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Know how to think Make others think And let others think

Idea Journalism Miguel PĂŠrez Gaudio


Miguel Argentino Pérez Gaudio • Professional Journalist (1957) • Specialized columnist. • Director of Radio and Television Programmes. • Director and Founder of “Aquí y Ahora” Magazine (1969- 1975). • Founder and Principal of the Journalism University College “Obispo Trejo y Sanabria” (1971- ) • Journalism Professor. • Creator of Critical Analysis Methods: Intercepting Module of Manipulations (IMM) and I See You Viewer and Advisor. • Director of Critical Formation Courses. • Founder and Director of Media, “Cura Brochero” Radio and Argentinean New Television. • Publications’ Author. • International Expert with the support of UNESCO. • Director of the First National Research about Health Issues Related to Substances Consumption; these results have not been published yet. • Campaign creative “Make All Human Rights Credible” (2000) for the National Ombudsman. • Director of Social Research “Work and Power for Cordoba” (2001)


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Idea Journalism


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Miguel PEREZ GAUDIO Idea Journalism Know how to think-Make others think-And let others think Edited by Journalism and Social Sciences University Foundation Cordoba, Argentina. Design: Juan P. Gaudio Style Correction: Maria Isabel Robles Copyright by Journalism and Social Sciences University Foundation Ituzaingo 249- 5000 Cordoba- Argentina Telephone- Fax (0351) 4230340/ 4247278 – email: espotys@arnet.com.ar No whole or part of this book may be reproduced by any means. Legal deposit made 11.723 SBN 950-19565 Original edition: 1976 New version 2001 Printed by Graphic Workshop Pugliese Siena Sarachaga 122- Cordoba


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Not ever has the world had as many means to communicate ideas as it has today, but never has the world lack ideas to communicate as it lacks today


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Mister/Ms Human Being Protagonist of news Whoever you are. Wherever you are This lines that introduce the “Idea Journalism”, recognize its pilgrimage to the anonymous and varied readers. You, whoever you are, have been chosen as an inspiration and as a key for “Idea Journalism”. It is our aim – almost an obsession- to reinstall Men in the center of social communication of information and the process of history. Miguel Perez Gaudio

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Silent and Silenced News

Watching carefully today’s men psychology is enough to realize that it is soaked in bitterness and skepticism. A moan, almost as a prophecy, lurks around the world to denounce a growth of inner human suffering along with the growth of the supremacy of material wealth and technology, and hunger of cultural and spiritual wealth. Misery, pain, disappointment, suffering seem to spread all around the world; instead of receding due to the peaceful joy that so many progress goods bring us. When we enter the third millennium of humanity, this is expressed in the paradigms of globalization. Changing time, time of change The changing time is characterized by “globalization�. There are many hidden contents and ambiguities in this word that deeply affect our way to interpret the life and the world.


Silent and Silenced News

PI Globalization affects every social aspect, from economy to politics, from religion to education. In this globalized world, there is not a fair balance between those who have it all and those who have little or nothing. We do not talk about “outcasts” anymore; there is a new category: the excluded without face, without voice, without name, without history… It is the world- market that tends to an only thought. Globalization also involves a concentration of media in a few hands; and the manipulation of people’s thoughts and criteria. This revealing synthesis, as gloomy anthropological, human and social news, involves mainly media moguls, referents, and leaders; both traditional ones and new ones. We can even say that they are trapped and demanded for answers: what is their responsibility for today’s man psychology? And, which engages particularly professional and academic journalism duty? Many answers and statements can be offered, but in the end and in relation with the truth, we can accept the blame for that “moan” that lurks around the world. That this responsibility is more hidden is dramatic and puzzling. This brings about pressure, struggle and uncontained neutrality in the use of social communication, and they extend as a restricted and unaccountable continuous agreement. The dizzy pace of history makes it hard for man to keep track of it, in the middle of a reality that is defined by an amused civilization. A civilization amused by the technological development and control; that

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8 contradicts itself because of the uncontrolled existential crisis, the manipulation and the fear of conflicts. In this reality, local and international media walk the paths of the sad and fleeting jingoism of sensory, spectacular or superficial effects. As regards journalism, it is conditioned to the terrible routine of senseless communication in order to keep or catch an audience. With the journalism skills for massive

Confrontations With the journalism skills for massive communication, such as attractive writing or lecturing, witty or synthesis capacity, along with graphic and audiovisual art and the new digital and multimedia techniques; we can harmonize and limit competitiveness to the density in information, to the sarcastic, deceitful or subtle, to its charming, catching or sensationalist presentation; leaving aside the required meaning in order to release pressure on today’s man, and to express higher contents. It is necessary to discover what is essential in this matter – convincing reasons- and be able to turn the tendencies and jingoistic limits into transcending, necessary, fascinating achievements, creatively unlimited. What has journalism achieved that can be considered as social and human science? Which are its great novelties, capable of being supported by principles, theories and methods?


Silent and Silenced News

PI Journalism that engages as a Science of Information can not only voice the human blackouts without lighting them up; communicate catastrophes and then abandon them; start changes that ignores; get into the anguish of porn without knowing how to break it down; cling to ultraconservatism, stretching out between stakes the history of humanity itself.

Challenges

Maybe it is about time, in this third millennium to look for other ways, to recreate with prestige, empowering the wealth of its endless resources and transmit them when using the media in order to get a main, competitive place worthy as a social science and to be service of humanity. This is the challenge for institutions that train professionals and thinkers. “Idea Journalism� wants to take the challenge from its school in this changing time and time of change.

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TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND

1

analysis- area - covering

2

documentation - objective

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method steps

FAMILIARIZING

INWARDNESS sense - objective

RETURN TO SOCIETY

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SUPPORTING THE NEWS

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MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

mean- genre – space length - sequence

MESSAGES TO SOCIETY inform – educate – guide make others think – promote

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JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

indicative shape data

RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect

People the same as artworks, when they are introduced for the first time, must be identified. “Idea Journalism” does it with a method that is defended as instrument, linking journalism, science, culture and promotion to the service of human beings, that we aspire to reinstall as the center of news and history, in its relation with social communication. The layout of this book is not controversial; however, confrontation with the facts of the matter and with other ideas about it is controversial.


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Journalism in Social Sciences

Sense A deep thought of Francis Bacon * suggests: “Among those who make a living out of knowledge there are some that, hearing only the experience, do not know other than collecting and gathering facts: they are the ants of science. Others, on the contrary, do not listen to other but reason, and build up systems with abstractions of the spirit; they are the spiders. The same as bees that collect pollen of flowers to elaborate it and transform it; real wisdom consults and enquires the cultural history and the experience; and then interprets and explains its facts in the light of principles and reasoning. It is precisely in the junction of these two elements and in the simultaneous application of experience and principles, where true science hope is.� The Media

Confrontations Inexcusably and in essence, Social Communication Media in all its context, characteristics and form of *Bacon, Francis. English philosopher, writer and politician. He knew how to give classic expression to those that would be human ideals in modern science: submission to reality for its best supremacy.


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Journalism in Social Sciences d News

insertion in the life of people, by its nature and manifestations, turn into instruments of service and public welfare. With this premise they must therefore establish their roles, duties and rights. They are Media: mere public instruments of professional mediation and not ends in themselves. The main aims – permanent and superior- are verified by the intelligence, quality and humanity of the service they compulsory provide to society. By natural and legal rights, society determines the aims. Instrumental media are the source. Service to society is the aim and objective of its works. They are Massive: social communications are offered publicly, and they give media its massive characteristic due to the unlimited potential range with which they are established within all society – local, national or international- without any chance of making distinctions of groups or people, classes or age, culture or quality. They specifically include radio and television broadcasters. Society receive their transmission at no charge or paying agreed fees; newspapers and magazines, agencies and other new technology or more recent means, as the internet. They are different from other means that, even serving the purpose of transmission, are dominated as selective on purpose, when they aim at an identified, specific and consciously determined public, or when they are announced with a clear and precise objective, tendency or ideology that is held by its owners or manipulators. They are of Communication: it is their mission to spread professionally all that is trusted to their mediation, by means of language and techniques in order to satisfy society’s needs and expectations for common welfare making social dialogue possible. They are Social: when communications are


Journalism in Social Sciences

PI eminently public and unlimitedly horizontal, they disregard the idea that aims and interests of owners – direct and indirect- and of operators are imposed to those of society. On the contrary, they must be conditioned to the main and permanent aims of society. This social relationship, demanded by the public and tutelary condition of communications, is both a right and duty that is respected and an opportunity that is defended. This is lost when the acknowledgment of that main social gravitation is omitted, or when an abuse is committed with impunity at the time social communication takes place.

Journalistic Leadership Within this context we must specify in a particular way, the mission trusted only to professional skill and journalism practice. In other words, to the processing of information in its different manifestations, formats and styles, whatever means this is done. There is an explicit examination that establishes and determines professional skill of journalism when handling information by Media, providing society with an implicitly contractual service that demands and gathers conditions, qualities and ways. For journalism to be able to inform, it has to be informed, defining two moments: search for and/or select information; and treat and transmit that info through its specific languages. Search and/or selection and transmission can not be reduced to unanimated, unconscious, superficial, routine or random tasks. On the contrary, information represents an intellectual, moral and spiritual support, necessary for every man’s development in society. It allows society to update about the events that reverts to its own and from it to the community’s public opinion – society.

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This journalistic responsibility- professional role, opportunity gift and use of means- can not be reduced and limited to a secondary participation. For example, gather, repeat and broadcast information only linked by syntax, but fragmenting and disregarding its informative substantial qualities: truthfulness, objectivity and validity. This implies framing journalism in something more than a stagnated style that turns monotonous, systematic and dangerous; limiting the role of information to the application of a basic frame that responds to what happened, when, how, where or who, without getting ethically and culturally involved. “Idea Journalism” questions this tendency. Actually, any person with a little training – whether being journalist or not- is able to report news, bringing into line the classic questionnaire mentioned above. This observation warns that giving data or linking data syntactically as information is not performing the contemporary role that engages professional journalists. Journalism, being the only professionalized resort to validate and enhance information by the Media, is the one that has to select and give it the treatment to make us think, covering one of the most relevant layers in the process of society and in men’s lives. If information comes from the summary of journalistic methodological technique, the objective vision of events and the subjective gravitation inherent to human behavior, with all its influential manifestations increased by the constant penetration of media, its worth recognizing them as intellectual, moral and spiritual component of people’s lives, therefore of society: they shape the updating budget and humanity’s criteria.


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Reference Investigations

To formulate “Idea Journalism”, it was necessary to investigate hard and fairly journalistic behavior along these latest years, using methods of logical test and common sense. Two configurations arose: “system” and “anonymous”. I. Why “SYSTEM * journalism” a) Because its most systematic productions suffer from severe methodological deficiencies as regards the way they select, treat, make and present the news. Sustaining this in a stable and constant way, it turns into a one sense only and dominating vertical “system”. b) These tendencies are present in very varied Media, according to conceptual levels and political tendencies and behaviors. c) This allows us to infer that in the classes and structures of professional journalists’ formation, the similar tendency validates dominating “systems” and validates methods or practices for the treatment, making and presentation of news. Or it goes with theories, which are not based on *System: is an organization that includes all relevant moments, in a way that all those moments together determine mutually and constitute a whole.


