____________ for 150 years. 3 They started skiing at 3 o’clock. They are still skiing. They _____________ since 3 o’clock. 4 The first tennis game was in the 15th century. People still play tennis. People _____________ since the 15th century. 5 I started playing tennis in July. I’m still learning now. I _____________ since July. 6 We started watching the match an hour ago. We’re still watching now. We _____________ for an hour.
How ‘sporting’ are you? Complete this chart for (a) sports you have played and still play, (b) sports you have seen in person and (c) sports you have only watched on TV. Don’t write the name of the sport.
When did you start playing/watching?
ball ______ ______
pitch ______ ______
2005 ______ ______
6 years ______ ______
T Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions to 9 find out about your partner’s sports.
A What equipment do you use in this sport? B I use a racket... A Where do you play it? B On a court. A How long have you been doing/watching it? B I’ve been playing for two years. A Is it tennis? B Yes!
He’s given away a penalty! 1
1.05 Listen and read. Who is an idiot? Why?
Anna It hasn’t been a very good game… Robyn Nobody’s scored… Anna Why are they passing the ball to Robinson all the time? Antonio So he can score. He’s United’s best player. Michael Well, he’s been having a bad game. Look, now he’s lost the ball. Antonio … and he was offside… Anna I’ve never understood the offside rule. Michael Yeah, I’ve been trying to understand it for years… I’ll tell you… it’s when… Robyn … a player gets the ball in the other team’s half of the pitch, he must have a player from the opposite team between him and the goal. Michael Wow, I’m impressed! How do you know that? Robyn I’ve been reading the rules so I can understand the game… Michael Really? Robyn No, I just googled ‘offside…’ Anna But what’s the point? Antonio It’s to make it more difficult to score… a corner… no, it’s out… Michael Look, Paulino’s going to take the throw-in… Antonio Robinson’s got the ball; he’s been trying to score for the last twenty minutes… Michael It’s a foul; he’s committed a foul… oh, no, a penalty… he’s given away a penalty! Antonio That wasn’t a penalty… the referee’s an idiot… Michael Oh, no, the referee’s sending him off… I think we’ve lost this match. Anna Why don’t they use video to check the referee’s decisions?
Read the statements and write T (true) or F (false), then correct the false statements.
1 United are losing. 2 Robinson is a good player. 3 Michael doesn’t understand the offside rule. 4 Robyn has read a book about football. 5 Robinson wins a penalty. 6 Robinson commits a foul.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Put these words in the correct order to make questions. Then ask and answer in pairs.
1 2 3 4 5 6
United / how / many / goals / have / scored? best / player / who / is / United’s? game / been / who / has / having / a / bad? offside rule / why / Robyn / learn / the / did? who / been / to / score / has / trying? the / referee / who / did / send / off?
FLASH FORWARD Describe a sporting event you have been to. What was the sport? Was it a good game/ event? Who was the best/worst player? What was the result? If you’ve never been to a game or you don’t like sport, explain why.
Vocabulary: Football phrases
4 H ow many words and phrases that have to do with sport can you find in the dialogue? Add them to the table below. Verbs
score, pass, lose, __________________ __________________
game, player, ball, __________________ __________________
5 Think of a sports person you admire. Why do you like him/her? Choose some reasons from the list below and then add your own reasons.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
He/She sport. He/She He/She He/She He/She He/She He/She He/She
is the best player in the team/in their does things nobody else can do. is good-looking. is polite and generous to other players. is competitive and likes to win. plays according to the rules. cares about social problems. is good to their friends and family.
I’m studying hard to pass the driving test. In order to take part in the national race, you’ve got to win several local tournaments. ‘Why are you in a hurry?’ ‘So we can see the movie!’
Say it! 8
recently and why. Ask about sport, free time, study, school, English, shopping...
football phrases, then listen and check.
1 take 2 lose 3 make 4 score 5 hit 6 commit 7 pass
a a goal b a foul c the ball d the post/bar e 1 a corner f the match g a tackle
Purpose and reason ‘Why are they passing the ball to Robinson all the time?’ ‘So he can score.’ It’s to make it more difficult to score… Find more examples of these structures in the dialogue. Underline them.
Give reasons in answer to these questions.
1 Why are they passing the ball to Robinson all the time? So he can score. 2 Why do they have the offside rule in football? 3 Why did Robyn google ‘offside’? 4 Why did Paulino take the throw-in? 5 Why should they use video in football matches?
A What have you been studying recently? B I’ve been studying English. A Why? B To prepare for my exams next month.
9 Think of why people do these things. Ask and answer questions giving as many reasons as you can. Then swap roles. go to school go out with friends have cars sleep play football read books shake hands use mobile phones play video games get married learn English go on a diet
1.06 Match the words below to make 6
T Find out what your partner has been doing
A Why do people play football? B They play football to score goals. A Why? B To win the match. A Why… ?
10 T Find as much information as you can about your favourite sportsperson and write a short biography.
My favourite sportsperson is Michael Phelps; he is the most decorated Olympian of all time, with 22 medals. He is the world recordholder in the 100-meter butterfly, 200-meter butterfly and 400-meter individual medley as well as the world recordholder in the 200-meter freestyle and 200-meter individual medley.
Michael was born in 1985 near Baltimore, in Maryland…
Listen’n’speak Street football Our vision of the future: to use football to change the world!
Pronunciation: \T\ vs \f\ 4
1.08 Listen and repeat. think
feet festival finger
1.09 Listen and write these words in the 5 correct column. fin thin fought thought mouth fill theft thick south throw athlete
1 Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Give reasons why/why not.
1 We can use football to change the world. 2 Football is a beautiful game. 3 Kids can play football and learn other things. 4 Football can help us learn foreign languages. 5 Football helps us understand people from other countries. 6 Girls can play football.
thin, _______________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________
fin, ________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________
1.10 Now listen, check your answers and 6 repeat the words.
Spoken English: so The word so helps to make conversation flow. We use so: to connect sentences: I wanted to play football so we went to the park. to start a new topic: A That was a nice meal. B So, where do you want to go tomorrow? to summarise: So, you like pop music? to ask for confirmation: So, kids play football and learn other things at the same time?
Listening 1.07 Michael is interviewing someone 2 from the organisation ‘streetfootballworld’. Listen and tick the points in exercise 1 that the speaker mentions. 1.07 P Listen again and choose the 3 correct answer.
