Flash on English Intermediate TB sample

Page 1

P. Tite J. Bowie

Clearly-structured units Double linguistic input in each unit Focus on authentic real-world language Clearly structured grammar presentations Extensive recycling and review of language Exploitation of different learning styles and mixed-ability features Culture, CLIL and Literature lessons in every unit Graded and practical study-skills guide Grammar reinforcement with extensive explanations and practice in the Workbook

Step-by-step teaching notes, tips and background notes on cultural issues Wide offer of photocopiable testing materials Editable tests in the Multi-ROM Test Maker FLIP BOOK An interactive, IWB-compatible version of the Coursebook containing all recordings, links, reference materials and extras Course components Student’s Book Workbook with Audio CD Teacher’s Resource Pack Class Audio CDs Multi-ROM Test Maker Teacher’s FLIP BOOK Flash on English Online Resources Common European Framework


A2 B1 B2 C1 C2


For the Teacher

Flash on English

FLASH on English is a motivating, easy-to-use, four-level course which takes teenage learners from Elementary through to Upper Intermediate level. The comprehensive syllabus provides thorough grammar, vocabulary and skills work, builds students’ language awareness and encourages fluency and self-confidence. The combination of printed, digital and online material enhances the learning experience and helps teachers respond to students’ needs.

Flash on English Teacher’s Pack Intermediate Editorial coordination: Simona Franzoni Editorial department: Sabina Cedraro, Serena Polverino, Giorgia D’Angelo, Linda Pergolini Art Director: Marco Mercatali Page design: Airone Comunicazione: Sergio Elisei Production Manager: Francesco Capitano Page layout: Airone Comunicazione: Diletta Brutti Cover Cover design: Paola Lorenzetti Photo: Shutterstock © 2013 ELI S.r.l P.O. Box 6 62019 Recanati Italy Tel. +39 071 750701 Fax. +39 071 977851 info@elionline.com www.elionline.com Luke Prodromou is the author of the Teaching techniques for mixed-ability classes pages. The Publisher would like to thank Martha Huber for her precious contribution to this project. No unauthorised photocopying All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of ELI. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover than that in which it is published and without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Printed by Tecnostampa ISBN 978-88-536-1554-1

Teacher’s Pack Intermediate – Contents Student’s Book Intermediate – Contents

p. 4


p. 8

Teacher’s Guide Unit 1

p. 17

Unit 2

p. 26

Unit 3

p. 34

Unit 4

p. 43

Unit 5

p. 53

Unit 6

p. 61

Unit 7

p. 69

Unit 8

p. 77

Unit 9

p. 86

Unit 10

p. 95

Flash on CLIL

p. 104

Teaching Techniques for Mixed-Ability Classes

p. 105

Workbook Answer Key and Transcripts

p. 111

Tests & Resources Unit Tests (A and B) and Skills Tests

p. 124


p. 179

Extension Tests and Resources Answer Key and Transcripts

p. 199 p. 219





Introduction FLASH on English FLASH on English is an English course for Secondary Schools, specifically aimed at students in the 14 to 18 age range. It takes students from Elementary (A1) to Upper Intermediate (B2) level. The fundamental language objective is for them to learn English in a non-jargon form, as it is spoken today on a daily basis. Added to this, the aims are to help them acquire a greater sense of the historical, geographical, scientific and environmental background of the anglophone world, to offer an intensive exploration of the rich literary expression in Anglo-American culture and to provide a stimulating introduction to cross-curricular topics in the Culture, CLIL and Literature sections. FLASH on English offers an extremely coherent learning pathway subdivided into units. Each unit begins with two waves of content presentation on four pages. First, a descriptive or informative text introduces the new structures and the new vocabulary along with relative practice exercises. This is followed by a dialogue between the characters of a story which expands on the structure and lexis, develops the communicative functions and provides further opportunity for practice. There follows a vocabulary workshop or a listening workshop page in the Elementary, Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate levels, and a Use of English practice page in the Upper Intermediate level. A grammar focus page presents new structures and offers practical activities. The last two pages of each unit are skills pages that focus on reading, listening, speaking and writing through excerpts taken from novels, comedies, poems, history chapters, discussions about the environment, and so on.

Components For the student Student’s Book Workbook with Audio CD For the teacher Teacher’s Pack (Teacher’s Guide with Tests & Resources, 2 Class CDs, Multi-ROM Test Maker) Teacher’s FLIP BOOK Each Teacher’s Pack includes: • Teacher’s guide with: – the course description and methodology – teaching notes for each unit with answer keys and transcripts – culture notes and extra activities – activities/suggestions for classes with mixed abilities – workbook answer keys and transcripts • Tests & Resources with units tests, skills test, extension and revision tests • 2 Class CDs with all of the audio recordings and pronunciation exercises • Multi-ROM Test Maker: the audio recording of the skills test and all the tests in Word format, in case the teacher needs to modify them to meet their class necessities • FLIP BOOK: contains the digital, interactive version of the Student’s Book, all of the audio material and the PDFs of the Workbook Supplementary material available on www.elionline.com


Introduction Course Description Presentations The target language (vocabulary and grammar structures) is presented through two different types of presentation texts: • A descriptive or informative text (article, blog, email, questionnaire…) on topics of interest to students in this age range • A dialogue (with photos) that describes a typical situation faced by native speakers of English The second part of the presentation section focuses attention on the grammar and lexical aspects that emerge in either the written text or, in a spontaneous form, in the dialogue.

Presentation 1 Warm up The objective of the warm up phase is to introduce the topic of the presentation text. This can occur both by teaching the new lexis in the text and by encouraging the students to contribute in a personal way to the topic, putting into practice the knowledge they have already acquired. Students will explore the lexical area of the new vocabulary words they encounter in the texts and will also draw on previous lexical knowledge. All of this takes place through exercises matching words to pictures or through questions on the topic to encourage students’ personal responses and to check their passive knowledge of the language. This brief introduction should last no more than 5 minutes. The reading of the text allows students to check and expand on their knowledge expressed in the warm-up phase. Text In order to familiarise students with the various registers of the English language, a variety of texts are proposed, from descriptive to informative, taken from different sources such as magazine and newspaper articles, emails, messages and posts, advertisements, brochures, blogs, websites, questionnaires, interviews and quizzes. Each type of text has a dual function. On the one hand, it prepares the student to understand the various written forms (journalistic, advertising, bureaucratic, scientific…) and the different registers (formal, informal, objective, personal) in English; on the other hand, it serves as a vehicle for presenting the grammar and lexis for that unit. Comprehension First stage: this usually involves skimming the text for gist or scanning it for specific information, which could be tied into the warm up, relative to either lexis or general topic. The goal is to encourage the students to read a text quickly in order to grasp the overall sense or to pick out specific information. Second stage: this checks comprehension of the details of the text. Students complete a variety of exercises such as True or False, matching or answering Wh- questions (requiring answers that provide information).

Presentation 2 Dialogue The second presentation text introduces the story of four teenagers who are attending a summer course at the fictional London Arts Centre (LAC) in London. These are usually dialogues (rarely other texts) and photographs. Of the four characters, three (Antonio, Michael and Robyn) are doing a course on Film Studies and one (Anna) who arrives later, is doing a drama course. The story begins, evolves and concludes in the first three volumes of FLASH on English. Anna lives in London with her parents who own a Bed & Breakfast. Her dream is to take a course in acting and dance at the London Arts Centre. Robyn comes from Scotland and has rented a room in a house in London so she can attend the LAC course.


Introduction Antonio comes from Liverpool. He has moved to London to attend the LAC course and has rented a room in the same house where Robyn lives. Michael is from Manchester but lives with his aunt and uncle in London. He has a great sense of humour and is always ready to joke and make fun of people. Mr and Mrs Harrison are Anna’s parents and the owners of the B&B. The father is strict and is constantly reprimanding Anna because she goes out often, comes home late and doesn’t do enough work at the hotel. Anna has to really struggle to win permission to attend LAC. The mother instead, is a little more understanding of her daughter. The centre for the arts offers a natural context in which to introduce topics in the cultural and literary fields that are often picked up again in the skills pages. Listen and read The story is first approached through a Listen-and-read exercise in which the students are asked to either answer a global comprehension question (by skimming) or to provide specific information (by scanning), based on the dialogue or the pictures. The students listen to the dialogue as they follow the text in the book. In a mixed-ability class, those students who feel more confident can close the book and simply listen (see the Teaching Techniques for mixed-ability classes sections in the Teacher’s Books). Comprehension Following the Listen-and-read exercise, there is a detailed comprehension exercise similar to that in the first presentation text.

Features common to both presentations Flash Forward This section offers fast-finishers the opportunity to react to the text in a personal way. This usually involves a written activity, for example, answering questions, writing a brief description, expressing a personal opinion. This can be assigned to those students who have already completed the other exercises to keep them occupied while the rest of the class finishes the previous task or it can be given to the whole class. Grammar This section highlights the grammar elements of the presentation text. The examples are taken from the text and the grammar item is emphasised in bold. If necessary, a brief explanation may follow. Then, the students are asked to look for more examples of this particular grammar feature in the text. The morphology, structure and uses of the grammar point are further developed on the Flash on Grammar page and in the Workbook. Grammar exercise The follow-up exercise checks the student’s grasp of the form and meaning of the grammar point presented. The exercise usually consists of 6 or 7 sentences. Vocabulary Words taken from the presentation text or dialogue are the basis for presenting new vocabulary in lexical groups. These groups could be based on a lexical area connected to the unit theme (for instance, travel, transport, food, etc.), to parts of speech (adjectives, nouns, verbs, adverbs, etc.), on a semantic relationship (synonyms, antonyms) or on collocations, i.e. typical combinations of two or more words (e.g. verb + noun: to take a taxi, to catch a cold). The students are asked to do exercises that deal with a particular lexical area, for example, matching words and pictures, words and definitions, or classifying words into groups or diagrams, tables or mind maps. In order to activate the lexis that has been learned, an exercise is provided in which students personalise the lexical area; for example, in the area of Transport students might be asked to talk about which means of transport they use to come to school. Functions This section offers the student a chance to use the grammar and the lexis that has been highlighted in the lesson to express a range of communicative functions.


