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LANDSCAPE URBANISM STUDIO

SÃO PAULO | PINHEIROS RIVER Requalifying infrastructure, redefinig urbanism

2016 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning

Spring Studio 2016, São Paulo, Brazil Edited by Eliana Queiroz & Patricia Fernandes


LANDSCAPE URBANISM STUDIO SAO PAULO | PINHEIROS RIVER PARTICIPANTS Elvia Costas Caroline Custine Ernesto Diez Parul Jain Minh Ngoc Le Jacques Murama Joan Nyagwalla Giovanna Pittalis Tasniva Rahman Trinh Minh Thao Dyah Ratna Tiaralaksmi Dong Lam Thanh Tung Ioannis Vorgias Ashraf Zaman STUDIO COORDINATION Bruno de Meulder Vviana d’Auria STUDIO GUIDANCE Eliana Rosa de Queiroz Barbosa Patricia Capanema Alvares Fernandes MORE INFO ? MAHS / MAUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO, K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: paulien.martens@kuleuven.be

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are deeply greatful for the contribution of our partners in the preparations as well as in the course of our fieldwork and workshop in São Paulo: São Paulo’s municipality, Mackenzie University’s Faculty of Architecture and Escola da Cidade. We greatly thank the attention and all the effort of Pedro M. Sales into organizing the works as well as giving all attention and care to the studio participants, as well as Nadia Somekh and Eunice Abascal for their great support. We also thank the lecturers for their time and valuable knowledge. They are: Caio Ferraz, Carolina Heldt D’Almeida, Denise Pessoa, Fabio Mariz Gonçalves, Fabio Valentim, Laura Sobral , Maria Angelina B. Ribolla, Marco, Antonio Palermo, Marcos Boldarini, Maria Stella Cardeal de Oliveira, Mario Reali, Patricia Marra Sepe, Tácito Pio da Silveira. We are thankful for the contribution of the professionals that participated in different reviews providing essential insights that enhanced our teaching and learning experience: André Loeckx, Claudia Lucia Rojas, Han Dijk, Jeroen Stevens, Laura Vescina, Matheus Tenuta, Matteo Motti, Mauro Caliari, Newton Massafumi Yamato, Sanne van den Breemer, Sarah Hartmann, and Yuri Guerrits.

LANDSCAPE URBANISM STUDIO

SÃO PAULO | PINHEIROS RIVER

ISBN 9789460189937 Wettelijk depot D/2016/7515/14 © Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering – Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (België). Telefoon +32-16-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests.All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Landscape Urbanism Studio São Paulo, 2016).

Requalifying infrastructure, redefinig urbanism

2016 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning

PART 1_ANALYSIS PART 2_SEGMENTS

Partners:

Spring Studio 2016, São Paulo, Brazil Edited by Eliana Queiroz & Patricia Fernandes


CONTENT INTRODUCTION 6 FIELDWORK

8

ANALYSIS

10

12

OPEN SPACES ALONG PINHEIROS RIVERBASIN

WATER BODIES 14

PINHEIRO’S INFRASTRUCTURAL LANDSCAPE

16

URBAN TISSUES AND TYPOLOGIES

18

SEGMENTS 20

FROM BACKSIDE TO BACKBONE

22

UNRAVELLING WATER IN JAGUARE VALLEY

26

INFRASTRUCTURAL LANDSCAPE

30

RE-QUALIFY NG THE IN-BETWEENNESS

34


INTRODUCTION

REQUALIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE, REDEFINING URBANISM Eliana R. de Queiroz Barbosa, Patricia Capanema A. Fernandes

São Paulo is full of dichotomies and contradictions.

Studio method:

Regarding urban form, everywhere, everything seems to go vertical whereas the city presents itself as an urbanized horizontal carpet.

The landscape urbanism design research studio will address urban redevelopment of Pinheiros River hydraulic system and its surrounding area in the context of the infrastructural and environmental crisis. While doing so, the studio will:

Its center is marginalized whereas its margins are occupied by booming centralities.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS Which performative roles of infrastructure can be envisioned by taking advantage of landscape structures? How to unravel the hidden landscape structures, while reconciling infrastructure and landscape? How can infrastructure guide development and redefine urbanity?

Real estate led redevelopments have destroyed wellfunctioning neighborhoods and replaced traditional housing typologies, yet the city still has 30% of its housing units in some kind of informality and precarious living conditions. Mobility infrastructure provision has been deficient over the past years and the current system is inefficient, yet it involves around 23 million travels per day, each day. The city presents itself as a powerful concrete jungle, yet it has to surrender regularly to the forces of nature. The territory where today São Paulo lays was first occupied between two main rivers, its floodplains and its tributaries. During the twentieth century, the city expanded its infrastructure according to a road-based urbanism, occupying the inner city’s environmentally sensitive areas, and manipulating its rivers - which are still today used as a backbone for development. A decade of speculative urban development, infrastructural crisis and water collapse set the prospect to redefine urban development, while re-considering infrastructural provision. The infrastructural crisis offers the opportunity to work with landscape rather than against it, interacting man-made forces with natural ones in a more sustainable way. Infrastructure is thus reconsidered in three ways: (1) As the anchor of an alternative development and the trigger of new forms of urbanity; (2) As landscape and therefore as means to reinforce and create structures defining the city; (3) As the backbone of innovative mobility scenarios. By using the River Pinheiros and its surrounding neighborhoods as cornerstone sites, the studio proposes to unravel the megalopolis’ dichotomies by exploring possible new relations between infrastructure and landscape. Segments and sections will be used, with topography playing an important role to perceive the São Paolo’s natural and urban conditions.