1 How many member organisations are in the ‘streetfootballworld’ network? About: a 18 b 80 c 180
3 When was ‘streetfootballworld’ founded? a 2002 b 2006 c 2010
4 How many teams took part in the festival in Germany? a 4 b 20 c 24
5 The kids at the festival in Germany were... a the best football players. b interested in social problems. c good students.
8 1.11 Listen and compare your answers with the speakers. Then practise the dialogue in pairs.
Why does ‘streetfootballworld’ exist? a To help children play better football. b To change the rules of football. c To change the world through football.
7 Make this dialogue more natural by adding so in two places. A It was a great game today. B Do you think we’re going to win the cup? A We may do. It depends. B Well, do you fancy going out for coffee? A Yeah, let’s go to that new place in town. B OK, it’s not very expensive. Friends went and they really liked it. A Are you ready?
Flash on Grammar Present perfect continuous
Purpose and reason
We use the Present perfect continuous (have/has + been + ing form) to describe: actions which started in the past and which continue to the moment of speaking It’s been raining since this morning.
We use the infinitive with to/in order to/so (that) to express reason or purpose. In order to is more formal. We went to the stadium to see/in order to see our team play. We use the infinitive with to/in order to before a verb. Why do they train all the time? To keep fit./In order to keep fit.
the result of an action or event It’s been raining, look at the road! an action which has just stopped It’s been raining but it has stopped.
We use so that before a clause (a subject and a verb). They train all the time so (that) they can keep fit.
how long something has lasted It’s been raining for hours. WB p. 4
FLASHPOINT I’ve read the sports paper. (the focus is on the completion of the action) I’ve been reading the sports paper for 2 hours and I’ve just finished it. (the focus is on how long the action has been continuing for, even if it is now completed)
1 Put the verbs in brackets in the Present perfect continuous.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I _________ (learn) English for five years. We _________ (wait) outside the cinema for ten minutes. Robyn _________ (not/go out) with Michael for very long. Have _________ (wait) long? Sorry! You are very dirty – what _________ (do)? How long _________ (sit) in that chair? They _________ (surf) on the Net all day! I _________ (not/feel) very well. I think I’ve got a cold.
2 Complete these sentences with the Present perfect simple or the Present perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.
1 I have __________ 50 text messages today. sent I ________________ have been writing them all day. (send/write) 2 I _________ my exams! I’m going on holiday! (finish) 3 We _________ to win the cup for years and now we _________ it! (try/win) 4 People _________ football since 1848. (play) 5 The English football association _________ since 1863. (exist) 6 Brazil _________ the World Cup five times. (win) 7 They _________ for nearly 90 minutes and they _________ a single goal. (play/not score) 8 We can’t play football. It _________ all day. (snow)
WB p. 5
3 Choose the correct word or phrase. 1 I’ve started learning Spanish because/so that I’m going to Spain for my holidays. 2 I’m having tennis lessons so/in order to I can improve my game. 3 I go for a walk in the park to/so keep fit. 4 She took up a sport in order to/so that make new friends. 5 Some people only go to football matches to/ so make trouble.
4 Read the interview with Tony, a world skateboarding champion, and fill in the gaps with one word. A B A B A B A B A B A B A B
Tony, when did you get your first skateboard? I was 4 years old. So you’ve (1)_______ skateboarding for 16 years! Yeah, my mum and dad bought me the skateboard (2) _______ get me out of the house. And did it work? Well, they did it (3) _______ order to keep me quiet but I (4) _______ been skateboarding ever since. How (5) _______ have you been skateboarding professionally? Since I was 14 years old. And you’ve been (6) _______ part in competitions all that time? Yes, but I’ve been (7) _______ more time at home in the last few months… Why, so (8) _______ you can get on with school? No, not really, you see, I want to stay home (9) _______ spend more time on the business. The business? Yeah, you see, I’ve (10) _______ running my own skateboarding company, with my mum and dad.
1.12 Now listen and check your answers.
Flash on Skills The Olympic Games Before you read 1
What do you know about the Olympics? Do this quiz to find out.
1 The Olympic rings stand for... 6 The Russians have been taking part in the Games since... a the five senses. b the five continents. a 1908. b 1952. 2 How long is the marathon race? 7 Which country has never won a medal? a 24 km. b 42 km. a Italy. b El Salvador. 3 The first modern Olympics were in... 8 Which country has won the most medals? a 1896. b 1921. a USA. b China. 4 Women have taken part in the Games since... 9 The UK has hosted the Summer Olympics... a 1896. b 1900. a once. b three times. 5 There were no Games in... 10 How many medals has the UK won so far at the Summer Olympics? a 1920. b 1944. a 628. b 780.
Now read the text to check your answers.
The Olympic Flag The five rings of the Olympic flag symbolise the five continents.
Real Gold Medals The Olympic ‘gold’ medals haven’t been real gold since 1912.
The First Marathon In 490 BC, a Greek soldier ran from Marathon to Athens to inform the Athenians that the war with Persia was over. ‘We’ve won’ he said, and fell down and died. The first modern marathon, in 1896, at the first modern Olympic Games, was approximately the same length as the first marathon (42.195 kilometres).
Women Women did not take part in the first modern Olympics in 1896. They have been participating in the Olympics since the second Games in 1900.
Cancelled Games Because of World War I and World War II, there were no Olympic Games in 1916, 1940 and 1944.
Russia Not Present Only a few Russian athletes took part in the 1908 and 1912 Olympics. Russia has been competing regularly since the 1952 Games.
Worst records Saudi Arabia has never won a gold Olympic medal. They have been competing since 1972. El Salvador has also never won an Olympic medal.
Best records The USA has won more medals (2,189) at the Summer Games than any other country. They have taken part in all of the Games except in 1980.
UK at the Olympics The UK is one of only three nations (France and Switzerland are the others) to have competed at every Summer and Winter Olympic Games. London was the first and only city to host the Olympics on three occasions (in 1908, 1948 and 2012). Athletes representing the UK have won 780 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, and another 22 at the Winter Olympic Games. The UK is the only team to have won at least one gold medal at every Summer Games.
Read the text again and answer these questions.
1 Who ran the first marathon and why? 2 Why were there no Olympics in 1940 and 1944? 3 How long has Saudi Arabia been taking part in the Games? 4 Which Games did the USA miss? 5 When did the UK host the Olympic Games?
Work in pairs. Imagine you are an ambassador for International Inspiration. Make a speech to collect money for the organisation: say why it is a good thing, why you need the money, etc.
1.13 P You will hear someone talking about ‘International Inspiration’. Choose the correct answer.
1 ‘International Inspiration’ aims to... a improve the lives of children and young people around the world. b improve the lives of children and young people in the UK. c make children and young people more aware of the Games.
