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VIDEO COMPITI DI REALTà Patrizia Caruzzo with Silvana Sardi and Daniela Cerroni

From the Ground Up construction

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BUILDING in THEORY

Ecology WARM UP

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Look at the pictures on these pages and try to predict what you will read in the text. What do you think ecology deals with?

AC TI V IT IE S

environment: ambiente share: condividono draws on: ricorre a, attinge da aims: scopi policies: criteri

The ecological science Ecology is the science that studies the number of living organisms in the environment and how they are distributed. It also studies how the quantity and distribution of organisms are influenced and in turn influence their interactions with the environment. The environment of an organism includes factors such as climate, solar insulation, geology and the other organisms that share its habitat. Ecology is also called ‘ecological science’ and it is multi-disciplinary: this means that it draws on other branches of science, such as biology, geology, geography, meteorology, chemistry and physics. Ecological knowledge provides a scientific basis for environmentalists, whose aims and policies are the preservation, restoration and improvement of the natural environment.

Reading comprehension 2 Read the text and choose the correct option. 1 Ecology studies... A the quantity of organisms in the environment. B how organisms are distributed. C both of these. 2 Ecology is also called... A meteorology.

B ecological science.

C physics.

3 Ecology makes use of... A other sciences.

B the environment.

C solar insulation.

4 Environmentalists deal with... A the protection of the environment.

B the study of the environment.

C geographical issues.

Vocabulary 3 Find the English equivalents of the following words in the text.

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1 organismo vivente 2 ambiente 3 distribuiti 4 influenzati 5 clima

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

MO DULE 1 | BUILDING in THEORY

6 geologia 7 condividere 8 settori 9 chimica 10 fisica

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________


Sub-disciplines Ecology has a great number of (1) ____________, some of which are more complex than others. Physiological and behavioural ecology focuses on the (2) ____________ of the individual to his environment. Population ecology examines the dynamics of (3) ____________ of a single species; community ecology studies the interactions between species in an ecological (4) ____________. Ecosystem and landscape ecology are even more complex. Ecology can be studied at different (5) ____________. If you study the population level, you focus on individuals of the same species, but you can also examine communities of species, (6) ____________ or biosphere levels. The outer layer of the planet Earth can be divided into three compartments: the hydrosphere is the sphere of (7) ____________, the lithosphere is the sphere of soil and rocks and the atmosphere is the sphere of (8) ____________. Last, but not least, the biosphere is the sphere of life. In short, it is the part of our (9) ____________ occupied by life.

outer layer: strato esterno compartments: settori

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1.01

ACTIVI TI ES

Listening PET Listen to the interview with John Hale, an ecologist, and complete the text.

Reading comprehension 5

PET Read the text and decide if the statements below are true (T) or false (F).

1 The sub-disciplines of ecology are all very complex. 2 Population ecology examines the population dynamics of a single species. 3 Ecosystem and landscape ecology are more complex than other forms of ecology. 4 If you study the population level, you concentrate on communities of species. 5 The outer layer of the planet Earth can be divided into four compartments. 6 The hydrosphere is the sphere of water. 7 The biosphere is the sphere of soil and rocks. 8 Ecology cannot be studied at different levels.

T F

6 Now answer the following questions. 1 What are the sub-divisions of ecology? 2 Does physiological and behavioural ecology focus on the adaptation of individuals to their environment? 3 What does community ecology study? 4 What do you focus on if you study the population level?

5 How can the outer layer of the planet Earth be divided? 6 What is the lithosphere? 7 What is the biosphere? 8 What is the atmosphere?

Ecology and the Environment | MO DULE 1

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WARM UP

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Look at the picture and answer these questions.