Introduction Functions are performed in written and oral activities; there is often a ‘write, then say’ sequence which gives the student a solid base on which to build the difficult art of oral expression in a foreign language. In the oral activities the student expresses opinions, solves problems, interacts with a partner in order to establish effective verbal communication. Linguistic segments to be used and examples of how to use them are a useful and necessary guide. Say it! In each Presentation the student is provided with an opportunity to use the language just learned (vocabulary, grammar, functions) in oral expression. Since the development of production skills requires a big effort, a variety of helpful means are provided to the student; the oral activity may be based on oral models just presented (e.g. in Unit 2 the students describe Robyn’s room after having read the description of Michael’s room in the dialogue) or it may follow a written exercise (e.g. in Unit 1 the students write about objects they’ve got before they talk about them with a partner). Write it! In each Presentation the student is guided through the writing of short texts based on the structures, functions and vocabulary learned in the presentation text. A fuller development of written composition, both guided and free-form, is carried out on the last double-page spread in the unit, in a wider context of cultural and extra-curricular discussions. Flashpoint This section highlights some of the problems encountered and most common errors made by people learning English.

Vocabulary Workshop/Listen’n’speak/Use of English The Vocabulary Workshop page offers numerous exercises on the lexical area already explored in the first part of the unit. It also includes a Study Skills section with practical tips on learning/studying techniques to help students improve their performance in class and at home; a Pronunciation section and/or a Spoken English section. The Listen’n’speak page stimulates further development of listening and speaking skills, of the techniques associated with them (skimming, scanning, listening for gist, etc.) and of communication strategies. In order to see a parallel development of the two skills, the contents of the listening activity (oral comprehension) prepares for and facilitates the speaking activity (oral production). In addition, the audio text contains examples of words and phrases that will be the object of the pronunciation activity that follows. The Use of English page of the Upper Intermediate level focuses on usage and helps learners familiarise with the third paper of the Cambridge English: First (FCE) examination. Pronunciation The goal of this activity is to help students to not only pronounce English in a way that is fluid and natural-sounding, but also to understand spoken English from native as well as world speakers of English. English sounds are practised, both singly and in the context of a sentence or general discourse, with particular emphasis on intonation and stress. The examples are taken from the language material presented in the unit. Spoken English This section is aimed at helping students to express themselves in English more fluidly and naturally, but especially to teach them active listening. This means they will learn to develop their ability to listen and to interact in a conversation with the appropriate reactions and/or responses (listenership). Practice with spoken English is had through short dialogue exchanges. By the end of the third volume, the students will have had practice using the following types of communicative utterances, phraseology and grammatical forms. • Using phrases or typical expressions rather than complete sentences • Frequently using conjunctions and, but, or and because • Using ellipsis: (Do you) like ice cream? Fancy a walk? • Using phrases or questions to keep a conversation going: What about you? And you? By the way… • Using words to pause or gain time: you know, I know, I see, you see, so, well, kind of, sort of, a bit, really, actually… • Using two consecutive questions: Do you like London? Is it your favourite city? • Using fillers: er…, um…


Introduction • Reacting with a comment using which as a linker: A: London’s huge… B: which makes it really interesting! • Confirming by rephrasing what the other person has said • Repeating of part of what others in the conversation have said • Reacting to show interest: Really? Amazing! • Interrupting the person who is speaking • Taking short conversation turns between two people (adjacent couple mechanism) • Using idiomatic expressions, locutions and ‘fixed collocations’ • Using informal lexis

Flash on Grammar This section summarises the grammar learned in the unit, offering explanations and additional practice exercises. These include specific ones to address each single grammar item, followed by other exercises which cover all of the grammar points in the unit. The exercise format is either separate sentences or a short text.

Flash on Skills (Culture/CLIL/Literature) The last two pages in each unit present material that is tied to Culture, CLIL and Literature. The topics were chosen in relation to the theme for each unit. The texts recycle the grammar and the vocabulary from the unit. They also present a limited number of new words, just for passive knowledge. In fact, the new words are not included in the oral exercises or in the listening comprehension questions. On these pages, emphasis is placed on developing the four skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing). A study skills section is included with practical tips on learning/studying techniques to help students improve their performance in class and at home. The Culture pages deal primarily with the United Kingdom in the lower levels, whereas in the higher levels sociocultural topics pertaining to world are covered. The CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) pages propose work on other subjects, both school- and workrelated, presented in English. The students learn to absorb and deal with information from the real world, discussing it in English, at a level that matches the unit they are currently studying. The Literature pages present a few literary texts (prose, poetry or theatre) as vehicles to allow students to practise and expand on the language learned in the unit and also to acquire cultural notions through the English language.

Flashback Every two units there is a double page of exercises to review the language objectives. The exercises cover the material from the previous two units, subdivided into three sections, Grammar, Vocabulary, and Functions, for a total score of 100 points. The teacher can use this revision to check what has been assimilated by the students, to identify any gaps or weak points, to recover and consolidate before moving on to the next two units.

Course Methodology The FLASH on English course adopts an eclectic teaching methodology which combines well-known, tried and true traditional techniques with a balanced use of the most recent developments in language learning that are based on new discoveries in the field of foreign language acquisition. The course is solidly based on grammar and lexis but complements this with an emphasis on receptive skills in the four areas of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course is designed around the conviction that students in this phase of their language study need a great deal of help in learning to speak and write (language production) and need constant training to hone their listening and reading skills (language comprehension). In the methodological approach adopted in the FLASH on English course the texts used in the presentation pages are essential for contextualising the language and for fostering student interest in the topic. Moreover, the course is built on the fundamental principle that language serves as the bridge to content and therefore, it encourages students to learn new things about the world around them through the medium of the language; this is


Introduction especially true in the last lesson of each unit, in the Culture, CLIL and Literature pages. A cohesive development of language and content not only makes it easy to assimilate and retain what is being learned, but allows for an easy sequence of exercises, lessons and units characterised by a seamless continuity.

Approach to grammar The approach to grammar is inductive and follows either of two paths: go from the example to the rule and practice or go from the structures to the rule and practice. In each unit the grammar in question appears in the presentation text before it is formally introduced. The students can observe the grammar in context so as to have an idea of the forms, the meaning and the use of grammatical elements and structures. Then, they look at the grammar box which provides examples taken from the text and highlights the morphology. At this point the students are asked to go back to the text to find other examples and to underline them. This search activates their awareness of the grammar seen in context. When the students have found more examples, the teacher asks questions to focus attention on the form, meaning and use of the structure, for example: What tense is this? What period of time does it refer to, past, present or future? Why is the speaker or writer using this form? Is he or she telling a story/talking about everyday activities? This encourages students to extrapolate the rule by themselves and thus, remember it more easily. It also prepares them to be more focused when they do the grammar exercise that follows. The exercises are a controlled manipulation of the forms, presented in such a way as to also illustrate the meaning. The students then have the opportunity to use the grammar in short exchanges in the Functions section. The Flash on Grammar page instead, uses a deductive approach; that is, students first observe the forms, the meaning and the use of the grammar to then move on to practise it in sentences and in texts. The grammar is presented through a deductive approach and delved into more deeply in the Workbook. Each Workbook unit starts with two pages that serve as a grammar reference to be used at home or when a comprehensive view of the grammar point is needed during the classroom lesson. The pages contain a thorough analysis of the grammatical elements in question, with verb tables, morphology, structure and explanations on usage, all with examples taken from the Student’s Book. The two explanatory pages are followed by two pages of exercises in the most common formats (gap fill, multiple choice, sentence formation with word prompts, matching sentence halves or matching answers and questions).

Approach to lexis In both the Elementary and Pre-Intermediate levels much emphasis is placed on learning the lexis because it is the most important aspect of the language, essential for communication. In fact, a certain level of communication is possible even without knowing the grammar, but with no knowledge of the words, communication is impossible. Teaching lexis is the objective that pervades each unit, particularly in the Elementary level where building a strong lexical base is fundamental. To do this, the FLASH on English approach to teaching lexis is to gradually build up the student’s knowledge of how things are called, whether they are objects or ideas, feelings, and so on. Words are organised into semantic-lexical groups to facilitate the memorisation and recall process. The groups are presented through diagrams, images, tables and mind maps. For example, the students are asked to match words and pictures, to complete a lexical group or to choose the most appropriate word for a given situation. Sometimes the combination of words is tied to usage (e.g. collocation) and sometimes attention is focused on the grammatical form of the word or on derivatives (e.g. from verb to noun, from an adjective to its opposite). Just as with grammar, studying lexis also starts with the form and meaning and then looks at how the words are used in context. The lesson often begins with a warm-up exercise that introduces the lexical theme, for example matching words to pictures. Then, examples of the vocabulary being highlighted are used in the presentation texts on the first and third pages of the unit, allowing students to deduce the meaning from the context. A specific exercise follows which reproposes the words from the text and adds others to build a lexical group (of anywhere from 8 to 20 elements). At this point the students are able to tackle a personalised exercise using the lexis they have learned or do another type of exercise in which the vocabulary is used in context and in a meaningful way. The study of the lexis is expanded on the Vocabulary Workshop page and reinforced in the Workbook where the students will find a glossary containing the lexical groups from the unit, placed after the grammar reference, along with a series of lexis-building exercises in the most common formats.


Introduction As the course progresses, teachers will notice that the language from one unit is recycled in the units that follow so as to reinforce the learning process. This helps the students’ long term memory and offers the opportunity to explore other contexts in which the same lexis is used. In the higher levels FLASH on English continues to expand the student’s lexical knowledge by concentrating on fixed phrases and idiomatic expressions (see Spoken English and Language development sections).

Functions In each unit there are sections which highlight specific communicative functions. The students are thus given the chance to communicate in English, using a wide range of functions. Examples of these functions are to be found in the mini-dialogue format; the students then use them as models to guide their own production at the functional communication level.

Approach to listening The four skills can be classified into oral comprehension (listening), written comprehension (reading), oral production (speaking) and written production (writing). In order to develop the listening skill, the course offers ample and varied opportunities for listening practice. New words are listened to for memory and for correct pronunciation. The dialogues of the story are heard and read, but according to the students’ listening ability, they may be only listened to without the script. It is recommended, however, that the comprehension exercise be done with the book open to the dialogue, so students can refer to it. In the Intermediate level of the course, on the Listen’n’speak pages, the two skills are coordinated in that the speaking activity can be used as an introduction to the listening activity and vice versa, it can follow and expand on the content. All of the sub-skills are also developed to promote effective listening (pre-listening, listening for gist, listening for specific details, deep listening to grasp all of the meanings and levels of communication). In other words, the listening activity begins with an exercise to familiarise the students with the topic before they hear about it, then the actual listening begins to catch the overall sense first, and then, the details. Finally, students are encouraged to then express their personal reactions to or their opinions on what they have heard.