2 ‘International Inspiration’ works in...
a the developed world. b the developing world. c the whole world.
4 In how many countries is ‘International Inspiration’ already working? a 12. b 10. c 8.
5 Which of these countries is not mentioned? a India. b Paraguay. c Jordan.
6 How many schools will the organisation link by 2012? a 200. b 100. c 300.
‘International Inspiration’ wants children to... a take part in the Games. b do more sport. c work harder at school.
Who are the ambassadors for ‘International Inspiration’? a Top sports stars. b Top film stars. c Famous athletes.
Extensive reading is when you read a lot of text quickly to get the main idea about a topic you like and are interested in. The Internet, like books, can be a very useful source of reading material. You can read a lot of material, you can choose what to read and you don’t have to stop and explain the text, just keep reading. Tips! Don’t stop, keep reading when you don’t understand a word. Don’t choose very difficult texts. Choose ‘easy’ texts so you can read quickly. If you do want to check a word, use an online dictionary. Use the Internet to find texts you like. When you stop reading, make a few brief notes about what you have read. Try not to take notes while you are reading: keep going.
Use the Internet to find out interesting facts about an international sports event e.g. the Winter Olympics, the Football World Cup... Read and find out the following about the event.
The Flag Medals The First Competition Important people connected with the sport Women in the sport Worst/Best records How it has changed over the years Your country in the competition
T Write a text (about 130 words) for a
website summing up the information collected from the Internet: use the text and headings above as a model. Then swap your texts with other students. Read each other’s work and learn from each other.
A Better World The world we live in
Match the photos to the problems.
natural disasters 3
1.14 Listen and read the text. Which of the problems in exercise 1 are mentioned?
If the world were a village… The last century was a century of war, disease, natural disasters, poverty and pollution. What can we do to make this century better? Would you manage if you had fewer possessions? Would you be happy if you didn’t have a roof over your head? Let’s think about our global village. Today, if the earth were a village with only 100 people in it, the village would look something like this:
60 people in the village would be Asians. 12 people would be Europeans. 9 would be from (1) _____________ America. 5 people would be from North America. 13 people would be Africans. 1 person would be from Oceania (Australia and the Pacific Islands). 50 people would be women. 50 people would be (2) _____________ . 33 people would be Christian. 67 people would be non-Christian. 41 people would live in towns and (3) _____________ . 9 people would be disabled.
43 people would not have a health system to protect them from disease. 18 people would not drink clean water. 6 people would (4) _____________ 59% of the wealth of the village. 33 people would suffer from malnutrition. 16 people would not be able to read: they would be (5) _____________ . 88 people wouldn’t have a computer. 92 people wouldn’t have an (6) _____________ connection. 48 people would live on two US dollars a day.
So, if you have a house, food and clothes, you are luckier than 75% of the world’s population. So, be grateful for your good luck and do your best to make the world a better place for others.
1.14 Read the text again and put these words in the gaps. Then listen again and check your answers.
FLASH FORWARD Which of the above facts are a) surprising and b) worrying? Write some notes about the things you feel grateful for in your life.
Second conditional If the earth were a village, I person would be from Oceania. Would you manage if you had fewer possessions? Would you be happy if you didn’t have a roof over your head?
Vocabulary: Global problems 5
Put the words into the correct category in the table below. disease bullying loneliness terrorism drugs human rights climate change illiteracy robbery racism unemployment
Find more examples of the second conditional in the text. Underline them.
In written English we use were in all persons in the if clause. If I were you…/If she were here…
In spoken English we often say: If I was…/If she was...
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. You can use contractions such as I’d (I would). 1 If I ______ knew (know) the answer, I’ _____ d tell you (tell). 2 I would spend more money on education if I ______ (be) Prime Minister. 3 If the world were a village, 50 people ______ (be) men. 4 If I ______ (have) the power, I ______ (stop) pollution. 5 If I ______ (have) a computer, I ______ (surf) the Internet. 6 If fast food ______ (not/be) cheap, people ______ (not/eat) it. 7 What ______ you ______ (do) if you ______ (have) a million euros? 8 ______ we ______ (have) fewer wars if women ______ (have) more power? 9 He _____ (play) basketball if he _____ (be) taller. 10 She ______ (not/live) in Brazil if she ______ (marry) an American.
1.15 Listen and check.
Say it! 7
Which of the problems above are the most serious in your country? Why?
How could we solve the problems above? In pairs, make suggestions using the ideas below and your own ideas. build new hospitals make electric cars cheaper create jobs have more police officers have more doctors have stricter laws punish drug traffickers
If we built more schools, there would be less illiteracy.
Write it! 9
T Now collect your ideas and write an article of about 130 words on global problems and their solutions.
If I ruled the world 1
1.16 Read and listen to the texts. Robyn is writing an article for Teenscene called ‘If I ruled the world’. She is interviewing her friends.
ies ch countr e world, ri th y, d a le d o ru T I . ‘If tries poor coun a lp n e a h th ld s u s wo ake le m le p o e p f gh to millions o not enou y. That’s a d a buy r a to ll r do o poo ey are to h T ren. . d n il o h e c liv for their s e th lo c ate. food and the birth-r o reduce ls a ld u to o w I people too many ne We have ld have o u I would o ilies sh m a ployment: F m . e d n e u fe , y ; ll a in ng people ildren. F lly for you or two ch ia c .’ e p rs s e e v ool lea w jobs, bs for sch create ne jo h g u o not en there are
‘We don’t do enough to help students . I’d give more money to schools and I would change the education system. It’s to o old-fashioned . I would get older kids to help the youn ger ones, so ch would learn fr ildren om each other . If I ruled the world, everyo ne would hav e a good hom live in. There e to wouldn’t be an y slums and th wouldn’t be an ere y beggars on the streets…’
‘If I ruled the world, I would build more hospitals. The rich would pay more tax and there would be a better health system for all. People shouldn’t die because they can’t afford to go to hospital. Medicines now are too e them free expensive for a lot of people, I’d mak re would be a for the very poor. Oh, yes, and the e singers and lot of free concerts with our favourit just joking.’ ty… par bands. Life would be one big
Complete these sentences with information from the text. Use a word or phrase.
1 Antonio: There should be fewer ________ on the planet. 2 Antonio: We don’t have enough ________ for everybody. 3 Anna: I would build more ________ and schools. 4 Anna: There would not be any ________ on the streets. 5 Michael: ________ should not be too expensive for poor people. 6 Michael: The poor should pay less ________ than the rich.