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operative transferences, and turn them into inflationary theories. c) Consequently, in professional production, ancient guidelines outlast, without great variations except for rhetorical variations that affect technical vocabulary with new substituting or clarifying roles terminologies, which do not modify it. e) At the same time, binding corporations such as international organizations of consensus do not offer determining changes, except for political speeches. An evidence of this is what is seen when we deeply analyze national policies of social communications or corporative perspectives or binding organisms’ reports and at the same time their own inefficiency. f) The overview presented by professional journalists’ organizations and media moguls is not different. They do not outstand as updated and transforming vanguards for scientific, methodological and deontological projects, since they only proceed on the basis of their corporative interests.

II. Why “ANONYMOUS* journalism” In analyzed journalistic productions, journalists are forced – and at the same time they accept it like that- to do a routine job that hides its eminently professional character and unconsciously they neglect their productions under protection of anonym and impunity. This way they mutilate the huge potential that as responsible authors and creators would allow them treat, make and finally present the news. Sample, verification and analysis give many guidelines and references, some permanent other innovative that make us confirm and establish that:

*Anonymous: everyone and anyone.


Journalism in Social Sciences

PI 1°) Journalism by culture, habit and necessity, is irreplaceable in the democratic life of society, but at the same time, as new techniques are incorporated to their material resources of infrastructure, means and technologies, it becomes more encircling and its influence more conditioning of society’s habits and culture. 2°) If it reaches a greater level of penetration, it has to respond to that with a more engaged level of responsibility. There must be present the new conditions that ensure simultaneity between media progress and technological excitement, and quality progress of that is broadcasted; in this case, the news. However, from the journalistic behavior analyzed arouse contradictions: a) Universal society is shaken by a greater amount of news, among the increasing broadcasting and reception possibilities, but there is less responsibility in its selection and qualitative treatment; b) Inadequacy of the professional staff that has to manage information – in a lower amount of that required by a greater broadcasting and reception- and their not always updated training – rather individualistic – diminish the importance, complicate and spoil the quality of news treatment; with this the problem worsen. From this diagnoses “Idea Journalism” states for professional discipline the following principles: • • • •

Journalism universality Responsible objectivity Restoring of man as the center of information Journalism profession and social science.

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Principles of Idea Journalism

Universality Human family, intrinsically universal, needs more that ever before of communication towards the strengthening of peoples’ interrelation. This depends mainly on media. When its admirable technical resources – image and sound communication satellites, increasing number of teletype, telex, mobile phone, fax, photo-teletype lines, computing network- connect with the massive broadcasting platforms, which are the local, national and international media, formulate, in joint effort, a great opening to all men that are assisted by television, radio, newspaper and Internet communications. Those who make possible all dynamic for that communication of universal cohabitation are called addressors or social communicators. They, in one way or another, transmit culture and shorten distances between the most diverse communities. Due to this determining function, their professions must be recognized as the main right-duty and universal service.


Principles of Idea Journalism

PI In the case of journalism, being in fact a local service in every place that it is practiced; by its role, it is open to all humanity and even obliged for the globalization gravitation and the new technologies that feed back and determine news’ universality. There are no doubts now that technological progress has solved the extension and immediate traffic of news. What must be cared for almost simultaneously is to resolve what to do with so much information; taking care of its qualities to avoid distortions, inequality, and that globalization turned into ideology and system of power for human thought manipulation. Actually, it is not appropriate to say that this has been achieved yet, but we are on that direction. News has reached greater irradiation and penetration due to technological conquests, but new questions arouse: Are they mere rhetorical products to make easier and more effective the quantitative business of news? Is it about improving life quality, or is technology used just to condition it, misleading public opinion more easily? Is it just a technological evolution that turns out of control because is not accompanied by a dynamic in news quality? The universality sense, therefore, make us verify and even denounce partiality of technological-quantity progresses without ethic-cultural simultaneity in all their manifestations. It is appropriate then to ask: irradiate more, what for? Therefore, the sense of universality in journalism consists in being aware of the great opening to all men in the universe through the techniques, and incorporate selection and quality criteria that justify this universality when making news.

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Principles of Idea Journalism

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Responsible Objectivity Recognizing and establishing journalism as a profession for universal service, it must validate through responsible objectivity to practice the right to manage news and comply with the duty to do it with truth, validity and credibility. Responsible objectivity is sustained with objective truth, appreciated with critical distance, according to the rules of logic, of principles and social experience, with methodological and methodic supports. Idea Journalism proposes them. Making news ideological, forces objectivity; when events, context and processes’ selection and treatment are manipulated, subduing them to political, economic, cultural interests.

Restoring Man in the center of information News in the journalistic process cannot do other than assisting man and society, always that we understand assisting as an objective and industrious search for the truth. There are some that wrongly sustain that we have to give people what they want in order to please them, even acknowledging that we are not giving always the best; but treating them as objects. Who can seriously determine what people want? Is not it more important to know them and discover what is really useful and necessary for them? In the case of news, only the truth is supreme. Every arrangement or instrumentation of truth to distort it, or every omission on purpose is a direct aggression to man’s freedom and dignity. This worsens when media is used for this. Media reaches a huge, heterogeneous and anonymous audience. In a small circle of people, the effect of a piece


Principles of Idea Journalism

PI of news that is given deliberately or unconsciously distorted can be corrected because communication is direct and under control. But through Mass Media, the effect is unpredictable. The belief about who are the truth and news real owners is frequently incorrect. Media owners or operators may believe that practicing the power of managing information gives rights to them, but never the right to appropriation of the truth. The truth does not become private through social mediation. The rightful owner of information, with exclusive and excluding rights, is every man, all men and every man that constitute humanity. That is why is appropriate, for the common welfare, to preserve that social right, fragile and unclearly settled in Human Rights and Constitutions. In the universe – even though unfortunately is still the same in theory- it is said and recognized that the truth must be guaranteed to public opinion, society and men. It cannot be understood or practiced in another way, since information –as it is being sustained in this proposal- is an intellectual, moral and spiritual support, essential for men’s life. And in the same way nobody can encourage genocide, by any means, as regards men’s physical integrity –human history verdict-, we cannot pretend intellectual, moral and spiritual genocide either, whatever refined ways to try this against humanity. News, being a vital intellectual support, cannot be altered in their basic principles and even in their shapes. It is not news, freedom of speech or truth that are finally violated, but it is men’s integrity that is at risk; that as they cannot grow biologically healthy with contaminated materials, or preserve and lengthen their healthy lives with adulterated medicines, they cannot grow with news – intellectual support-

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Principles of Idea Journalism d News

that are contaminated by manipulation or wrong treatment of them. That is also corruption. Any of these figures represent – especially when they represent systems or campaignssubmission of men: they condition, excite, degrade and subdue him to seductive forms, more and more subtle and more and more irradiated and penetrating. “Idea Journalism” –as seen later in theory and methods- proposes restoring man in the core of information, as a supreme subject, authentically worthy of being served and promoted for the truth. Man who is cause, basis and aim of all social organization, must be in plenitude of all his rights, the only reference factor in the processing of information. For a simple and irrefutable reason: because he is a human being and not a profane consumer behind every radio or television receptor, behind every newspaper or magazine page, or behind every web page as digital journalistic mediation.

Journalism profession and social science The three proposed and distinguished values, namely: journalism universality, responsible objectivity and the urge to restore man, in his sublime dignity, to the core of news; imply reconsidering professional journalism in its principles and central role. This process has to be backed up by theories and methods. The reflection of complying with the universal approach of information demands understanding and positioning journalism as a professional and universal activity, and insert


Principles of Idea Journalism

PI journalists capable to do so. This is also useful to require and ensure cultural interception achievements in such process. In order to have easy and clear rules for universal communication, this must be unquestionably guaranteed by responsible objectivity and subjectivity; by the honesty and richness of the treatment; reasonable criteria for selection and promotion of news. Restore man in the center of news with all his qualities, freedom and dignity as a human being and with identical possibilities in face of media that has to serve him substantially, promotes his consideration as vital subject and corrects the distortions that limit him as a mere news consumer. It is only this way that the addresser acquires relevance in every professional instance of communication. This way, the one that conditions the rules is the addressee, accepted in all his majesty as human being, irreplaceable main factor of Media, consequently, the rules of the “system” must subordinate to him and not the other way round. “Idea Journalism” proposes to revise behaviors, ensuring the inalienable principles of man and society, and that demand a “counter-system” with methods. It is pertinent to accept that news universality is not so only for its traffic through the most advanced technical media, but because it is based on human, social and intellectual principles. All this takes to a change in cultural reasoning, formation and institutionalization of professional journalist. Public information by Massive Media and supreme service to humanity must combine through a prestigious professional discipline that ensures character in the treatment of news and ethics over its moral sense. A new professional discipline that demands a

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Principles of Idea Journalism d News

strong and engaged training, this guarantee must be offered since the superior level of learning. Discipline journalism in its preparatory and functional instances within a humanist and universal framework of our time leads to its characterization as a social science. What is science but a search for theories and methodologies? What is journalism but searching and finding truth, with strong theories and methodologies to communicate it as information? Framing journalism as a social science, it is conceived as part of human and social sciences. In this way it has to launch in the search for new reliable requirements to satisfy, with the greatest professional capacity, the demands of validity required by social communication and with this credibility, universality and responsible objectivity for the superior service of humanity. The reasons for this adaptation emerge as natural and logical demand of contemporary challenges and from the close relationship of journalism with the accelerated benefits of other sciences and technologies, which impose the dynamic of social communications. We have to favor and find the ways for a mentality and discipline that modifies old concepts and that helps to adapt to cultural changes of society. The advances of sciences are greater and greater. Journalism can not be outdated or it will remain just as a “run, go and tell� activity. Consequently, journalism is called to a methodic discipline to improve human knowledge that nourishes from what is shown in the media, they are more and more involving, penetrating and determining. But, let other know, demands knowing what to do and how to do it, in a methodological and convincing way, with hierarchy and stability, avoiding or preventing the risks of


Principles of Idea Journalism

PI improvisations. This is placed as a demand for the human family to elevate to the sublime concepts of truth, kindness, justice, dignity as universal requirements, distinguishing that human spirit that grows by the revelation and living of truth, at the same time explains and orientates why man starts feeling less objects-dependant and more served by them. The truth cared as the essence for the informative and in cultural function, excites the minds to a deeper and more careful intelligence. Universality of the profession, its prestige, its discipline, are constituted in authorized way of relation between men, enlightening their miseries and joys, their deficiencies and abilities, projecting them towards a better future. But such aspirations cannot be elucidated and applied only with scattered intentions or for individualistic qualities. They must be carried and admitted as a sort of normative school in each mean of communication, in each community, in universal society; therefore in the practice of journalism. It is a hard way due to its sacrifices, but the only one capable of precisely characterizing the real role of social communication in the process of information. This process is born in the man, grows, and if it is elevated to a superior category in its content and treatment, it returns to society to serve it, providing intellectual support to improve human being and knowledge. This circuit is the one that turns the simple treatment of information into responsible making, which in “Idea Journalism� is summarized these premises facilitated in its methodologies: know how to think, make others think and let them think. This is what we call the message-information.

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“Idea Journalism” proposes: • To consider information not as a rhetoric service of gathered words, sounds and images, but as a service of messages that are elaborated with the contribution of news, facts, opinions, as intellectual, moral and spiritual support for people’s lives. • The treatment that messageinformation should receive must be consequence of a harmonic professional training, with the support of sufficient, progressive and ethicallysocial scientific methods to ensure the thought vitality ,and the universal and social responsibility of the media.