Approach to speaking The skills that require production from the students (speaking and writing) require more effort compared to those that call for comprehension (reading and listening). One of the fundamental guiding principles of FLASH on English is to provide students a detailed guide and all of the necessary support material for the speaking activities. Therefore, speaking activities are closely linked to other activities (lexis- and grammar-related, listening), but above all, students are encouraged to think about the topic and jot down a few notes, before they begin to talk about it. This preparatory step will be especially useful when they must begin to speak. This approach can be summarised in the formula, think, write and speak. A variety of oral activities are undertaken: brief monologues or speeches made to the class, work in pairs in which students talk to a partner and they share opinions, express agreement or disagreement, ask for and give information, offer suggestions to solve a problem and so forth. The speaking activities sometimes involve written (words, questions) or visual prompts (pictures) or a questionnaire to be answered.

Spoken English/Language Development This section offers two types of language, one consists of words or expressions that are commonly used in daily spoken English and the other consists of useful interactive strategies. The information on the language and structure of discourse helps the student to improve his/her capacity to not only speak English more naturally, but also to listen more carefully.

Approach to reading For an effective development of reading skills, activities must be broken down into three different moments – before reading, while reading, after reading. Before reading: during the preparatory step (pre-reading or warm-up) the students are asked to draw on previous knowledge of the topic or recall some language requirements. In some cases it may be necessary to provide new information, but wherever possible, it is recommended that teachers try to use what the students already know. It is good practice in teaching to build new knowledge on the basis of prior knowledge; this will give students


Introduction confidence, bolsters their self-esteem and makes it easier to approach the reading text. While reading: the students are asked to read the text a first time to check their answers to the warm-up questions or to grasp the gist. This first step of the while reading phase should not be presented as something difficult, because it is simply the first contact with the text. The second step of while reading instead, requires a more detailed reading and an exercise on more thorough comprehension. After reading: in the after reading phase, the students do the Flash Forward activity in which they can react to the text. This final phase requires as much personal input as possible, so as to help students commit to memory both the language and the content. While it is not necessary to insist that the students understand every word of the new text, the material is presented in such a way that by the end of the three reading phases the class should have understood almost everything.

Approach to writing Writing is a useful preparatory activity for speaking and also serves to consolidate the language that has been learned, but it is also a skill in and of itself. In every unit of FLASH on English there are brief writing exercises to do, leading up to the speaking activities or following them as a conclusion. The main work on this skill is done in the Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate levels in the Skills sections where the students will find a variety of texts that serve as models for composition. In the Intermediate and Upper Intermediate levels students are taught to write a narrative, a summary, a book or film review; how to use linkers; how to put together two sentences; how to subdivide a text into paragraphs; how to write about problems and give advice or solutions; how to describe people and interpersonal relationships; talk about one’s favourite sport; how to organise a speech, a website, a biography or a magazine article.

Approach to pronunciation In FLASH on English three main areas of English pronunciation are explored: • Individual sounds (vowels, consonants) • Stress (on the word, in the sentence) • Pronunciation within a discourse (e.g. importance of weak forms) The object is not to learn to speak like a native speaker of English, which is practically impossible (and probably not necessary), but to help students speak in the most natural and comprehensible way possible. There is nothing wrong with the listener being aware that the speaker is Italian, French or of any other nationality. The students who use the FLASH on English course are at a point in their development when they can imitate a good accent and achieve a good pronunciation. This is much more difficult later, after the age of adolescence when the way people articulate and language models used become fixed. At this stage, instead, student can be made aware of the importance of proper pronunciation and the basis is laid down for optimal pronunciation in the future. The course contextualises the pronunciation exercises and because they are based on the listening texts which the students have heard, the phonological elements are taken from the material already presented.

Recycling The FLASH on English course recycles grammar and vocabulary in various ways: • In graded material: the new texts are based on pre-existing knowledge of both grammar and lexis; new structures are avoided if they are not in that unit’s grammar point; old and well-known language forms are incorporated throughout the book to create a sense of continuity and uninterrupted flow; • In the Skills pages: the final double-page spread in each unit recycles as much language as possible from the unit; • In the Flashback activities: after every two units the students can check what they have retained from the grammar, lexis and functions learned up to that point by doing check and review exercises; • In the Workbook.

Mixed-ability classes Nearly all classes can be defined this way because students come from different linguistic experiences, they are motivated differently, have different interests, learn at different speeds and have different types of intelligence (kinesthetic, linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, naturalistic, spatial-artistic, interpersonal). Therefore, it is useful to understand the problems facing a teacher and helpful to know how they can be solved by


Introduction adopting appropriate strategies and techniques. For effective teaching that can reach all students, even the weakest ones, it is recommended that you: • Make frequent use of visual materials that will attract students of all levels and of all types of intelligence; • Be prepared for all situations, for example, have an extra exercise ready to give to those who finish sooner, such as the Flash Forward exercises proposed in FLASH on English; • Not assign a whole activity to all of the students, but assign different parts so as to graduate the activity according to ability; • Assign open-ended exercises, for example, write a letter, finish the story, describe a picture, so each student can do the task according to his/her level seeing as there is no one right answer to this type of exercise; • Personalise the exercises to adapt them to the students’ interests; • Do role-play and drama activities, lexis or grammar contests; • Divide the class into groups or pairs with strong and weak students to work together or make groups of the same level and then assign tasks of varying difficulty. Specific suggestions for the FLASH on English course are to be found on page 105 of this guide.

Tests & Resources The Tests & Resources volume of FLASH on English course contains the following materials: • 10 Unit Tests (one for each unit, in versions A and B) • 5 Skills Tests (one for every two units) • 10 double-sided Revision sheets • 16 double-sided Extension sheets Unit Tests (A and B) The series of tests, in versions A and B, provide a written test of the grammatical and lexical elements presented in each unit of the Student’s Book, as well as the language functions and the lexis presented in the relative Vocabulary Builder sections of the Workbook. In the A and B versions of the tests, the grammar structures, the lexis and the functions being tested are equivalent, but there may be some slight differences in vocabulary, single items or information asked. In both versions, the exercises are of a controlled structure such that the students are required to manipulate single linguistic components or compose short sentences. Skills Tests Each Skills Tests section checks students’ abilities, using the topics and language material presented in the previous two units. The Reading and Listening sheets consist in two activities each, for a total of 30 points for each sheet. The texts use authentic language used in real contexts and the comprehension activities usually require short but precise answers. Students’ writing skills are enhanced in the activities offered on the Writing sheets (20 points each) that cover the topics and structures presented in the units. The Speaking sheets present three different activities, a semi-structured dialogue that gives students an opportunity to practise their oral production in a controlled situation, and two questions to which students must give a longer and more complex answer, using the lexis and structures from the relative units. Revision and Extension worksheets Each Revision worksheet offers recovery and consolidation exercises for the grammar and lexis from each unit. In order to achieve greater consolidation, the activities are organised in a controlled structure and offer a high degree of support to the student. These worksheets are especially useful for students that need extra reinforcement or that need to catch up. The Extension sheets are for students who have already assimilated the contents of the unit and who are now ready for consolidation and enhancement of the competences acquired. The activities presented on these pages are primarily summative in nature and they present a series of authentic texts of different kinds (article, email, brochure, blog, quiz, etc.) and dialogues. Students will need a greater degree of autonomy and the ability to orient themselves in less guided contexts that offer greater linguistic variety.



Fair Play Play the recording while the students follow in their book.

Topic: sport. Grammar: Present perfect continuous; purpose and reason.

Vocabulary: sports equipment; sporting locations; football phrases. Functions: talking about sport; expressing

Have the students write the names of the sports from exercise 1 in the blanks in the texts. Transcript [Track 1.02] vedi Student’s Book p. 8



Reading: read interviews with some athletes; read comments on a televised football game; read an article about the Olympic Games.

Interview Interview Interview Interview

Listening: listen to an interview about a charitable organisation that has to do with football; listen to the description of an organisation that promotes the Olympics.

Speaking: ask and answer questions about a sport; ask and answer personal questions; make a short speech about a charity and about an international sporting event. Writing: a brief biography of an athlete; describe an international sporting event.

Pronunciation/Spoken English: /T/ vs /f/; so. Study Skills: extensive reading on an interesting topic to grasp the main ideas.

It’s a sporting life! pp. 8-9 1 p. 8

Read and translate the title of the lesson. Assign the matching task. Tell the students that the four sports illustrated will be the object of the interviews in exercise 2.



skiing water polo motor racing basketball p. 8

Have the class read the sentences a-f and assign the task. Ask different students to say which words helped them to identify the correct place for each sentence. Answers 1d






FLASH FORWARD Assign the activity to any students who quickly finish exercise 3 or do it with the whole class.

Vocabulary: Sports equipment 1.03 p. 9 4 Now have the students match the pictures to the words. Play the recording to check their answers. Play it again for repetition. Transcript and answers [Track 1.03]

Answers 1B


1: 2: 3: 4:



Presentation text 1.02 p. 8 2 Tell the students they will now read and listen to interviews with some athletes and a sports manager. They are to identify the sport being discussed in each interview.

01 J – surfboard 02 A – racket 03 D – whistle 04 F – basket 05 E – skis 06 G – net 07 C – rugby ball 08 B – boxing gloves 09 H – golf ball 10 I – golf club



Vocabulary: Sporting locations 1.04 p. 9 5 Have the students form compound nouns with a word for each box. Play the recording to check their answers. Play it again for repetition. Transcript and answers [Track 1.04] golf course racing car circuit football pitch basketball court boxing ring ice-skating rink sports stadium ski slope


Present perfect continuous Have the class read and translate the examples. Explain that often the Present perfect simple and continuous can be used interchangeably. However, the Present perfect continuous is generally used to place emphasis on the action itself (I have been studying really hard lately), whereas the Present perfect simple highlights the result (I’ve passed all of my exams). The Present perfect continuous is used especially if the action is very recent and the results are still visible (You are soaking wet! Have you been walking in the rain?). Now go to p. 13 and go through the rules and additional examples. Assign the task. Answers 1 Interviewer How long have you been skiing? Sportsman I’ve been skiing ever since I was 12. My mum and dad taught me. Interviewer Do you also enjoy watching skiing competitions? Sportsman Yeah, I’ve just been watching the final on TV, but I prefer to do it, you know, to get on the slopes and feel the wind in my face. Interviewer When did people in Norway begin the sport? Sportsman Well, people in Norway have been skiing for centuries, because of the snow.