FLASH FORWARD Continue Michael’s joke and make up a crazy manifesto; you can use these topics and your own ideas. school pizza football holidays homework
If I ruled the world, there would be no homework… pizza would be free…
Match words from the chart with these phrases.
too/enough Medicines now are too expensive for a lot of people... They are too poor to buy food and clothes for their children. There are not enough jobs for school leavers. That’s not enough to live on. Find more examples of these structures in the texts. Underline them.
FLASHPOINT We say: enough money (enough + noun) hot enough (adjective + enough)
I / young / drive / car I am too young to drive a car. I was / tired / get up Chinese / difficult / learn I didn’t / have / time / do the shopping Our team / not good / beat / Manchester United You / not / talented / be a star
Vocabulary: Word building 4
Find these words in the texts in this unit. Then complete the table below with words deriving from them. natural pollution peaceful health politics influence unemployment homeless create education system
If I ruled the world, I’d… If I had the power, I would… If I could, I’d… I think we should (all)…
Say it! 7
Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions.
A What would you do about poverty? B If I had the power, I would create jobs. What about you? A I’d take money from the rich and give it to the poor. B What would you do about the homeless? A If I could, I would build more houses. And you?
Write it! 8
nature pollution _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
– pollute _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
natural polluted _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
There are too many chemicals in the food we eat and in the atmosphere. ________ There aren’t enough jobs for people. ________ There is no war – how wonderful! ________ We don’t build enough homes for everyone. ________ When people are not ill. ________ The thing schools give us. ________ Ideas and activities relating to gaining and using power in a country. ________ Parts that work together as a whole for a particular purpose. ________
Make complete sentences using too or enough. 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1.17 Listen and check your answers.
T Write about five problems and your
Problem: There are too many cars on the roads. There aren’t enough trees or parks in our cities. Solution: I would ban cars fromthe city centre. I would plant more trees/ build more parks.
Listen’n’speak We are the world 1 Discuss: What do people protest about nowadays? How do they protest? Does protesting making a difference? Discuss these examples.
1 2 3 4
A A A A
violent anti-war protest rock concert for the poor petition against poverty protest against food prices
1.18 You will hear part of an interview with Polo, a member of a rock band. How can teenagers help to end poverty?
1.18 P Listen again and choose the correct answer.
1 Why did Polo decide to become a singer? a Because he had a good voice. b Because his family was poor. c Because he wanted to be famous.
If Polo became a politician he would... a make more money. b fight for justice. c be more famous.
If Polo were Prime Minister, he’d... a sell the poor more things. b visit poor countries. c spend more money on poor countries.
Why are concerts useful? a A lot of people go to them. b They make a lot of money. c They are about love.
5 According to Polo, what do politicians worry about? a Losing power. b Fighting poverty. c The Internet.
6 What do kids in Canada do to fight poverty? a They send food to the poor. b They eat less food. c They sign petitions.
Pronunciation Second conditional - stress and intonation On the If clause the voice goes up, on the second
clause it goes down.
1.19 Listen and repeat.
1 If I gave up singing, I’d be a politician. 2 If we got a million signatures, that would be great. 3 If you weren’t in a rock band, what would you like to be?
1.20 Add arrows (up and down) to these
sentences. Then listen and check.
If you were Prime Minister, what would you do? If we spent less on weapons, there’d be more money for poor countries. If you didn’t eat for 30 hours, you would know what it feels like to be hungry! If people knew what it was like to be poor, they would help.
Spoken English Giving examples In written and spoken English, we say for example or for instance, but we can also use: for a start, for one thing, let’s take... Let’s take petitions... For one thing, concerts are a good way to reach a lot of people. When we give more examples we can say another thing.
Add the above phrases to make this dialogue sound more natural. Then practise in pairs.
1 2 3 4
A There are so many problems in the world. There’s poverty. B But what can we do to help? We can’t do anything. A Yes, we can. We can create more jobs. B But there are millions unemployed. There’s nothing we can do. A Yes, there is! If we built more roads, there would be more jobs.
Flash on Grammar Second conditional We use if with the Past simple and would/might/ could + infinitive in the main clause: to talk about unreal situations and hypotheses If I won the lottery, I’d travel around the world. If we saved enough money, we could buy a car. for giving advice and making suggestions If I were you, I’d talk to your teacher about that.
3 Use the prompts in the box and make sentences about yourself. have a lot of talent have a plane have a lot of free time have the power live on your own be rich be a genius
If I had a lot of talent, I’d…
to talk about situations that do not exist If everyone had clean water, fewer people would die. WB p. 12
1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs.
1 If I ___________ (have) more time, I ___________ (do) voluntary work. 2 If we ___________ (be) so tired, we ___________ (go) jogging. 3 You ___________ (lose) your keys if you ___________ (put) them in a safe place. 4 If I ___________ (find) a wallet, I ___________ (take) it to the police station. 5 I ___________ (invite) you to the theatre if you ___________ (like) it. 6 We ___________ (go) swimming if there ___________ (be) a swimming pool in the neighbourhood.
Match the two halves of the sentences. Be careful! Some are first conditional and some are second conditional. Then add a comment from column C.
1 If it weren’t too cold to live in England, I’d buy a house there. But I’m happy in Spain. A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
If it weren’t too cold to live in England, School would be more fun You’ll be late for school If you leave me,
I’ll be very unhappy. And if we did more sports. It’s already eight if it wasn’t so o’clock. dangerous. But I can’t even I’d buy a house sing! there. if you don’t get up It frightens me. now. I’d go bungee you’ll break a Promise you’ll love jumping window. me forever! If I were more if we had fewer But I’m happy in musical, lessons. Spain. If you kick that ball I’d play the piano. Why don’t you play inside the house, outside?
too + adjective + for + noun too + adjective + to infinitive (not) + adjective + enough (+ to infinitive) enough + noun (+ to infinitive) WB p. 13
4 Complete the gaps with too or enough.
1 I didn’t finish my homework because I didn’t enough time to do it. have___________ 2 The weather isn’t warm ___________ for a picnic. 3 I didn’t finish the test because the questions were ___________ difficult to answer. 4 Do you have ___________ money to buy a new laptop? 5 A new CD player is ___________ expensive so I’ll just use my old one. 6 He’s ___________ short to play basketball. 7 She doesn’t take ___________ exercise; she’s not very fit.