.

– Approach the interplay of scales and time frames, when considering landscape logics and infrastructural networks. – Design for complexity, incorporating transformation and uncertainty of programs. – Outline scenarios for recycling urban infrastructure that consider juxtaposition, adaptation, transformation, redefinition, reconciliation and deconstruction and reconstruction. In a context of paradigm shift, crisis and uncertainty, the studio contribution to the area’s problematics will seek to stimulate debate and raise discussion within the districts’ planning and policy departments and inform politics. As a means to this end, the studio will focus throughout the semester on developing critical questions as problem formulations and research/ design topics. Different phases of reflection and design will structure the semester: Interpretative Mapping - Combining ‘above’ (historical & contemporary mapping) and ‘below’ (fieldwork – projective & active description) - Formulation of a working hypothesis on the relations between infrastructure and nature for the upcoming future, envisioning a new role for infrastructure in the (future) city. Urban Visions and Scenarios - Test an infrastructural paradigm shift for the upcoming future, envisioning the distinct roles for infrastructure. - Reconcile Landscape and Infrastructure, while addressing conflicts and opportunities. Design Strategies - Operate visions and scenarios - Mediate and organize functions, materials and actors. - Unite and canalize different contested urban forces - Present structural impact and leverage effect

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[DE] CONSTRUCTING SÃO PAULO INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP 16-25/02/2016 PARTICIPANTS: Ashraf Zaman Ariela Vicensotto De Giuli Camila Apollaro Caroline Custine Daniela Rizzi Dyah Ratna Tiaralaksmi Elvia González Costas Ernesto Diez Martinez Fabiola Avamileno Giovanna Pittalis Guilherme  de Oliveira Pucci Ioannis Vorgias Jacques Murama Jéssica Cavalcante Schussel Joan Nyagwalla Otieno Julia Godinho Juliana Katayama Laura Bellotti Luiz Felipe Orlando Maísa Veloso Rio Lima Marina Dahmer Matheos Schnyder Minh Ngoc Le Parul Jain Raquel Sanches Manfredini Raphael F. do Amaral Tafner Tasniva Rahman Mumu Thanh Tung Dong Lam Trinh Minh Thao Wagner de Souza Rezende Yuri Bassichetto Tambucci

LECTURERS: Caio Ferraz Carolina Heldt D’Almeida Denise Pessoa Fabio Mariz Gonçalves Fabio Valentim Laura Sobral Maria Angelina B. Ribolla Marco Antonio Palermo Marcos Boldarini Maria Stella Cardeal de Oliveira Mario Reali Patricia Marra Sepe Tácito Pio da Silveira

FIELDWORK

ORGANIZATION: Eliana R. Queiroz Barbosa Patricia Capanema A. Fernandes Pedro M.R. Sales

The Studio São Paulo Spring 2016 included a fieldwork in São Paulo, Brazil, with the duration of two weeks. During this period, the studio participants explored the territory of São Paulo, which include the areas along the Pinheiros riverbasin as well as other key locations for the topic proposed, such as the city centre, major infrastructure network hubs and showcase urban renewal and housing projects. The fieldwork included a 10 day-long workshop in collaboration with São Paulo’s municipality, Mackenzie University’s Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism and Escola da Cidade. A total of 31 participants worked within the territory of Pinheiros River, one of the backbones for development and infrastructure in the city. The city’s administration is now revising its subprefeituras’ (sub-municipality) plans, according to the main urban development policy enacted in 2014. The groupd targeted five distinct supbrefeituras: Lapa, Butantã, Pinheiros, Campo Limpo and Santo Amaro. This was a very particular moment to reflect on the mediation between infrastructure and landscape, since the regional plans will define public interventions and territorial strategies, which were tested by the workshop exercise.

COLABORATORS: Jeroen Stevens Nadia Somekh Matheus Tenuta Mauro Caliari Newton Massafumi Yamato Sarah Hartmann