2 Interviewer Have you been playing water polo long? Sportsman We’ve been playing for ten years. Interviewer You’ve won the Cup many times: how did you do that? Sportsman We get the most balls into the net! And we’ve been practising water polo for years, you know, we train in a pool every day. We’re good swimmers! It’s been an Olympic sport for over 100 years. It started in England in 1900. 3 Interviewer Why is motor racing so popular in France? Sportsman Well, we’ve been organising motor racing competitions since 1894. It has been getting more popular but competition has also been getting tougher. Interviewer Has the sport been getting faster? Sportsman Yes, speeds now reach over 300 km an hour at some circuits. This makes it more dangerous. 4 Interviewer How long have you been managing basketball teams? Trainer Well, I retired as a player ten years ago and I’ve been training teams since then… Interviewer What do you look for in a good basketball player? Trainer Well, height is important; basketball players have been getting taller and taller. Interviewer And faster? Trainer Yes, of course, speed on the court is important: players have been getting faster and they are better at getting the ball in the basket – scores have been getting higher and higher…

6 p. 9 Have the students do the written task individually or in pairs. If you think it would be useful, have them do some research on the origins of the game of tennis in the 15th century and/or on the origins of football. Answers 2 3 4 5 6

have have have have have

been been been been been

playing football skiing playing tennis playing tennis/learning watching

7 p. 9 Assign the task. Correct it by calling on a few students to read their questions. Point out how the question spontaneously follows the statement that precedes it.

Have someone read and translate the title He’s given away a penalty! Play the recording while the students follow in their books. Tell the students to skim the text quickly, as they listen, so they can answer the questions.

Answers 2 3 4 5 6

Have you been waiting a long time? How long have you been working? How long have you been having classes? Have you been going out for a long time? Have you been eating chocolate?

Say it! 8 p. 9 Make sure that everyone understands the task assignment. Have the students copy the table on their notebook and fill it in with information on at least three sports (a, b, c). If they don’t do any sport, then they can refer to a sport they have seen played or that they’ve seen televised. It is important that the students don’t write in the name of the sport in the table in order to do exercise 9.

9 p. 9 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for Trinity Grade 4 (hobbies/sports). Have the students work in pairs and encourage them to follow the sample dialogue to guess their partner’s sport. Monitor the activity to ensure that the students can formulate at least one question and answer in the Present perfect continuous form.

He’s given away a penalty! pp. 10-11 Presentation dialogue 1.05 p. 10 1 Have the students look at the photo and elicit responses to some questions, like: – Who are the characters? (Michael, Anna, Robyn and Antonio.) – Where are they? (In a sitting room.) – What are they doing? (They’re watching TV and having crisps and some juice.) – What do you think they are watching? (A football match.)

Transcript [Track 1.05] see Student’s Book p. 10 Answer The referee is an idiot, according to Antonio, because he’s given away a penalty.

2 p. 10 Have four students read the parts for Michael, Robyn, Anna and Antonio in the dialogue. Comment on words and expressions that might be more difficult, like offside, what’s the point?, take the throw-in. Assign the true/false task. Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6


She has googled words about football. He gives away a penalty.

3 p. 10 Have the students practise making questions then assign the task in pairs. Answers 1 How many goals have United scored? None. 2 Who is United’s best player? Robinson. 3 Who has been having a bad game? Robinson. 4 Why did Robyn learn the offside rules? So that she could understand the game. 5 Who has been trying to score? Robinson. 6 Who did the referee send off? Robinson.

FLASH FORWARD Assign the task to students who have already finished exercises 2 and 3, or assign it to the whole class for homework.




Vocabulary: Football phrases 4 p. 11 Make sure the students have understood the sports expressions in the dialogue, then have them complete the table. Answers Verbs: score, pass, lose, take, get, give away, send off, lose, check Nouns: player, game, ball, rules, team, pitch, goal, offside, corner, throw-in, foul, penalty, referee, match, video, decision

5 p. 11 Make sure the students understand the sentences. Either assign the oral task to be done in pairs, then have the students report back to the class or, as an alternative, have them do this exercise as a written task.



p. 11

The exercise consists in formulating sports expressions using a verb + a noun. If necessary, translate expressions like take a corner, make a tackle or hit the post/bar. Assign the task individually or in pairs. Play the recording to check the answers. Transcript and answers [Track 1.06] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

e – take a corner f – lose the match g – make a tackle a – score a goal d – hit the post/hit the bar b – commit a foul c – pass the ball


Purpose and reason Have the class read and translate the examples. Go to p. 13 and read through the rules and additional examples. Assign the task.

Antonio So he can score. He’s United’s best player. (…) Michael Wow, I’m impressed! How do you know that? Robyn I’ve been reading the rules so I can understand the game… Michael Really? Robyn No, I just googled ‘offside…’ Anna But what’s the point? Antonio It’s to make it more difficult to score… a corner… no, it’s out… (…) Anna Why don’t they use video to check the referee’s decisions?

7 p. 11 Assign the task individually or in pairs. Possible answers 2 3 4 5

To make it more difficult for the opposing team to score a goal. So she could understand the game. To pass the ball to Robinson. To check the referee’s decisions.


Expressing purpose Have different students read the examples and extrapolate the conjunctions used in English to express purpose. Move on to exercises 8 and 9 to practise this function.

Say it! 8 p. 11 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity Grade 6 (expressing intention and purpose). Now assign the task in pairs, so the students can practise using the Present perfect continuous and the infinitive of purpose.

9 p. 11 Now have the students practise using the infinitive of purpose as they work in pairs.

Answers Anna Robyn Anna


It hasn’t been a very good game… Nobody’s scored… Why are they passing the ball to Robinson all the time?

Possible answers – Why do people go to school? They go to school to learn to read, write and do sum.

– Why do people go out with friends? They go out with friends to relax and enjoy themselves. – Why do people have cars? So they can travel faster without relying on public transport. – Why do people sleep? To renew their bodies and energies. – Why do people read books? To learn, to relax and to pass the time. – Why do people shake hands? To greet others or to seal a contract. – Why do people use mobile phones? To be in touch with other people from wherever they go. – Why do people play video games? To enjoy themselves and to challenge their technological abilities. – Why do people get married? Because they love each other and they want to have children. – Why do people learn English? To be able to understand most people in the world. – Why do people go on a diet? To lose weight and to get healthier.

Write it! 10 p. 11 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity ISE I Factual writing. Have the students write a short paragraph. Now have them swap papers with a classmate to correct it. The more advanced students can then read their work to the class.

Listen’n’speak Street football p. 12 1 p. 12 Have the class read the sentences and make sure everyone understands them. Allow a few minutes for the students to collect their thoughts. Now have them work in pairs to express their opinions and justify them. Call on a few pairs to report back to the class.


Listening 1.07 p. 12 2 Explain to the class that they are now going to hear an interview that Michael conducted with a charity that promotes the game of football. To prepare for the listening activity, have the students read the sentences in exercise 1 again. Play the recording twice: once for general gist and once for the task assignment. Transcript [Track 1.07] Michael What is streetfootballworld and what does it do? Spokesperson Well, we created streetfootballworld in 2002, because we believe that football can change the world. Michael How big is the organisation? Spokesperson We’ve now got more than 80 members all over the world. Michael So what do you do exactly? Spokesperson Well, football is a beautiful game, but we believe it is more than just a game. We can use football to change the world; for example, to protect the rights of children or to improve opportunities for kids all around the world… Michael But how does football help? Spokesperson Well, football brings kids together to play but it’s also an opportunity for kids to talk about their problems so they can understand them and find solutions. Michael So kids play football and learn other things at the same time? Spokesperson Yes, that’s right. Michael And you’ve been doing this since 2002? Spokesperson Correct. In 2006 we celebrated the streetfootballworld festival 06 in Berlin, Germany. Michael Streetfootballworld festival 06?? Spokesperson Yes! Let me give you an example of what we’ve been doing. In 2006, during the football World Cup in Germany 24 teams of young people from all over the world took part in a festival of education, culture – and football. The boys and girls were all participants of organisations using football to solve problems… Michael Were all these kids football players? Spokesperson They played football – but we


1 didn’t choose them because they were the best football players… all the kids want to solve social problems. And… er… at the festival, there was a competition with mixed teams of boys and girls – and no referees! The players solved problems through dialogue between the players. Michael No referees! It sounds great, really cool… Answers The speaker mentions 1, 2, 3.



p. 12

This can be used as a preparatory exercise of the PET Listening Part 2.

are both known as ‘fricatives’ but that the position of the teeth and tongue is what distinguishes them. Have the students practise pronouncing the /T/ sound with the tip of their tongue against their teeth and the /f/ sound with their upper incisors ‘biting’ down on their lower lip. Play the recording several times and have the class repeat the words in the box. Transcript [Track 1.08] see Student’s Book p. 12


Answers 1b





p. 12

Check that everyone understands the meaning of the words in the box. Play the recording and have the students put the words in the correct column.

Have the students read the questions and multiplechoice answers. Play the recording again for the task assignment.


Transcript [Track 1.09] see Student’s Book p. 12



p. 12

Play the recording to check the students’ answers and for repetition.


Transcript and answers [Track 1.10]

More advanced students could do a kind of dictationtranslation. Play the recording once more. Then have them close their books and dictate a summary of the text in the native language while they write the equivalent in English. You can either write the summary beforehand or assign it as a group activity before you proceed with the dictation and translation. Then play the recording again and compare with the students’ English version of the summary. For example: We created this organisation, because we believe that football can change the world. We can use football to protect the rights of children, to give them an opportunity to talk about their problems and find solutions. For example, in 2006, during the football World Cup in Germany, 24 teams of young people took part in a festival of education, culture, and football and solved their social problems through dialogue.

/I/ thin, thought, mouth, theft, thick, south, throw, athlete /f/ fin, fought, fill, theft

Pronunciation: /I/ vs /f/ 1.08 p. 12 4 Explain that these two sounds are often difficult to pronounce and often confused. Point out that they


Spoken English: so Have the class read the explanations and translate the examples.

7 p. 12 Assign this task in pairs, asking the students to try out the dialogue and find places where they could insert so to make it sound more natural.



p. 12

Play the recording to check their answers and have the students repeat, if necessary. Have the students work in pairs to practise the dialogue and remind them to swap roles. Transcript and answers [Track 1.11] A It was a great game today. B So, do you think we’re going to win the cup?

1 A B A B A

We may do. It depends. Well, do you fancy going out for coffee? Yeah, let’s go to that new place in town. OK, it’s not very expensive. Friends went and they really liked it. So, are you ready?

Flash on Grammar p. 13 Present perfect continuous Have the class read the usage rules and translate the examples; remind them that we use the Present perfect continuous when an action has just finished and we can see the results: It’s been raining, look at the road! Workbook p. 4

FLASHPOINT Have the class read the explanations and the examples. Point out that the Present perfect continuous underlines the duration and importance of the action.