5 Complete the dialogue with one or two words in each space.
Sam How would you change your life if you (1)___________ 16 again? Jo If I were 16 again, I (2)___________ do a lot of crazy things. Sam What (3)___________ you do? Jo First of all, I (4)___________ travel around the world. Sam Which countries would you visit? Jo If I (5)___________ the time and money I’d go to Zanzibar. Sam Why don’t you? You’re not (6)___________ old to travel. Jo Yes, I’m still young (7)___________ to travel but it’s (8)___________ expensive. Sam What other things would you do (9)___________ you were a teenager again? Jo I (10)___________ fall in love, again and again. Sam And if love (11)___________ your heart? Jo Yes, love can break your heart. But I (12)__________ not complain. Life is too short.
Flash on Skills What was the Great Depression? Before you listen 1
Look at the photos from the Great Depression. What problems did people face in those days? Match the captions with the pictures. A A poor man and his young children
A man in search of work
1.21 Listen to three Americans talking about the Depression.
Match each speaker with the correct photo.
Speaker 1 ___ Speaker 2 ___ Speaker 3 ___
Read the text. Which photos would you choose to go with the text? Why?
The Great Depression In the 1930s, the Great Depression started in the US and then spread to many other countries. For many people, the Depression began on October 24, 1929, Black Thursday, the day the New York stock market crashed. Thousands of investors lost large sums of money and many lost everything. Banks, shops, and factories closed and left millions of people poor, jobless and homeless. During this time, a lot of people lived in poverty. They did not have enough money to buy food and clothes. In the worst year of the Great Depression, 1933, in most western countries, one in four workers was unemployed. There were not enough government programmes to help the poor. Moreover, most women did not work, so if the husband lost his job, the family did not have enough money to live on. It was too difficult to find work locally, so many unemployed people started ‘walking the road’, they
travelled from place to place to find work in other towns. They were too poor to have a car or buy train tickets so most people hitchhiked or got free lifts on trains. Many of these ‘rail riders’ were teenagers, but there were also older men, women, and their families travelling like this. When Franklin D. Roosevelt became President in 1932, his ‘new deal’ spent more money to create jobs. Some European countries, too, tried to create new jobs by public works such as building roads, bridges and improving the railways. But all this was not enough to end the Great Depression. Unfortunately, the Great Depression only ended with World War II (1939-1945). People at last found jobs because governments built weapons, ships and aeroplanes to fight the war; they grew food so people would have enough to eat – to fight the war.
CLIL Speaking 6
P Read the text again and write T (true) or F 4 (false).
1 The Great Depression started in the United States. ___ 2 Millions of people were poor. ___ 3 Most workers had a job. ___ 4 Most women went out to work. ___ 5 People went to live in other towns. ___ 6 Teenagers went to live in the countryside. ___ 7 The President of the USA in 1932 was John Kennedy. ___ 8 European countries did not have a depression in the 1930s. ___ 9 The depression ended before the Second World War. ___ 10 The Second World War began in 1939. ___
A friend has asked you ‘What was the Great Depression?’ Give them a simple explanation, using the information in the text. First, take notes from the text. Use the following questions to help you.
When did the Great Depression start? How did it begin? How did people’s lives change? What were some of the problems they faced? How did they try to solve the problems? What did governments do? How did the Great Depression end?
You want to be elected president. Prepare your manifesto as a leaflet to give to other pupils. Add problems and solutions to this chart.
A BETTER WORLD PROBLEM
NOT ENOUGH SCHOOLS TOO MUCH POLLUTION NOT ENOUGH HOMES TOO MUCH POVERTY TOO MUCH CRIME ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________
Translate the words in bold in the text into your own language.
Tips for speaking Don’t worry about making mistakes – mistakes show you are learning something new. Good speakers are good listeners – listen to other people and respond to them. It’s OK to pause and think about what you’re going to say next: er…erm... is fine, but don’t overdo it! Use expressions to help you gain time while you are thinking: I mean, you know what I mean, you see, it’s sort of. Speak English in class. Read a lot of different genres: magazines, newspapers, comics... Learn useful expressions: for instance, for one thing, let’s take, well, first of all, let me think…
BUILD MORE SCHOOLS BAN TRAFFIC; USE BICYCLES _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________
Sum up the information in the manifesto and write about your plans as a president.
If I had the power, I’d build more schools and better schools!
Flashback Second conditional
Present perfect continuous
Complete the sentences with the Present perfect or Present perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.
0 I _____________ haven’t learnt French yet. (not/learn) 1 I ________ to France. (never/be) 2 I ________ emails all day. (write) 3 She ________ in love with another guy. (fall) 4 I ________ my wallet. I can’t find it. (lose) 5 I’m tired. I ________ all morning. I still haven’t finished. (work) 6 The roads are wet. It ________! (rain) 7 You ________ TV since this morning. That’s enough! (watch) 8 The US ________ since 1776. (exist) 9 I ________ English for five years. (learn) 9
Complete the following sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the second conditional.
0 If you ______ hadn’t enough money, I______ ’d lend you some. (have/not/lend) 1 If I _______ taller, I _______ basketball. (be/ play) 2 I _______ and see a doctor if I _______ you. (go/be) 3 I _______ a better guitarist if I _______ more. (be/practise) 4 They _______ more money if they _______ it. (have/not/waste) 5 If I _______ in the country, I _______ bored. (live/get) 6 She _______ to Canada if she _______ a job. (move/not/have) 7 You _______ more friends if you _______ out more. (make/go) 14
Purpose and reason
Choose the correct word or phrase.
__ visit friends. 0 We went to Tokyo so that/to 1 I’m learning English because/so I want to study in London. 2 I read books in English so/to improve my reading skills. 3 I’ve stopped eating bread in order to/because lose weight. 4 She studies hard so that/in order to she can get a good mark. 5 They went to bed early in order to/because they were tired.
Match the actions and the reasons.
0 b 1 2 3 4 5
a so I can buy my friend a present. b so that I can keep fit. c so I can look different. d because I’ve been going to a lot of parties. e in order to learn to play better. f because we’ve had a lot of snow.
I’ve I’ve I’ve I’ve I’ve I’ve
started going to the gym, … changed my hair, … been going to bed late, … been having piano lessons, … been going skiing every week, … been saving all my pocket money, …
Complete the sentences with the verbs below. Use the first or second conditional. pay visit be have (x2) win drive finish
0 We _______ ’d pay for the window if we broke it. 1 You _______ an accident if you’re not careful. 2 If we get a new car, we _______ to Los Angeles. 3 If we _______ a bigger house, I’d have a room of my own. 4 If we _______ our homework, we’ll go out. 5 You’d have more free time if you _______ a teacher. 6 I _______ my uncle and aunt if I go to Australia. 7 If Lucy _______ a million pounds, she’d give some money to charity. 7
Complete the gaps with too or enough.