The transformation we propose cannot only be oriented to recognizing the addressees of communication –the audience- but also praise professional addressors: the journalists. Consequently, “Idea Journalism” promotes authorial and autonomous professionalism, which implies for every journalist to take responsibility of information in its treatment, to grow as a thinker and to give himself as a creator. It is the journalist himself who will be vindicated as a person, practicing all his faculties, freeing from anonym that for its vices has made possible to systematize impunity in the wrong process of information. This way “Idea Journalism” justifies itself as a search for man, finds addressors and addressees again. And the state of Autonomy is incorporated, vouched for society through the certificate and training promoted and guaranteed by superior studies, in order not to be dependant on a


Principles of Idea Journalism

PI uniformed and only informing system, but capable of making autonomous, active, creative and profitable journalistic productions of selfmanagement and of offer to a globalized and multimedia market, but in this case to make it more human.

Self-management and Multimedia Journalism As an answer to contemporary challenges, our school has incorporated to professional training, knowledge, skills and abilities that allow journalists multifunctional roles and multimedia resolutions in the processes of preproduction, production and postproduction. In accordance with the particular dimension in which “Idea Journalism” is given to professionals, they will be able to manage with his own methodology in independent developments and systematically recreate his authorial charisma. It is this way, because he does not alienate his creative talent to the Media with which he might have dependency relations –limited but not absolute-. If he is not in those conditions, he is restrained as professional. He can and should continue producing pieces of social communication such as those allowed by a creative and recreated journalism of research, protocol, abstracts, reports, documentaries, essays –invigorating his professional role and conditions-. These are useful not only for their specific growth but also to be offered to editorials or audiovisual companies that are interested in broadcasting. It is the selfmanagement and multimedia journalism for the modern market. There are many Media that outsource a big part of their special productions now, and there are many proposals through internet. “Idea Journalism”, rescuing a new weighing order in social communication, wants to

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highlight the journalist as a professional, permanent manager and leader of information, a continuous promoter of ideas and journalistic productions. A panorama is pretended to be widen with this, and at the same time to provide and answer to skepticism that usually invades many professionals, graduate and undergraduate university students. Universal reality shows how great works were made by professionals of different activities, who without the support of structures that made them independent, were able to establish formidable contributions for human welfare. This made them deserve their geniality and intellectual ownership.


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Theory and Methodology

Information supposes as generality “action of communication”, in “Idea Journalism” it is particularized with some kind of property, because its contents are activated through the use of Mass Media. Media are those instruments for public broadcasting that make use of social interest information and must use them to keep social dialogue and discussion between addressors and addressees. The most common ones are radio and television broadcasters, sound and audiovisual broadcasting, newspapers and magazines, graphic broadcasting; news agencies, even though their news services reach the audience indirectly through media that provides direct service to all society and every other mean and format developed and used with new technologies and with that purpose, as web pages, internet, and other technological networks. The varied ways of presenting news –in any instance or form of development-, is reflected according to the broadcasting Mean and the style


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Theory and Methodology d News

used. Whatever the genre or journalistic characteristic applied, and the way or reason for its insertion in mass media, it is all information. For “Idea Journalism”, information does not only consists of news and journalistic service, but by the nature and function of Mass Media, it encompasses any broadcasting carried out by these means as a tutelary good*. In the journalistic spaces only, they acquire definite shapes, depending on whether they are daily news and topics, the aspects that society cares about. In the case they are not journalistic, but channeled as broadcasting through mass media, they require particular and very distinctive qualifications, avoiding confusions. This is the case of commercial information (direct or institutional publicity) or ideological information (propaganda). Publicity and propaganda cannot be handled with privileged rules. As these rules are now, they certainly oppose to the superior aim appointed in the principles of this book. These distinctions in “Idea Journalism”, as regards all “communicative action”, signal interest, not only for informing itself but because they take into account the reasons for informing and the social and democratic effects that are aimed at when doing so. Summing up, it is considered journalistically professional, which preponderant in this theory, all that is constituted formally and effectively in the process of Social Communication for it most structured manifestations and of multimedia and alternative broadcasting (radio, TV, press, internet, etc.). That is to say: *UNESCO definition “One world, multiple voices”


Theory and Methodology

PI • • • • • •

News Articles Column Comments Interviews Editorials

In “Idea Journalism”, Theory and Methodology explain the process of making informationmessage. It consists of seven steps as a referential and potential structure: 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7°

Society – Trend Familiarization Inwardness Return to society, news sustenance Message to society – Information pedagogy Journalistic discourse in news- Message Result control

Information – Message Information – our subject matter- is not limited as “communicative action”, but it is important to care about the cause and effect of information, applying a method in accordance with the essential aims of this proposal. Information- message demands a main role that cares for, guides and elaborates it. It is this active participation the one that enables the journalist or communicator in his entire dimension as a responsible and creditable professional. Moreover, the quality of message is the demand for every piece of news that by its content allows it, to carry a necessary and practical formulation, capable of constituting a proposal for man in society, not by doing a simple listing of events and circumstances merely routinely. It is called “information-message” because this

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Theory and Methodology d News

way it structures the association of the described event or the gathered opinion, with the vital contribution, the creation, that reflects what benefits man and society. The message is as an act of deep reflection that preserves life quality as a constant, implementing the articulation of these key premises in Idea Journalism: Know How to Think, Make Others Think, and Let Them Think: • Vouching for their validity and credibility • Précising information due to lack of components • Clarifying the focus and sense of information when proving its negativity for man and/or society’s welfare. • Highlighting information when for its strength is determining in man and/or society’s promotion. • Incorporating necessary and practical ideas as proposals that may also require for experts, as regards the information or topic. • Developing a pedagogic action In order to comply with these and other complementary requirements, it is necessary to explain and contextualize information-message with unity sense. It has been said that professional, active, thinking, and creative main role is the generator. Any information becomes useless or spoiled as message if journalistic management only facilitates knowledge about an event, opinion, document, etc, according to whether the text was produced or prepared by third parties outside the media, or journalists just repeat or fragment it when broadcasting, without any substantial treatment and selection, except for adapting its syntax and elementary journalistic forms. To avoid giving thinking and creative qualities to information is insisting on simplifying the professional’s role to a simple, elementary


Theory and Methodology

PI reproducer. It is overriding his responsibility, neglecting to take it and forgetting what society has passed to him, for him to care for the information to be something more than just a collection of written or sound words or images, which are unlinked, confusing or socially useless. For the information to acquire sense, it must reflect and give a better future for man, as a constant. Information-message, due to the journalist’s valuable contribution, starts being the center and core of a complex but exciting effort to be useful, in each case, in favor of man’s superior welfare, counteracting the evil generated by human miseries. The vitality in this task –in which information technology is incorporatedcannot be effectively applied with “electronic brains”. These allow accelerating and endlessly reproducing a great number of pieces of information –provision of allusive documents, composition or broadcasting-, but we would never go any further of getting information. For this to be a message, professional participation is irreplaceable.

Autonomous and authorial That professional participation that elaborates, cares, and guides information, and that also takes moral and social responsibility for it; confirms and habilitates in “Idea Journalism” the authorial quality that distinguishes and is given to every journalist, preserving: - Professional freedom - Knowledge demand - Methodic and methodological behaviors Not because the journalist necessarily has to identify in every one of his professional acts before public opinion, but as a direct consequence that every one of those acts is a personal work, which does not pretend an

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unnecessary appearance, a vain nomination. It is because it has assumed its responsible, professional, vital, creative participation in the information process. We have stressed the recreation of the profession, pointing at self-management, as an independent alternative.

Referential method Having outlined these explanations, we will explain now every one of the spaces that compose the elaboration method for information-message that does not have any intention of bureaucratizing the journalistic job. The essential is that with this, it is established and stabled that all journalism is research journalism, because it supposes professional management if it is carried with methodological support and in a methodological way.


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Methodological Process THINKER I

What is a method? Philosophically, it means “Order in sciences for investigating and teaching the truth; it is in two ways: analytical and comprised”. Analytical: “The one that decomposes everything in its constituting parts and studies every one of them separately, to get to know its principles or elements, going from particular cases to general truths that encompass them.” Comprised: “The one that goes from general truths to conclude in the deduction of particular cases encompassed in them.” Methodology: Science about the method. “Group of rules that must be followed when studying a science.”*

Topic We call Topic to every matter of social, local, regional, national or international interest, which arises and/or is proposed for journalistic mediation to be broadcasted in Mass Media. It is of professional character when it is originated by journalistic management, or when *Universal Encyclopedia. Sciences Encyclopedia.


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Methodological Process d News

it arrives by cable or news agency service, that gives it for granted. It is not professional, when is given with interest by institutions –private or public- of social organization; or spontaneously by experts or particular people –contacts, spontaneous coworkers, etc- or when it means the expression of popular murmur (gossip, version), that being interesting and useful for society, demands professional interception to acquire category and social relevance.

steps TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND

1

analysis- area - covering

2

documentation - objective

3

FAMILIARIZING

INWARDNESS sense - objective

RETURN TO SOCIETY

4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

mean- genre – space length - sequence

MESSAGES TO SOCIETY inform – educate – guide make others think – promote

6 7

JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

indicative shape data

RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect


Methodological Process

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Primary facts

37

Every Topic requires a minimum of primary facts or components: what happened; how; when; where; who; and any other reference. With this the origin of the Topic can be distinguished: formal language, facts, case, emergent; and the character that geographically locates it: local, regional, provincial, national, international.

Development of Idea Journalism TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

Vital Professional Participation

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM

1

SOCIETY- TREND analysis- area - covering

The journalist’s role in the process FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objective of information-message, with the INWARDNESS distinguishing mark of the 3 sense - objective authorial, introduces the RETURN TO SOCIETY professional involved in a vital 4 mean- genre – space length - sequence participation in its elaboration, to MESSAGES TO SOCIETY treat information with efficacy, 5 inform – educate – guide aware of the value this has in make others think – promote society. JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES This professional projection 6 indicative shape data acquires the vital sign, because it RESULT CONTROL 7 must nourish from principles, foreseeable course and effect knowledge and life experience; replacing all improvised and impersonal tendency. The orientation that the object of social communication has in order to ensure quality and common welfare depends on this vital participation. Society - Trend SUPPORTING THE NEWS

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE


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Society - Trend

TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND

1

analysis- area - covering

2

documentation - objective

3

FAMILIARIZING

INWARDNESS sense - objective

RETURN TO SOCIETY

4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

mean- genre – space length - sequence

MESSAGES TO SOCIETY inform – educate – guide make others think – promote

6 7

JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

indicative shape data

RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect

This first step proposes locating the topic within the social context in which it is produced and from which it is projected. Every Topic is local when it belongs to a field of concrete geographic origin. But to the media it is interesting for; it might be local, regional, national or international according to its origin and projection. It is correct to make this observation for making possible that the Topic receives a treatment according to surrounding reality, at the time it

is produced, and to avoid that, by any reason that ignores such references, the treatment could be inappropriate or confusing. It results obvious that the journalist professionally trained, must know the better possible universal society reality in its main manifestations and problematic. More particularly, the one from his country and region of influence of his activity or of coverage of the Mean he works for. No Topic can be placed before the superior interest of society. Determining the effect that public broadcasting of a Topic may cause, as the methodological treatment it must be given, is the professional mission of journalism. It is the journalist who has to know it in order to decide. This dilemma finds solid answers only when the knowledge of society in its trends, context, expectations, requirements, and emergencies is known or even better when it is dominated. As it is clear, the journalist that is interested in his profession and is aware of his responsibility in public broadcasting of human events cannot


Methodological Process

PI avoid being updated about man and society’s problems. To strengthen his knowledge in such wide respect, he must resort in a routine and disciplined way to whichever mean allows him to be informed about such complex and even unpredictable topics. The logic of a topic will be considered solved when the problematic and joint trend of the surrounding society has been taken into account. The answer will be easy, as far as the professional journalist or the professional group in charge of a topic has some cultural basis and keeps updated about the process of humanity, summarized by events, values, opinions. Even though reality provides its evidence, or sometimes they are the result of valuable preexisting analysis works, in the way the idea of journalism with methodological basis advances, new explanations can be encountered. They will update legitimate parameters about the trend of humanity and of every social society, in a serious and continuous way – above all without ideologies-. Journalism has spoiled its efforts many times – except for on purpose intentions- when it did not know how to solve the Topic-ContextSociety assembly, caused by the ignorance of the controversial and complex reality. In this first step we have the spaces dedicated to Analysis, Area and Covering of the Topic.