1 p. 13 Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

have been learning have been waiting hasn’t been going out you been waiting have you been doing have you been sitting have been surfing haven’t been feeling

2 p. 13 Answers 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

have finished have been trying, have won have been playing has existed has won have been playing, haven’t scored has been snowing

Workbook p. 5

3 p. 13 Answers 1 because 4 in order to 2 so 5 to 3 to

4 p. 13 Answers 1 2 3 4 5


been to in have long


16 17 18 19 10

taking spending that to been

p. 13

Transcript [Track 1.12] Interviewer Tony, when did you get your first skateboard? Tony I was 4 years old. Interviewer So you’ve been skateboarding for 16 years! Tony Yeah, my mum and dad bought me the skateboard to get me out of the house. Interviewer And did it work? Tony Well, they did it in order to keep me quiet but I have been skateboarding ever since. Interviewer How long have you been skateboarding professionally? Tony Since I was 14 years old. Interviewer And you’ve been taking part in competitions all that time? Tony Yes, but I’ve been spending more time at home in the last few months... Interviewer Why, so that you can get on with school? Tony No, not really, you see, I want to stay home to spend more time on the business. Interviewer The business? Tony Yeah, you see, I’ve been running my own skateboarding company, with my mum and dad.

Purpose and reason Have the students read the rules and translate the examples.



Flash on Skills / Culture The Olympic Games pp. 14-15 Before you read 1 p. 14 In this lesson the students will acquire some information about the Olympics and about a charity. Have the class do the reading preparation exercise to check their knowledge of the topic. Answers 1b 6b

2b 7a

3a 8a

4b 9b

5b 10 b

Reading 2 p. 14 Have the students skim the text to check their answers to the quiz.

3 p. 15 Have different students read out loud and check for comprehension. Assign the task, having the students answer either orally or in writing. Answers 1 A Greek soldier from Marathon in order to tell the Greeks that they had won the war against Persia. 2 There were no Olympics because of World War II. 3 Saudia Arabia has been competing since 1972. 4 The USA missed the 1980 games. 5 The UK hosted the Olympic Games in 1908, 1948 and 2012.

Listening 1.13 p. 15 4 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the PET Listening Part 2. Tell the class they are going to hear about a charity that promotes the Olympics. Play the recording at least twice, once for gist and once for the task assignment.


Transcript [Track 1.13] What is International Inspiration? International Inspiration uses the power of sport to improve the lives of millions of children and young people in schools and communities across the world, particularly in developing countries, through the power of physical education, sport and play. The programme aims to ‘reach young people all around the world and connect them to the inspirational power of the Games so they are inspired to choose sport.’ Where is it taking place? International Inspiration is already changing the lives of young people in twelve countries – Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bangladesh, Jordan, India, Mozambique, Nigeria, Palau, Trinidad & Tobago and Zambia, and work is now beginning in South Africa, Malaysia, Turkey and Indonesia. The aspiration is to reach 12 million children in 20 countries by the London 2012 Games. The UK is also involved in the International Inspiration programme, with over 160 schools in the UK linked with schools in the participating countries so far. The aim is for 300 schools in the UK to link with 300 schools across the 20 countries by 2012. International Inspiration ambassadors Some of the UK’s top sport stars are representing International Inspiration as ambassadors, helping to spread the message about the impact of the programme on millions of young people worldwide. There are currently five International Inspiration ambassadors – David Beckham, Sir Chris Hoy, Tanni Grey-Thompson, Denise Lewis and Colin Jackson. Answers 1a







Speaking 5 p. 15 Help the students to collect their ideas by providing some examples, following the prompts given. Assign the task in pairs and give them time to prepare a short speech that they can then present to the class.

Study Skills – Extensive reading Go through the explanation with the class and help them to understand the concept of extensive reading. Read the tips and point out that they can also be

applied to research on topics related to other school subjects. Tell the students they will be able to use this technique in exercise 6.

6 p. 15 Have the students do some research on the Internet about an international sporting event; tell them to take notes by following the outline given. Suggest that the students prepare a short speech and then practise it with a partner. Then call on a few students to present it to the class.

The topic will be used for a written composition in exercise 7.

Writing 7 p. 15 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity ISE I Factual writing. Assign the writing task; tell the students to follow the outline given in exercise 6 and their notes from their reading to write their composition.




A Better World but the statistics are proportional to a sample of 100 people.

Topic: current world problems. Grammar: Second conditional; too/enough. Vocabulary: global problems; word building. Functions: talking about global problems;

Play the recording while the students follow in their book. Ask them to answer the question.

expressing ideas.

Reading: read statistics on current world

Transcript [Track 1.14] see Student’s Book p. 16

problems; read the solutions proposed by some students; read and understand a text about the Great Depression.


Listening: listen to an interview with a rock star who offers strategies for solving global issues; listen to three Americans talking about their life during the Depression era.

Speaking: propose solutions to some of the world’s problems; discuss them with a partner; make a short speech about the Great Depression. Writing: write a short article on world problems and possible manifesto.





Pronunciation / Spoken English: Second conditional – stress and intonation; giving examples.

Study Skills: tips for speaking, both to sustain a

pollution, hunger



p. 16

Have the class read the text again for details this time and comment on the more difficult words like health system, wealth, grateful. Have them translate it for a more detailed comprehension. If necessary, play the recording again and have the class repeat the geographical names, numbers and new words like wealth, disease, malnutrition, illiterate. Answers 1 South 2 men 3 cities

4 own 5 illiterate 6 internet

conversation and to make a speech.

The world we live in pp. 16-17 1 p. 16

Have the students read and translate the title of the lesson. Ask the students to look at the illustrations and have them match the words to the pictures, showing that they have understood the meaning of the problems being showcased. Answers 1B




Presentation text 1.14 p. 16 2 Tell the class that they will now listen to some statistics relative to the current situation of life on this planet which is referred to here as a ‘global village’. At present world population stands at nearly 7 billion,


FLASH FORWARD Assign the written activity and ask the students to answer then read and/or discuss their answers with the class.


Second conditional Remind the class that conditional sentences are made up of two parts: an if clause that states the hypothesis and a main clause that states the consequence. In Second conditional sentences we use the Past simple in the if clause and would + base form of the verb in the main clause. Read and translate the examples, then go to p. 21 and go through the additional examples and explanations. Have the class do the task.

32 Answers

Transcript and answers [Track 1.15]

If the world were a village… The last century was a century of war, disease, natural disasters, poverty and pollution. What can we do to make this century better? Would you manage if you had fewer possessions? Would you be happy if you didn’t have a roof over your head? Let’s think about our global village. Today, if the earth were a village with only 100 people in it, the village would look something like this: (…)

Environment: climate change Education: bullying, illiteracy Social problems: loneliness, racism, unemployment Health: disease, drugs Political problems: terrorism, human rights Crime: robbery

FLASHPOINT The form were for all grammatical persons is the only past subjunctive that remains in modern English. It is used after if (I wouldn’t do that if I were you) and after wish (I wish he were my teacher). The present subjunctive which has the same form as the base form of the verb, is only ever used in fixed expressions such as: God save the Queen, God bless you, long live the Queen, Heaven forbid, so be it, come what may… and only a few others.

4 p. 17 Assign the task individually or in pairs.

Say it! 7 p. 17 Start a class discussion about problems that the students are currently aware of in their own country and encourage them to cite some examples. Assign a research activity on the Internet, or in a public library, for the next lesson.

8 p. 17 Have the students read the phrases in the box and tell them they are to use these ideas to have a discussion about possible solutions to some of the problems already brought up previously. To help them warm up for the exercise, you might have the students practise saying a few sentences or you may want to write them on the board. Assign the task in pairs. Monitor the activity to make sure they are using the second conditional.

Answers 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 10

were ’d be had, ’d stop had, ’d surf wasn’t/weren’t, wouldn’t eat would, do, had Would, have, had ’d play, were wouldn’t live, married

Vocabulary: Global problems 5 p. 17 Help the class to understand the meaning of the words so they can then classify them correctly. Tell them they will hear the correct answers in exercise 6.



p. 17

Play the recording so the students can check their answers to exercise 5. Play it again for repetition.

Possible answers If we created jobs, there would be less unemployment. If we built new hospitals, people would receive better treatment when they are ill. If we made electric cars cheaper, we would help reducing climate change. If we had more police officers, there would be less crime on our streets and fewer robberies. If there were more doctors, more patients would receive treatment. If we had stricter laws, there would be less crime, bullying and terrorism. If we punished drug traffickers, there would be fewer drug addicts.

Write it! 9 p. 17 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity ISE I Factual writing (article). Assign the composition as a written homework task. Remind the students to use the vocabulary learnt in exercises 5 and 8 and encourage them to do further research on the Internet.



If I ruled the world pp. 18-19 Presentation texts 1.16 p. 18 1 Have the students look at the photo and elicit responses to the question: – What do you see in the photos? (A boy being treated for a wound, lots of children at school, sitting on chairs but with no desks, books or writing material, a slum with very crowded living conditions.)

Answers Anna We don’t do enough to help students. Antonio (…) That’s not enough to live on. They are too poor to buy food and clothes for their children. I would also reduce the birth rate. We have too many people to feed. (…) there are not enough jobs for school leavers. Michael (…) Medicines now are too expensive for a lot of people (…)


Have someone read and translate the title If I ruled the world.

Point out the position of enough in the sentences: before the noun but after the adjective. Compare with the native language.

Play the recording while the students follow in their books. Have the students quickly skim the three answers given by Anna, Antonio and Michael in the interview conducted by Robyn. Transcript [Track 1.16] see Student’s Book p. 18

2 p. 18 Have three students read the parts for Anna, Michael and Antonio in the dialogue. Comment on words and expressions that might be more difficult, like beggar, birth-rate, school leavers, afford, health system, education system. Assign the gap fill task. Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6

people (also: poor countries) food (also: clothes, jobs) houses beggars Medicines tax

FLASH FORWARD Assign the task to students who have already finished exercise 2, or assign it to the whole class for homework.


too/enough Have the class read the examples, then go to p. 21 and go through the rules and additional examples. Now assign the task.


3 p. 19 Have the students work individually or in pairs to do the task. Answers 2 I was too tired to get up. 3 Chinese is too difficult to learn. 4 I didn’t have enough time to do the shopping. 5 Our team wasn’t good enough to beat Manchester United. 6 You aren’t talented enough to be a star.

Vocabulary: Word building 4 p. 19 Make sure that everyone understands the words, then have them go back to the texts on p. 16 and p. 18 for reference. Now have the students complete the table. Tell them they will hear the answers in the recording for exercise 5.



p. 19

Play the recording to check the answers to exercise 4. Transcript and answers [Track 1.17] nature pollution peace health politics influence unemployment homelessness

– pollute – – politicise influence – –

natural polluted peaceful healthy political influential unemployed homeless

creation create created education educate educational/educated system systematise systematic

6 p. 19 Point out to the students that the phrases in this exercise are definitions for the words in exercise 4. Have them match a noun to each definition. Let them work individually or in pairs. Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

pollution unemployment peace homelessness health education politics system

FUNCTIONS GRAMMAR Expressing ideas Have the class read the introductory phrases that can be used to express ideas for the future or for unlikely hypotheses.