7

ASSEMBLED WORKSHOP RESULTS

8


ANALYSIS In continuation to the workshop, the students were re-divided in four groups according to four themes: (1) Open Spaces; (2) Infrastructure; (3) Rivers, Water Bodies and Floodplains; (4) Tissues and Typologies. Such themes have guided the territorial analysis that were later informative to all the designs, having the following aims: Open Spaces, Public Spaces, Green Structures and Civic Realm: Identify and operate existing and potential green structures, exploring urban voids, current unconventional appropriations of urban spaces, civic and symbolic spaces and local centralities. How could voids embody meaning? Rivers, Water Bodies and Floodplains: Explore the city´s hydrologic system, tackling scenarios of water shortage (dry season) and floods (rainy season), its rivers, creeks, tributaries, water reservoirs, springs and the geological aspects related to it. How did the city engineered water and how this rationality could be manipulated? Infrastructure: Combine a survey of visible and invisible infrastructural networks, relating to mobility, electricity, waste, etc., exposing its superposition and juxtaposition. What are the different logics of each network and how could it be combined into hybrid infrastructural territories? Tissues and Typologies: Investigate the relations between geography, topography and urban morphology, exploring the different areas of the site and its respective patterns of urban form, density, typologies and cultural appropriations, identifying fissures, cracks and frictions between distinct material conditions, while creating an Atlas of tissues and typologies. How to conciliate distinct materials in such a patched urban form?

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OPEN SPACES ALONG PINHEIROS RIVERBASIN From backside to backbone

Tasniva Rahman, Minh Ngoc Le, Dong Lam Thanh Tung, Ernesto Diez

The analysis focussed on the Open Spaces has 3 main themes: Open spaces -accessibility and permeability-, land use and infrastructure density along the river.

VISION AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS.

São Paulo is a city full of potentials. It is full of natural resources as well as human capital. This fact has given as a result one of the biggest cities on the world - during the 20th century was the leader of growth. Industry first and real estate after - focussed in gated communities - have been leading this process. Howver, this urbanization process has been realized against the interest of its citizens. The natural landscape has been modified and the social segregation has increased leading it to be one of the most unequal cities on the world. Nevertheless, we believe that there is a vast natural and human capital able to shift this paradigm, building a resilient city.

SAO PAULO.

1.- The analysis of the open spaces of the west of São Paulo show a big confluence of those along the Pinheiros river. The analysis of its accessibility and permeability show the lack of good and public access. We can find the most numerable open spaces along the river but they are unaccessible and unqualified 2.- We aimed to analyse which type of spaces have the potential to become open spaces. We studied and mapped the land use along the river where the real estate is a powerful stakeholder based on the development of closed gated communities. This analysis shows important zoning: big concentration of industry in north and south and commerce and residential in the center. The experience of Lina bo Bardi at SESC-Pompéia teaches us how decayed industry zones can be turned into important open spaces for the city.

METROPOLITAN ANALYSIS.

Pinheiros River and its floodplain area took an important role in the development of the west of São Paulo. Pinheiros river and its floodplain have been modified, canalized and most of its tributaries have been covered. It has become a border in the city. Nowadays we find a river that has lost its natural resilience and potentials like the capacity of prevention from the heavy rain season. It is fully surrounded by heavy and fast mobility infrastructures and it has turned into a contaminated area due to the pollution and the deficit of the sewage system.

CEAGESP PARK VILLA LOBOS

RIVER

TRAINRAIL ROAD ROAD

RIVER OPEN SPACE TRAINRAIL

OPEN SPACE ROAD

OPEN SPACES RIVER

ROAD

OPEN SPACES RIVER

OPEN SPACES WATER

OPEN SPACES ROAD

UNIVERSITY CITY

PATH ROAD

3.- In order to analyse the density of infrastructures along Pinheiros we drew 22 different sections that show the vast network of infrastructures as well as the differences between both left and right bank of the river

TRAINRAIL

PARK MARIO PIMENTA INFRA

ROAD

RIVER OPEN SPACE

TRAINRAIL

ALTO DE PINHEIROS

RIVER OPEN SPACE RIVER

ROAD

INFRA

RIVER OPEN SPACE TRAIN ROAD OPEN SPACE ROAD

MURUMBI

ROAD

OPEN SPACE RIVER RIVER

ROAD

Main river after 1950

OPEN SPACE

ROAD URSINA

BUTANTA

1929

Main river before 1950

RIVER

JOCKEY CLUB

1914

ROAD OPEN SPACES ROAD OPEN SPACES RIVER

BUTANTA

1882

Urban tissues Open space within urbanization

RIVER OPEN SPACE TRAIN

ROAD

OPEN SPACE

RIVER OPEN SPACES TRAIN

ROAD

OPEN SPACE

RIVER

ROAD

Facade

OPEN SPACE

Open space out of urbanization

1915 - 1929 1930 - 1949 1950 - 1952

ROAD

OPEN SPACE

RIVER OPEN SPACES TRAIN

ROAD

INDUSTRY

TRAIN

RIVER OPEN SPACE

RIVER

OPEN SPACE

RIVER OPEN SPACE RIVER RIVER

OPEN SPACE

INDUSTRY

TRAIN BUILDINGS

ROAD SPORT FACILITIES

ROAD OPEN SPACE

ANALYSIS MAP_Open Spaces along Pinheiros River. INTERLAGOS

ATLAS OPEN SPACES

1949

OPEN SPACE

now River history

11 METROPOLITAN ANALYSIS

PERMEABILITY, ACCESIBILITY STUDIES.

HISTORICAL PROCESS

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS MAP

ROAD

ROAD

OPEN SPACE

OPEN SPACE

RIVER OPEN SPACE

RIVER

OPEN SPACE

1962

PINHEIROS as a big infraestructure.

