Flash on English Intermediate WB sample

Page 1

Step-by-step teaching notes, tips and background notes on cultural issues Wide offer of photocopiable testing materials Editable tests in the Multi-ROM Test Maker FLIP BOOK An interactive, IWB-compatible version of the Coursebook containing all recordings, links, reference materials and extras Course components Student’s Book Workbook with Audio CD Teacher’s Resource Pack Class Audio CDs Multi-ROM Test Maker Teacher’s FLIP BOOK Flash on English Online Resources


For the Teacher

Fl ash on English

Clearly-structured units Double linguistic input in each unit Focus on authentic real-world language Clearly structured grammar presentations Extensive recycling and review of language Exploitation of different learning styles and mixed-ability features Culture, CLIL and Literature lessons in every unit Graded and practical study-skills guide Grammar reinforcement with extensive explanations and practice in the Workbook

L. Prodromou with S. Minardi, P. Prodromou, J. Bowie

FLASH on English is a motivating, easy-to-use, four-level course which takes teenage learners from Elementary through to Upper Intermediate level. The comprehensive syllabus provides thorough grammar, vocabulary and skills work, builds students’ language awareness and encourages fluency and self-confidence. The combination of printed, digital and online material enhances the learning experience and helps teachers respond to students’ needs.

Common European Framework


A2 B1 B2 C1 C2



Contents 1 Fair Play Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

p. 4 p. 6 p. 8 p. 10 p. 11

2 A Better World Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

p. p. p. p. p.

12 14 16 18 19

p. p. p. p. p.

20 22 24 26 27

p. p. p. p. p.

28 30 32 34 35

p. p. p. p. p.

36 38 40 42 43

p. p. p. p. p.

44 46 48 50 51

3 Popular Legends Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

4 The Media Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

5 Images Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

6 The Food of Love Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills


7 Too Much TV Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

p. p. p. p. p.

52 54 56 58 59

8 We’ve Got Rights! Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

p. 60 p. 62 p. 64 p. 66 p. 67

9 Our Future

Focus on Grammar Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

p. p. p. p. p.

68 70 72 74 75

ocus on Grammar F Grammar and Vocabulary Practice English in Context Vocabulary Builder Skills

p. p. p. p. p.

76 78 80 82 83

Useful expressions: writing and speaking

p. 84

Irregular verbs

p. 87

Phrasal verbs list

p. 88

Self-assessment grids – B1

p. 90


p. 92

10 Role Models



Fair Play Focus on Grammar

Present perfect continuous Affirmative form

Negative form

Interrogative form

Short answers affirmative


I have been working You have been working He has been working She has been working It has been working We have been working You have been working They have been working

I haven’t been working You haven’t been working He hasn’t been working She hasn’t been working It hasn’t been working We haven’t been working You haven’t been working They haven’t been working

Have I been working? Have you been working? Has he been working? Has she been working? Has it been working? Have we been working? Have you been working? Have they been working?

Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

No, I haven’t. No, you haven’t. No, he hasn’t. No, she hasn’t. No, it hasn’t. No, we haven’t. No, you haven’t. No, they haven’t.

I have. you have. he has. she has. it has. we have. you have. they have.

• To form the Present perfect continuous we use the following structure:

Present perfect continuous vs Present perfect simple

have / has + been + -ing form of the verb

• We use the Present perfect continuous to talk about an action that began in the past and that is still in progress. This tense emphasises the duration, length, continuity of the action when we are focusing on the action rather than on the results. I’ve been cooking all day. (the focus is on the action and the length of time)

I’ve been working here for 5 years. • We use the Present perfect continuous to describe an action that has taken place over a long period of time and that is still in progress at the time of speaking or that has just stopped. I’m exhausted! I’ve been painting my room for hours.

! We don’t use the Present perfect continuous with verbs that do not take the -ing form. With these verbs we use the Present perfect simple or the Past simple. Here are some examples of verbs that do not take the -ing form: – state verbs: be, cost, fit, mean, suit. – verbs of possession: belong, have. – sense verbs: feel, hear, see, smell, taste. – feeling verbs: hate, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish. – opinion / thought verbs: believe, know, think, understand.


• We use the Present perfect simple to talk about the result of an action that is finished now. I’ve baked a delicious cake today. (the focus is on the result of the action, i.e. the cake)


Purpose and reason • In English we use the infinitive to talk about the purpose of or the reason for an action. She’s here to help us. • In addition to the infinitive of purpose, we can also introduce the purpose of or the reason for an action with the following expressions: – so as to / in order to + base form of the verb for more formal situations. I went to the Embassy in order to get my visa. – so (that) + modal verb in sentences where the subject is different in the second clause. I’ll close the window so that you won’t be cold.

• With so (that) we use the modal verbs can, will or may: – in the present tense when the verb in the main clause is in a Present tense, in the Present perfect or in the Future. I’ll turn down the volume so that she can sleep. I’ll close the window so that you won’t be cold. – in the past tense (could, would, might) when the verb in the main clause is in a Past tense. He was speaking softly so that the others couldn’t hear him. She made the test very easy so that everyone would pass it.

My Glossary Sports ball basketball bat boxing circuit (golf) club competition course court cup final foul gloves goal ice-skating marathon medal motor-racing net off-side penalty pitch pool racket referee rink score

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

speed tackle team throw in to compete to go skiing to train whistle

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

The Olympic games athlete Olympics Olympic rings Olympic sport

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Collocations to commit a foul to go on a diet to go on holiday to score a goal to shake hands to take a corner to take part in to win a penalty

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Other... nouns face


height length slope snow wind

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

adjectives aware impressed polite sporting tough wet

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

verbs to check to fall down to host to improve to look for to reach to retire to send off

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

adverbs approximately professionally regularly

________________ ________________ ________________




Fair Play

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice


Present perfect continuous

1 Make sentences and questions using the Present perfect continuous and the words below.

1 I / not live / here for long. I haven’t been living here for long. 2 She / try / to call him for hours. _________________________________________ 3 We / work / with each other / since 2006. _________________________________________ 4 He / not / play / very well recently. _________________________________________ 5 you / read / those comics? _________________________________________ 6 My sister / travel / for four months now. _________________________________________ 7 they / practise / their moves? _________________________________________ 8 You / learn / to cook! This is delicious! _________________________________________ 9 You / not / study recently. Your test was terrible. _________________________________________


Say if the action is continuing in the present (P) or if it has just finished (F).

1 I’ve been waiting for Tim for twenty minutes. P 2 We’ve been trying to get into the football team for ages. ___ 3 You’ve been studying hard, you have full marks in the exam. ___ 4 We scored a lot of points because we’ve been training every day. ___ 5 I’ve been tidying since you left! ___ 6 We’ve been looking for the best players for the team for a month now. ___ 7 You’ve been eating biscuits all afternoon, that’s why you’re not hungry now. ___

4 Write sentences using the information below and the Present perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.

2 Write sentences using the Present perfect continuous and the information below.

1 My neighbour came out to cut his grass an hour ago and he hasn’t finished. My neighbour’s been cutting his grass for an hour. 2 I moved here in 2008, and I still live here. _________________________________________ 3 We started studying English when we were little, and we still study it. _________________________________________ 4 My class began this study project three weeks ago, and we haven’t finished it yet. _________________________________________ 5 This tap started dripping two days ago, and it’s still dripping now. _________________________________________ 6 I started this exercise four minutes ago and I’m still doing it. _________________________________________ 7 We’re still waiting but we didn’t arrive long ago. _________________________________________


1 A dog is sitting beside a hole in the garden. (dig) He’s been digging a hole. 2 A person is wet from head to foot. (rain) _________________________________________ 3 A girl scores sixteen baskets in one basketball match. (practise) _________________________________________ 4 A boy is sitting with dirty football boots and a football. (play) _________________________________________ 5 Two people are reading a shopping list to check it. (write) _________________________________________ 6 A friend arrives with a beautiful suntan. (sunbathe) _________________________________________ 7 Some people get off a bus in the late afternoon carrying skis. (ski) _________________________________________ 8 A man turns off the TV at midnight. His eyes are very tired. (watch) _________________________________________ 9 A woman got a job in a company four years ago and she still works there. (work) _________________________________________


Purpose and reason 5

Match the action with its reason.