1 Do you know what a ‘food chain’ is? 2 Do you think that you are part of it? 3 Do you think there are any living organisms that are not part of it?

food chains: catene alimentari break down: decompongono tissue: tessuto make up: formano act as: fungono da pond: stagno

The ecosystem The first principle of ecology is that every living organism has a constant relationship with every other element in the environment. An ecosystem is a situation where there is interaction between organisms and their environment. In an ecosystem, species are connected by food chains. A food chain begins when energy from the sun is captured by plants and trees (primary producers) through photosynthesis. Then primary consumers (herbivores) eat plants and later secondary and tertiary consumers (carnivores) eat primary consumers. The energy they create by eating and digesting is lost as waste heat. When animals and plants die, very small bacteria break down their tissue (decomposition) and the chemicals that make up those living organisms are released into the soil and act as fertilisers to help green plants to grow. In this way the food chain starts all over again. An ecosystem can vary in size: it can be a pond, a field, a piece of dead wood or a rainforest.

When you study an ecosystem, the main questions to consider are: • What are the dynamics of and changes to the ecosystem? • What methods of interaction does an ecosystem use at a local, national and global level? • Is the present state of the ecosystem stable? • What is the value of the ecosystem? • How does the interaction of ecological systems benefit humans? Ecosystems in the UK

MORE ABOUT... All living things play roles in the food chain. Energy is passed from one organism to another in a complex network, like a spider’s web. Food chains show how each living thing gets food and how nutrients and energy are passed from creature to creature. Food chains usually have no more than four or five links. Most animals are part of more than one food chain and eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web.

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MO DULE 1 | BUILDING in THEORY


2 Read the text and match the two parts of the sentences. 1 A food chain begins 2 An ecosystem can 3 Carnivores are 4 Every living organism 5 Herbivores are 6 In an ecosystem 7 When they die, living organisms 8 Species are connected 9 The chemicals released into the soil 10 A pond or a field

a b c d e f g h i j

by food chains. release chemicals into the soil during decomposition. has a continuous relationship with every other element in the environment. help green plants to grow. primary consumers. secondary and tertiary consumers. are examples of ecosystems. there is interaction between organisms and their environment. vary in size. when plants and trees capture energy from the sun.

ACT IV IT IE S

Reading comprehension

Vocabulary 3 Write the words in the box next to the correct definitions. carnivores  − decomposition − ecosystem − photosythesis − environment −  food chain  − herbivores 1 A series of living organisms that are connected to each other because each of them eats the one below it in the series. 2 The environment and the relationship between all plants and animals living in that specific area. 3 The breaking down of plant or animal tissue by bacteria. 4 Primary consumers. 5 Secondary and tertiary consumers. 6 The world of land, sea, air, animals and plants. 7 A process used by plants to turn light energy from the sun into chemical energy.

__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

4 Find the synonyms of these words in the text. 1 connection 2 component 3 habitat 4 linked 5 caught 6 examine 7 large scale 8 people

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Speaking 5 Look at the picture of a food chain on page 12 and use your own words to explain the process. In this ecosystem there is interaction between...

Exam practice – Oral exam 6 What have you learnt about ecology? Prepare a short presentation (3-5 minutes) following the guidelines.

• What is ecology? What does it study? • How is it a multidisciplinary science? What are its sub-disciplines? What are the different levels it can be studied at? • How do food chains work? • What are the main points to consider when studying an ecosystem?

Ecology and the Environment | MO DULE 1

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ACTIVE DICT IONARY

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FOCUS on LANGUAGE Vocabulary 1

THE ECOSYSTEM Write the words in the box under the photos.

secondary/tertiary consumers  −  primary producers  −  primary consumers

1 ___________________________ 2 ___________________________ 3 __________________________

2 FORMS OF POLLUTION

Write the forms of pollution under the photos.

light pollution 1 ___________________________ 2 ___________________________ 3 __________________________

4 ___________________________ 5 ___________________________ 6 __________________________

3 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS

Write the words in the box under the photos.

flooding  − earthquake  − landslide −  volcanic eruption

1 ___________________ 2 ___________________ 3 ___________________ 4 ___________________