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS MAP + MAP LAND USES

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WATER BODIES

The engineered water system of Pinheiros River Trinh Minh Thao, Dyah Ratna TIaralaksmi, Jacques Murama

São Paulo city is the administrative centre and the largest of 39 municipalities which constitute the metropolitan region of São Paulo. It is the home of more than half of the population of the entire metropolis. The hydrology system of São Paulo is part of a large complex system which covers the entire metropolis. Its water system generally flows from south toward the Paraná River except Pinheiros River which was engineered and reversed toward southern reservoirs to be operable some times. All small rivers and tributaries are collected in two main rivers: Tietê, running on the east-west direction and Pinheiros on northsouth. The overlap of urban tissues with morphology and hydrology resulted in burying the major hydrological system of the city and transformed the rest of water system into canalized dumping channels to evacuate sewage and trashes collected from hillsides by the periodic tropical rain. Pinheiros River has been controlled in terms of floods and its controled floodplain accommodates major transport infrastructure and real estate developments.

1930 13 TERRITORIAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BODIES

The topographically vulnerable areas have been left to be occupied by favelas. In the last decades, Pinheiros River have been suffering for engineering actions to control floods and generate electricity which resulted in reversal by light company also creating artificial dams, Billings and Guarapiranga, initially for energy production but currently not being used for that purpose. The two reservoirs are now used to generate clean water by SABESP to supply the city however in inadequate way due to pollutions from the tributaries. The water system is highly polluted due to the lack of management and human actions toward sewage systems and rain water drainage. Jaguaré river is one of the tributaries of Pinheiros flowing from south west side. It creates a green corridor with the majority of its waters still open. It is one of the last green areas of São Paulo with opportunities of testing and proving different approaches toward water and drainage system and presents opportunities to approach water system and drainage as part of urban realm instead of generic solution of burying water and channel everything related to water into Pinheiros.

1881

1914

1950

2010 14


Airport Campo de Marte

PINHEIRO’S INFRASTRUCTURAL LANDSCAPE

Carandiru

From lines to figures

Lapa

Parul Jain, Joan Nyagwalla, Giovanna Pittalis, Ioannis Vorgias Barra Funda

Comandante Sampaio

Luz Santa Cecilia San Bento Mercado

Republica

Vila Madalena

Anhangabau Se

Pedro II

Paulista Trianon Masp Pinheiros

Brigadeiro Largo da Batata Paraiso

Butantã

The megacity of São Paulo is structured around its massive infrastructure, an infrastructure that stands today as an emblematic symbol of the city’s growth and development, not only as one of the largest cities in Latin America but also as the financial capital of Brazil. Sadly, infrastructure in this metropolis, like many others in the world plays ‘singular’ roles, that though designed with the intent of connecting bodies, end up fragmenting cities and neighbourhoods. The purpose of infrastructure is often defied by the sheer scale of the city.

São Paulo. Although the central business district of the city is well connected through the metro lines, it is the CPTM - metropolitan trains - that connects São Paulo through a network of six lines of trains that carry over 2 million passengers a day. Yet, the greater extents of the city are still, mainly accessed by an intricate network of buses, most of them feeding the centre. This network of buses, metros and the CPTM together form a radial network of dots lines and exchange hubs that inform the city.

The landscape of the city has shaped it to the urban abstract image that it is today. São Paulo turned rivers into canals, creeks into highways, hills into settlements and changed the direction of flows of the rivers, creating a city of islands interconnected and accessed by infrastructure. The mobility network focused on connecting two dots with lines, and serving a ‘singular’ functionality of macro mobility. A four hour commute to and from everyday has become an acceptable notion in the city today.

Like every dense city with a population above 10 million, not only does São Paulo faces the problem of lack of open spaces and distance, but also the reinterpretation and exploitation of its rivers throughout these years has led to the problems of seasonal flooding in the city. The neighbourhoods that occupy the floodplains and valleys, especially the precarious low income settlements face an immediate danger of flooding. The issue of “micro mobility” is what seems to be overlooked in the previous decades of massive engineering tackling growth and development. The city lacks pedestrian accessibility between its so called islands of urbanisation, and the continued motorization creates a landscape of motorways, highways and tunnels that excludes the human scale from urbanisation patterns.

This Landscape urbanism studio focuses on how landscape and engineering inform the infrastructure of this bustling megacity. São Paulo is a city for cars. Every day 1000 new cars make their way on the massive roads and highways of

Sacoma

Avenida Francisco Morato

Avenida Pirajuçara

Rodovia Raposo Tavares

São Judas Airport Congonhas

Av. Eliseu de Almeida

João Dias Jabaquara Campo Limpo

9.

Largo Treze Santo Amaro

1:2000

1.