1 I’m writing a good reference for you in order to 2 I’ll put on my alarm clock so 3 I play a lot of tennis to 4 I keep a diary in order to 5 I want to go on holiday so that 6 We’re saving all our pocket money to 7 I’m going to contact the newspapers in order to a get some publicity. b remember all my appointments. c buy a new CD player. d we wake up on time. 1 e help you get the job. f keep fit. g I can get some rest.


Make sentences using in order to and so (that).

1 She wants to win the championship. She’s training hard. (so) She’s training hard so she can win the championship. 2 She’s saving her money. She wants to go to America this summer. (in order to) _________________________________________ 3 He’s wearing headphones. He doesn’t want to hear the noise from outside. (so) _________________________________________ 4 I’m opening an online bank account. I want to pay my bills from home. (in order to) _________________________________________ 5 We need to find a time when everyone is free. That way we can all come to training sessions. (so) _________________________________________ 6 You have to practise every day. It’s the way to really improve. (in order to) _________________________________________ 7 I’m studying French because I want to understand people when I go there. (so) _________________________________________ 8 I’m writing to you because I want to apply for a place at your school. (in order to) _________________________________________ 9 Let’s go on Saturday evening. That way we can stay out late. (so) _________________________________________

Vocabulary Sports equipment 7

Underline the correct word in the sentences.

1 Are you going to play tennis? Don’t forget your racket / club. 2 He jumped incredibly high and pushed the ball into the goal / basket. 3 Have you seen how fast she is on a pair of skis / boots? 4 Take off your boots / boxing gloves outside the changing room or you’ll dirty the floor. 5 Look, the referee is taking out his whistle / basket! 6 If it’s oval then it’s a rugby / golf ball. 7 He went down to the beach carrying his net / surf board. 8 Be careful how you use that golf club / racket, you might hurt someone. 9 Put a basket / net on the back of the goals or the ball will fly off the pitch.

Sporting locations 8 Complete the dialogue with words from the box. There is one extra word. water polo circuit rink stadium slope ring pitch course

Jake Have you heard? They’ve been building a new sports centre in the next town. There’s going to be a pool. water polo pool? Ken Do you think it’ll be a (1) __________ Jake I don’t know. But there’s going to be a football (2) ____________ next to it. With floodlights! Ken Sounds good. We really need a sports (3) ____________ in this area. Do you think they’ll include a boxing (4) ____________? I love Thai boxing. Jake Who knows. I’d prefer something quieter and outdoor like a golf (5) ____________ but I know that’s impossible. Ken Golf is for girls! Not for real men! Jake That’s what you said about ice skating until we went to the (6) ____________ . You couldn’t walk for days! Ken Better than you at the racing car (7) ____________ . You just sit there and don’t move!




Fair Play

English in Context

1 Complete the conversation using the Present

3 Complete the sentences with the correct word.

perfect simple or continuous of the verbs in brackets.

The first letter is given.


Andy Mum Andy

Mum Andy



Mum Andy

Andy! Andy! I (1) _______________ ’ve been calling you for the last ten minutes. (call) (2) ____________ your sandwiches? (you / eat) Not yet. We (3) ____________ busy. (be) What (4) ____________ ? (you / do) Well, we (5) ____________ Fifa football. (play) A video game? It’s not just a video game. It’s really difficult. Right. Well (6) ____________ (you / score) any goals? Yes, two, but we (7) ____________ playing yet, Mum. (not finish) You need to eat. How long is a match? 90 minutes of course! We (8) ____________ for forty minutes. (play) We’ll have our sandwiches at half time.

2 Read the email and complete the spaces using a verb from the box in the Present perfect simple or continuous. be meet not work not heard go work go out rain do

Hi Sam, haven’t heard from you for ages! I (1) _____________ What (2) ____________ (you)? I’m really exhausted because I (3) ____________ too hard. I’m going to have to give up my job in the restaurant. It’s a pity because I (4) ____________ there for long. You know that I (5) ____________ to night school, don’t you? I’m doing four ‘A’ levels: physics, chemistry, biology and maths. I have to get A passes to get into university next year, so I have to really work hard. Anyway, the good news is I (6) ____________ a really nice guy. His name’s Adam and he’s at night school too. We (7) ____________ for six weeks! The weather here (8) ____________ dreadful for the past few months. It (9) ____________ nonstop. It’s OK because we both have to study, Adam’s got exams in a few weeks, and so we just stay in and study together. Write soon. Love, Jenny




Nora Kevin Nora




Nora Kevin


I was thinking of taking up a new sport, maybe golf. But golf (1) c_____ lubs are really expensive. The tennis (2) c____________ at school are free. True, and dad could lend me a tennis (3) r____________ . What about ice skating? There’s a (4) r____________ in town. Funny! You know I can’t stand ice skating. I’ve always wanted to learn how to ski. But the nearest ski (5) s____________ are one hundred miles away! Yes, you’re right. It’s not very practical, is it? I don’t think so. I went to see Alison at the boxing (6) r____________ . It looked fun. She’s good, isn’t she? And she’s so tiny. And those boxing (7) g____________ are huge. Maybe I should just try swimming again. That’s a good idea. The swimming (8) p____________ is just up the road.

4 Read the clues and guess the words to complete the crossword puzzle. The words all relate to soccer / football. 1






4 5 6 7


Across 1 strike the ball hit 4 a 90° angle of the playing pitch 7 when you make points 8 the opposite of win

Down 2 physically stop an opponent 3 the opposite of lose 5 transfer the ball to a team-mate 6 the place where the ball goes to score a point

5 Match the riddles 1-5 with the answers a-e. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1 Why did 2 Why did road? 3 Why did 4 Why did 5 Why did

the chicken cross the road? the man with one hand cross the the rubber chicken cross the road? the boy carry a ladder to school? the turtle cross the road?

a It wanted to stretch its legs. 1 b It wanted to get to the other side. c To get to the second-hand shop. d To get into high school. e To get to the Shell Station!

6 Complete the dialogue with a phrase from the box. I’ve been going with Rob so that I can ask Amy out I’ve been doing some boxing so I can get stronger have you been doing that have you been going I started going

David How long (1) ___________________ have you been going to the gym? John (2) ____________ about a year ago. David What do you do? John (3) ____________ . David Boxing? Why are you doing that? John (4) ____________ and lose weight. And anyway it’s fun. David Who do you go with? John (5) ____________ . We go on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Why don’t you come? David I’m busy on those nights. I go to salsa classes. John Salsa classes? How long (6) ____________ ? David About a month. John So, why are you going to dance classes? David (7) ____________ . She loves dancing!


Sum up! 7

Underline the correct option.

1 A How many exercises have you been doing / have you done? B I’ve finished / finished three. 2 A How long do you study / have you been studying? B I have been / am studying all day! 3 A Why do you get up so early? B So that / To I can train before I go to school. 4 A The concert’s at 8! Why are we leaving now? B To / So that get good seats of course! 5 A Why are you drinking so much water? B So that / To have nice skin. 6 A Do you understand the rules for rugby? B No, I don’t. I’ve tried / been trying to understand them for years!


Correct the underlined words.