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MO DULE 1 | FOCUS on LANGUAGE


4 Match the words with their definitions. 1 hydrosphere 2 lithosphere 3 atmosphere 4 biosphere

a b c d

the the the the

sphere sphere sphere sphere

of of of of

water life rocks and soil air

5 Find the English equivalents of the following words in this unit. 1 ambiente 2 catena alimentare 3 inquinamento 4 specie 5 sostanza tossica 6 gas serra 7 riscaldamento globale 8 centrale elettrica 9 fognatura 10 abusivismo edilizio

__________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

6 Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences. 1 The environment of an organism includes factors such as climate, solar insulation, geology and the other organisms that share its space/habitat. 2 Ecology has a great number of sub-disciplines/environments, some of which are more complex than others. 3 Population ecology examines the dynamics of population of a single species/organism. 4 The outer/inner layer of the planet Earth can be divided into three compartments. 5 A biological/food chain begins when energy from the sun is captured by plants and trees through photosynthesis. 6 In an ecosystem, there is interaction between organisms and their environment/landscape. 7 Primary consumers eat plants/meat. 8 Hazard/Restrictive maps are constantly updated to try and prevent disasters. 9 The causes/effects of radioactive contamination on a large scale can remain lethal for hundreds of thousands of years. 10 Chemical plants and oil refineries are examples of dynamic/stationary pollution sources. 11 Industry and a worried general public have discussed the importance of different forms of pollution/ environment for years.

7 Complete the table. Forms of pollution

Causes

air pollution 

chemicals 

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

Ecology and the Environment | MO DULE 1

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Grammar Present simple

Present continuous

Il Present simple indica un’azione che è abituale o ripetuta o dati di fatto sempre veri, sempre validi e permanenti.

Il Present continuous indica un’azione che si svolge nel momento in cui si parla.

Ecology deals with living organisms. Does ecology have its own rules and laws?

Both we and the ecosystem change while we are studying it.

Spesso questo tempo viene usato con avverbi di frequenza quali always, usually, often, normally, sometimes, rarely, occasionally, seldom, hardly ever, never (ever) o altre espressioni temporali quali daily, twice a week, four times a month, every year… Chemical substances are often harmful.

Oppure si usa per indicare un’azione che si svolge al presente, anche se non esattamente nel momento in cui si parla. We are exploiting the resources of the Earth. Si usa inoltre per azioni che avvengono per situazioni temporanee che si differenziano da quanto avviene di solito. Those scientists usually study this subject, but these days they are focusing on a new one.

Video tutorial 1

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Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentences.

1 The environment of an organism is including/includes factors such as climate, solar insulation and geology. 2 Population ecology experts examine/are examining new data these days. 3 I interview/am interviewing a famous ecologist from NY today. 4 Population ecology is examining/examines the dynamics of population of a single species. 5 Does ecology have/Is ecology having any sub-disciplines? 6 Now the DECC are trying/try to create a disposal facility by the end of 2029. 7 Earthquakes and floods often are happening/happen in Italy. 8 Water represents/is representing the largest part of the globe.

2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the present tense of the verbs in brackets.

1 Ecology _______________ (comprise) a lot of sub-disciplines. 2 We _______________ (start) to study what ecology is. 3 They _______________ (not use) any pollutants at the moment. 4 Ecology _______________ (make) use of other sciences. 5 What _______________ community ecology _______________ (study)? 6 Ecology _______________ (determine) what is right or wrong. 7 This year we _______________ (study) ecology for the first time. 8 Ecological science _______________ (include) lots of different branches of science. 9 Population level _______________ (focus) on individuals of the same species. 10 Nowadays scientists _______________ (examine) ways to preserve our environment. 11 People _______________ (become) more and more aware of environmental problems. 12 How human beings interact _______________ (have) a great impact on our biosphere.

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Write the questions for the following answers.