Interception analysis Analysis virtually puts to test the entire professional’s potentiality. It is the time when methodology, knowledge and logic combine to support decisions about the Topic as eventprocess. It is at this point that every Topic must be framed by its intrinsic characteristics, qualities and social importance and as regards its categories to get a place in social

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communication. These are questions that demand a core decomposition and exploration. It is a kind of social challenge to cultural and technical capacity, to ethics and responsibility, and above all, to maturity and vitality of thought of professional journalists. The Topic is analyzed with the gathered components and conditions and according to the service it will provide to man and society. As regards the first point, it is clear about its minimal informative strengths and weaknesses to justify its development. Its real importance, urgency, and interest for society and its trend will be determined in its qualities. The moment of analysis is important, crucial and key point, because it is when the professional decides whether the Topic has to be feasible and installed as public information, or disregarded; whether it is of immediate inclusion in broadcasting or it must be kept until its verification and greater treatment. And so on and so forth, successive alternatives. These resolutions are virtually a privilege in the process of Topic treatment, because the only witnesses are the professionals that have the internal responsibility in the Media. Errors of Analysis can encompass: hiding the truth, censorship, exclusion, desecration or mutilation of the truth; promotion of untruth news, neglect a truth, etc. These risks are taken when choosing to promote or disregard information, or when its treatment is partial or exaggerated. “Idea Journalism� rescues every professional as a responsible in these stages of methodological development of Analysis, allowing the writing body of each mean to participate, according to the form of working and organization. This is done not only to recognize that there is a hierarchical structure constituted in every Media but to propose teamwork with a


Methodological Process

PI cooperative sense – and every time it is possible- before the great social responsibility in the management of topics that become public and tutorial information.

Area In all the topics – without exceptions- there is a formal range of origin and direct or indirect reference, explicit or implicit from which it has arouse or started. In a direct way when the source is mentioned. In an indirect way, when it is about an event and when it is implicitly deducted, or when the source is anonymous and must be intercepted, deduced or confirmed. The one who has to make the effort to shape the area is the Professional in journalism that cannot be content only with what might be explicit or implicit in the proposal or event. To precise the area of a topic helps journalism to investigate the causes and order what will be the unfolding of such topic, in the process of treatment as information, and at the same time, to find the protagonists involved, which possibly will be able to feed it back through facts, interviews, documents and reasoning.

topic

area

covering

Covering Whereas the Area is the space reserved to shape the starting range of a Topic, Covering encompasses the comprising segment of movement of that, concrete or possible. It is located or uncovered here, by reasoning and deduction, to which in society the Topic will interest or affect, and its possible broadcasting when it is promoted to public information. For example: if the Topic is originated in a

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State organization – a resolution in taxes or wages, for instance- the professional in journalism is the one that, disregarding that he knows about the topic and the society, should point who are directly or indirectly, explicitly or implicitly implicated in such Topic – wage earners, unions, businessman, taxpayers, etcthrough the social structure. This way, it is determined the logical and possible circuit that tackling suggests, when moving to society. In the space of Covering is proposed, besides solving where to get the references and the concurrent repercussions to complement the journalistic management, to give a real place to the Topic in society and that society participates. This way, it stops being only the consumer of information by the Media, it allows to widen treatment resources balancing the possibilities for everyone, making contributions, giving opinions, supporting, criticizing, giving it legitimate belonging. The division in Area and Covering, done in this step, is used to order ideas about social organization, facilitating the location of the stage and the protagonists involved in the topics, and it makes journalists think about the ones implicated and about the implications of each Topic in society. Finally, if the Topic is installed as anonymous, version or gossip that justifies the potentiality for taking public state, it demands to be dimensioned in the covering due to its social impact.

topic

analysis

area

covering


Methodological Process

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Familiarizing In the second methodological step, accurate and dynamic researches are carried out to deepen the Topic. Familiarizing is a joint and/or historic documentation, evidential of each Topic, and every fact or opinion taken from the experts, representative and knowledgeable people that can support it.

TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND

1

analysis- area - covering

2

documentation - objective

3

FAMILIARIZING

INWARDNESS sense - objective

RETURN TO SOCIETY

4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

mean- genre – space length - sequence

MESSAGES TO SOCIETY

Documentation

inform – educate – guide make others think – promote

JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES

6 As a documental and bibliographic indicative shape data source, documentation helps as RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effect illustrative support for a serious treatment of any Topic. Its characteristics are many. They can be documents, bibliographies, recordings, interviews, field investigations, statistics, photographs, videos, etc. It can be given to each Media along with the topic proposal, or otherwise, it must be collected or looked for in the appropriate places: public or private libraries, newspaper libraries, and video libraries, Media and institutions archives, informatics’ memory, internet, etc. It will depend on the Topic. The truth is, that when historic-joint documentation as documentation is looked for, besides imposing in journalism the trend that links problematic and culture in the process of information, it is not done other than link and accept that every present has a history; a concurrent or compared explanation, references, studies, statistics, cues and expressions, probably recorded and valid. To admit certain Topics – that demand documentationisolating them from IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE


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Methodological Process d News

antecedents, do not effort to get them, or omitting facts and experiences that can satisfy any documentation, is wasting the chance for enriching the cultural-informative task of Media and disregard methodological requirements.

Experts The word Expert is used to individualize all those people that can provide testimonial facts or justified opinions for the treatment of Topics. The meaning of Expert is applied to any person that has witnessed an event, or that is related to its origin or consequences, and to every qualified person to provide authorized opinion about the Topic. Those who have responsibility in society about the Topics can be included in this category. Summing up, the protagonists, specialists, or people inherent to a piece of information to balance it in objective responsibility comprise Experts. They are necessary to extend facts about the information and the journalist’s cultural universe. To assure it and make contributions, giving permanent and systematic place to society’s participation in the process of social communications and making truth fruitful, through the possibility of participation and equality by the contest of different opinions. The opinions taken from the Experts could be used in different way in the treatment of a Topic, whether it is by transmitting those opinions as part of the information or making use of them to justify the news treatment.


Methodological Process

PI

Inwardness Inwardness demands the greatest professional, humanist, intellectual, moral and cultural effort to enhance and recreate the Topic-Information with a sense and objective. It is a challenge for the journalist in his discipline and knowledge of methodology and for his essence as a creative being, capable of knowing how to think and that way legitimate the merit and opportunity that he was given to make and let think.

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TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND

1

analysis- area - covering

2

documentation - objective

3

FAMILIARIZING

INWARDNESS sense - objective

RETURN TO SOCIETY

4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

mean- genre – space length - sequence

MESSAGES TO SOCIETY inform – educate – guide make others think – promote

6

The continuum of treatment faces the 7 Topic with the one that will be its real cultural author, decided to turn it into information-message. Up to now it was enough to apply technical knowledge and experience with vital participation, organizing the context for the Topic –its previous expansion and prospective-, this is the moment to define its aim, depth and human benefit. Only this way it will be possible to make it live among the rest when it is broadcasted. Being able to internalize a Topic that is already in information process will demand a cultural engagement with priorities, basis and effectiveness. Inwardness should care not only of the truth of the information, but also make it effective and useful with responsible objectivity and subjectivity. The layer of subjectivities – for its depth and even mystery- does not have a regulating method for its absolute determination, but it has values that protect its best intentions. It is important to point out that in social communication, the journalist must place in it, retraining his impulses, interests or purely

JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

indicative shape data

RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect


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personal concepts, prejudice or ideologies in order to make his professional responsibility prevail and coincide with a kind of social subjectivity that arises from society with lasting and valid values of what is natural in collective consciousness and culture. The ideological subjectivity of the journalist will never come before to condition or subdue society. Inwardness goes beyond. It is its mission to point and suggest necessary transformations for the man and the community, defining the Objective of every information-message. An inevitable consequence of the potential effect desired by means of this, for Common Welfare. It is spontaneously present when the positive and transcendental of human events is excelled, and when the negative and degrading in them is discouraged and fought. However, it may grow in a more effective way, when adding ideas and concrete projects that are shown in the aim-objective that the journalist will propose and support with the sense he will give to every piece of information. This comes from the contributions that have been achieved in that enterprising search in each one of his managements. To sum up, internalize is like diving into each Topic decided as information, to understand it and precise it in its social aim. This way information acquires the vitality transmitted by the journalist that cares for it, which familiarizes it and integrates as his own, and turns it into experience and superior cause. That way a piece of news with an aim and basis is ready to be launched to massive communication, for its solidity and truth and attracting for its newly precision, at the mercy of the Sense and Objective that the authorial journalist claims and resolves: “To teach the human condition…” and “to learn the job of living…”* *Edgar Morin


Methodological Process

Sense Sense is the reason with which informationmessage is elaborated. It is the cause of its finality from anthropologic, philosophic, cultural, moral and religious perspectives. To simplify it: the deeply human. Sense is stable since it is based on and connected with human nature, natural moral, human rights and principles. They are not movable because they are universal and indivisible. * The professional’s discernment and general culture sustain him with strength and logic. Making the conception and reason of Sense simpler, depends on the journalist’s wisdom and responsibility, on his ductility and sensitivity to elaborate the informationmessage, as well as on his tenacity to sustain it. The complex is how to solve it accurately and precisely. It is not possible to propose a perfect casuistry for doing so. The best solution is that internalization of information demands a greater effort for man and society’s welfare. Ordering the components of the informationmessage at this stage of the methodological development, we can see that what at the beginning was only a simple Topic, has nourished of shapes and essences. It had to give dimension to the space that encompasses Area and Covering from its beginning until its movement. Then, analyzed in its social influence and immediately improved by the inwardness that strengthens it. Now, it has Sense. In other words, it has life.

Objective Everything that has a life needs an aim, an objective, and a practical and exceeding proposal. Information-message, paying service to man and society, does this through the *Casuistry of Human Rights.

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Objective that creativity.

it

seeks

to

achieve

with

If the Sense of Information is the cause of its aim, the Objective is the aim with a cause.

The journalist will look for that Objective according to the expectations and superior interests of Common Welfare. It must be concrete, useful and fruitful to allow society take decisions. There will be times in which, by broadcasting information, the Objective seeks help or solution to the dramatic problem of a particular person, of a group or community, because it is not determined by the amount of people involved but for the social benefit that encourages. A mother or a wife claims for a child or a husband profaned in their legitimate rights; someone claims for an exceptional medicine; another does it for legitimate social justice. When in war, he will foster peace; in discouragement, hope; to misery, dignity; to injustice, vindication. The important is to take implicit the cause and the effect that assembles every informationmessage, for man and society welfare. That is why it has to be feasible and ethical; justified and creatively exposed. As with every hypothesis of Social Sciences, and for many reasons, the objective might be restated throughout the course of treatment of information-message and even after this has been broadcasted, feeding it back. The journalist professional, even though being responsible, is not infallible. Neither can he


Methodological Process

PI foresee all the following, simultaneous, concurrent or modifying course contingencies of information-message in its social displacement. Any Objective correction will do no other than improve professional management, adjusted to the line of principles sustained by the Sense. The Objective, aim-effect of informationmessage public broadcasting, flexible in its proposals and directions, does not do other than facilitate the destiny of all communication, responding to superior interests that are not the journalist’s ones or the Media ones, but they are always and only valid if they are the ones of society that bring all into line. Further on Social Pedagogy of Information in “idea Journalism” will be added, in the 5° step (Message to Society), arranging a stable service of human promotion.