0 Your hair is _______ too long. Get a haircut. 1 This coffee is _______ hot to drink. 2 I don’t have _______ money to buy an MP3. 3 Chinese is _______ difficult for me. 4 You don’t eat _______ food. 5 They’re _______ short to be in the team. 6 You don’t read _______ books in English. 6
Flashback Round up!
10 Write E (equipment), L (location), or S (sport).
7 Complete these dialogues with one or two words.
0 A What have you _______ been doing in your English class? B We __________ have been doing the Present perfect. 1 A _______ you been learning English long? B I _______ learning English for five years. 2 A _______ have you been living here? B I’ve been _______ here all my life. 3 A You look tired. _______ been going to bed late? B No, I’ve _______ working all night. 4 A _______ have you and Paul been going out? B We’ve been going out _______ two weeks. 5 A How long have _______ feeling ill? B I _______ bad last night.
Find the extra word.
0 I’ve been have living here since I was a child. 1 They’re passing the ball to Messi so to he can score. 2 I’ve been have learning English for years. 3 I learnt to drive in order to that have more freedom. 4 She crashed the car because of she was careless. 5 They’ve been be trying to change the rules of football. 6 I gave you the money to so buy a pullover. 7 It’s enough too hot in here. 8 We don’t have too enough time to walk to school. 8
Choose the correct word: a, b or c.
0 He _______ passed the ball to Jones. a won b passed c took 1 How many goals did you _______? a score b pass c lose 2 He was the best _______ in the team. a play b game c player 3 It’s against the _______ to pick up the ball. a game b foul c rules 4 Ronaldo is going to _______ the corner. a make b take c score 5 He _______ a lot of fouls. a committed b lost c did 6 We _______ the match because they were better. a fouled b wasted c lost
0 whistle ___ E 1 surfing ___ 2 surfboard ___ 3 pitch ___ 4 motor racing ___ 5 skiing ___ 6 skis ___ 7 slope ___
8 water polo 9 court 10 ice skating 11 course 12 gloves 13 stadium 14 circuit 15 ring
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 15
11 Complete these words for problems using the clues in brackets.
0 _______ disease (illnesses, bad health) 1 natural d_______s (like floods, fires, earthquakes) 2 p_______n (dirty air and water) 3 home_______s (no home) 4 po_______y (no money) 5 un_______ment (no work) 6 h_______r (no food) 7 l_______ness (no friends) 8 il_______y (can’t read or write) 9 climate c_______e (weather changing) 9
FUNCTIONS Expressing ideas
12 Put the words in the correct order.
A How was the concert? B (0) _____________________. It was awful – I hated it (awful / It / was – it / I / hated) A Why? B Well, (1) _________________. (too / the / loud / music / was) A Too loud? B Yeah, (2) _________________. (the / was / terrible / sound) A But they are a good band! B Well, in my opinion (3) _________________. (enough / they / good / weren’t) A What was the singer like? B I couldn’t hear him. (4) _________________. (his / voice / loud / was / too) A Perhaps the (5) _________________! (microphone / mouth / close / was / his / to / too) B How long was the concert? A (6) _________________. (and / long / it / boring / was / too) 6 Total:
Popular Legends Vampires: then and now 1
Which adjectives could you use to describe these characters? Discuss your choices in pairs. handsome
1.22 Listen and read the text.
Then: People used to believe that you became a vampire when an animal jumped over your grave. Now: In films, to become a vampire, another vampire has to bite you!
Did you use to like ghost stories when you were young? What about vampire stories? What did people use to believe about vampires? What do people think today? Let’s look at how vampires have changed over the centuries… Then: People used to really believe in vampires. Now: Today, we do not believe in vampires; but in January 2005, in Birmingham, England, there were rumours that an attacker bit his victims; some people were afraid of being attacked by a vampire in the streets of the city. Then: In folklore, vampires didn’t use to be rich and handsome: they were poor, ugly people. Now: Hollywood vampires are usually handsome and aristocratic; when they are female, they are beautiful.
Read the text again and answer these questions.
1 What did people think the attacker in Birmingham did? 2 What did vampires look like in the past? 3 What do Hollywood vampires look like now? 4 How do people become vampires in films? 5 Who wrote the first novel about Dracula? 6 Who is the author of the Twilight novels?
Then: People used to think that vampires could appear during the day or night. Now: In a lot of Hollywood films, vampires are afraid of the light and only come out at night. Then: You only used to read about vampires in novels: the first was Bram Stoker’s Dracula. (1897) Now: They have become popular in novels, films and TV programmes. Shows featuring vampires are watched by millions of TV viewers. Then: In literature, vampires didn’t use to be romantic heroes, they were evil. Now: Today, vampires are often sympathetic; Stephenie Meyer’s teenage hero, Edward Cullen, is a mysterious, romantic hero. Then: A vampire used to be a terrifying monster. Now: A vampire is a sad outcast from society. Then: Vampire stories used to be adult stories and aimed at an adult market. Now: Millions of teenagers love reading Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight for the romance between schoolgirl, Bella Swan, and her handsome vampire teenage boyfriend, Edward.
FLASH FORWARD Have you read Dracula or Twilight or seen any films about vampires? Write a short paragraph describing the story.
used to for past actions and states People used to really believe in vampires. Vampires didn’t use to be romantic heroes. Did you use to like ghost stories when you were young?
Vocabulary: Childhood 7
When you were young, which of these things did you believe in, were you afraid of or did you enjoy? Put the words or expressions into the best category for you. ghosts Father Christmas UFOs the dark fairy tales going to school spiders tests bedtime stories playing with toys going to bed early being alone at home strangers certain kinds of food sleeping alone playing on the swings certain animals empty houses meeting new people
Find more examples of used to in the text. Underline them.
FLASHPOINT Remember the question is Did you use to…? NOT Did you used to...?
Complete these sentences with used to or didn’t use to.
200 years ago…
1 2 3 4 5 6
used to travel by horse. People ___________ People ___________ watch TV. Young people ___________ believe in vampires. People ___________ read about vampires in novels like Dracula. Children ___________ play computer games. People ___________ go to the cinema.
Make questions using the sentences in exercise 4.
Did people use to travel by horse?
____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
Talking about states in the past I used to be terrified of spiders. I used to be nervous about visiting the doctor.