1 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ? The effects of radioactive contamination can last for hundreds of thousands of years. 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ? Environmental groups are trying to limit human impact on the environment. 3 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ? Harmful by-products come from technology. 4 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ? Pollutants can cause diseases like cancer, allergies and asthma. 5 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ? The quality of our land is important because we need it to grow fruit and vegetables. 6 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ? Soil becomes a source of pollution when it is damaged or contaminated.

MO DULE 1 | FOCUS on LANGUAGE


Zero conditional Il condizionale di tipo 0 riguarda ipotesi reali generali o dati di fatto sempre veri. Sia nella frase principale che in quella secondaria si usa il presente semplice. Quest’ultima è introdotta da if o da when (ever). You focus on individuals of the same species if you study the population level. When they die, living organisms release chemicals into the soil.

4 Match the two parts of the sentences. 1 If an ecological crisis has a positive result, a 2 If there isn't any water, 3 We speak of air pollution b 4 If pollution draws public attention, c 5 If heavy metals do not occur naturally d in an area, e 6 If there are aircraft and industrial noise, f

t he environment can become unfavourable to the survival of a species. no living thing can exist. they are considered as pollutants. we speak of noise pollution. s ome important laws to protect the environment are passed. when there is a release of chemicals into the atmosphere.

5 Complete the zero conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If we _______________ (not consider) factors such as climate, geology and other organisms, we _______________ (not can) understand the environment of an organism. 2 If there _______________ (not be) interaction between organisms and their environment, an ecosystem _______________ (not exist). 3 If we ______________ (not want) to continue destroying our planet, we ______________ (must) make an effort to keep our environment free from pollution. 4 If human beings ______________ (not respect) each other, they ______________ (damage) the ecosystem. 5 When there _______________ (be) an ecological crisis, some species _______________ (not survive). 6 If we _______________ (not look after) our land, animals and plants _______________ (die).

6 Translate the following sentences into Italian. 1 Human beings are part of the ecosystem which, like man, is in a constant state of change. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Human ecology deals with the influence of human beings on their environment. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Climate change is having adverse effects on organisms. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Our ambitions, values and what we know, all affect our behaviour. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 We express our ideals and aims through our relationship with the natural world. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 Some organisations protect air quality by regulating the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Despite the volume of research into climate change, many people continue to doubt its existence and its effects. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 There is legislation regulating the use of the most common environmental pollutants, but many new ones are continuously being identified. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

7 Translate the following text into Italian.

Nowadays no place on Earth is unspoiled. Even though some pollutants like DDT have been banned in developed countries, they are still used in developing countries. Thus they are spread round the world by atmospheric circulation, with terrible repercussions on the quality of food because they are part of the food chain everywhere.

Ecology and the Environment | MO DULE 1

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3

CASE STUDY

Natural architecture

BUILDING WITH EARTH A ccording to recent studies, about one half of the world’s population lives or works in buildings made of earth. Despite what many people may think, this kind of architecture is not merely used for housing in poor rural areas, nor is it merely made up of primitive examples. There are a great number of traditional earth constructions, but there are also many examples of contemporary earth architecture, such as airports, embassies, hospitals, museums, and factories. These buildings can be constructed in the form of rammed earth, mud brick, compressed earth block or moulded earth; of these four categories, most buildings are made using rammed earth construction, where soil is compacted in forms which create a texture similar to sedimentary rock. This means that rammed earth, or another such technique –

rammed: battuta misconception: malinteso, equivoco shrinkage cracks: rotture dovute a restringimento

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MO DULE 3 | CASE STUDY

utilised alongside more conventional, modern materials, such as glass, steel (in some cases for structural reasons) and timber – does not necessarily exclude aesthetics. Another misconception about this form of building is that earth is a fragile material, but in fact, a great number of the oldest buildings on our planet are made of earth. Actually, earth architecture provides many ecological benefits, and it has proven to be a sophisticated and evolved form of technology, especially in developing countries. The problems that earth construction may pose, such as shrinkage cracks, water erosion, binding force, compressive strength, strength against abrasion and the increasing thermal insulation of earth building material, can be easily solved thanks to different solutions invented in contemporary stabilised earth construction research and innovation.