1 There are three tennis circuits at my school. courts 2 Dad’s gone to the golf court for the afternoon. 3 There’s a new ice-skating ring near my house. 4 The football camp was too wet and they couldn’t play. 5 A basketball pitch is 15 metres wide. 6 I always go on the easy rink when I go skiing.

Translate! 9

Translate the following sentences into your

own language.

1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9

How long has it been snowing? _________________________________________ Alma has been studying English for five years. _________________________________________ The captain of our team has scored another goal. _________________________________________ There are two tennis courts near my house. _________________________________________ Claire hasn’t had her dinner yet. _________________________________________ John has been playing football for an hour. _________________________________________ Have you been waiting long? _________________________________________ The ball has hit the crossbar. _________________________________________ I haven’t been studying long, but I’m already tired. _________________________________________




Fair Play

Vocabulary Builder

Talking about speed and quantities in time Speeds now reach over 300 km an / per hour. This expression is often abbreviated to kph (kilometres per hour) or mph (miles per hour), depending on where you live in the world. It stands to indicate the speed at which something is moving. Note that we can say either 300 km an hour or 300 km per hour. I usually make about four calls an hour. He never eats three meals a day. We use these expressions to talk about the quantity of something we do in a certain period of time.

1 Put the words below in the correct order to talk about speeds. a / an distance / object / action number time period


Now use some of the new compound nouns to complete these sentences.

Word families: sports coverage

_________ + _________ + _________ + _________

Do you play any sports or do you like to watch sports on TV? If you do, then you already know the meaning of the term sports coverage. It is a branch of journalism that follows sports events and comments them on television broadcasts.

2 Now write the speed or quantity in time in each sentence.

1 A normal person can cover about 4 miles in a period of one hour. 4 miles an hour 2 The fastest land animal in the world is the cheetah which can reach speeds that would make 120 kilometres in an hour, but only for short periods. ____________ 3 At school we usually study four subjects during each morning. ____________ 4 The fastest vehicle on earth at the moment is called the ‘Thrust SSC’; it managed to reach a speed that in the space of one hour would carry it for 1,228 kilometres if sustained! ____________ 5 I have to put hundreds of letter into envelopes, I find I can manage to do about fifteen in the space of a minute. ____________

Compound nouns: sports Look at how we form these compound nouns in the context of sports. Notice that the name of the sport always comes first. golf club, rugby ball, football pitch


Try to make as many combinations as possible using words from the two boxes, the words in the left hand box always come first. football golf rugby basketball volleyball running ski tennis

football pitch


pitch slope court track club (instrument) racket ball net shoes skirt trousers boots team player jacket club (group of people)

1 The people who play in our school ____________ contributed the money to buy a new net and some new volleyballs. 2 You can’t go out on the slopes in a jumper, you’ll freeze! Borrow a ____________ . 3 You’re very tall, if you like sport you should think about becoming a ____________ . 4 I hate these high heels! I’d feel more comfortable in my old ____________ . 5 This isn’t a miniskirt, it’s my new ____________ . It’s for sport, not fashion! 6 I hate when my brother comes home in his dirty ____________ after a football match and leaves mud all over the floor.

5 Complete the sentences with the words in the box about sports coverage. commentary action replay photo finish record fast forward rewind press stop commentator

commentator who spoke on TV last night 1 The _____________ was really good. It’s interesting to listen to a well-informed ____________ . 2 I’m sure the goal was near the beginning of the match, can you ____________ the film? No, stop, too much! OK, ____________ it just a little. 3 Can you ____________ for a moment? I want to get a drink and I don’t want to miss anything. 4 It was a good idea to ____________ the match and watch it this evening. 5 I can’t see who crossed the line first, and even the ____________ doesn’t show the winner, they’re so close. It’s definitely a ____________ .

Skills Reading 1

Read the magazine article. Who doesn’t like going to the gym?

I do it so that I can feel more confident Parkour, or free running, is the latest sports craze. What is it? Have you seen the advertisements where guys run and jump off walls, railings and buildings? Or you may have seen the free running chase scenes at the beginning of the film Casino Royale. In the film, one of the founders of free running, Sébastien Foucan, jumped and bounced off cranes and the top of buildings like a rubber ball. Free running and parkour are slightly different. The aim of parkour is to get from A to B smoothly, quickly and efficiently, while free running is more spectacular; participants do a lot of acrobatics when they’re running in the streets. Parkour is also considered a philosophy or way of life. It can change people’s lives. Denzil Triano is a sixteen-yearold school boy from San Diego. He has been practising the sport since he was 13. He wasn’t doing very well at school. ‘I hated it. I had real problems with classwork and didn’t want to go to school.’ Now he’s doing much better. ‘I’ve been getting really good grades and it’s all thanks to parkour. I’ve started seeing problems and assignments at school as obstacles that I can overcome like I do in parkour. It’s really helped me.’ Parkour is a cool alternative to mainstream sports. It’s a great way to get fit and keep healthy. Interest in free running has really grown in the last few years. You can go to one of the many weekly courses to learn basic techniques before you go out onto the streets and practise your free running style. Sandy has been going to a course at the Free running Sports centre here in San Diego for a month. ‘We do stretching and exercises and we’ve also had lessons on diet and nutrition. You don’t need any equipment for this sport, just a good pair of comfortable shoes, but it can be dangerous. People hurt themselves all the time.’ So why do they do it? I spoke to some of the students at the centre. Jamie, 18: ‘Well I think it’s a really cool sport and I do it to get stronger and fitter. I’d like to be really good at it and take part in competitions.’ Anita, 17: ‘I do it so that I can feel more confident. I’ve never been good at sports but this is really exciting.’ David, 30: ‘Well, I’ve never really liked going to the gym. It’s really boring. I suppose I’m doing it to get out of the house! There are some great people here.’


Answer the questions.

1 Which blockbuster film shows free running? 2 Who is Sébastien Foucan? 3 How long has Denzil been doing parkour? 4 What has changed since Denzil started doing parkour? 5 Why can free running be dangerous? 6 How long has Sandy been doing free running? 7 What equipment do you need to do this sport? 8 Who wants to compete? 9 Why does Anita do free running?

Writing 3

T Write about your favourite sport. Use the questions below to help you.

– How long have you been interested in this sport? – Do you do it? If so, how long have you been doing it? If not, would you like to do it? – Why? / Why not? – What equipment do you need to do it? – Where do you do this sport?

I really like … because …


4 2 P Listen to Sam, Katy and Jack talking about their favourite sport and write true (T) or false (F).

1 Sam has been running since he was at school. T 2 Sam uses special equipment. ___ 3 Katy chose kickboxing so she could learn to defend herself. ___ 4 Katy didn’t have any problems when she started. ___ 5 Jack enjoys being on the basketball court. ___ 6 Jack hasn’t been playing for long. ___




A Better World Focus on Grammar

Second conditional Structure


if clause: if + Past simple main clause: would + base form of verb

If I were richer, I would buy a bigger house. We would travel around the world if we won the lottery.

• We use the Second conditional to talk about future events that are seen as not very likely (but not impossible) or imaginary (wishful thinking). If I won two million pounds on a game show, I’d buy a house with a huge garden and two swimming pools. (it is not very likely that I will win) If I weren’t vegetarian, I’d try your chicken tikka masala. It looks delicious! (it is an imaginary situation because the speaker is vegetarian) • In the if clause we use the verb to be in the form were for all persons. If I were a professional athlete, I would make a lot of money. If he were more careful, he wouldn’t make so many mistakes. • In more informal language, we tend to use was for the 1st and 3rd persons singular. If I was a professional athlete, I would make a lot of money. If he was more careful, he wouldn’t make so many mistakes. • We use the expression If I were you to give advice. If I were you, I wouldn’t leave now. • We can also use the expression If I were in your / his / her shoes… to give advice. If I were in your shoes, I’d apologise to her at once.