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50

Return to Society Every Topic, which in one way or another interests the Media as an issue of social event, must resolve in SOCIETY- TREND analysis- area - covering this step the formal and organic FAMILIARIZING aspects for public broadcasting. documentation - objective In its evolution, it has received, INWARDNESS sense - objective through methodological treatment, RETURN TO SOCIETY not only informative ingredients. mean- genre – space Consequently, every informationlength - sequence message is a structured piece “ad MESSAGES TO SOCIETY intro” in order to constitute “ad inform – educate – guide extra”, as intellectual, moral and make others think – promote spiritual support for man, who has to JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES receive it for any Mass Media. indicative shape data This makes the formal RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect institutionalization of information in full social relation. According to the mean and the characteristics through which broadcasting is made, the way to do it has to be resolved. The Media, according to the resources it has, its policies and style, and the responsible professional, is the one that has to decide the return and the most effective installation of such information in society. This implies specifying: the opportunity, genre, characteristics, format and intensity. All the indicators that have been accumulated are useful to support these decisions. Every journalistic structure should provide not only its material potentialities in these instances, but also the good use it can –and should- do of them; giving communication productions the resources of a dynamic, active and serious journalism, with scientific basis, research and methodology. The relation mediareceptor is institutional, due to the demands it makes every Media comply with the transcendental role they are conferred, and at the same time, it is vital because it will provide

TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM

1 2 3 4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

6

IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

7


Methodological Process

PI information with an appropriate treatment, documented and creative, thanks to the authorial participation of the professional.

Media The universality of methodology encompasses all Media, formats and journalistic genre. Considering that fact, the presentation details will –creatively- define the recommended variations. Multimedia companies as well as news Agencies will give different treatment to the same topic, adapting them in form and language.

Genre Determining the genre or journalistic expression that will formalize the informationmessage is essential for knowing how it will be developed. It is known that in journalism every genre or formal way of expression has its particularities. Such is the case of news, news in brief, interview, comment, column, editorial. It has been proved nowadays that there are not pure genres because in one way or another they are all interactive.

Space – extension and sequence The Space – extension really refers to modalities and informative styles of each Media, and to the dimension given to each Topic. The Sequence refers to the evolution and potential guidelines to adapt its sustainability in the interest and for the interest of society. Knowing in which space and with which quantitative dimension the informationmessage will acquire its social displacement, is a main fact to adapt its preparation. This is determined by those that coordinate the contextualization of the media, including the evaluating team, the writing team, editors and

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journalistic producers; and also admit that the professional in charge of the topic can propose and defend to that matter, for the responsibility and authorship that relies on him. Determining the genre or form of expression chosen, is accompanied by the decision about the space it can cover. Anyway, its space-extension will have relation with the importance of its dimension, and certainly, with its final quality; reference that is common to all Means of Communication. It is very interesting to foresee a Sequence of topic sustainability, with successive information-messages, since it has explicit relation with the pursued Objective and possible alternatives. Information-message proposes a more applied development. This leads to questioning about the possibility of doing it in certain Media where information get a fast pace as in radio and television. Of course it is possible. The answer is positive from the substantial: if information is an intellectual, moral and spiritual support that ensures validity and credibility, its content can not be daily and elementary diminished. As regards the Sequence of a Topic, it is important to take some examples, and in the universal panorama we find countless of them. The case of an expansive contamination, natural catastrophes, disturbances, corruption, violence, absence of peace in a community or between nations, wars, etc. There are in all fields: social, political, economic, education, religious, cultural, sport. In all of them, the process of social communication, through the treatment of information as messages, is vital and essential; it contributes to human progress and welfare, sustaining the Topic to the top, according to the Sense and Objective determined by the professional responsibility and the Media.


Methodological Process

PI This does not mean denying that the treatment of information, before their multiplicity –by greater universal influx and fast traffic- demands in every moment a careful use of the time available in each mean, as well as all creativeness, art and design to make communication attractive; in other words, the modernization and contextualization of spaces. It is not less true that it does not correspond to establish the speed and quality antinomy of information as opposed and irreconcilable, because this would mean a loss of responsibility superior to communications as protecting good. It is untrue to sustain paradigmatically that so commonly used about the “tyranny of time” – that is claimed a lot on radio and television, more as an excuse than as a truth, in order to avoid improvisations-, since the demands of taking the truth to public opinion cannot be sacrificed and subdued to vices or other interests.

Multimedia Journalism Protocol For self-managing and multimedia journalism we have developed the idea of multimedia journalistic protocols. Basis: “The change of time and the time of change” undeniable in this new century, determine the need for a responsible and creative journalism, innovative in response to these challenges. Therefore, the certainty and convenience of an appropriate planning that combines theory and practice of neo investigation Journalism in a methodic and methodological way for the

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treatment of relevant topics for society, and with that the scientific-social validity of them, with creativity and originality through the Journalistic Protocols. General Objective: strengthen training from our school, and promote interest in promoting and establishing Autonomous and Authorial Selfmanaging Journalism. Specific Objective: center in only one topic of investigation (particularly of social interest) and simultaneously assuming its knowledge in depth and the immediate journalistic productions, through and ordered series of articles and/or matrix multimedia productions for its broadcasting offer in a certain period. Basic Diagram: the Protocol requires an appropriate planning through its development in determined periods and following its stages: 1) Topic selection 2) Summary of the proposal or topic description 3) Justification of the topic 4) Formulation and posing of the problem for investigation, clarifying its object of study (framing it in space and time)


Methodological Process

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Process Project design Opposition

re-dimensions aproval

Production and development Final production and multimedia edition Multimedia formats Summary for its social transmission: TopicCentral ideas- Revelations- Final multimedia productions

Press

*pages *picture/ pre headline *headline *nose *body matter *links

Radio

*dialogue script *a page with support recording

TV Internet

*audiovisual script *adapted to the page design *idem press/it adds productions

Investigation Topics Political/ Social/ Economic/ Cultural/ Educational/ Religious/ Specific Problems. • People – Celebrities • Life Stories • Revelation of a town • Where they come from, where they go to • What happens – Why it happens – Projections and proposals

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Message to Society

TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

Admitting the need for journalism to establish as a science, for its SOCIETY- TREND universal character; everything that analysis- area - covering brings it near a methodological FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective effectiveness will make it possible to INWARDNESS improve or utterly empower events sense - objective of men’s daily problems, his RETURN TO SOCIETY intellectual, moral and spiritual mean- genre – space length - sequence faculties. Living conditions of our historical MESSAGES TO SOCIETY time have been modified so rapidly inform – educate – guide make others think – promote in their entire spectrum that can not JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES be diminished, and even less indicative shape data disregarded the bridge of information RESULT CONTROL and formation that Mass Media foreseeable course and effect represents, to preserve, perfection and expand the legitimate life quality of men. Journalistic, widening the field of rational knowledge of human events, about the how and why of things, can be summarize in the action of knowing how to think; to justify itself by making and letting others think through the treatment of socialized information. When establishing the Message in the information, it must be borne in mind that it is an action of thought, open to all big, pluralist, heterogeneous and anonymous society. In socialized communication by mass media, the relationship addressor-addressee is exceptionally particular, problematic and difficult because he has to make different beings think, those he does not know, and at the same time, stress through an appropriate pedagogy useful formative contributions that are possible for all of them to assimilate. A dilemma that in each case is resolved by the responsible professional of the treatment of the topic and it becomes one of the most

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM

1 2 3 4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

6

IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

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Methodological Process

PI formidable manifestations of communication between men. Thanks to the techniques, which provide and perfection the instruments more and more extraordinary to expand the transmission of these manifestations, and to journalism that makes good use of such resources to have less and less men that lack this benefit. Definitely Mass and Means of Social Communication are real schools that shape people, therefore, they shape society with the hierarchy and quality of information, that is to say, it has to give them properly treated, creatively vivid, actively presented. Then journalism acquires the inescapable and undeniable mission of showing and teaching by means of well elaborated information. But adding Message, it has the mission of promoting, of lifting man to a superior destiny, without making any type of selection, because equalizing virtue of Mass Media is that they can be offered in the same way to all men. And that is formidable, because nothing must interfere with the substantial ethic and aesthetic of transmission and reception. It is the ultimate sign of universality and man appraisal in all his dignity as a human being. It is the merit of looking for and projecting the man and world’s truth, key and center of information. Truth that is kindly horizontal and it is vertically qualified in depth and presentation, useful to all. This 5° step openly challenges the current process in information treatment at a national or international level. It is the key, because it is necessary to transform a classical trend, questioned by Idea Journalism that wants to prove that it is possible for information to be fruitful as message, pedagogical and cultural. When a Topic of local, regional or international occur has been chosen to have public status, according to “Idea Journalism” theory, it has

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required a methodological treatment. It has stood out an information-message, since its cause has been found, foreseeing its social effect, reanimated with the life that a person, not a computer, has given to it. In this case, the professional journalist based on ethics, responsibility and methodic discipline faces with his professional character the concrete and cultural resolution of its production. He must structure the final message combining what must be the pedagogy. The preponderantly interesting is for the pedagogical action to be integrative of the concept unit and journalistic production making in each Media. That is to say, to be the permanently sustained tendency as preponderant and not being rigorously imposed and absolute in all information. There are some reasonable exceptions. There will be some cases – especially on radio and television journalism – in which pedagogical action seems much more difficult, as considered before, but we repeat that not all Topics in these dynamic media, for their intensity and speed, are finished in one transmission since they demand projection and sustainability. In this development there must be added the necessary components to cover the informative fruitfulness and the pedagogical as well. However, in most of multimedia manifestations with time and spaces of premeditation and daily, weekly or periodic journalistic edition, or less perishable as investigations, protocols, issues and documentaries, there would be no deep problem except the disvalue of clever excuses.


Methodological Process

PI Pedagogy of information-message

inform

educate

make others think

guide promote

The pedagogical forms of information-message in “Idea Journalism” encompass five potential and interrelated components: inform, educate, guide, make others think and promote. They compose a flexible simultaneity that makes it possible to provide man and society with information, culture and promotion. The characteristic of each Topic and the way to tackle it, present it and sustain it by the media, will offer different possibilities. In some cases it will be feasible to combine all the pedagogical requirements of the method. In others, for justified reasons and obviousness, these will appear briefly.

Inform In each Topic, all related to present needs is informed. It is important that all that is informed must be responsibly objective. This instance is defined as classical support of journalism: what happened, when, how, where, who, and that in our model it only constitutes a part. Applying the Area, Covering, Analysis, Documentation, Experts methodology, information will no longer run the risk of being incomplete “sub-information”, or “antiinformation” harmful for its lack of substance. Clarified and enriched by its components, the “informing action” becomes consistent after solving its instances that have covered the event or issue, its context, cause, history, basis

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and joint updating as springs of sustainability and realization. Then what is informed, besides giving the objective informative scoop of the event, must become the solid core of its components that will help turning it into a message.