Bus terminal

Santo Amaro Terminal

0

Metro stops

0

0

25m

0

25m

25m

25m

CPTM stops

Capão Redondo

Crossing points Rodovia Tavares 11 Km

Points of interest

Guarapiranga

Av. Pirajuçara 6 Km

Av. F. Morato 13 Km

Points of convergence Junctions Bus Corridors CPTM train Metro underground Bus net

Jardim Angela

Radial roads Transversal roads River roads Cyclo path 0

15 Territorial map, analysis of the infrastractural system

0

1

2Km

1

2

Landscape sequences

Metro aboveground

2,5

5

THE FORK. The different nature of the three roads

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URBAN TISSUES AND TYPOLOGIES Geomorphological definitions

Elvia Costas, Caroline Custine, Ashraf Zaman The landscape of São Paulo reflects the fast urban growth and wealth of the 20th century. In particular, during the economic recession of the 70´s, there was an implosion of uncontrolled urbanization. As a consequence, the city suffered a great transformation, especially in the west side of the floodplain of the river Pinheiros. Due to the lack of housing to cope this massive population growth, the vast majority of the new residents end up in precarious living conditions. Currently almost 30% of the population lives in an informal settlement.

difficult building conditions, in ecological risk or protected by the masterplan); (3) The Hybrid is a transitional tissue between the Orthogonal and the Organic tissue, presenting a mixed use.

We could observe that the overlap of geomorphological conditions and urban tissues define vulnerability and privilege in the territory. The city is conformed by small islands which are shaped by hills, valleys, creeks, and rivers which define a patchworked landscape.

It is an important axis of the city which is located in a valley. Campo Limpo presents an irregular topography with contrasts of slopes and valleys and is structured by 3 main rivers. Is a dense area characterized by informal settlements. Apart from the precarious situation of the constructions, always located in the most risky areas of the territory, there is a lack of common spaces. The only existing open spaces are neglected and in bad conditions. The river is dirty due to a non existing sewage system and an inefficient drainage system unable to catch and re-conduce the rainfall water. In contrast Santo Amaro is characterized by a commercial and industrial use. The river plain after the canalization and heavy urbanization resulted in environmental hazards including floods, droughts, potable water shortage and extreme pollutions.

Therefore, according with this observation, we defined in our analysis three different categories of the urban fabric. (1) The orthogonal grid is hierarchical tissue which is related to the main infrastructure presenting mixed use; (2) The organic island is formed by Islands of settlements and clusters having a predominant housing use, and are occupied in some cases by the rich (when is next to a means of transport or to the city center) and in other cases by the poor (areas of floodplain,

This first analysis helped us to grasp a better understanding of the place for the future design of the segment Campo Limpo - Santo Amaro. This linearity has some special characteristics that difference it from the others.

fig.01 Urban tissue map.

Islands

> Infrastructure equipments

privileged vulnerable

Estrada da Itapecerica Morro do S

> Land use > Typology

vulnerable communities

Time line

housing : privileged gated communities

mid rise: villas mixed use

low rise: villas cidade jardim_30´s

* Pinheiros river

Industry - Commercial

Residential - Commercial

flood plane_70´s

residential high - rise blocks

residential high - rise blocks

fig 03.The Islands vulnerable settlements inner logic urban tissue 02

factories warehouses urban tissue 03

urban tissue 01

industry in the floodplane from the 70's urban tissue 02

urban tissue 01

island with villas inner logic urban tissue 01

urban tissue 03

fig.04.‘The funnel’

mixed use organized traffic urban tissue 01

urban tissue 02

fig.02 Section

17 URBAN TISSUES ANALYSIS

18


SEGMENTS Following the thematic territorial analysis, the participants moved forward to the development of visions and scenarios targeting assigned linarities accross the Pinheiros river territory which were called as ‘segments’. The segments represent important landscape figures in the region, which are defined by topography and hydrology and, in the course of history, have been overlaped and intersected with important infrastructure devices. Each of them has either qualities or issues that are most related to each of the themes used in the territorial analysis and therefore were paired accordinlgy as follows: (1) Open Spaces & Pinheiros river valley, from north to south; (2) Infrastructure & Pirajuçara river valley; (3) Water bodies & Jaguaré river; (4) Tissues and typologies & Morro do S and Córrego Freitas valley. The analysis, visions and scenarios were developed in three different scales which tried to answer specific questions at each scale. Research questions were posed to each scale and their sequence correspond to the methodology used in the steps of the design: They are: Territorial scale: How does landscape structure territory? Segmeng scale: How landscape defines infrastructure, tissues and typologies and the machinery of engineered water? How to operate it? Sample scale: Which are the site’s operational elements? What strategies can be envisioned? Is the strategy a system?

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FROM BACKSIDE TO BACKBONE Towards a new ecology.

Tasniva Rahman, Minh Ngoc Le, Dong Lam Thanh Tung, Ernesto Diez

WATER STRATEGY, applied in University city.

WATER STRATEGY, applied in Jurubatuba area (decayed area)

MOBILITY SYSTEM, DE-COMPRESSOR SPACES, applied in University city.

MOBILITY SYSTEM, DE-COMPRESSOR SPACES, applied in Jurubatuba area.

PAST

2030

PRESENT

2050

PUBLIC TRANSPORT SCENARIO along Pinherios river.

PARADIGM SHIFT.