! Note: compare the difference in meaning between the First and Second conditional. If he could speak Chinese, the company would give him the job immediately. (he doesn’t speak Chinese, so the likelihood of him getting the job is very low) If you get up early, you’ll catch the first train to Perth. (you have no problem getting up early, so the likelihood of you catching the train is very high)

too/enough • We use too to mean ‘excessively’ and it always precedes the adjective or the adverb it refers to in the following structures: too + adjective / adverb Slow down! You’re driving too fast! too + adjective / adverb + to infinitive It’s too cold to play in the yard.

! Note the following structure: too + adjective / adverb + for sb + to infinitive That article is too long for me to read in a few minutes. He is speaking too quickly for her to understand him.

• We use enough to mean ‘sufficient’. I haven’t got enough time to read the paper this morning. • enough precedes the noun it refers to. We don’t have enough money for a holiday this year. • When we use enough referred to an adjective or an adverb, it follows them. My soup isn’t hot enough. Please reheat it. She’s not working quickly enough. She’ll never finish in time.

2 ! Note the following structures: enough + noun + to infinitive There aren’t enough people to make a team. (not) adjective / adverb + enough + to infinitive He wasn’t old enough to vote. She’s not walking quickly enough to catch the train.

My Glossary World problems birth rate bullying climate change disease drug education global village health system homeless human rights hunger illiteracy illiterate jobless loneliness malnutrition natural disaster peace petition pollution protest racism terrorism unemployed unemployment war weapons

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Politics government


law politics politician power to rule

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Money investor poverty stock market to make money to spend money on wealth

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Idioms and expressions from place to place ________________ in search of ________________ just joking ________________ Other... nouns beggar chemicals company farming lift possessions roof school leavers signature

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

adjectives disabled free moving old-fashioned peaceful strict surprising talented tasty worrying

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

verbs to end to face to feed to fight to hitchhike to interview to live on to look after to punish to solve to suffer from

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

adverbs finally first of all locally unfortunately

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________




A Better World

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice


Second conditional 1

Match the sentence halves.

1 If I were rich, 2 If I were the President of the USA, 3 If I met my favourite actor, 4 If I could run really well, 5 If I had a driving licence, 6 I’d stay in bed till 10 o’clock a I’d try to make peace in the world. b I’d save and buy a car. c if I didn’t have to go to school. 1 d I’d give some money to charity. e I’d ask for his autograph. f I’d train for the Olympics.

2 Use the words in brackets to complete the sentences.

1 If I _____ had (have) a pet, I_______ ’d take (take) good care of it. 2 If I ____________ (be) you, I ____________ (look) for some advice. 3 If she ____________ (can) sing, she ____________ (go) into show business. 4 If I ____________ (know) his phone number, I ____________ (not / give) it to you. 5 Where ____________ (you / live) if you ____________ (can) live anywhere in the world? 6 If I ____________ (not / like) that dress, I ____________ (not / wear) it. 7 What ____________ (you / buy) if you ____________ (win) the lottery? 8 She ____________ (not / be) happy if she ____________ (know) what you said about her. 9 ____________ (you / go) out with Peter if he ____________ (ask) you?

3 Write sentences in the second conditional to follow the sentences below. 1 He wants to say yes, but you didn’t ask him. He’d say yes if you asked him. 2 I’d like to read the book but I haven’t got it. _________________________________________ 3 I’m not helping you because you haven’t asked me. _________________________________________ 4 I’m not taking my umbrella because it isn’t raining. _________________________________________ 5 I can’t tell you the answer because I don’t know. _________________________________________ 6 Mark doesn’t know about this, don’t tell him because he’ll get angry. _________________________________________



4 Put the words below in the correct order to make sentences. 1 enough / big / isn’t / this shirt This shirt isn’t big enough. 2 we / for a football team / enough / haven’t got / players _________________________________________ 3 to make a curry / enough / there / rice / isn’t _________________________________________ 4 he / enough / isn’t / to play basketball / tall _________________________________________ 5 haven’t bought / drinks / they / for the party / enough _________________________________________ 6 crazy / Ken / to do something so dangerous / enough / isn’t _________________________________________


Underline the correct words in the sentences.

1 We haven’t got enough / too much money for this model. 2 Underemployment is when people have work but not too much / enough. 3 In reality there is enough food to / for feed everyone in the world. 4 This report is too / to complicated for a presentation in a school. 5 He isn’t poor enough / much to qualify for state assistance. 6 Pollution happens when we produce enough / too much dirty air. 7 Houses here are too expensive to / for most people to buy. 8 I have enough money to / for buy a mobile.

6 Rewrite the sentences using too or enough and the opposite of the adjectives. 1 You’re not loud enough, I can’t hear you. You’re too quiet, I can’t hear you. 2 This string isn’t long enough to tie the parcel. _________________________________________ 3 His house is too far to walk to. _________________________________________ 4 This soup isn’t hot enough to serve. _________________________________________ 5 My idea is too complicated for this project. _________________________________________ 6 This computer is too slow to download films. _________________________________________ 7 It’s not late enough to phone her, she’s still at work. _________________________________________ 8 My mum says I’m too young to go on holiday with my friends. _________________________________________


Complete the sentences with too or enough.

1 Your sister is ____ too talkative. She didn’t let me say a word! 2 I’ve had ____________ of this film. Let’s get out of here. 3 The test wasn’t ____________ difficult. Everyone got excellent marks. 4 My mum says I’m ____________ young to go to discos. 5 Don’t worry, we still have ____________ time before the shops close. 6 If I don’t get ____________ sleep, I’m in a bad mood all day.

Vocabulary Global problems 8 Complete the sentences with a word from the box. There are two extra words. disease bullying robbery human rights climate change illiteracy drugs environment education crime health

Word building 9 Use an appropriate form of the base word in brackets to complete the sentences.

1 If people have no access to medicine, then disease can become a major problem. ________ 2 We must learn to take care of the ____________ , for example by recycling everything possible. 3 If I were the head of the school, I’d suspend anyone found ____________ other students and making their lives miserable. 4 I’m sure that a good ____________ really helps people, that’s why I believe in investing in schools. 5 I think ____________ problems like not having a right to a trial or a lawyer are very important. 6 If ____________ weren’t punished, we’d all have to stay locked in our houses for safety. 7 Never mind politics, ____________ is the real problem, if temperatures rise, we’re in real trouble. 8 How can we help adults with an ____________ problem? Can we offer evening reading and writing classes? 9 We need more doctors to solve the country’s ____________ problems.

1 We like to use ________ natural ingredients in our dishes. (nature) 2 The river is so ____________ that nothing lives in it. (pollute) 3 I think the countryside is a ____________ place for children. (health) 4 We have so many people with no jobs that ____________ has become the biggest problem. (unemployed) 5 If I were a ____________ , I’d take care of the country’s social problems. (politics) 6 Let’s all calm down and look for a more ____________ solution than shouting. (peace) 7 This film is very violent, why did you say it was ____________ ? (educate) 8 I’d like to volunteer for a charity helping eradicate ____________ in the neighbourhood. (poor)

10 Underline the correct words in the dialogue.


Lorna Colin, have you seen this newspaper article? It’s really scary. It says that (1) pollution / crime of the environment is still increasing. Colin Why do you worry about those things? You can’t do anything. Worry about something else, like (2) homelessness / bullying at school. Lorna I’m not interested in that, but the environment is really important. Colin So is not getting hit by other students! OK, what about the (3) health / drugs problem in our town? A lot of (4) unemployment / crime is related to selling them or to using them. Robbery for example, and violence. Lorna But it’s not my problem. I don’t use them. Colin So? You might get robbed. Or what about local (5) politics / education? Aren’t you interested in who wins the next elections? Lorna I suppose so, but I’m still more interested in getting people to live a more (6) natural / creative lifestyle. You know, organic food and so on. Colin And how do you intend to do that? You aren’t exactly an (7) environmental / influential journalist, are you?