Earth mosque in Bani, Burkina Faso


Reading comprehension 1

PET Read the text and choose the correct option.

1 According to recent studies about ... of the world’s 4 The technique that creates the same effect as population lives or works in buildings made of earth. sedimentary rock is… A one tenth B one third A mud brick B rammed earth C one fifth D one half C compressed earth D moulded earth block 2 This kind of architecture is not only used for housing in ... rural areas and it is not only made up of primitive examples. A modern B privileged C poor D distant

5 In fact, a great number of the ... buildings on our planet are made of earth. A most modern B most recent C oldest D nearest

3 There are also many examples of ... earth 6 This is a/an ... and evolved form of technology, architecture, such as airports, embassies, hospitals, especially in developing countries. museums, and factories. A sophisticated B modern A past B contemporary C primitive D old-fashioned C ancient D primitive

Listening 2

1.02 PET Listen to this expert talking about trulli and then choose the correct option.

1 Trulli are traditional dry stone huts with conical roofs, built ... the underlying natural rock. A in B on C at D for 2 The building material ... either hard limestone or calcareous tufa collected from the fields. A was B were C are D is 3 Like most dry-stone walls in fields, trulli are ... built with no mortar or cement. A also B as well C too D and 4 The number of cones you see outside corresponds ... the number of rooms. A for B to C at D on 5 Usually trulli only have one floor, ... in some larger trulli there is a second wooden floor that can be reached by a wooden staircase. A and B but C so D or

6 The trulli are now protected ... UNESCO world heritage laws. A with B at C by D in

Writing – Internet research 3 Look up the following websites and read the information about earth constructions in the Marche region in Italy. Then write a short essay in English summarising the information you have found (about 100 words).

Speaking 4 PET

Work in pairs. Ask each other the following questions.

www.architetturaesostenibilita.it/terra%20cruda.htm www.greensite.it/ambiente/terracruda1.htm

• What type of ‘poor’ houses have you seen, and where? • What can we learn and use from this type of housing today? • Do you know other examples of houses or famous buildings made using ‘poor’ materials? • As far as you know, are there any examples of this kind of housing CLIL – CONSTRUCTION in the area where you live?

Connect to the Web to find examples of buildings in Italy and the UK made using the ‘earth building’ technique. Find out about the materials used and construction techniques, and provide a brief history about this type of architecture (e.g. origins and how the technique has changed over time).

Building Materials | MO DULE 3

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DOSSIER

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A short history of architecture Prehistory and ancient history

WARM UP

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What do you know about Stonehenge? Which sentences are true?

1 It is a prehistoric monument. 2 It is situated in Scotland. 3 It is made of stone. 4 It has a square shape.

Neolithic: Neolitico (circa 10000 anni fa) BC: avanti Cristo trilithon: trilite chieftains: capi tribù

A megalith is a large stone used to build a structure or monument. The word comes from the Ancient Greek language, with megas meaning ‘great’ and lithos meaning ‘stone’.

MORE ABOUT...

ACT IV IT IE S

There are three types of megaliths: the menhir is the simplest Megalithic structure. It was an upright slab of stone, used as a grave marker; the dolmen was a burial site which consisted of ‘posts’ (upright standing stones) that supported a horizontal stone called a ‘lintel’; a cromlech is the structure used for the setting of religious rites. Stonehenge is the most famous example of a cromlech.