The city of São Paulo has suffered an aggressive urbanization process. This process has led to many problems as the lack of qualified open spaces, a carbased urbanism, urban segregation, mobility problems, water issues, informal settlements…etc.

The slow down strategy is applied and suitable for the water: slowing down the flow from the tributaries to the meeting place with the river; mobility: focussing in a more pedestrian and bike friendly infrastructures and people: creating spaces of gathering and sharing.

All these problems affects the everyday life of its citizens and it is needed a shift of the paradigm. The current urbanization process has been characterized by fastness and density. This paradigm is about building as much as possible in the fastest way possible. Within this process, Pinheiros river has become the backside, the leftover of the city.

The river plays an important role as a collector of these open spaces and the new infrastructure hubs need to be designed to facilitate the transition from a vast public transport system to a slowed down open spaces.

São Paulo has the necessity to shift this paradigm, considering the river as the natural backbone that it was once. The river and its floodplain have the capability to work in a resilient way that will solve the problems of the city. We call this new paradigm a “reverse process”. In order to achieve this goal, we propose to use the existing open spaces along Pinheiros river and its floodplain as the key elements in which to build a new ecosystem for the city. Our approach is based on an scenario of the improvement of the public transport in São Paulo. The city is currently working in a ambitious pack of policies which focus on the enlarging of public transport in the city and reduce private transport. This process will give in few years as a result a bigger and more efficient network of public transport and a reduce of private transport and its infrastructures. STRATEGIES.

The new “reverse paradigm” aims to solve the water, mobility and lack of democratic open spaces issues. We propose to shift from fastness to slowness as well as from density to openness. São Paulo needs to improve its open spaces and to do so we propose to base them on a slowdown point of view. PUBLIC TRANSPORT SCENARIO, future map of infrastructures along Pinehiros river

We design for these infrastructures hubs a “de-compressor machine” that allows people to use the public system not only for mobility proposes but also as commerce spaces of sharing and meeting. We selected two areas of design that have the main needed elements: new infrastructure hub, open spaces and water tributaries. Each area has its own specificities but the strategies could be extrapolated along Pinheiros river.

WATER STRATEGY. slowing down process for the tributaries of Pinheiros River. Solving the problem of the flooding area along Pinheiros and the necessity to shift the river flow when heavy rains.

IMAGE, water system. University city.

WATER STRATEGY. tributaries of study. Estimation of rain water areas.

IMAGE, water system integrated in a urban corredor. Jurubatuba area.

21 STRATEGIES COMPILATION

IMAGE perspective of the new waterscapes in the area of Jurubatuba.

22


History

Present

1st Phase

University City + Parc Villa Lobos

2st Phase

3rd Phase

STRATEGY PLAN AREA UNIVERSITY CITY + PARC VILLA LOBOS New water system integrated in the rationalist plan of the University city. The different waterscapes are designed according with the exisiting university centers and activities that the water can absorb.

NEW DECOMPRESSOR AND INFRASTRUCTURE HUB. Design of a new conncector link the future metro line and existing train and bus network. This new bike hub will provide a new entrance to the University by public transport and bike.

STRATEGY PLAN AREA JURUBATUBA AREA The right bank of Jurubatuba is characterized by being an industrial hub. It was the last area of Pinheiros of being urbanized, but the industries are leaving. There is a new planning needed for this area. We propose a water system to rethink this area from the river.

ZOOM IN. DESIGN STRATEGIES. The proposed waterscapes and connector will provide a guidelines for the future redevelopm of an area in decay.

History

Present

1st Phase

2st Phase

3rd Phase

Jurubatuba Area STRATEGY MAP. River as a collector of Urban Spaces. Shif of Paradigm. De-compressor nodes as a transition between open spaces and mobility system.

23 STRATEGY MAP.

4th Phase

TIME BASED STRATEGIES_taking into account the urban policies focused on improvement of public transport network

ZOOM INS - FRAME UNVERSITY CITY + JURUBATUBA AREA.

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UNRAVELLING WATER IN JAGUARE VALLEY Tributaries As Public Realm

Trinh Minh Thao, Dyah Ratna TIaralaksmi, Jacques Murama

Design strategies were based on the notion of landscape infrastructure applied to existing waterways. Strategies consist of adding benefits to existing infrastructures by rethinking ecological ways to approach storm water, reclamation of urban voids into expanded parklands as an approach towards ecological restoration and water conservation. Likewise, two sites were selected along Jaguaré river’s corridor. As one of the few corridors with green and urban voids, the valley still suffers from floods and diffuse pollution from its tributaries which collect households waste and storm water. The two sites have different characteristics and different interactions with existing infrastructures. Between the sites, interventions have differences in nature and sizes but with common logic of controlling pollution and storm water from neighborhoods and guide them until Jaguaré river. These strategies are used not only for one purpose but also the area is used to re-establish the lost relationship between water, people, infrastructure and urban landscape.