A Better World

English in Context

1 Complete the dialogue with the correct form of

3 Complete the dialogues with the words given.

the verbs from the box.


Anna (4) What / you do if a friend / borrow money from you but never gave it back? _____________________________________ Joe (5) It / depend on the amount. I think I forget about it, if it / be not much. _____________________________________ Sue (6) Well, I / wait for a week or two and then I / ask them for it. _____________________________________


take (x2) not hurt cut go not have to help

Sally Bob Sally


Sally Bob Sally Bob Sally



Bob Sally

have (x3) be (x2)

Bob, the dog’s barking. ’d take him for a walk if (1) I’m sorry, I_______ I _____ had time, but I’m really busy. There’s so much to do, the house is a mess. I’m going to have to clean the whole house. (2) If I ____________ you, I ____________ a rest! Then there are the dishes from breakfast. (3) If I ____________ to write this report, I ____________ you. The grass needs cutting too. (4) I’m sorry, if my back ____________, I ____________ it. We need some shopping; I’m going to have to go to the supermarket. (5) I ____________ if I ____________ the car. But it’s at the garage. Well, that’s all done. John and I are going to Donatello’s for lunch. Can I come? (6) Sorry, if there ____________ room in the car, I ____________ you. We’re going in his sports car. See you later!

(1) What / you do if your best friend / start flirting with your boyfriend? What would you do if your best friend started flirting with your boyfriend? Anna (2) I / be very angry and I / not talk to her again! _____________________________________ Joe (3) If my best friend start / flirting with my girlfriend I / hit him! _____________________________________

4 Complete the words in the newspaper short articles. The first letter is given.

1 A conference is being held on the subject of the e___________ nvironment . It is a problem that affects everyone. C____________ c____________ and environmental p____________ .

2 A full investigation has been launched into this attempted act of t____________ . Those involved will be found and arrested.

3 Amnesty International is concerned about h____________ r____________ violations in Sudan.

4 According to UN statistics adult i____________ amongst women in Central Africa is double that of men. Girls are simply not sent to school.

5 Every day hundreds of teens wake up afraid to go to school. B____________ is a problem in our schools.

6 Police arrested teens leaving a disco in Manhattan for possession of d____________ .

2 Complete the text with an appropriate word from the box. There is one extra word. were too poverty unemployment didn’t would homeless create enough

Some people say I’m always complaining, I am too pessimistic. Perhaps I am. But If people (1) ____ like me (2) ____________ complain, nothing (3) ____________ change. Most people don’t do (4) ____________ to reduce pollution or end (5) ____________ ; some people can’t afford one meal a day! I also worry about education. If there (6) ____________ more schools, kids would learn more. And the government must (7) ____________ more jobs; there is too much (8) ____________ , too many people without work; and this causes other problems, like crime.


(7) What / you do if your dad / start shouting at you in a shop? _____________________________________ Anna (8) I think I / walk away. _____________________________________ Sue (9) I / pretend I didn’t know him! _____________________________________

5 Complete the dialogue with words from the box. aren’t enough chairs aren’t old enough enough soft drinks it’s not big enough to eat too difficult to eat to feed the whole street

Sum up!

7 Complete this extract from a talk about the environment with the correct form of the words from the box in the spaces a-f. environment

Sean Have we got (1) _________________ enough soft drinks for the party? Olivia Yes, I think so, I bought four bottles of Coke. But I’m not sure I’ve made enough (2) ____________ . Sean We’ve got enough food (3) ____________ ! Olivia Do you think we need plates for the cake? Sean Yes, it’s (4) ____________ with your fingers. Olivia Oh no, there (5) ____________ to sit on! Sean Don’t worry, Andy’s bringing some. Olivia Shall I put the plates on the dining room table? Sean OK, but (6) ____________ . We’ll need to use the kitchen table as well. Olivia Is Erica coming? Sean No, her mum and dad are going out and she has to babysit. Her brother and sister (7) ____________ to stay on their own.

6 Complete the blog with words from Unit 2.

2 pollute (x2)




Kate Our quality of life is getting worse. Let’s take wouldn’t drive (not drive) transport, I (1) _____________ to university if there (2) ____________ (be) regular buses. There aren’t enough buses or trams, so there’s too much traffic. Apart from the fact we’re using too much petrol, we (a) ____________ the air we breathe. Neil Yes, (b) ____________ is a big problem in our town. Our streets are really dirty. There’s (c) ____________ everywhere. Another thing, if you read the newspapers, you (3) ____________ (see) that the level of (d) ____________ is going up, there are (e) ____________ every day. Someone stole my bike the other day! Kate Thank you, Neil. The thing is, we’re not being active enough in our local communities. Now if we all (4) ____________ (take) more interest in our (f) ____________ we could maybe do something to improve the quality of our lives. So that’s why we want to set up our group Environment watch! The first meeting is on Friday night at seven thirty. There’ll be food and drink. Neil Well, if there (5) ____________ (be) food, I’ll come. I can’t miss my dinner!


Put the verbs in brackets in 1-5 in the correct form.

Translate! Hard Times There are very difficult times for all of us. First of all, young people: they’re unhappy because too many lessons at school they have (1) _____ and they don’t have (2) ____________ time (3) ____________ their homework. When they leave school, they complain that there aren’t (4) ____________ jobs; if they manage to find a job, they aren’t paid (5) ____________ money to pay the bills! Take drivers: they complain that petrol is (6) ____________ expensive. Women? They have (7) ____________ responsibilities – at work and in the home. And me? I’m unhappy because I have a lot of friends on Facebook but not (8) ____________ real friends!


ranslate the following sentences into your own T language.

1 If I had time, I would go to the meeting. 2 If you studied more, you would pass your exams more easily. 3 If you study hard over the weekend, you’ll pass your maths test on Monday. 4 What would you do if you were a politician? 5 There isn’t enough money to invest in education. 6 You’ll be late for school if you don’t get up now. 7 This exercise is too difficult. 8 The environment is too polluted for wildlife to survive.




A Better World

Vocabulary Builder

Abstract nouns: the suffixes -ment, -ness, -tion We use abstract nouns to indicate a condition, a state or an idea. In this Unit we have learnt the following abstract nouns formed with the suffixes -ment, -ness, -tion: 1 unemployment environment 2 homelessness 3 pollution malnutrition education


Put the words in brackets into the correct spaces.

1 If a ____________ hits your area, there is still a chance it might pass near your house and not touch it, but you can’t avoid an ____________ : it shakes the whole area. (earthquake / cyclone) 2 The local inhabitants were shocked when the ____________ on the coast showed signs of life. They hadn’t expected an ____________ and weren’t ready for the ____________ which arrived from the sea. (tidal wave / volcano / eruption) 3 After the ____________ had blown down much of the town, it rained for a week, and the resulting ____________ damaged the ground floors of the houses still standing. Luckily the ____________ that people expected from the wet hillside didn’t arrive thanks to barriers placed earlier. (flooding / landslide / hurricane)


Use your dictionary and find which of the three suffixes you have to add to these words to create an abstract noun.

1 educate education 2 confine __________ 3 innovate __________ 4 refine __________ 5 unhappy __________

6 careless __________ 7 addict __________ 8 devastate __________ 9 agree __________


Now use some of the words to complete these sentences.