Educate The educative action as every pedagogy that summarizes the art of teaching qualifies the Topics in the process of “Idea Journalism”, and aims at all information clarifying and teaching, confirming Media as schools that shape people. Information and informal education are connected in all communicative expressions of society by Mass Media. It concerns the journalist, responsible author of information treatment to incorporate systematically the clarifications and explanations that information requires, whenever necessary. According with the character of each Topic and its social relation with human problems, the educative factor, as intellectual vitamin, becomes clarifying and didactic in many ways, with encyclopedic support and common sense. It is worth mentioning some examples that justify pedagogic mediation of a professional regarding ideas and concepts as inflation, deflation, stand by, “country risk”, habeas corpus, epidemic, balkanization, xenophobia, HIV, euthanasia, cloning, life quality, atmospheric pressure, thermostatic sensation. Everything that educates assembles added values in this direction, and as such they are essential and excelling of a system that neglects them.

Guide The treatment of Information with the Message category aims at its perfection adding the resource of guiding, systematizing the


Methodological Process

PI information-man-society relation. What is guiding? “To recognize the place where one is and determine a good path to avoid getting lost.” The receptive man, member of a society in continuous movement, precisely informed and honestly guided, will know better what to expect about a topic or event and consequently make decisions. There will be cases in which foreseeing that orientation would be simple to explain because it will arouse as a natural consequence of its content and relation with people’s expectations. However, there will be difficult cases in which the action of guiding will necessarily be the result of effort of inquiries to expert and related experts, and then creative and thought elaborations. In those cases, the journalist assumes the responsibility of guiding. “Recognizing the place were one is and determine a good path to avoid getting lost”, becomes a kind of axiom to guide information in its process as Message and it is valid for endless instances and languages in journalistic elaborations. The guiding influence that Media explicitly or implicitly practices gravitates in society; and as basic proof, it is enough to see the influence and guidance that information and weather forecast supposes. It is necessary to establish this instance as methodology in professional practice in a serious and responsible way, for every issue or topic that demands it. The journalist is forced to exert himself in order to pinpoint such operations.

Make Others Think Thinking capacity is present in all communication for its nature and effects. Due to the role and the power that Mass Media practices, in journalism is more gravitating.

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Possibly this matter, for its subjective influence, is one of the most delicate ones to be considered in the frame of deontology in social communication because it is essentially supported in human nature and freedom of conscience, the axles for an authentic freedom of information. Meanwhile, we specifically care –within the “Idea Journalism” context – of that is more related with the professional practice in the treatment of public information, as part of the methodological theory that suggests a new composition of these. If the capacity of thinking is common to every man, the act and effect of making others think in the relation addressor-addressee by Media must have guidelines that ensure its well use and limitations. The problems of contemporary world offer many arguments to worry about survival and future of humanity, marked by courses of stressed unbalance. The overwhelming technology, the explosive social expectations, the advances and the contrasts, the conflicts that are seriously dimensioned in each nation and between nations, life expectations and the limitations that are imposed to it, make a serious, complex and difficult panorama. All this worries the man of our time – as it would have done for every time in all history- and it places people in sharp tensions that empower their thoughts. However, not all of them are hurtful problems; they are not all wounding and deplorable situations, but they cross the flow of communication in a fast and abundant form by the Media. Unfortunately, the diversity of encouraging and positive information for human progress and welfare are not enough to balance or prevail over the negative, and then, they do not prevail to modify courses and concepts.


Methodological Process

PI Today’s man – especially in communities that are more intensely supplied with informationfinds himself burdened, discouraged for this prevailing trends, that even though they are real, they are not unique. Many times, when we ask ourselves how and what about man of our time thinks, it is easy to place the answer according to the trends listed by the information transmitted. The big headlines of the daily Media use to be the dominant thought in people. Journalism that must be sustained in the promotion of truth does not seem to know how or want to modify the hurtful trends. And it is not about hiding discouraging facts about miseries and conflicts that shake in our present history. We are not interested in looking back. And looking ahead we can assure that journalism can help man and society in a much more effective way, and practicing the power of making others think from a humanist and hopeful vision, it can provide the necessary to balance the knowledge of temporal events and at the same time, apply a determining line. One of the risks of the traffic of information, and of its wrong treatment is to allow man stagnate his thoughts, to uniform them, subdued to predominant trends, and unconsciously to cancel his capacity of thinking with autonomy and to empower his legitimate and deserved his intellectual, moral and spiritual expectations. In the treatment of each Topic, the elaboration of the information-message by its methodological deontology must allow and facilitate the “make others think and let them think”, for which the journalist must “know how to think.” The Media through journalism have cooperated through the years, encouraging society in its accomplishment and achievement paths,

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broadcasting life and progress guidelines of other man and peoples that have made think and have lead to officially approve legitimate human rights, instead of imitating. The important is that every Topic, as it grows documentarily and creatively in the truth and vitality of information-message, is a trigger towards the extraordinary potential of every man thought, for all the man and for the men in freedom of consciousness. Herein, as novelty and cultural support, it acquires solvency in the sense of informationmessage: the values that are recognized or denied; man’s vision; society’s vision.

Promotion Pedagogy, finally, must promote. Information must be now carrier of message: practical and concrete. The action of promoting through information is a new, methodic, methodological, creative and stable way. It is an action that demands reflection to consider what is at hand, which are just elementary components. With these only, information would keep a passive attitude. Even though it has been activated through the proposed pedagogy, it is appropriate now to turn it into something similar to a seed in which a new situation, a new proposal for society takes root, capable of joining others. Information-message puts journalism in the role of social promoter. Now, not only as the activator of echoes of human events –local, regional, international- and facilitator of social dialogue, but as able to balance it, able to select the best ideas useful for man and society’s superior promotion, and able to creatively incorporate them exciting attitudes. This way you promote. In methodology, this starts to be configured in the 3° step, the Objectives hypothesis.


Methodological Process

PI The information that becomes message by the action of promotion, certainly takes journalism to its consolidation as legitimate change factor.

“Idea Journalism” states itself as reason and theory of transformation in human evolution by means of ideas that makes concrete before society.

Even though journalism does not carry out the little and big changes of human process, nothing indicates that it has to quit promoting or defending them. For this to be feasible, it is previously required to activate a first major change: the one of journalism, in the area of academic training, in the Media, in corporations and associations, and certainly in the journalist, and in society itself that cannot resign to its rights and duties in this process. Such mental and behavior changes pave the way for the scientific, the human, the creative, in a new stage that clarifies journalism’s universality. Every information that began as a topic, according to its origin, character and components, that clarified locating the area; that was projected in its covering; that was analyzed and resolved in its continuation; that was familiarized with documentation and experts and internalized in its sense and objective; that later on set a broadcasting strategy; that received a pedagogical treatment in order to not only inform but also educate, guide, make others think and promote necessary transformations for man and/or society; it constitutes an information-message. This is “Idea Journalism”.

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Journalistic Discourse in Information Message We take in this step journalistic discourse in information message: its styles and forms of external SOCIETY- TREND analysis- area - covering expression. FAMILIARIZING In almost all times, in the practice of documentation - objective journalism, writing and oratory have INWARDNESS sense - objective been privileged over the contents. This concept has been questioned RETURN TO SOCIETY throughout this book without the mean- genre – space length - sequence intention of neglecting the essential MESSAGES TO SOCIETY value of aesthetic presentation and inform – educate – guide rhetoric of information. make others think – promote We highlight that professional rigor JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES can not be limited to how to write for indicative shape data printed press, know how to talk for RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect audiovisual press, know how to fascinate with the images. Knowing how to write, sight-read, and attractively communicate, is vital for journalism, shock with all that, but substantially. Leave aside the neat literary care to eminently literary communication; leave writers them fables, novels, stories, and tales; leave graphic artists the designs; leave the audiovisual experts the spectacular shootings; and to us journalists to be the real professionals of intellectual architecture, methodic and methodological with an original style, with a central, clear and accurate journalistic discourse, full of content. Let’s be journalists, and in these functions, do not usurp others, even though we accept logical complementary combinations, and do not allow other professions to absorb or block ours. Our function is knowing how to evaluate, treat and elaborate information that are produced and that must be transmitted to humanity, with reasons, content, sense and objective; give them a pedagogy, with message; elevate them

TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM

1 2 3 4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

6

IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

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PI to the category of background intellectual support, more than for its forms. Information-message methodology has not come out to solve the problem of final presentation of information, but to justify the beginning, course and ending of every message to society. The discourse will adapt to the type of journalistic expression according to the Media in which it takes place. Differences will be marked by themselves if it is on radio or television, for printed press or for news informatics networks. Having as a referential base the contents resolved by the methodology, the professional will write the piece of news, it will take it as a guide for his oral sight-reading; he will develop the notes, construct and guide his interviews, make the script, and so on and so forth, according to the Media, the genre or the most appropriate language.

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Results Control TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)

DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND

1

analysis- area - covering

2

documentation - objective

3

FAMILIARIZING

INWARDNESS sense - objective

RETURN TO SOCIETY

4

SUPPORTING THE NEWS

5

MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)

mean- genre – space length - sequence

MESSAGES TO SOCIETY inform – educate – guide make others think – promote

6 7

JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE

indicative shape data

RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect

This step labeled Results Control – effect and foreseeable coursedemands reasons. A great number of information with potential projection cannot be considered finished in their first transmission, when they require sustainability. Only some issues journalistically treated are sustained by the addressor, and in general these cases often show interests or intentions, sometimes good and others doubtful or dangerous. It is not right to make Topic sustainability dependant on interested or purely pragmatic or isolated attitudes because this way

society will continue exposed to manipulations. The tenacity and virtuosity of some Media and of some journalists can not be ignored. They have known how to make formidable campaigns with certain topics, supporting them until the reach their objectives. But even though these cases historically collected are countless, it would be easy to prove that were only in certain cases and not as a consequence of a moral imperative and a methodological rigor for all the Topics they gave for that. Which has been the reason? Simple: there is not as a moral imperative and as a method, the prevision of a journalistic management control, that is what in this stage and its development is pretended to be introduced, strengthening a communicative strategy.

Foreseeable course and effect There are topics promoted to information that are finished in one transmission. There will be


Methodological Process

PI others- even though they did – that did not deserve to be broadcasted. But if we proposed to order ideas and ensure information an objective –especially in those important ones for man and society – the circuit of journalistic management through information-message would be completed only when such objective has been achieved, shaped enough, or disregarded and replaced by reasons. It is not to rush supposing that what is proposed is the mounting of a bureaucratic, pernicious and utopist structure for informative organization. What is simply pretended is not to quit to a social responsibility and to objectives being compensators and that they justify the expectations that society puts in social communication. Results Control in some cases will refer to immediate effects, in others, for the type of information, it will not be necessary. Here we deal with those specific and joint topics that by their own nature require attention and continuity. Resigning or omitting their continuation and results control would give comfort to the professional, simplifying his effort, removing his responsibility. But it must be thought whether a man or many men have been left with frustrated hope. Information has known how to constitute as messages. They are like doves willing to fly high and far, and that way get to a trusting aim as the journey of its trip. If it does not get to the aim –that is the Objective-, as a carrier pigeon would, is because someone arbitrarily interrupted it or intentionally locked it away. Results Control requires updated interest. Sometimes repeating the proposal; other times, resettling the focus, correcting the objective, adapting it for its perfection. The exploration of information development that is launched to public opinion, measuring its foreseeable courses, calculating its effects and

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controlling its results, is a responsibility inherent to the most categorical professional function of journalists. The way to do it will also depend on the available resources and the way to administrate them. Lately, the new information technologies make it possible to develop excellent and dynamic programs to control these processes.