Listen’n’speak We are the world p. 20 1 p. 20 Read through the task assignment questions and the examples. Give the students a few minutes to gather their ideas, then have them work first in pairs to talk about different types of protests. Alternatively, you can open up the discussion to the whole class, noting down their ideas on the board, with these expressions regarding how people protest: with a march, with a concert, by presenting a petition to the government, by marching on government buildings with placards, by going on strike and doing a sit-in or by setting up camp in controversial areas (universities, nuclear plants, factories, in front of parliament buildings, across from the White House).



p. 20

Explain that the class will now listen to a rock star being interviewed about his ideas for strategies to solve global problems. Play the recording twice so the class can grasp the gist and then answer the question. Transcript [Track 1.18]

Say it! 7 p. 19 Read through the dialogue orally with the class, then have the students choose one or two of the world problems mentioned in exercise 6 and have them work with a partner to practise asking and answering questions using the Second conditional.

Write it! 8 p. 19 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity ISE I Factual writing (article). Assign the task for homework. Tell the students they are to write five paragraphs on five problems and possible solutions; encourage them to follow the examples given. At the next lesson, have the students correct each other’s compositions.

Interviewer For many years, you have used your celebrity to fight poverty. You’ve organised a lot of concerts – why do you do it? Polo Well, when I was a kid in Ireland, my family was very poor and I always wanted to do something about it. I wanted to become a rock musician to help the poor, yes, to make money, but also to use my influence to help other people. Interviewer If you weren’t in a rock band, what would you like to be? Polo If I gave up singing, I’d be a politician… Interviewer Why? Polo … so I could change things, like I’d fight for justice for the poor nations. Interviewer So if you were Prime Minister, what would you do? Polo Well, I’d spend less on weapons, for a start; if we spent less on weapons, there’d be more money for poor countries… I’d also buy things from poor countries at good prices…


2 Interviewer And concerts. Why concerts? How do they help? Polo Well, for one thing, concerts are a good way to reach a lot of people quickly; you can tell thousands of people about a problem like poverty; if people knew what it was like to be poor, they would help… and another thing: songs are a great way to get a message across, aren’t they? Interviewer But do young people have any real power to change things? Polo Good question. If kids knew what power they had, they could change the world. Of course, politicians have got the power, but if politicians knew that people are angry they would do somethink about it, I think they’re just worried about losing power. Interviewer Is going to concerts the only thing young people can do to fight poverty? What more can they do? Well, let’s take petitions. We’ve got Polo a petition about world poverty on the Internet right now. If we got a million signatures, that would be great, wonderful, fantastic… It would persuade governments… They’d sit up and listen. Interviewer I see. Polo Another thing. Kids could organise a Hunger Day to fight poverty, like kids in Canada – there are 100,000 teenagers going hungry for 30 hours to raise money to fight hunger and poverty. These teenagers raise money by going without food for 30 hours. If you didn’t eat for 30 hours, you would know what it feels like to be poor! Interviewer Do you have a message for our listeners? Polo Yes, you teens can make a difference. Stand up and fight. If we made our leaders promise to reduce world poverty and if we… Answers They could go to special concerts, sign a petition on the Internet, organise a Hunger Day.



p. 20

This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the PET Listening Part 2. Have the students read through the questions and answers.


Now play the recording so they can complete the task. Answers 1b






Pronunciation: Second conditional – stress and intonation 1.19 p. 20 4 Ask a student to read the explanation. Point out the rising intonation in the if clause and the falling intonation in the main clause, even when it is a question. Have the class translate the sentences, then play the recording so they can repeat the sentences with the correct stress and intonation. Transcript [Track 1.19] see Student’s Book p. 20



p. 20

Make sure the students understand the sentences. Assign the task. Play the recording to correct it. Transcript [Track 1.20] see Student’s Book p. 20

Spoken English: Giving examples Ask different students to read the examples of how to give an example when speaking or writing.

6 p. 20 Have the students work in pairs to read the dialogue and add expressions to make it sound more natural. Now have them practise the dialogue with their partner and then have them recite it for the class. Possible answer A There are so many problems in the world. For example, there’s poverty. B But what can we do to help? We can’t do anything. A Yes, we can. For a start, we can create more jobs. B But there are millions unemployed. There’s nothing we can do. A Yes, there is! For one thing, if we built more roads, there would be more jobs.

Flash on Grammar p. 21 Second conditional Read the explanation and the examples. Remind the students that with the verb to be in the if clause we use were for all persons in formal written English, but was and were in spoken English. Workbook p. 12

1 p. 21

2 Workbook p. 13

4 p. 21 Answers 2 3 4 5 6 7

enough too enough too too enough

5 p. 21



1 2 3 4 5 6

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 10 11 12

had, would do weren’t, would go wouldn’t lose, put found, would take would invite, liked would go, were

2 p. 21 Answers 2 School would be more fun if we had fewer lessons. And if we did more sports. 3 You’ll be late for school if you don’t get up now. It’s already eight o’clock. 4 If you leave me, I’ll be very unhappy. Promise you’ll love me forever. 5 I’d go bungee jumping if it wasn’t so dangerous. It frightens me. 6 If I were more musical, I’d play the piano. But I can’t even sing. 7 If you kick the ball, you’ll break a window. Why don’t you play outside?

3 p. 21 Possible answers If I had a plane, I would fly to the South Pole. If I had a lot of free time, I would visit all the countries in the world. If I had the power, I would heal all the sick people. If I lived on my own, I would enjoy doing what I like. If I were rich, I would help the poor. If I were a genius, I would find a cure for cancer.

too/enough Have the students read the rules and find examples throughout the unit.

were would would would had too enough too if would broke would

Flash on Skills / CLIL What was the Great Depression? pp. 22-23

History, Economics: the crash of the stock market and the 1929 crisis Before you listen 1 p. 22 Tell the class that in this lesson they will learn about the economic crisis that affected not only the USA but the whole industrialised world, following the New York stock market crash in 1929. Do the preparatory exercise with the whole class. Answers 1A




Listening 1.21 p. 22 2 Tell the students they are about to hear three people talking about their experience of living in poverty during the Depression.



Play the recording at least twice – for overall gist and for the task. Transcript [Track 1.21] 1 Why am I standing here? Well, I am not asking for charity; I don’t want something for nothing. All I want is a job. If somebody offered me a job, any job, I’d take it. I’ve been unemployed for two years and I have a young wife waiting for me at home. If I don’t, we won’t have enough food to eat. Protesting like this on the street is all I can do now; I hope somebody can help. 2 I lost my job at the garage; I used to repair cars, now I have nothing to do; I just stay at home all day while my wife goes out to work; it’s very depressing but she doesn’t make enough money to feed us all, we’ve got two kids, and they’re hungry. I stay home, sit around and look after them, but if I found a job, we’d leave them with mum and dad. 3 I work in a soup kitchen – we get hundreds of hungry people every day; they wait for ages to get free food. They can’t afford to pay for the food, they don’t have enough money; if we didn’t feed them, they’d starve. But we can’t manage, there are too many hungry people and we can only give them some soup and a little bread. It’s sad seeing all these hungry people waiting for free food… sad. Answers Speaker 1 C Speaker 2 A Speaker 3 B

Extra As an additional listening comprehension exercise, ask the following questions: 1 Can speaker 1 and his friend find work? Why/Why not? (No, they can’t, because there are no jobs at all.) 2 What have they decided to do? (They’ve decided to go west.) 3 How are they going to travel? (They’re going to walk.) 4 What is speaker 2 afraid of? (She is afraid of losing their home.) 5 Why are her children crying? (Because they miss their father and they are hungry.) 6 Why don’t they want to go to school? (Because they haven’t got nice clothes to wear.) 7 How long has speaker 3 been waiting? (Since the morning.)


8 Since when hasn’t he eaten? (He hasn’t eaten since yesterday.) 9 What is he hoping for? (He’s hoping for someone to give him the money for some food and a coffee.)

Reading 3 p. 22 Have the class skim the text for gist and then elicit answers to the question.

4 p. 23 This exercise serves as preparation for the PET Reading Part 3. Have different students read parts of the text out loud and check for comprehension. Assign the true/false task and have the students correct the false statements. Answers 01 T 02 T 03 F One in four workers was unemployed. 04 F Most women did not work. 05 T 06 F Teenagers travelleded from place to place. 07 F It was Franklin D. Roosevelt. 08 F European countries had a great depression in the 1930s. 09 F It ended with the Second World War. 10 T

5 p. 23 As an additional reading comprehension activity, have the students translate the words in bold in the text into their native language. If necessary, write them on the board and have the students copy them in their notebook. Answers Personal answers

Study Skills – Tips for speaking Go through the suggestions with the class. Tell the students they will apply these techniques in exercise 6.

Speaking 6 p. 23

5 p. 24

Have the students prepare an outline for a speech, by answering the questions with the information they have gleaned from the text. Now have them work in pairs to prepare a short speech on the 1929 crisis. Finally, call on several students to make their speech in front of the class.

Writing 7 p. 23

When the students have finished the task, their manifestos could be hung up and voted on, perhaps even assigning prizes for the ‘most politically valid’ or the ‘most effective communication style’, etc.

Flashback 1-2 pp. 24-25 Grammar 1 p. 24 6 7 8 9

has been raining have been watching has existed have been learning

2 p. 24 1 because 2 to 3 in order to

4 so that 5 because

3 p. 24 2d




4 p. 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

will have will drive had finish

5 were 6 will visit 7 won

6 p. 24 1 too 2 enough 3 too

1 2 3 4 5

4 enough 5 too 6 enough

Have, have been How long, living Have you, been How long, for you been, started feeling

8 p. 25 1 2 3 4

to have that of

were/was, would play would go, were would be, practised would have, hadn’t wasted lived, would get would move, didn’t have / wouldn’t move, had would make, went

5 6 7 8

be so enough too

Vocabulary 9 p. 25 1a

have never been have been writing has fallen have lost have been working


1 2 3 4

7 p. 25

Have the students follow the example given to write their own election manifesto. Allow them to work individually, in pairs or small groups. Remind them to refer back to the list of world problems and solutions from exercises 5 and 8 on p. 17 and the texts from p. 18.

1 2 3 4 5







10 p. 25 1 2 3 4 5


6 7 8 9 10


11 12 13 14 15


11 p. 25 1 2 3 4 5

disasters pollution homelessness poverty unemployment

6 7 8 9

hunger loneliness illiteracy climate change

Functions 12 p. 25 1 2 3 4 5 6

the music was too loud the sound was terrible they weren’t good enough His voice was too loud the microphone was too close to his mouth It was too long and boring



Popular Legends Background information

Topic: legends and scary stories. Grammar: used to for past actions and states; would vs used to.