8 In pairs, make statements about your own childhood.
6 Do you know the names of these objects?
Make statements using used to. Then
A I used to be afraid of ghosts. B I didn’t use to enjoy fairy tales.
Write it! 9
Write about your and your partner’s childhood.
I used to be afraid of ghosts but I’m not now. Paul didn’t use to believe in UFOs. He still doesn’t believe in them.
My mother used to listen to music cassettes with a cassette recorder. Now I listen to music with my MP3.
We used to tell ghost stories... 1
1.23 Listen and read. Who is afraid of Night of the Vampires?
Michael Oops! There must be a power cut. Robyn Oh, no, what are we going to do now? Michael It happened yesterday, too. I was having a shower when the lights went out! Anna Really! Robyn Horrible. I used to be really afraid of the dark… I would stay awake for hours. Michael Oh, I don’t mind it. Antonio I’ve got an idea; why don’t we tell ghost stories? Robyn Ghost stories? No, please, they give me the creeps. Anna We used to tell ghost stories at camp; we would sit around the campfire and we’d take turns to tell a story. I wasn’t really scared. Robyn My dad used to tell me ghost stories, terrifying; I would lie awake in bed, afraid to switch the light off… Antonio Oh, ghost stories are fun. Anna Aren’t you afraid of anything? I hate spiders… creepy. Antonio So do I. You know, the other day, I was sitting at my desk when I felt something crawling down my back – it was a spider – ugh! Michael The only thing I’m scared of is going to the dentist. Antonio That’s not scary. What’s the scariest film you’ve ever seen? Robyn Night of the Vampires. I was watching it alone at home the other day – frightening… Anna Night of the Vampires – scary! Michael Do you know what most people are most afraid of? Guess…
Who’s afraid of what? Write Anna, Antonio, Michael or Robyn. 1 the dark 2 ghost stories 3 spiders 4 the dentist
_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
Make questions using the following prompts. 1 Why / lights / go / out? Why did the lights go out? 2 Who / use / be / afraid of the dark? 3 Who / like / ghost stories? 4 Who / use / go / to camp? 5 What / they / do / at camp? 6 What / Robyn’s dad / use / do?
4 Now ask and answer the questions in pairs.
FLASH FORWARD Do you know what most people are most afraid of? Can you guess what Michael is going to say? Write things... (a) you used to be afraid of when you were young; (b) you are afraid of now. I used to be afraid of dogs… Now I’m afraid of flying…
would vs used to
would: past actions We would sit around the campfire.
used to: past actions and states We used to tell ghost stories at camp. I used to be really afraid of the dark.
nervous/anxious/worried about going to the doctor. sad/miserable/depressed/upset because we have problems with friends.
Find more examples of used to and would in the dialogue and underline them. Are they used with actions or states?
confused/puzzled when we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t understand something.
Something is... frightening/scary/creepy/ terrifying/worrying/depressing/ upsetting.
Would is followed by an infinitive without to. She would tell us stories.
Rewrite the sentences with would where possible.
1 There used to be a great cinema in town. We used to go to the cinema every Saturday. We would go to the cinema every Saturday. 2 My grandfather used to be a police officer. He often used to work at night. 3 Our grandmother used to be a great storyteller. She used to tell us amazing stories. 4 My grandfather was very kind. He used to buy us sweets and mum and dad used to complain. 5 I used to be very shy. I used to go to parties and not speak to anyone. 6 I used to have a bicycle. I used to ride it all around the city.
Vocabulary: Negative feelings
1.24 Match the words with the pictures. 6 Then listen and check. sad
terrified/afraid/scared of going into an empty house at night.
What feelings do people often have in the following situations?
big dogs barking flying in an aeroplane for the first time seeing a snake going to the dentist having an important exam walking home in the dark having no money having no friends speaking in public meeting strangers
They often feel terrified of big dogs barking.
Say it! 8
Talk about how you feel in the situations above. Compare with a partner. Which feelings do you share with your partner?
Write it! 9
T Write notes about something that frightened you when you were a child but doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t now. Use these questions to help you.
What was the thing or event that made you feel afraid? What did you do when you felt that way? How old were you? Did anyone know about your fear? Did your parents/friends help you? What did they do? How do you feel about the thing now?
Listen’n’speak Spooky 1 Before you listen. Answer these questions in pairs and then report back to the class with your findings. 1 Do you sleep with the light on or off? 2 Do you like being in the house alone? 3 What would you do if you heard strange noises in the middle of the night? 4 Have you ever had a strange experience, something you couldn’t explain?
1.25 Listen to these sounds. Match them 2 with the descriptions. Write 1-8.
someone opening a door driving a car going down the stairs a doorbell ringing
A mysterious journey My strange grandmother
Story 1 _____________
Story 2 _____________
1.26 Listen again and match the pictures 4 with story 1 or story 2. An
Used to is pronounced differently from the verb to use: used to has an /s/ sound, while to use has a /z/ sound.
knocking a car door closing sleeping a mobile ringing
1.26 Listen to two stories and match the 3 titles with the stories. There are two titles you don’t need. Home alone
Pronunciation: used to vs use
1.27 Listen and repeat. 1 Used 2 Use to 3 I used to be afraid of dogs. 4 Did you use to be afraid of dogs? 5 I didn’t use to be afraid of cats. 6 You should use a pencil. 7 I prefer to use a pen. 8 I used my mobile phone. 9 Did you use to live in Rome?
1.28 Write /s/ or /z/ after each of the 7 following phrases. Then listen and check. 1 I didn’t use to have a mobile. 2 My grandmother has never used a computer. 3 I’m used to using the Internet. 4 I never used to go camping. 5 We used to live in a different house. 6 I didn’t use to go to parties.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Spoken English: Hyperbole We often exaggerate when we speak about fear: I was scared – I was dead scared I was afraid – I was petrified I was frightened – I was absolutely terrified I was afraid – I was trembling with fear
Use the pictures and these prompts to retell story 1. Add your own ending to the story. stay grandmother feel the bed shaking I hear a knocking grandmother sleep next door room empty go into the kitchen living room empty alone in the house my bedroom, lock the door sleep wake up hear a voice outside my bedroom say my name I covered my head with the blankets and in the end…
8 Tell the class about a frightening experience; exaggerate using the expressions above.
These horrible dogs attacked me – I was petrified… I heard strange noises in the night – I was trembling with fear…
Flash on Grammar used to
would vs used to
We use used to for actions and states which continued or were repeated over a period of time in the past but have now stopped.