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Tables of Journalism Referential structure and guideline for selection, configuration and information-message projection in the Methodic and Methodological journalistic process


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Of Formal Categories Table Table Table Table Table Table

N° N° N° N° N° N°

1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6:

Surprising Events Foreseen Events Joint Documents Independent Opinions Permanent Information Rumors and Versions

Of Values Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

N° N° N° N° N° N° N° N°

7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14:

Table N° 15: Table N° 16: Table N° 17: Table N° 18:

Permanent Priorities Regional Priorities The Human Being The Family The National State The Community The Province or Federal State The Immediate Inter-provincial Region The Country as Geographical Unit The Region of Neighboring Countries The Region of Countries of the Continent All the Countries and Regions of the Universe


Tables of Journalism

Causes The Tables are interceptors of a communicational conflict: the torrent of News and Topics the journalism has to face daily, the gathers fast, nourished by the most diverse sources, creating the need of selection that cannot be disordered or of pure intuition or routine, conscious, logical, systemic and vital. We know – following the methodological development of Idea Journalism- which the requirements that each Topic has to fulfill are, to access the category of information-message and be able to acquire public broadcasting. But the problem is not all solved with that, facing the multiplicity of information. One thing is to resolve why and how to promote a piece of information by its interest and composition; and another is how to distinguish and integrate it with the rest in the universal context. We propose an orientation for this, with a range of priorities and requirements –inquiries, references and categories- taking into account the immense and versatile spectrum of events, in which News and Topics are revealed, that take us from one place to the other, with characters, consequences, causes and emotions, similar and different, representing this way the fascinating and even more complex universe of the events that are offered to Journalism. It is necessary to respond with a referential systematization, that orders categories and values that makes the decision of selecting information stronger and quieter. The main starting point is acknowledging that each Media –except some News Agencies, Internet and Multinational Projects- is primarily a local service, not only for its location, but for representing the cultural and identity expectations of each people.

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d News

Concept The “Tables of Journalism”, complement and facilitate the central core of “Idea Journalism” through a Referential and Methodological Guide. They facilitate the vital systematization for the development of information, according to the sense of “Idea Journalism” that does not point at closed models of informative organization. It is a Methodological Guide constituted by a minimal number of rules that can be followed along with other universals in journalism and that can be enriched innovatively with other efforts.


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Tables

Formal Categories It is Journalism’s duty, in its competence and practice of its mission, to consider the whole of informative proposals that it is given in the course of local and universal events. It is its obligation to serve public through media, giving it all that it needs of its information as intellectual, moral and spiritual support: about all that happens, about the foreseeable and novelty, and about that, which is not new anymore, still creates particular expectations in peoples that keep greater information and contents for necessary updating and cultural feedback. It will be offered as solved in a coherent way from Journalism, the type of Proposals (whether News or Topics) that are certainly justified to be made public, and consequently with what type of treatment. It all concerns to professional knowledge, but not necessarily all has to become public information. The application of Idea Journalism, which implies a methodological process of Familiarization and


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Inwardness, does not exclude any proposal from analysis before making it public. It is a holistic proposal, and not a close methodology that proposes the following Table of Formal Categories applicable to matters and issues, concrete or fortuitous, aiming at a better organization.

1°) 2°) 3°) 4°) 5°) 6°)

Surprising Events Foreseen Events Joint Documents Independent Opinions Permanent Information Rumors and Versions

This listing, merely representative, seeks to adjust and characterize what is habitually considered, detailing its meaning and the reason for its framing in Categories. The order must also be considered flexible. A permanent order cannot be ensured because it will all depend on the evolution of each piece of News or Topic, of the concrete interest it represents before professional and/or media judgment, that is by which it will be decided its promotion or rejection, location, time, sustainability, etc. However, this order is proposed here as the most appropriate for journalistic communication.

N° 1 Surprising Events Nothing authorizes to modify the universal idea – and more or less shared everywhere- that news is all that registers an event or outstanding announcement, of immediate interest for society, channeled through Media


Tables

PI that distinguishes it as priority, when it is produced surprisingly and suddenly. It usually occupies a prime place in its treatment and broadcasting, always that the critical analysis concludes that it deserves it. When applying the “Idea Journalism” methodology, surprising news taken to Information-Message do not diminish its novelty, neither the media its capacity to communicate it. In the case of a radio station, media that characterizes for its instantaneity, the piece of News must be graduating in all its contents as time goes by, preserving its qualities, either by anticipating it in newsflash, unfolding it in news bulletin and panorama, and even dealing with it in opinion spaces. This implies rejecting the conception that journalism on radio must limit to News headlines or news brief, leaving to newspapers its extensive treatment. This way, the pedagogical process of information would be cancelled, and the professional and responsible practice of radio journalism would be quitted. The same happens on television, even more by the audiovisual effect. In graphic media (newspapers and journalistic magazines), and particularly in modern informatics networks (Internet) due to the greater time they have to introduce News, they must compensate with a more elaborated treatment, to take competitive advantage over instantaneous media. Anyway, the first place given to “Surprising News” is logical, taking care of the categorical function of the mass media, ready to communicate faster and more responsibly, all the novelties of sudden events, complying with their priority of service. a) Information Broadcasting sudden News is only a part of

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Information-Message. Around that bit of News, other complementary, central or peripheral information can be obtained, about the event and its origin, information that every journalistic management should take care to constitute a solid piece. They are complementary. In cases of simultaneity with the piece of News or when it is almost simultaneous. b) Echoes It often happens that after a piece of News is known and highlighted, with the appropriate treatment in the Information-Message process, derives and requires echoes in and of different levels included by its influence in society. This is related with the Area and the Covering, explained in the 1째 Step (Society Trend) of Theory and Methodology I, in the first part of this book, referring to the initiation and movement of News. Echoes encompass the effective consequences of News and the representative and pertinent opinions, explicitly generated or required to those involved and to experts. c) Topics A surprising, sudden piece of News, can exhaust the novelty and informative circuit, but at the same time generate argumentatively by its cause, context and/or process of a recreation Topic. The decision comes from the fact that once turned into Topic; it will receive a preferential treatment from Journalism in any of its expressions, without going through the competitive news track, which in this case is replaced by the quality and depth of a new perspective, with a strategy and genre different from that of News.


Tables

PI Take this example: “Vices of improvising in the security system of a metropolitan airport cause a catastrophe”. The piece of News is the catastrophe that the media broadcasts rapidly, and in simultaneous or successive way, new information, echoes or opinions that exhaust this piece of News must be gathered. But due to this piece of News, a Topic arises: the security system in the airport/s of the country and this is, for its importance, what Journalism must investigate deeply, and promote for the welfare of the society it serves. This leads to determine as necessary that behind important News, it is always possible to promote important Topics.

N° 2 Foreseen Events In the process of journalistic interest events, it is marked the difference between what is surprising –dealt in the previous Table- and what is foreseeable, which implies another Category. The foreseen is for Journalism every event or happening that is known in advance and can be announced by the media itself, or presented to media from public or private fields, through institutional communications, Press agencies, etc. When that anticipated information about an event or happening is covered – in order of journalistic competence-, journalism will be looking for the newsworthy, the novelty and useful of that event, and even attentively waiting for the sudden, as very feasible. With the foreseen news, it is much easier to effectively deal with the event and its context, in such a way that can be communicated to public opinion with the maximum of qualities required by Information-Message.

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a) Information b) Echoes c) Topics

N° 3 Joint Documents Joint Documents are all written, oral or audiovisual pieces, representative and originated from an organized sector of society. Certain Joint Documents (declarations, messages, laws, speeches, etc.) are naturally, in some cases, instances in the field of Surprising News or Foreseen News that frequently get to media, posing a question about its newsworthy force, priority and the treatment it should be given. Valuing every Joint Document is a responsible act in Journalism every time it is presented. Nothing forces to justify by itself its broadcasting in-extent through public communication. A Joint Document is subjected to the same methodological evaluation –MIM*of any News and Topic, and can constitute in Information-Message – if it has the required conditions. It is appropriate to point out that a Joint Document (especially when it comes from State jurisdictions, from its officers, from institutions, from its hierarchies, from social organizations and their leaders or qualified experts) must be calibrated in its importance according to its origin, content, influence and possible interest of society. In general, many Joint Documents are prepared for a certain purpose, which is not primarily journalistic, even though the media is required for its broadcasting to society. The media should distinguish between what is facilitating *Manipulation Interceptor Module


Tables

PI its public installation, inevitably using its resources, and possibly for its superior interest for society, and what is considering and treating that Joint Document methodologically in the Journalistic process. In the first case, it may not be journalistic and even be broadcasted in non journalistic spaces of the media, such is the case of the “solicitudes”, whereas in the second case, the demand to gather the treatment qualities must be complied (critical, active and creative analysis). The space given to Joint Documents will depend on their real importance. Not only as regards journalistic forms – accuracy, syntax, etc. - but also for their importance for society. It may happen that, certain Documents require all the necessary space – texts of laws and decrees; State doctrines; exception recommendations for population safety and welfare; messages and speeches, etc. However, nothing disregards the simultaneous or following application of Information-Message and of these Journalism Tables:

a) Information b) Echoes c) Topics

N° 4 Independent Opinions In the recurrence that Journalism does to obtain opinions in society about any type of News – Surprising or Foreseen- and of Joint Documents, social conversations with experts (protagonists or experts related to the events) are usually collected. These are known by their forms or genre, as reports or interviews and they are useful for any massive expression of

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social communication: written press, radio, television, cinematography, journalistic informatics, investigations, etc. For many Journalism teachers, the report summarizes one of the most interesting and fundamental resources of professional management, since it allows practicing its main virtue: inquiry and testimonial social conversation that is in fact what really matters to readers and audiences because it allows the validation and credibility of communication processes. But as they are required in relation to News, events and Documents of public concern, rumors and versions, journalism can create the generation of Opinions, independently of what is motivated by them. Independent Opinions come from relevant characters by their social influence. It is also a common practice and already institutionalized that the Journalist as a habit or due to a topic, becomes responsible of assuming his own opinions, practicing the methodological analysis, using the MIMThinker. In this Table of Categories, we only call “Independent Opinions� to those that in certain journalistic spaces allow society, through its representative characters, contributing in the promotion of Topics that had not been installed in the field of massive communication until then, undiscovered as regards Surprising or Foreseen News; or exhuming that way some neglected ones in every day life. This way, the range of journalistic activity broadens, beyond what is News for surprising or foreseen events, and facilitates and balances all social event novelty, as a way to justify more accurately the role of media, as for their influence, they work as real schools for shaping people, forum of resonance of all social and human process, participant of a better


Tables

PI promotion of society. The methodological treatment is the same to the one in our Methods and Tables.