Vocabulary: childhood; negative feelings. Functions: talking about states in the past; describing fears.

Reading: read a text comparing past and present beliefs regarding vampires; read a conversation between four young people who are discussing their fears; read a plot summary of a horror novel.

Listening: listen to two stories about mysterious events; listen to the description of a scene from the story of Dracula. Speaking: talk about childhood fears; describe negative feelings in certain situations; recount the first part of the story of Dracula.

Writing: write about own childhood fears; describe a scary event from childhood; a firstperson account by one of the characters in the book Dracula.

Photo A: Boris Karloff, who played the role of the monster, Frankenstein (1931). Photo B: Robert Pattinson, who played the role of Edward Cullen in Twilight (2008). Photo C: Bella Lugosi and Helen Chandler, who played the roles of Count Dracula and Mina in Dracula (1931).

Presentation text 1.22 p. 26 2 Ask the class if they have seen vampire or horror films or read this type of literature. Explain that they are about to listen to a description of past and present beliefs regarding vampires and how modern cinema presents them. Play the recording while the students follow in their book, skimming the text for gist. Transcript [Track 1.22] see Student’s Book p. 26

Pronunciation/Spoken English: used to vs use; hyperbole.

Study Skills: tips for listening.

Vampires: then and now pp. 26-27 1 p. 26 Read and translate the title of the lesson. Read the adjectives in the box to provide a model for pronunciation and to check for comprehension. Assign the task in pairs. Have some students tell the class which adjectives they chose and why. Possible answers A The man is terrifying and evil. B The boy is handsome and sad. C The woman is beautiful and romantic. The man is ugly and evil.


3 p. 26 Have the class read the text again and translate it, for detailed comprehension. Help them with some of the more difficult words, like attacker, bite, grave, evil, outcast. Assign the task, either orally or in writing. Answers 1 They thought he bit his victims. 2 In the past vampire were poor, ugly people. 3 They are handsome aristocratic men or beautiful women. 4 In films people become vampires if they are bitten by another vampire. 5 Bram Stoker was the author of the first novel about Dracula. 6 Stephenie Meyer is the author of the Twilight novels.

FLASH FORWARD Have a class discussion on the books and films mentioned. Ask a few students to summarise parts of the story, orally.

Assign the written activity to be done in class or as homework. Possible answers Dracula The story is set in Transylvania, a mountainous region in Romania, in the XIX century. On a visit to Transylvania to discuss Count Dracula’s desire to buy a property in London, a young solicitor, Jonathan Harker, sees many strange things happening in his client’s castle. Dracula moves to London and starts attacking young girls, but Doctor Van Helsing identifies him as a vampire and with the help of Jonathan, Jonathan’s wife Mina and a group of friends hunts him with a view to kill him. Although Mina is contaminated by Dracula’s bite, the friends pursue the man all the way to Transylvania where they manage to kill him, thus liberating Mina from her fate. Twilight The story is set in the state of Washington in the USA, in the XXI century. Bella Swan meets Edward Cullen in high school. After Edward saves her from being run over in the school car park, Bella finds out that he has strange powers and is one of a group of vampires who drink animal blood. Edward saves her life again when she is bitten by a vampire who feeds on human blood. The two young people fall in love but Edward dissuades her from marrying him and becoming a vampire like himself.

3 (…) Then: People used to believe that you became a vampire when an animal jumped over your grave. (…) Then: People used to think that vampires could appear during the day or night. (…) Then: You only used to read about vampires in novels: the first was Bram Stoker’s Dracula. (1897) (…) Then: In literature, vampires didn’t use to be romantic heroes, they were evil. (…) Then: A vampire used to be a terrifying monster. (…) Then: Vampire stories used to be adult stories and aimed at an adult market.

FLASHPOINT Teach the students how to use the interrogative form Did I use to…? and the negative form I didn’t use to… Point out that it is the Past simple of the verb to use.

4 p. 27 Assign the task individually or in pairs. Answers 2 3 4 5 6

didn’t use didn’t use used to didn’t use didn’t use

to to / used to to to

5 p. 27 Assign the task individually or in pairs.


used to for past actions and states Explain that we use the format used to + base form of main verb to talk about past habits. Now go to p. 31 and go through the rules and additional examples. Assign the task. Ask the students what all the examples have in common (they all refer to the past, then vs now).

Answers Did you use to like ghost stories when you were young? What about vampire stories? What did people use to believe about vampires? What do people think today? Let’s look at how vampires have changed over the centuries… Then: People used to really believe in vampires. (…) Then: In folklore, vampires didn’t use to be rich and handsome: they were poor, ugly people.

Answers 2 Did people use to watch TV? 3 Did young people use to believe in vampires? 4 Did people use to read about vampires in novels like Dracula? 5 Did children use to play computer games? 6 Did people use to go to the cinema?

Say it! 6 p. 27 Have the students say the name of each object and then make up a sentence for each one, using used to. Have them read the example and use it as a model. The oral task can be done collectively or in pairs. Possible answers My father used to watch videos on a video recorder. Now I watch DVDs on my DVD player. My mother used to save her computer work on


3 floppy disks. Now I store my computer data on a USB flash drive. My father used to have a camera with a film inside. Now I take photos with my digital camera.

Vocabulary: Childhood 7 p. 27 Read through the task assignment and the phrases in the box; check for comprehension and assign the task. Correct it by calling on a few students to read their answers and invite comments from the class.

– Who can you see in the photo? (Michael, Anna, Robyn and Antonio.) – Where are they? (They’re sitting on a sofa.) – Is the room dark? (Yes, it is.) – What do you think is happening? (Maybe there has been a power outage.) Have someone read and translate the title We used to tell ghost stories… Play the recording while the students follow in their books. Tell the students to skim the text quickly, as they listen, so they can answer the question. Transcript [Track 1.23] see Student’s Book p. 28

FUNCTIONS GRAMMAR Talking about states in the past Read and translate the examples. Explain how we use I used to be to talk about states in the past and to underline the fact that what was true then no longer is now. Point out that it is more emphatic than simply saying I was terrified…, I was nervous… Move on to exercises 8 and 9 to practise this function.

Say it! 8 p. 27 Read the examples to serve as a model. Now have the students take turns making up sentences about their own childhood, using the vocabulary from exercise 7. Suggest that they take notes about what their classmates say to help them with the next activity.

Write it! 9 p. 27 This could be assigned as a written homework exercise. Remind the students to refer to exercises 7 and 8.

Answer Robyn and Anna are afraid of Night of the Vampires.

Background information Night of the Vampires is a common title for recent horror novels, films, computer games and television series.

2 p. 28 Have four students read the parts for Michael, Robyn, Anna and Antonio in the dialogue. Comment on words and expressions that might be more difficult, like power cut, go out, give me the creeps, crawl. Assign the task. Answers 1 2 3 4

Robyn Robyn Anna, Antonio Michael

3 p. 28 Have the students do the task using the prompts given. Answers

We used to tell ghost stories… pp. 28-29 Presentation dialogue 1.23 p. 28 1 Have the students look at the photo and elicit responses to some questions, like:


2 3 4 5 6

Who used to be afraid of the dark? Who likes ghost stories? Who used to go to camp? What did they do at camp? What did Robyn’s dad use to do?

4 p. 28 Have the students work in pairs to ask and answer the questions from exercise 3.

3 Answers 1 Because there was a power cut. 2 Robyn. 3 Anna and Antonio. 4 Anna. 5 They would sit around a campfire and take turns to tell a story. 6 He used to tell Robyn ghost stories at bedtime.

6 I used to have a bicycle. I would ride it all around the city.

Vocabulary: Negative feelings 1.24 p. 29 6 Make sure the students understand the words in the box, then have them do the matching task. Play the recording to check the answers.

FLASH FORWARD Have the students make a list of things they are afraid of, either as an in-class activity or for homework.


would vs used to Have the class go to p. 31 and read through the rules and additional examples. Assign the task.

Answers Robyn Horrible. I used to be really afraid of the dark… I would stay awake for hours. (…) Anna We used to tell ghost stories at camp; we would sit around the campfire and we’d take turns to tell a story. I wasn’t really scared. Robyn My dad used to tell me ghost stories, terrifying; I would lie awake in bed, afraid to switch the light off…

FLASHPOINT Point out that when we use would, it is followed by the base form of the verb, as are all modal verbs.

5 p. 29 Assign the task individually or in pairs. Answers 2 My grandfather used to be a police officer. He would often work at night. 3 Our grandmother used to be a great storyteller. She would tell us amazing stories. 4 My grandfather was very kind. He would buy us sweets and mum and dad would complain. 5 I used to be very shy. I would go to parties and not speak to anyone.

Transcript and answers [Track 1.24] 1 2 3 4

confused worried scared sad

FUNCTIONS GRAMMAR fears Describing Have the class read and translate all the examples of negative feelings. Point out that the adjectives that refer to people’s feelings often end in -ed and are almost always the past participle of a verb, whereas the adjective that refer to things that cause the feeling in a person often end in -ing and are almost always the present participle or gerund of a verb.

7 p. 29 Check that everyone understands the phrases listed, than have the students practise formulating sentences using the vocabulary from exercise 7 to describe their fears. Assign the task to be done orally in pairs or have the students write short sentences. Possible answers They often feel nervous about flying in an aeroplane for the first time. They feel terrified when seeing a snake. Some people are scared of going to the dentist. Students are anxious when they are having an important exam. People may feel scared when walking home in the dark. Most people feel worried about having no money. Most people feel sad if they have no friends. A lot of people are worried about speaking in public. People often feel nervous about meeting strangers.



Say it! 8 p. 29

talking about strange things that happened years ago. Have them match a title, from the four given, to each of the stories.

Assign the task in pairs, so the students can describe their negative feelings in the situations listed in exercise 7. Then have them compare their reactions.

Transcript [Track 1.26]

Write it! 9 p. 29 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity ISE I Creative/descriptive writing (description). Go through the questions with the class and elicit responses. Tell the students to use this as an outline to guide them in writing a composition to be assigned for homework. Possible answer When I was a child, I was afraid of walking along a long corridor in the night. It was dark and cold, and it was a long way from my room. I used to run all the way to the bathroom that was at the other end. I never told anybody about my fears. Now I laugh when somebody is afraid of the dark.