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Prehistoric architecture During the Neolithic period there was a new type of art called Megalithic architecture. This type of architecture gets its name from the huge rocks which were placed on top of each other or singularly without the use of cement. Monoliths are single upright stones. Only the simplest of tools were needed for such constructions. Although they are imposing by the size of the stones, there was little planning or sign of art in the design. Stonehenge is perhaps the most famous megalithic structure. This prehistoric stone monument is located in England, near the city of Salisbury. It consists of a circular setting of standing stones. What we see today is the final stage that was completed 3500 years ago. However, archaeologists believe that there were three main stages of construction. • Stonehenge I was built over 5000 years ago. It was used for 500 years and was then abandoned. • The second stage known as Stonehenge II, was completely rebuilt in about 2100 BC. The new concentric circles were built in the centre of the ceremonial area using volcanic stones which came from Wales. It had a horseshoe shape and the entrance was aligned at the summer solstice upon sunrise. • Stonehenge III occurred from 2000 BC to 1500 BC. During this phase the monument was completely modified with the creation of a ring of sandstone units with lintels. Inside the ring there is a horseshoe structure of five trilithons. Sandstone blocks can reach up to nine metres and can weigh 50 tons. The site was abandoned about 3500 years ago. Why was Stonehenge built? There are many different theories about the uses of Stonehenge. Most archaeologists think that it was a ceremonial place, maybe an astronomical observatory to calculate lunar and solar eclipses and to study the sky, the stars, the moon and the seasons. Others are convinced that it was a meeting place for tribal chieftains. Some people are persuaded that there must be some other explanation connected to extra-terrestrial beings or to occultism. There are many legends about this ancient monument, but one thing is clear – Stonehenge continues to be a very mysterious place.

DO S S I E R 1 | A short history of architecture


ACT IV IT IE S

Reading comprehension 2 Read the text and complete the sentences with the missing numbers. 1 Stonehenge was completed ________ years ago. 2 Archaeologists believe that the monument was constructed during ________ main periods. 3 Stonehenge I was built over ________ years ago. 4 Stonehenge I was used for ________ years and was then abandoned. 5 Stonehenge II was rebuilt in about ________ BC. 6 Sandstone blocks weigh up to ________ tons.

3 Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 What is a monolith? 2 What happened during the Stonehenge II period? 3 Where did the volcanic stones used during the Stonehenge II period come from? 4 What is special about the entrance? 5 When was the site abandoned? 6 Give two reasons why archaeologists believe Stonehenge was built.

Vocabulary 4 Write the words in the box next to the correct definitions. archaeologist  − sandstone − horseshoe −  concentric  − lintel 1 A piece of stone or wood over a door or window supporting the frame. 2 Something which has the shape of a U. 3 Circles or rings with the same centre. 4 A scientist who studies the history and culture of ancient societies and examines their remains. 5 A type of soft rock containing a lot of sand, often used in buildings. 

Speaking 5

PET Work in pairs. In turns, give your personal opinion about Stonehenge and the reason why it was built.

__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

Avebury Stone Circle

Writing – Internet research 6 Look at the pictures of some other interesting prehistoric sites in Britain. Choose one and do some research on the Internet. Then write a short paragraph (about 100 words) summarising the information you have found.

Silbury Hill, Europe’s largest prehistoric earthwork

West Kennet Long Barrow, the biggest chambered tomb in England

Building Culture | DO SSI ER 1

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DOSSIER

1

William Shakespeare 1

What do you know about Shakespeare? Have you ever seen any plays or films based on his life? Read and check.