For both sites, mechanical and biological techniques are embedded within landscape infrastructures and build up a network of a treatment system made of filters, infiltrators, storages and evaporators with the purpose of controlling and purifying storm water runoff pollution collected. The entire system helps to reduce amount of water running into Jaguaré River and remediate people and landscape in the urban settings. The first site is an industrial zone with a decaying character. Beside its current floods and diffuse pollution, it presents threats for the future as it is currently being swarmed by real estate developments in form of gated community. The water strategy in this area is used not only to control water and pollution but also to guide future development of the area. The second site is an urban void around a creek occupied by informal settlement. It presents problems of floods and diffuse pollution as many of the households are built on top of a tributary discharging their waste water directly into the stream leading to Jaguaré River. The network of strategies are used to create an urban landscape infrastructure mediating people, existing infrastructure and water system.

JAGUARE RIVER VALLEY

CONNECTING URBAN VOID AND GREEN SPACES

SURFACE WATER FLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

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MANAGING FLOW OF THE STORM WATER FROM TRIBUTARIES

THE FORMATION OF TREATMENT NETWORK OR LINEAR PARK

FORMER HIGH RISK FAVELA AREA CHANGED INTO WETLAND PARK FOR FLOOD CONTROL AND MANAGING STORM WATER FLOW

SERIES OF WETLANDS AND BIO SWALES AS NEW DRAINAGE SYSTEM

FORMER FAVELA AREA RELOCATED TO NEW SOCIAL HOUSING AREA STORM WATER

27 SECTION

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INFRASTRUCTURAL LANDSCAPE

Promoting micromobility Multifunctional spaces

From lines to figures

Parul Jain, Joan Nyagwalla, Giovanna Pittalis, Ioannis Vorgias Stop Flow Previous Junctions: car based design

Junction 1: the landscape figure along the river structures the surrounding areas defining a sequence of multifunctional spaces

Junction 2: different paved patterns define circulation, squares and sidewalks

Access

Rain water retention system Linear retention along the roads and the landscape figure

The region was primarily accessed by Av. F. Morato until the river Pirajuçara was canalised and covered to give way to Av. Pirajuçara. The highway Rodovia R.Tavares that cuts through the steep topography of the area is a much recent addition that connects the city to the outskirts.

Landscape engineering Pirajuçara Canal

Tributaries and multifunctional ponds

Open up Pirajuçara River: re-establish a relationship with water

Interconnected ponds along the existing topography

Av. F. Morato: Intermodal hubs and public transport axis

Multifunctionality and Quality of the public realm

Parklets on Av. F. Morato

BUTANTÃ, Strategy diagrams

Funnel: increasing pedestrian space

Cul de sac: reducing car flows to Av. Pirajuçara

Cultural/retail activities

Butantã, the urban sub-prefecture that lies on the west bank of Pinheiros river is characterised by a“fork” shaped network of three parallel roads that connect this region to the radial network of mobility in the city. Although the eastern bank of the river has spaces like Largo da Batata that allow some breathing space in the congestion, Butantã lacks similar areas despite of having open spaces.

Green pockets

Equipped spaces

The connection of public transport through subway as of today, stops at the Butantã metro station, just at the west bank of Pinheiros River, and from here on the region is connected by buses interspersed between the edge of the city and the radial network of mobility towards the centre. Unlike the rest of the city, Butantã has a lot of open spaces, formed as a result of fragmentation of the tissues due to the network of roads, often inaccessible due to the steep topography.

The focus of the studio was to look at micro-mobility, and requalification of infrastructure from its current ‘singular’ and ‘linear’ identity to a more ‘multifunctional’ and ‘spatial’ figure that can restructure the area in terms of connectivity and accessibility at the human scale. The concept tries to dilute the strong figure of the fork, into a more defined spatial structure that serves ‘multiple functions” making use of the existing landscape and infrastructure. The idea was to allow Rodovia R.Tavares, to remain as a fast mobility corridor, while downgrading Av.Pirajuçara in terms of car mobility to allow a more pedestrian friendly space, allowing micro-mobility between the other two avenues. The concept also attempts at reopening the previously canalised Pirajuçara River and adding ecological systems along it for rain water retention and public facilities. Avenida F. Morato is seen as the future public transit line that gives new access to various other regions of the city, while envisaging intermodal hubs. With expansion of the subway reaching Taboão, and the monorail reaching Morumbi from the southern parts of the city, Butantã holds the potential of housing new and improvised versions of public spaces like Largo da Batata.

0 1Km 2Km

29 BUTANTÃ, Project map

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AV. PIRAJUÇARA Zoom 1 Avenida Pirajuçara_Sample 1 PARQUE PREVEDENCIA

AV. MIN. LAUDO FERREIRA DE CAMARGO

COMMERCIAL

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AVENIDA FRANCISCO MORATO

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1_The open Pirajucara River 2_Garden lined with mounds

Vila Sonia_Sample

3_Flower garden with multifunctional“pockets“ 4_Stone pitched terrace allowing access to retail

5_Transitional park 6_Consolidated retail

7_Skate park 8_Expansion for multifunctional space 1

Avenida Pirajuçara_Sections

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Vila Sonia

heberto

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irisbus

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del 2004 vigil julio heberto

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del 2004 vigil julio heberto

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del 2004 vigil julio heberto