Listen’n’speak Spooky p. 30 1 p. 30 Have the students work with a partner to answer the questions. Call on a few pairs to report back to the class.



p. 30

Have the class read the eight phrases and tell them they will now hear these sounds in the recording. They are to number them in the order they are heard. Play the recording twice for the task assignment. Transcript and answers [Track 1.25] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


[going down the stairs] [knocking] [sleeping] [a car door closing] [someone opening a door] [driving a car] [a mobile ringing] [a doorbell ringing]


p. 30

Tell the students they will now listen to two people


Play the recording twice, once for gist and once for the task assignment.

1 Woman 2 Man

When I was younger, I used to go and stay with my grandmother. I didn’t use to like going, in fact, I used to feel quite terrified. In my bedroom, I used to see strange things and I often felt someone was watching me. Sometimes, I used to sleep on the floor under the bed so no one could see me. Anyway, one night I was lying in bed when I felt the bed shaking. I thought it was an earthquake. Then I heard a knocking on the wall. My grandmother was sleeping next door. I got up and went to her bedroom. I knocked on the door. There was no answer. I opened the door. The room was empty. I went into the kitchen, there was no one there, in the living room the TV was on but the room was empty. I was alone in the house… I went back up to my bedroom, locked the door and tried to sleep. I woke up in the middle of the night. I heard a voice. It was coming from outside my bedroom. It was saying my name. I covered my head with the blankets and in the end… This story happened to the uncle of a friend of mine years ago. He was driving along a quiet country road when he stopped to pick up a guy, you know, a hitchhiker. The stranger was about 20 years old. He looked like a university student. Anyway, he got into the car. He sat in the back seat. He said ‘I live in Banbury Rd, Oxford’ and then he was silent. He said nothing. My uncle drove him to the house in Oxford and opened the door for him to get out. But he wasn’t there. The back seat was empty. He just disappeared. Unbelievable!

Answers Story 1: Home alone Story 2: The ghost

3 4



p. 30

Have the class look at the pictures and match them to the stories they heard. Play the recording again.


p. 30

Check that the students understand the sentences. Again, point out how the pronunciation of used changes in the different contexts. Assign the task.

Answers A1


Play the recording to check the answers. C2


5 p. 30

Transcript [Track 1.28] see Student’s Book p. 30

Assign the task in pairs.


Remind the students to tell their story in the first person, using the phrases from the box and making up their own ending. If necessary, play the recording again.

1 /s/

Alternatively, this task could be assigned as written homework. Possible answer When I was younger, I used to go and stay with my grandmother. One night I was lying in bed when I felt the bed shaking. Then I heard a knocking on the wall. My grandmother was sleeping next door, but when I went there, the room was empty. I went into the living room but this room was empty too. I was alone in the house. I went back up to my bedroom, locked the door and tried to sleep. I woke up in the middle of the night. I heard a voice. It was coming from outside my bedroom. It was saying my name. I covered my head with the blankets and in the end I fell asleep. In the morning my grandmother was in the kitchen making breakfast. She told me that in the night she had gone to one of the neighbours whose baby was ill. When she got back, she called me to check I was alright, but she decided I was asleep because I didn’t answer!

Pronunciation: used to vs use 1.27 p. 30 6 Go through the explanation and point out the difference in the s sound. Also point out how the Past simple/Past participle of the verb to use is pronounced: in used the d is heard (He sells used cars). Compare to used to where the d is not heard (She used to smoke). Translate the sentences and play the recording so the students can repeat with the correct pronunciation. Transcript [Track 1.27] see Student’s Book p. 30

2 /z/

3 /s/

4 /s/

5 /s/

6 /s/

Spoken English: Hyperbole Have the class read and memorise the expressions used to intensify the description of negative feelings.

8 p. 30 Have the students work in pairs to practise using hyperbole to tell a story, then have a few demonstrate the task in front of the class.

Flash on Grammar p. 31 used to Have the class read the usage rules and translate the examples. Write the different formats on the board for the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms: – affirmative: subject + used to + base form of the verb – negative: subject + didn’t use to + base form of the verb – interrogative: did + subject + use to + base form of the verb Point how the pronunciation of used/use in I used to play tennis every day and in I didn’t use to play tennis doesn’t change (the d is not heard). Workbook p. 20

1 p. 31 Answers 2 3 4 5

didn’t use to used to didn’t use to used to



6 p. 31

6 used to 7 used to 8 didn’t use to

Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6

2 p. 31 Answers 2 I used to like ice cream. 3 I used to be one of the tallest kids in the class. 4 I didn’t use to/I never used to like swimming when I was young. 5 They used to be good friends. 6 We didn’t use to have computers. 7 The teacher used to explain things very well.

7 p. 31 Answers

3 p. 31 Answers 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Did Did Did Did Did Did Did

you use to go to the seaside in the summer? you use to live near the sea? you use to play football? your sister/brother use to shout at you? your parents use to take you to school? you use to go to bed late? your grandmother use to tell you stories?

4 p. 31 Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

I did./No, I didn’t. we did./No, we didn’t. I did./No, I didn’t. she/he did./No, she/he didn’t. they did./No, they didn’t. I did./No, I didn’t. she did./No, she didn’t.

Workbook p. 21

5 p. 31 Answers 1 a, b




Flash on Skills / Literature Dracula by Bram Stoker pp. 32-33

In this lesson the students will delve more deeply into the novel Dracula which has already been discussed in the FLASH FORWARD exercise on the first page of this unit. Have the class do the reading preparation exercise. Explain that the pictures are not in the correct order in the story, but that the students will be able to number them correctly once they read the plot in exercise 2.

would vs used to Have the students read the rules and write formats on the board: – affirmative: subject + would + base form of verb – negative: subject + wouldn’t + base form of verb – interrogative: would + subject + base form of verb

Julia used to have a lot of dolls, but now she never plays with dolls. They used to/would go on a lot of trips with the school, but now they only have one trip a year. Julia used to/would work very hard at school, but now she is lazy at school.

Before you read 1 p. 32

Possible answers 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

used to/would used to/would used to used to used to didn’t use to

the Answers the the the

A Jonathan and Mina’s wedding day B In the hands of the vampire C Lucy becomes a vampire D Jonathan runs away from the castle E Arriving at a mysterious castle

Reading 2 p. 32

person) that relates to the scene in which we discover that Mina has been bitten by Dracula.

Have the students skim the text to grasp the overall meaning and to place the pictures in the correct chronological order. Answers 1E





3 p. 32 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the PET Reading Part 3. Have different students read a part of the text out loud and check for comprehension. Assign the true/false task, having the students correct the false statements. Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


He wanted to buy a house in London. He used to be a great man. Lucy is the first victim. Jonathan arrives in London after Dracula.

Study Skills – Tips for listening Go through the various suggestions with the class and make sure they understand them. Tell the students they will be able to use these suggestions in exercises 4 and 5.

Listening 4 p. 33 Have the class look at the picture and ask them to describe it. Explain that the man is Dr Seward, a character in the story and one of the friends who will try to destroy Dracula and save his victims. Elicit guesses from the students as to the scene, having them read the questions which they will be able to answer after the listening activity in exercise 5.



p. 33

Tell the class they are about to hear an excerpt from Dr Seward’s diary (in which he speaks in the first

Play the recording at least twice, once for gist and once for the task assignment. Transcript [Track 1.29] Jonathan was asleep; he was breathing heavily. Mina was on her knees. Dracula was standing next to her. When we came into the room, Dracula turned to us – blood was coming out of his mouth. At first, he laughed a terrible laugh and then he became silent. Suddenly, he pushed Mina away and tried to attack us; seconds later, he was coming closer towards us; we immediately held up our crosses; suddenly, he stopped, afraid. We moved towards him. We were getting closer and closer to him, when suddenly he disappeared. Then, seconds later, there was a scream. Jonathan woke up and he saw Mina. He couldn’t believe his eyes. Blood was coming out of her mouth. I immediately ran to my office. My books and papers were all over the floor and my diary was burning on the fire. In the deep red sky of early morning, I saw a bat; it was flying away towards the west. Later that day, Van Helsing told us his plan. As he spoke, I was looking carefully at Mina; her beautiful white teeth looked the same as always. ‘During the day, the vampire is human like you and me’, said Van Helsing. ‘He cannot disappear. In order to go through a door, he has to open it, like you and me’. Then he looked at Mina. ‘Mina. You mustn’t be afraid – during the day, you are not in danger. But if we don’t come back before dark, you must put this garlic around your neck…’ Answers 1 Blood was coming out of Dracula’s mouth. 2 Seeing the crosses in the hands of the people. 3 He saw his wife with blood coming out of her mouth. 4 A bat flying away towards the west. 5 To detect signs of her becoming a vampire. 6 The vampire is dangerous only at night.

Extra To further develop students’ listening skills, a scene reconstruction activity could be proposed, for example, the bedroom scene with Jonathan and Mina, from the point ‘Jonathan was asleep…’ up to ‘Blood was coming out of her mouth’ (117 words). Proceed this way: – dictate a few key words, e.g. asleep, knees, standing, turned, blood, laugh, silent, pushed, attack, closer, crosses, afraid, disappeared, scream, blood and have the students write each word at the beginning of a new line in their notebook;




– play the recording; – after they have listened, have the students write complete sentences for each word given; – play the recording again, to give them time to check their work.

Writing 6 p. 33 Have the students read the text with the gaps and, if they remember what they have just listened to, they will see that this is the first paragraph. Assign the completion task. Answers 2 3 4 5 6 7


At first then Suddenly Seconds later immediately suddenly


p. 33

Play the recording so the students can check their answers to the previous exercise. Transcript [Track 1.30] When we came into the room, Dracula turned to us – blood was coming out of his mouth. At first, he laughed a terrible laugh and then he became silent. Suddenly, he pushed Mina away and tried to attack us. Seconds later, he was coming closer towards us; we immediately held up our crosses; suddenly, he stopped, afraid.


8 p. 33 This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the Trinity ISE I Creative/descriptive writing (story). This can be used as a preparatory exercise for the PET Writing Part 3. Have the students use the prompts in the box, in the order in which they are given, to write the story of how Jonathan first met Dracula at the beginning of the story. Possible answer It was a cold dark night. I was riding my horse up a mountain. At the top there was an old castle. There were wolves howling in the forest and at first my horse was frightened. Then it started to snow and the wind was blowing. Suddenly I heard someone screaming and the moon disappeared behind the clouds. When I arrived at the castle, I waited outside the door and heard footsteps approaching. Then I heard the key turning and seconds later the door opened. A tall man was at the door. He was wearing black clothes and had a very white face. ‘Good evening. I am Dracula. Come in. I have been waiting for you…’ (116 words)

Speaking 9 p. 33 Divide the class into pairs and give them a few minutes to prepare their story. Call on several pairs to tell their story to the class.

Turn static files into dynamic content formats.

Create a flipbook
Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.