1 His drug ____________ caused a lot of ____________ for his whole family. 2 This environmental destruction and ____________ was caused by chemicals in the water supply. 3 There has been a lot of change and ____________ in the prison system in recent years. Many now believe in education and not punishment. 4 There was general ____________ in the group that the idea was interesting, but one or two people weren’t happy with it.

Opposites – antonyms As we have seen in previous units, it’s a good idea to write down the opposite (antonym) of a new word or expression. This not only helps you to remember it more easily, but it expands your lexis, enabling you to express the same concept in a different way. He isn’t as old as me. I’m younger than him.

5 Find the opposites of these words from Unit 2 in the box. There are two extra words.

Word Families: natural disasters 3

Look in your dictionary and match these words connected with natural disasters with their meanings.

1 volcano

2 eruption

3 earthquake

4 tidal wave

5 flooding

6 landslide

7 hurricane

8 cyclone


a when the earth moves and shakes b when too much rain means that an area fills with water c a mountain which explodes releasing lava d a very strong, devastating wind e when parts of a hill collapse f a natural explosion g a column of wind moving in a circular motion h an enormous rise in sea level which hits the coast

lenient increase dirty well-educated hunger wealth praise expensive corruption weak

1 clean __________ 2 illiterate __________ 3 cheap __________ 4 strict __________

5 punish __________ 6 strong __________ 7 poverty __________ 8 reduce __________

6 Complete the article with some of the words in exercise 5. The government has decided to take (1) _______ strong action regarding crime. It will (2) ____________ criminals with long sentences and there will be less (3) ____________ conditions in prisons. A government spokesperson said that this would certainly (4) ____________ crime and mean fewer robberies and attacks. Opposition politicians criticised the move, saying that crime is generally caused by (5) ____________ : most criminals come from homes with very little money. Prisons, they say, must help prisoners improve their lives. The debate continues today in Parliament.

Skills Reading

1 Read this report on human rights and teenage factory workers in China. What time does Lin get to bed? This is a report about the life of one teenager and the working conditions in Chinese factories. Poverty and the scarcity of jobs in the countryside force students to leave their homes to work in overcrowded, unhealthy conditions. Students spend the summer working 15-hour shifts, six and seven days a week. Some of the poorer students choose to stay a little longer, sometimes six or even eight months. Lin is 16 and is at high school. Last month she travelled 36 hours from her home in the north to a province in southeast China to work at an electronics company that makes a well-known brand of mobile phones. If we printed the name of the factory or the province, Lin would probably get the sack. ‘I came here so that I can help my family. My mum and dad both work on the land. It’s a hard life. I make more money here, but if there was work at home, I would go back tomorrow.’ Lin gets up at 6.30 a.m., eats a few crackers and races to the communal bathroom. ‘If I didn’t rush to wash my face and brush my teeth, I would have to wait too long and I’d be late for work.’ She starts work at seven twenty. The work is repetitive and monotonous. ‘I have to do the same things over and over. It’s difficult to stay awake sometimes. If we could talk to each other, it would be easier to stay awake but the foreman won’t let us. He always says: ‘If you want to talk to each other, you’ll have to wait until the shift is over!’ We have a break from 1-2.30 for lunch. Then we work for four hours.’ Lin has fifty minutes for dinner in the company canteen. ‘The food isn’t very tasty, and I’m always hungry.’ She doesn’t have time to leave the factory. ‘If there was a longer break before the evening overtime shift at 6.30, I would go to the supermarket and cook for myself. I know that I can choose not to work overtime, but if I didn’t work overtime, then I would only make $112.67 per month. This is not enough money to support a family. When I finish my four hours of overtime at ten thirty I am so tired, I go to the dormitory, wash my face and go to bed. If someone offered me a tasty meal, I probably wouldn’t be able to eat it. I just want to sleep!’


P Write true (T) or false (F). Correct the false sentences.

1 Chinese students leave home to work in factories because they can’t find work. T 2 The factory Lin works in makes computers. ___ 3 Lin wouldn’t lose her job if the report told us the name of the company. ___ 4 Lin has a big breakfast. ___ 5 The work is very boring. ___ 6 The workers can’t talk while they work. ___ 7 Lin likes the food. ___ 8 Lin isn’t too tired to eat before she goes to bed. ___


3 T P Write about the typical working day of someone you know. Read the second two paragraphs of the article again to help you.

Listening 4

3 Listen to Harry and Olivia talking. Which topic are they talking about: a, b or c?

a Your best friend borrows a school book and loses it. b Your best friend drops litter on the ground. c Your mum doesn’t feel well today and is staying in bed.

5 3 P Listen again and complete these sentences.

1 I’d be ______________________ . 2 Would you ______________________ ? 3 What would you do if he ______________________ ? 4 I don’t think ______________________ that. 5 I suppose I’d ______________________ myself.




Popular Legends Focus on Grammar

used to Form




subject + used to + base form of verb

He used to watch TV a lot when he could hear better.


subject + did not (didn’t) use to + base form of verb

I didn’t use to go to bed late when I was younger.


did + subject + use to+ base form of verb

Where did you use to go on Saturday night when you were my age?

• We use used to: – to describe past habits. He used to go swimming every day, but he gave it up last year. – to describe a situation or condition that was true in the past but is no longer in the present. She used to live by herself when she worked in London.

would • We can also use the modal verb would to describe past habits. My neighbours’ children would play for hours in the park. • When we talk about past habits, we can use both used to and would and the meaning is very similar. When my parents were away my grandfather would drive me to school. When my parents were away my grandfather used to drive me to school.


! When we talk about a past condition or state that is no longer true in the present, we can only use used to. My grandfather used to own a Rolls Royce. (Not: would own) When I was a kid, we used to have a beautiful cat called Oscar. (Not: would have)

3 My Glossary Popular legends castle creepy fairy tale Father Christmas ghost stories hero monster romance scary vampire

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Physical appearance beautiful handsome pale terrifying ugly

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Personality afraid evil mysterious romantic sympathetic

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Feelings anxious confused depressed miserable

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

puzzled sad scared terrified upset worried

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Idioms and expessions it must be a power cut dead scared frightened out of life there were rumours that to give sb the creeps to go on / to have a trip to tremble with fear

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Other... nouns back blanket doll field footsteps grave lawyer outcast prisoner show snake spider swing

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

victim wolf

_____________ _____________

adjectives aimed at awake dangerous empty nervous

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

verbs to attack to bark to believe to bite to crawl to destroy to go out to jump to knock to lock to run away to shake to switch off to travel

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

adverbs at first immediately suddenly

_____________ _____________ _____________




Popular Legends

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice


used to for past actions and states 1

Complete the sentences.

1 People / use / to / believe / in witches. People used to believe in witches. 2 I / not / use to / like / tomatoes as a child. _________________________________________ 3 you / use to / go / on holiday to the seaside? _________________________________________ 4 We / never / use to / watch TV. _________________________________________ 5 I / often / use to / go the cinema. _________________________________________ 6 My parents / not / use to / give me pocket money. _________________________________________ 7 people / use to / travel less? _________________________________________

would vs used to

3 Rewrite these sentences about past habitual actions using would. 1 On holiday we used to get up late every day. On holiday we would get up late every day. 2 It was usual for us take a sandwich to school. _________________________________________ 3 Normally we walked there and got the bus back. _________________________________________ 4 When we lived in the country we always went for long walks. _________________________________________ 5 My parents normally gave me pocket money on Saturdays. _________________________________________ 6 My dad used to bring home interesting things from his work. _________________________________________ 7 Our maths teacher always gave us homework on Friday. _________________________________________

4 Mark the sentence (7) in each pair which can also use would.


Make sentences with the correct form of used to. 1 It was common for people to be afraid of strangers. People used to be afraid of strangers. 2 People normally communicated by letter in the past. _________________________________________ 3 It was not common for people to travel much. _________________________________________ 4 I went to the park a lot with my bike as a child. _________________________________________ 5 I never had a car when I lived in the city. _________________________________________ 6 Did your parents usually let you watch TV when you were little? _________________________________________ 7 Did you usually go to the Youth Club disco? _________________________________________