We use would for actions which continued or were repeated over a period of time in the past but have now stopped.
People used to live in villages; they didn’t use to travel a lot. Did they use to watch TV? WB p. 20
Would can’t be used to talk about states in the past.
Tom used to be very thin when he was younger. I used to live in London, but I moved to Edinburgh. When I was younger I used to/would spend hours kicking a ball.
Complete with used to or didn’t use to.
used to 1 China ____________ have an emperor, but it doesn’t anymore. 2 200 years ago, people ____________ travel by air, but they fly a lot now. 3 In the past, most people ____________ live in villages. Now they live in towns. 4 In the 19th century, people ____________ eat fast food. They do now. 5 When I was young, we ____________ go camping. I don’t go anymore. 6 We ____________ have a lot of cinemas, but now there are only a few. 7 People ____________ work in the fields. Now most people work in offices. 8 We ____________ have sports centres but there are lot of them now.
WB p. 20
Look at these examples of used to and would. Match the questions to the correct examples. 1 2 3
Which examples are about habits in the past? Which example is about a state in the past? In which example is it not possible to use ‘would’?
a I used to visit my grandparents in the summer. b We would play in the park at the weekend. c We used to have a kitten.
Underline the correct answers. In some cases it is possible to use both used to and would.
1 I didn’t travel a lot. I didn’t use to travel a lot. 2 I liked ice cream. 3 I was one of the tallest kids in the class. 4 I never liked swimming when I was young. 5 They were good friends. 6 We didn’t have computers. 7 The teacher explained things very well.
1 My favourite teacher, Mrs Cooper, used to/would tell us stories. 2 Our primary school teacher used to/would shout at us. 3 Mrs Cooper used to/would wear her glasses on her head. 4 Mrs Cooper used to/would live in a house near the school. 5 I used to/would have a lot of toys in my bedroom. 6 My grandparents didn’t use to/wouldn’t have computers at school.
Rewrite the sentences using used to or didn’t use to.
Make questions using these prompts.
When I was young… 1 I ate a lot of ice cream. Did you use to eat a lot of ice cream? 2 In the summer, I used to go to the seaside. 3 We used to live near the sea. 4 I used to play football. 5 My sister/brother used to shout at me. 6 My parents used to take me to school. 7 I used to go to bed late. 8 My grandmother used to tell me stories.
Now write your answers to the questions in exercise 3.
A Did you use to eat a lot of ice cream? B Yes, I did./No, I didn’t.
Look at what Julia has written about herself in the past and now. Write sentences with used to/ didn’t use to/would.
THEN I am10years old and… I never travel to other countries. I have a lot of dolls. We go on a lot of trips with the school. I work very hard at school.
NOW Today, I am15 years old and… I travel a lot. I never play with dolls. We have only one trip a year. I amlazy at school.
Julia didn’t use to travel to other countries, but now she travels a lot.
Flash on Skills Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1897) was one of the first vampire stories. Stoker (1847-1912) was born in Dublin, Ireland.
Dracula by Bram Stoker Before you read 1 Look at the pictures and write the correct caption below each one; there is one caption you do not need. Jonathan runs away from the castle
Lucy becomes a vampire
A dinner party
In the hands of the vampire
Jonathan and Mina’s wedding day
Arriving at a mysterious castle
Read the summary of the plot and put the pictures in the correct order. Write 1-5 in the boxes.
Jonathan Harker, a young English lawyer, leaves his fiancée Mina at home and goes to Transylvania to help the mysterious Count Dracula to buy a new house in London. In a past life, Dracula used to be a great man, and now he is an evil vampire. He takes Jonathan prisoner. The young man sees many strange and evil things in the castle, before escaping into the night. A few weeks later, Dracula moves to London. His first victim is Lucy, Mina’s best friend. Professor Van Helsing, a vampire expert, knows that Lucy has become a vampire but he cannot save her.
Meanwhile, Jonathan has returned to England and he and Mina get married. Van Helsing explains to Jonathan that vampires are real and that this mysterious vampire is very dangerous. They have already destroyed the vampire Lucy, and now they have to destroy Dracula. The Count, however, has other plans, and while the men are searching his houses, he attacks Mina in the night, so that she will become a vampire, too. Jonathan has to save Mina; if he doesn’t kill Dracula, the vampire will make Mina one of his victims…
P Read the statements and write T (true) or F (false).
1 While Mina is at home, Jonathan goes abroad. ___ 2 Count Dracula wanted to buy a house in Transylvania. ___ 3 Dracula used to be a bad man. ___ 4 Jonathan manages to escape from Dracula’s castle. ___ 5 Mina is the first of Dracula’s many victims. ___ 6 Jonathan arrives in London before Dracula. ___ 7 Van Helsing knows a lot about vampires. ___ 8 Van Helsing and Jonathan look for Dracula in his houses. ___
Tips for listening Use the questions to make predictions about the text. Use visuals to make predictions about the text.
Writing Using time expressions
6 Put the correct time expressions in the gaps in the following extract from the story.
Don’t worry if you don’t understand everything.
when suddenly (x2) at first then seconds later immediately
Use your knowledge of the subject to make predictions.
When (1) ___________ we came into the room, Dracula turned to us – blood was coming out of his mouth. (2) ___________ , he laughed a terrible laugh and (3) ___________ he became silent. (4) ___________ , he pushed Mina away and tried to attack us. (5) ___________ , he was coming closer towards us; we (6) ___________ held up our crosses; (7) ___________ , he stopped, afraid.
Listen once for the general meaning; listen the second time for detail. Listen to things you enjoy (songs, DVDs, ...).
Before you listen, try to predict the story from (a) the picture and (b) these questions.
1 2 3 4 5 6
What was coming out of Dracula’s mouth? What made Dracula feel afraid? What did Jonathan see when he woke up? What did the doctor see in the sky? Why was the narrator looking at Mina’s teeth? When is the vampire dangerous?
Now listen and answer the questions in exercise 4.
1.30 Listen and check your answers. T P In groups, use the prompts below to write the story about how Jonathan first met Dracula. Use time expressions. cold dark night ride horse up a mountain at the top an old castle wolves in the forest horse frightened start to snow wind blowing hear someone screaming moon disappear behind the clouds arrive at the castle wait outside the door hear footsteps hear the key turning door open tall man at the door black clothes very white face ‘Good evening. I am Dracula’ ‘Come in’ ‘I have been waiting for you…’
It was a cold dark night. I was riding my horse…
9 Take it in turns to tell the story.