William Shakespeare is one of the most famous writers of all times, but we do not actually know much about his personal life. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564. Although no records exist, it appears he was educated at school in Stratford. He married Anne Hathaway and the couple had three children. Between 1586 and 1611 he lived in London (without his family), where he met his patron, Lord Southampton. In 1594 he joined a company of actors called the Lord Chamberlain’s Company with whom he financed the building of the Globe Theatre. His career as a playwright and actor lasted until 1611, when he returned to Stratford. He died in 1616 and is buried in Stratford’s Trinity Church. Shakespeare is also the most mysterious writers of all times. Some of the details we know about his life are quite puzzling. His plays are full of information about mythology, music, plants, the legal system, and ancient history. They contain more than 3,000 references to over 200 different flowers, trees, birds and wild animals. Often the words he used have symbolic meanings. Though Shakespeare never travelled abroad, many of his plays are set in Italy, among them his widely known masterpiece Romeo and Juliet. Apparently, the people who lived in Stratford at that time did not know that he was a playwright, probably because he never performed any of his plays in his home town. There is no trace of any hand-written writing by him. In his last will there is no reference to his plays or poetry and when he died, there were very sober ceremonies, despite the fact that he was extremely famous. All these details have led many critics and experts to wonder how he had the ability to write so well and to know about all the things he playwright: wrote of. Consequently, this has given rise to an authorship debate: in the 1700s many drammaturgo, commediografo critics and experts started to suspect that somebody else was the author of Shakespeare’s puzzling: sconcertante plays and poems. Nevertheless his works changed the history of theatre and his plays last will: testamento continue to be performed all over the world.

2 Read the text and answer the questions. 1 What do we know about Shakespeare’s 3 Why is he considered a mysterious writer? personal life? 4 What was the result of all the puzzling details 2 What did he do in London? listed in the text?

3

1.03 Listen to this description about the original Globe Theatre and choose the correct alternative.

1 The Globe was built in 1599 in Stratford-upon-Avon/London. 2 It was destroyed by a fire in 1613/1612. 3 In 1989 a part of its foundations were found on the south/north bank of the River Thames. 4 The theatre was made from bricks/timber. 5 The theatre was a three-storey/two-storey amphitheatre. 6 The stage had a trap door for the spectators/actors to enter from beneath it. 7 The musicians remained in a balcony above/below the stage.

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DO S S I E R 1 | More Than Walls


4 Read the text about the new Globe Theatre. What are the main differences between the original theatre and the reconstruction?

The New Globe Theatre

Shakespeare’s Globe theatre opened in 1997. It is a very faithful reconstruction of the old Globe Theatre, based on academic deductions of what the 1614 building could have looked like. Situated about 230 metres from the location of the original theatre, the site of the new Globe was chosen trying to recreate the atmosphere of the original theatre as much as possible. The new building has a larger stage and broader staircases, the pit (with over 850 seating and 700 standing capacity) has a concrete surface, and there is a restaurant, a gift shop and a visitors’ centre. But apart from this, everything else is very similar to the original building. No structural steel was used to build the reconstruction, only oak with mortise and tenon joinery. The new theatre has a stage that projects into a large circular yard surrounded by three rows of tiered seating. The only covered parts are the stage and the seating areas. Plays take place either during the day (using daylight) or in the evening thanks to interior floodlights, but there are no spotlights, microphones or amplification systems. The music is played using instruments typical of Shakespeare’s times. Tragedies, historical plays and comedies are staged from May to October, whereas during the rest of the year the theatre is used for educational purposes.

CLIL – ITALIAN Elizabethan drama refers to the plays performed in England during 15331603. Do some research to find out what happened to Italian theatre during the same period and write a short description comparing the drama styles of both countries.

5 Work in pairs or small groups and discuss the following questions. • How is this theatre different from modern theatres? • What shape do theatres usually have? Why? • Is there a theatre where you live? Try to describe it.

mortise: mortasa tiered: inclinato floodlights: proiettori spotlights: fari, riflettori

6 Look at this video about the Globe and decide if the statements below are true (T) or false (F). T F 1 The Globe was originally built in 1599 and was one of the smallest theatres in London at the time. 2 It was round, with chairs surrounding the stage. 3 The pit had the cheapest seats and people paid a penny to watch a performance. 4 The balcony was only used for seating. 5 Women were allowed to act during Shakespeare’s time. 6 The American actor, Sam Wannamaker, decided to rebuild the Globe Theatre.

www.shakespearesglobe.com Building Culture | DO SSI ER 1

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