1 We used to listen to stories at bedtime. 7 We used to have a huge book of bedtime stories. 2 My house used to be painted yellow. ___ We used to paint our house every year. ___ 3 My parents used to love going to the theatre. ___ My parents used to go to the theatre every weekend. ___ 4 Our car used to stop if it started to rain. ___ Our car used to be all scratched until we repainted it. ___ 5 My dog used to lie on the couch all afternoon. ___ My dog used to like that couch very much. ___ 6 I used to call my boyfriend three times a day. ___ I used to think perhaps I called him too much. ___ 7 I used to love seeing all my friends enjoying themselves. ___ I used to have a Christmas party every year. ___

Vocabulary Childhood 5 Underline the correct word or phrase to complete each sentence. 1 I’m going to read you a scary story about ghosts / Father Christmas. 2 When I was little I used to be afraid of sleeping alone / playing with toys, so my brother shared a room with me. 3 I was very shy so going to bed early / meeting new people was always difficult for me. 4 My parents always told me never to speak to certain animals / strangers. 5 I hated going to school / being at home alone so my mum always called a babysitter if she went out. 6 I don’t believe in spiders / UFOs, I think we’re alone in the universe. 7 Sometimes at night I don’t sleep if I have a test / fairy tale the next day. 8 The dark / Playing on the swings used to make me feel sick, I don’t like too much movement. 9 Bedtime stories / Empty houses are a good way to help a child relax and go to sleep.

6 Use phrases from the box to complete the sentences. There are two extra phrases. the dark going to school kinds of food fairy tales spider certain animals empty houses strangers sleeping alone meeting new people

1 I love eating but there are certain kinds of food that I can’t stand. ____________ 2 If I see a ____________ , even a tiny one, I go hysterical. I hate the way they move. 3 As a child I hated ____________ , but now I love having my own room. 4 I always keep a night light on because I hate ____________ . 5 There are ____________ that I love, mostly mammals. 6 ____________ in the early morning was horrible in winter, it was always so cold. 7 I think children have to learn not to trust ____________ . 8 My sister is terrified of ____________ . She believes they are haunted.


Negative feelings 7 Match each sentence with the correct response.

1 I was absolutely terrified during the film. 2 You look a bit worried. 3 Sarah seems quite sad today. 4 I think her job interview was depressing. 5 You look rather puzzled. 6 There is a worrying increase in violence. 7 The idea of going abroad to live is frightening. 8 Are you scared of spiders? 9 Those noises are a bit creepy. a Scared? I’m absolutely terrified of them! b Yes, I’m confused about this question. c Stay at home if you find it so scary. d I’m nervous about my exam. e I can hear them too, they’re frightening. 1 f Me too, I was really scared! g Yes, she looks a bit depressed. h Yes, the rise in attacks is upsetting. i She was very upset when she came out.

8 Choose the correct adjectives from the box to complete the dialogue. scary confusing frightened puzzled depressing worried frightening

Jeremy Helen Jeremy Helen

What was that noise? Did you hear it? No, stop playing tricks on me! scary . No, really. It’s quite (1) ______ Wait a minute, yes, I can hear it. Aagghh, it’s really (2) ____________ ! Jeremy Are you (3) ____________ ? You can hold my hand if you want. Helen Thanks, but I’m not that scared. Actually it sounds a bit like a cat. Oh no, perhaps a little animal is hurt somewhere, now I’m (4) ____________ . Jeremy About a cat? Don’t be silly! Helen Don’t you care about animals? That makes me really sad, it’s so (5) ____________ to think that there are people who just don’t care! Jeremy Oh no, sorry, I take it back. I just don’t understand something, it’s a bit (6) ____________ . The noise I heard was nothing like a cat. It was a sort of banging, like someone with a hammer. Helen I didn’t hear that. Now I’m very (7) ____________ about this noise, I don’t understand either!




Popular Legends

English in Context

1 Complete the dialogue with the correct form

3 Read the text and complete the sentences

of used to and a verb in the box.

with would and a verb from the box. run call play ride stay make go hear look up

get wear never take off say not wear have play (x2) be



Alex Dad Alex Dad

Alex Dad

Alex Dad

Alex Dad

Alex Dad Alex Dad

Alex Dad

Alex Dad

Hi Dad, I was looking for my old skateboard in the attic and see what I found. No! I can’t believe it’s still around after all these years! Who is this guy with long hair? Me! I can’t believe it! It’s true, (1) _____________ I used to have really long hair. I didn’t want to cut it. Your grandad (2) ____________ really angry! You’re not wearing glasses. Well, I had them but I (3) ____________ them. They didn’t go with my image! Your jacket’s really cool. Well, I (4) ____________ it all the time. I (5) ____________ (it). I practically slept in it! It was my rock star look! (6) ____________ (you) the guitar? Well, of course. We all did in those days. You won’t believe it, but I (7) ____________ in a band! No! You’ve never mentioned it before! Well, it was only for about a year. Were you good at it? Yes, people (8) ____________ I was quite talented. Why didn’t you carry on? We (9) ____________ a lot and the band broke up. What happened to your guitar? It’s in the attic somewhere.

2 Look at an old photo of your mum or dad and write about their appearance, clothes and hobbies.

When I was a child, we lived in a small town in Mississippi. We had an old black and white TV, but I didn’t watch it much. We didn’t have lots of electronic gadgets like you kids have nowadays; we didn’t have a computer or a mobile phone. If we wanted to talk to a friend, ’d call them on the house phone, or go round we (1) _________ to their house. If we wanted to do some research for school we (2) ____________ (it) in an encyclopedia or we (3) ____________ to the library! When I came back from school, I (4) ____________ myself a peanut butter sandwich and I (5) ____________ out to play with my friends. We (6) ____________ basketball in someone’s backyard or we (7) ____________ our bikes. At the weekend we (8) ____________ out till late but in those days parents didn’t worry about their kids so much, because they knew everybody on the street. If one of us did something wrong or had an accident, everybody (9) ____________ about it!

4 Make adjectives from the verbs given to complete the mini dialogues.

worry: A Tommy seems really (3) ____________ about something. He won’t say what it is. B Yes, it’s very (4) ____________ . He hasn’t eaten his dinner.

scare: A We went to see that new Japanese horror film. B Was it (5) ____________ ? A I wasn’t (6) ____________ , but Jess was!

terrify: A I’m really (7) ____________ of spiders. B Me too. I saw lots when I went camping. They’d crawl over our sleeping bags. It was (8) ____________ .


confuse: A The instructions for your mobile are difficult to understand. They’re really (1) __________ confusing . B I’m not surprised you’re (2) ____________ . You’re looking at the instructions for the remote control!

depress: A It’s been raining all day and I can’t go out. It’s really (9) ____________ ! B There’s no need to be (10) ____________ ! Let’s watch a film! upset: A Jake’s (11) ____________ because his cat died last night. B It’s really (12) ____________ when pets die.

5 P ut the letters in brackets into the correct order to complete the dialogues.



What’s wrong with Amy? She seems miserable (bmsireale). really (1) __________ Yes, she’s really (2) ____________ (eddesspre). She’s fallen out with her best friend.


Sum up! 6

Underline the correct words in the sentences.

1 When he was little he use to / ’d play for hours with that car. 2 My brother used to / would be scared of snakes. 3 I use / used to like classical music. 4 My mum would / used to make us fish on Fridays and roast chicken on Sundays. 5 I used to / used be really shy, I’m not anymore. 6 My sister used to wearing / wear glasses. 7 They didn’t use / used to eat vegetables. They do now. 8 Did your parents used / use to give you pocket money when you were little?