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del 2004 vigil julio heberto

del 2004 vigil julio heberto

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del 2004 vigil julio heberto

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del 2004 vigil julio

del 2004 vigil julio

del 2004 vigil julio

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Road diversion giving room for the landscape to expand

Morumbi_Monorail, metro station, bus stop, square

31 MORUMBI and VILASONIA, intermodal hubs

Vila Sonia_Metro station, bus terminal, square, market, retail

Transitional park on the edge of the road giving access to the park

Terrace stone pitched river slope allowing contact to the water

AVENIDA PIRAJUÇARA. Design strategy

Skate park

Densification of the retail functions to allow more mixed functions Densification of the commercial functions along the road alowing for mixed use

Green spaces adjacent to the retail area allowing for diverse activities

Pedestrian footpaths through the green spaces

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Material mix to allow permeability and control surface runoff


RE-QUALIFY NG THE IN-BETWEENNESS

> 3 spatial configurations of the IN - BETWEENESS

The water as identity

in - between 01 Vulnerable areas * Change perception > Water as identiy

Costas Elvia, Custine Caroline, Zaman Ashraf ‘In the city, unpredictable social, economic and political dynamics interact with the permanent infrastructure to create indeterminate urban, in this regard, the attention to the space BETWEEN things is significant (...) a kind of loose scaffold that supports the adaptive ecology of urban life.’ (Ref. Allen, Stan. Mat-urbanism, 2001).

in - between 03

The floodplain: Industry

> 3 phases / priorities: Phase I : Areas in risk: urgent interventions. * Introduction of sewage in vulnerable areas Primary collection hub Secondary over flows Aquifer links Level control pipes Link to river stage

>

Drainage system.

PRODUCIDO POR UN PRODUCTO EDUCATIVO DE AUTODESK

The aim of the design is to move from a patch landscape of isolated islands to a network landscape. In this regard, it is important to understand that the place is a sum of natural processes, and that these processes constitute social values. We aim to take advantage of the geomorphological conditions of the place, to turn the current issues into potentials. Here is where the importance of the in-between sites emerges. In this highly dense areas, in which we cannot control the dynamics of the neoliberal city, the in-between spaces are the remaining spaces that have the potential to become a vector of transformation and identity. This in-between spaces remaining are always related to the river Pinheiros (tributaries, creeks, valley), or to flooding areas. As a consequence, the water is always the main element which characterizes this inbetween areas. Therefore we intend to integrate the quality of the water in the urban fabric. In sum, re-qualifying the inbetweenness through the water.

in - between 02 The valley

‘When we start to have more relation with the river we also start to have more relation among the people’ (Ferraz, Caio. Lecture in March 2016)

We defined a strategic map with three types of spatial configurations of the in-betweenness related to the topography: the most vulnerable areas, the valley and the floodplain. In this spatial configurations we defined a time based strategy guideline. This strategy defines the priorities for the future actions. The first priority refers to the most vulnerable areas. The first step would be to localize the settlements in risk which are spatially translated in two types of intervention: in the informal settlements, there is a social urgency of basic interventions (sewage, relocation and drainage). And in the more developed part of the city, it is about enabling efficient systems of rainfall water catchment in its way to the overbuilt floodplain, both strategies in relation with the water. The next priority is to restore and enhance the natural ecologies of the place, by protecting the natural creeks, creating green corridors, adding plants to restore the contaminated river and to create natural buffers against landslides. The last priority refers to encouraging new activities in the in-between spaces, so creating new dynamics in the previous ‘terrains vagues’.

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Recollection of rainfall water.

Phase II : enhancing the natural existing ecologies

* Reversing the image of the in-betweenness

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Recovering the ecology of the void

Phase III : activating public realm

* New activities in the common spaces.

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New dynamics. CSA + local market.

fig.06. In - betweenness in Campo Limpo.

33 STRATEGY

STRATEGY

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> 1st sample: local scale intervention.

´Campo Limpo´

> 1st sample: local scale intervention.

PRODUCIDO PRODUCIDO POR UN PRODUCTO POR UN PRODUCTO EDUCATIVO EDUCATIVO DE AUTODESK DE AUTODESK

fig.09 In - betweenness. image - section of Campo Limpo

> 2 sample: metropolitan scale intervention. > 2 sample: metropolitan scale intervention.

´Santo Amaro´

fig.10 New bus terminal - public square in Santo Amaro with the watercatchment tank for rainfall.

fig.11 Section 01 of the Ecoboulevard .

fig.12 Section 02 of the Ecoboulevard.

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In order to test the strategic plan, two sites were developed, one in Campo Limpo and one in Santo Amaro.

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Landscape Urbanism Studio Spring 2016 - São Paulo: requalifying infrastructure, redefining urbanism  

The spring 2016 Landscape Urbanism Studio investigate the juxtapositions of nature and infrastructure in the context of megacities developme...

Landscape Urbanism Studio Spring 2016 - São Paulo: requalifying infrastructure, redefining urbanism  

The spring 2016 Landscape Urbanism Studio investigate the juxtapositions of nature and infrastructure in the context of megacities developme...

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