7 Underline the correct answer.

Mum Tania


Something (1) scary / scared happened when we went camping. We were laughing and chatting in our tent when (2) suddenly / then we heard a terrible noise. After (3) a while / at first we thought it was a wild animal or something like that. We were really (4) frightened / frightening. (5) Then / When everything went quiet, (6) but / so (7) after a while / at first we went outside to have a look. Guess what we saw? There was a snake next to the fire. We were dead (8) petrified / scared!

What’s the matter? I’m (3) ____________ (sianoux) about going to the dentist. There’s no need to be (4) ____________ (wdorrei). It’s only a check up.





Are you (5) ____________ (nseurvo) about the show tomorrow? (6) ____________ (Pdeetriif)! I haven’t sung in public before.

That beautiful old house has been empty for years. It’s (7) ____________ (das). Emma I think it’s really (8) ____________ (perecy)!


ranslate the following sentences into your own T language.

1 When my mum was a child, she was very serious and she used to study too much. _________________________________________ 2 My grandfather didn’t use to have a mobile phone when he was younger. _________________________________________ 3 Girls didn’t use to play football in the 50s. _________________________________________ 4 I’m really nervous about tomorrow’s test. _________________________________________ 5 What was that noise? _________________________________________ 6 Empty houses are really creepy. _________________________________________ 7 Suddenly, I heard a noise and I ran outside. _________________________________________ 8 I used to believe in Father Christmas as a child. _________________________________________




Popular Legends

Vocabulary Builder

Using gerunds as subjects

In this Unit we’ve encountered these expressions: playing with toys going to bed early Even though the expression is made up of several words, it can function as the subject of the sentence: Playing with toys is good for children’s development. Going to bed early is fine if you’re tired, but boring if you’re not. When the subject of a sentence is a multi-word activity and not just a single word, we use the -ing form of the verb followed by its complements.

1 Rewrite the following sentences making the verb and its complement the subject of the sentence. 1 It’s healthy to eat sensible, well-balanced meals. Eating sensible, well-balanced meals is healthy. 2 I think it’s scary to walk through dark woods at night. _________________________________________ 3 It’s great fun to sit around with friends telling stories. _________________________________________ 4 I find it depressing to stay at home alone in front of the TV. _________________________________________ 5 It’s good for people to take care of a pet. _________________________________________ 6 It’s upsetting to listen to people shouting at each other. _________________________________________ 7 It helps children to develop if they listen to classical music. _________________________________________

Word families: art 2 Look at the words in the box and, using your dictionary if necessary, try to put them into the correct column in the table. Some words may go in more than one column. chapter close up documentary landscape portrait movement rhythm contents character tune black and white still life introduction cover credits theme tune soundtrack band

Books chapter






Talking about when things happen in a story When we tell a story, we often describe events in the order in which they occurred, although some things happen in an unexpected way. It is useful to use linkers or words that connect events in time. They help the reader to understand and follow the story more easily.

3 Put the phrases below into the correct column. at first after a while straight away finally some time later the next (day, week…) in the end a short time later not much after

Indicates the beginning of a phase

at first

Indicates that a lot of time passed Indicates that not much time passed Indicates final phase

4 Use phrases from the box in exercise 3 to complete the story. More than one may be possible. A strange thing happened to me a few weeks ago. I was driving home after work and it At first I was quite relaxed. I was was dark. (1) _______ enjoying listening to the radio. It started to rain heavily, and (2) ___________ I realised that the road was starting to flood. Everything happened really quite quickly. I saw the flooding and (3) ___________ I saw a man standing on the road waving his hands. Of course I stopped (4) ___________ and opened the car window, but he didn’t speak. He made gestures with his arms to tell me not to continue and to turn back. Of course I thought he was sent by the local council or police, so I did as he suggested. I had to take a long detour to get home, so I started on my journey and drove and drove. (5) ___________ I finally made it home. (6) ___________ morning I called my friend at the council to thank him for taking action and he told me that they hadn’t sent anyone. I described the man and he went silent. I kept asking why and (7) ___________ he said: ‘You just described Bob Evans. He died twelve years ago in a flood on that road!’

Skills Reading


Fan fiction is a story written online, by fans or admirers for other fans, based on the characters and plot of an original story. There are a number of websites dedicated to this.

1 Read Anthony’s fan fiction story ‘Frankenstein – the true story’. Who does Axel like? Henry Clerval is a genetic engineer. He’s very ambitious and wants to create the perfect human being using genetic engineering, electrical impulses and the bodies of dead people. He rents a big, old house which people think is haunted, so that local people will not disturb him. He has a heart condition and at first he is worried he will not have the strength to make his creature, but Victor Frankenstein, a chemistry teacher from the local high school agrees to help him. The problem is they don’t know where to get the body parts they need. Then one day, there is an accident. Late one night, four teenage boys driving home from a club crash near their house. When the accident happens, there is nobody around so Clerval and Frankenstein immediately take the bodies to their laboratory. They now have enough body parts to create the perfect human. One day, Victor is in his laboratory working on the creature when his girlfriend, Elizabeth, suddenly appears. When she sees the body parts she is horrified. Victor tries to explain what he is doing, and she gives him an ultimatum, the creature or her. In the meantime, Dr Clerval discovers that one of the arms they plan to use is not genetically compatible. He is so upset that he has a heart attack and dies. When Victor discovers his partner’s body he decides to finish the creature in his memory. He tells Elizabeth his decision and she leaves him. Victor carries out a brain transplant straight away, so now the creature has Clerval’s brain. When Frankenstein removes the bandages, he sees the creature he has created is not a monster but a very goodlooking man. Frankenstein is so happy with him that after a while he takes him to meet his friends. He calls the creature Axel and says he is German. The creature is a great success. In fact lots of girls fall madly in love with him. But Axel only likes one girl, Elizabeth, Victor’s ex-girlfriend. One day, they go for a walk, it’s a very hot day and she sees Axel’s arm and realises he is not a human being but a monster and she is very frightened. Terrified, she gets in her car and drives away. She refuses to see Axel anymore. She doesn’t answer his texts or his phone calls. Axel becomes very depressed and stops eating. Not long after he becomes very ill and he dies of a broken heart.


P Choose the correct option a, b or c.

1 a Clerval cannot work because he is ill. b Clerval and Frankenstein work together. c Clerval works in a high school. 2 a Clerval and Victor use the bodies of some teenagers. b Clerval and Victor save the lives of some teenagers. c Clerval and Victor can’t find any bodies to use. 3 a Clerval makes the creature. b Frankenstein becomes ill and dies. c Frankenstein makes the creature. 4 a Frankenstein marries Elizabeth. b Frankenstein and Elizabeth split up. c Elizabeth and Axel get married. 5 a First Elizabeth likes Axel then she is afraid of him. b First Elizabeth is afraid of Axel then she likes him. c First Axel loves Elizabeth then he is afraid of her. 6 a Frankenstein dies. b Elizabeth dies. c Axel dies.

Writing 3

P Write your own fan fiction ending to this story. Begin with the following words:

When Frankenstein removes the bandages…

Listening 4

4 P Maria is looking at photos of her boyfriend Tony when he was a child. Listen and choose the correct answer. 1 Tony’s hair a wasn’t curly. b was curly. c was straight. 2 When Tony was little he a did more sport. b did less sport. c didn’t do any sport. 3 Tony was a a good footballer. b not a very good player. c the best player. 4 When Tony was a child he was a fat. b thin. c thinner. 5 Maria a doesn’t go swimming. b goes swimming twice a week. c doesn’t have time to go swimming.


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