N° 5 Permanent Information Mass media with journalistic proposals cannot remain limited to joint News or exception Topics. All the same they are forced to daily and updated information-service, the ones that in this Table are labeled “Permanent Information”, analogically considered of service and stable. No media is excluded. It would be appropriate, using popular paraphrasing, to use a classic allusion, saying: “Not only of surprising News can a man live”. He is also intellectually and socially nourished, by public broadcasting, with facts and messages, permanent and necessary as communication service. The same usually happens in almost all media, when the time and weather forecast are given, the forecast is announced, the information is updated in traffic routes, etc. These are examples that social communication maintains as service Information in almost all parts of the world. Within the process of Information-Message in “Idea Journalism”, new forms of treating and enriching service information have been proposed, as part of Social Communication Pedagogy, as in the case of giving the local time and at the same time add the time of another country, signaling its geographic location, distance, season. There is a service (local time) and there is a piece of InformationMessage of cultural character that methodically throughout the day allows endless relations and successive contributions, until it goes all around

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the universe; but there are many other creations and examples. About this Permanent Information (service) that can be included in informative spaces or in other varied spaces and places (according to whether they are radio, television or printed media), this Table of Categories, not only seeks to qualify and suggest new qualities, but also proposes explicitly the search for varieties, which may be satisfied by means of mass communication, bearing in mind that all “Permanent Information”, even being Information-Service, can be elevated to the category of Information-Message. • Condition of linking Routes • Weather condition and forecast • Irregular work of public service transportation • Etcetera

and

N° 6 Rumors and Versions This Table of Categories deals with the formal aspects of Information-Message; in that versatile and controversial strip that encompasses Rumors and Versions. Acknowledging the fragility and risks of Rumors and Versions, it cannot be denied that from the murmur of society, great truths and fundamental expectations can arise. And that murmur of society, in many cases, is expressed through Rumors and Versions. As you can infer from the reading of all that “Idea Journalism” encompasses – including its Deontology-, Rumors and Versions should not be promoted by mass media communication, until they are verified or until responsible, solid


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PI and/or credible supports have been found. They cannot be ignored either, because it is true that Journalism, in all ages, has been in charge of institutionalize, even with formal spaces, its versions and rumors. Regarding the judgments for and against will continue divided throughout the times and even balanced, what forces continuing their consideration and not margining them. However, we are here dealing with rumors and versions relatively logical and verifiable in their original expression, and that is the case for collecting and taking them into account, to give them the appropriate treatment and attention afterwards, under rigorous methodology. Journalistic ethics summarizes the incorporation and the way they should be treated, and the technique is the one proposed in “Idea Journalism”, in its Methodologies I and II. The threats of Rumor or Version are falsity and its resulting damage. “Idea Journalism” is clear enough about this: nothing is true while it is not true. Journalistic truth is the one guaranteed by its validity. Create a rumor or falsely launch a version is an easy task saturated with premeditation or irresponsibility. If it is not possible to avoid it, and it has already been transmitted to society, even when its inconsistency or falseness has been proved, it has to be covered to avoid its damages. If hiding it is the chosen option – even being public- because it is false, journalism would be leaving public opinion to its own fate before falseness. It is vital and important to know how to treat a Rumor or Version that is already broadcasted in society when its falseness has been proved, fib or, that in itself is dangerously feeble. In such cases it must be done in a way that does not favor the intention pursued by those that launched the falseness or threatening

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News. The Rumor and Version included as Categories in these Tables encompasses only all that in one way or another – true or false- motivated real interest in society. “Idea Journalism”, through the theory and methodology of Information-Message, facilitates the means to solve the dilemma.

Table of Values N° 7 Permanent Priorities “Idea Journalism” is constructed from the events in Society for an addressee and concrete apex that is man as a human being, whoever he is and wherever he is. All man and every man reinstalled and reinstalling the Sense of Human Rights. It is naturally followed by its main community, which is the Family, and then the organization of men in society and as nations. It is mass media that has to feel obliged to recognize and respect a range of universal values for the selection, treatment and promotion of Topics. Here are its substantial proposals: • Human Being • Family as a Vital Cell of Society • The State Organized for Common Welfare • The Community of Nations’ Brotherhood for their Neighboring, Solidarity and Continental Idiosyncrasy • All the Universal Community of Nations in their Ways of Cohabitation and Solidarity


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N° 8 Regional Priorities Every piece of news or topic that will constitute Information-Message in the process of public broadcasting by the media and from the Media and its geographic location must be selected and promoted, observing an order, according to its origin and influence (Character, Area, Covering). These regional priorities – which may vary according to the geopolitical organization of each nation-, are proposed as follows: • The Community, Town or City • The Communities, Towns or Neighboring Cities • The Province or Federal State • The Immediate Inter-provincial Region • The Country • The Region of Bordering Countries • The Region of Continental Countries • All the Countries of the Universe Regions

N° 9 The Human Being With the previous Tables, Journalism is established in its field of action and as support in human development through social communication. Now, instead, the selection and search for News and Topics that must be broadcasted as Information-Message according to contents and potentialities must be characterized with reasons, values and principles. It is logical and frequent to ask oneself as a journalist: which news is chosen and which one is disregarded? Why? Where are the News and Topics pending for discovery and treatment? Why?

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This “Table” proposes cultural guidelines to think, what can be answered to such professional questions. News – as Topics- apparently abound, but it must be decided, it must be found in its true sap. What does it nourish from? Where is it? Regarding Human Being 1) Everywhere and anywhere: Not just in preferred places, or at certain times of the day, or even less in just one social layer. The human being always presents the richness and novelty of his nature, due to the exalted dignity that belongs to him in his inseparable duality body and spirit; this reason turns it into an endless source of News and Topics, through which updates its own intrinsic novelty, without any reduction of his physical, cultural, social, economic or religious condition. 2) Where difficulties and violations attempt against human being: Nobody can deny the existence of problems and difficulties, but when they violate or are against growth of human being in freedom, dignity and equality, they deserve a particular dimension in journalistic spaces of means of social communication, in order to restore them and/or overcome them: “All crimes against life itself, such as homicides, genocide, abortion, euthanasia and voluntary suicide itself; all that profanes human being’s integrity, such as mutilation, physical or mental torture, even attempt of mental coercion; all that offends human dignity, such as inhuman living conditions, arbitrary detentions, deportation, slavery, prostitution, drug dealing and teenagers, as well as some ignominious labor conditions, in which the worker is treated as a mere object for profit and not as a free and responsible person; all this and other analog plagues certainly are sores that hurt human


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PI civilization; they actually diminish those that behave in such ways more than those who suffer injustice”. 3) Where solutions promote human being: The contributions and solutions daily revealed or discovered in the process of humanity through journalistic management, whether they are social, cultural, religious, political, economic, technical, scientific, artistic, etc. conquests, must be prioritized equally, highlighting them, communicating them. But those conquests, contributions or solutions that in an unequivocal way are aimed at integrative and humanizing welfare of the person must be highlighted in a very special way. 4) Poles of reference: If it is about taking care of the pain and anguish of human being, as well as his joys, expectations and hopes, as main epicenter of Permanent Priorities (Table N° 7), it is worth making the effort to determine clues that fast lead Journalism to the poles of information in such sense that they are not others but the poles of Human Rights. Reflecting these poles in an inventory and location of physical objects, programmed in a computing center (informatics) is similar to making a résumé of information, by simple association of the place it is about: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Sources of life Sources of work Sources of housing Sources of education Sources of health Sources of morality Sources of religion Sources of rest Sources of security Sources of culture Sources of solidarity Endless sources of promotion

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Etcetera.

Journalistic management that shows, excels, denounces, announces or proposes, will try to intercept or relieve the pain and anguish of men, and promote hope. “Idea Journalism” turns information into messages, doing more than announcing or denouncing. In the case of Man, elevate him, which is not just examining his events, but cohelp in their responsibility and participation: “But man would hardly reach to that sense of responsibility, unless living conditions allow him take conscious of his own dignity. Human freedom generally weakens when man falls in extreme poverty, in the same way it degrades when he lets himself lead for an extremely comfortable life, he locks himself in a sort of golden isolation. On the contrary, it strengthens when man accepts the unavoidable needs of social life, he makes responsible for the multiple existences of human association and compromises for community service. Therefore, there must be stimulated in all the will for assuming their role in common companies”. The 24 hours of men as human being are 24 hours under journalism protection, caring for life, for development, for participation, for responsibility and for that person’s welfare.

N° 10 The Family The Family is a vital cell in all society. The pluralist society of humanity only separated by geographic, political, ideological, idiomatic boundaries or by other diverse demarcations, in spite of all that, it is Universal because it is


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PI common ground of the most primitive of groups. At the same time, it is the unquestioned essential organization because from the couple generates People. It is admitted that public information that get to society by media, characterized as big, heterogeneous and anonymous audience, has a preponderant individual influence; it cannot be unknown that public information has then its preponderant place of analysis or feedback in the first little society that is the family, and from it to the big society. The reason is simple: Mass media do not shorten or prepare their contents for only one biological or sociological strip of society, but they have to think in all its components. In the big and small ones, in parents and in children. And so on, it can be said that they always bear in mind, explicitly or implicitly, first, the basic core of society, which is the Family, and not a disordered group of creatures. Television – the most interesting discovery and development as a mean of massive communication of the XX century- is the most appropriate vehicle for this reflection. Is it or not a mean created for the Family? It is, and something similar happens to radio and newspaper, and in less degree, to Internet, cinematography, theater and literature. Being information eminently social, we can conclude that journalistic information are born as news or topics anywhere and come back from anywhere, they shelter in each Family, where they start to become valid opinions that will determine the march or countermarch of society. The concept that wants to be proved and strengthen with all this is that if information is sheltered in Families and from there it grows, is because the greatest topics of information are in Families: the ones of society that they constitute as vital cell, and the ones of human

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being that exists within himself as nowhere else. Then, which are some of the main “Permanent References” that assemble the InformationMessage and the Family? Where to wait or search for news and topics? 1) Anywhere and anytime: Not just in preferred places or at certain times of the day: • The Family in its natural habitat, which is the home • The Family in its extension habitat, which is the society • Social organization before Family 2) Recommendation of topics, merely listing • Youth and the access to marriage • Couple before marriage • Matrimony and birth • Big families • Couples that cannot have babies • Family with adopted children • Family and culture • Family with problems to educate its children • The child in the family • The youth in the family • The elderly and the family • Family and the school • Family and university • Publicity, propaganda and the family • Programs in mass media and family • Family and salaries • State and family • Family and the problem of unemployment • Family and housing • Social organization policies and the family • Family and violence • Family and sex • Family and prostitution • Corruption and family • Family and drug addiction


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PI • Family and health • Family and psychiatric problems • Jails, the inmate and the family • Concubines and family • The society of the ones without family • The family and the moral and material indigence • Family and the excesses to material abundance • Family and weekends • Family and vacations • Community and family • Family and Maternities (Institutions) • Birth promotion and the family • Social foresight and family • Family dissoluteness • Family and judicial power • Family, moral and religion • Family, field of human promotion, shaper of people.

N° 11 National State It is known and necessary that corresponds to National State, for common well-being, to occupy and practice the role that belongs to it in such sense. “The men, the families and different groups that constitute the civil community are aware of their own incapacity to have a life plentifully human and they perceive the need for a broader community, in which all combine, day after day, their strengths for a constant improvement of common well-being”*. “It is for this that they form a political community according to different types. But there are many and different men that are in a political community and can legitimately bend to diverse solutions. Consequently, in order to avoid spoiling political life because everybody

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has his own opinion, it is essential an authority capable of leading the mass of citizens’ energy towards common welfare, not in a mechanic or despotic way, but, above all, working as a moral force based on freedom and responsibility of each one”*. “Also following the practice of political authority to be within the community as such or of institutions that represent the State, it has to be carried out within the boundaries of moral order, in order to secure common welfare, understood in a dynamic way and according to juridical order legitimately established or about to be established. It is then that citizens are forced, consciously, to obey and from there the display of responsibility, dignity and importance of those that govern”*. “As regards concrete modalities, by which political community gives itself the structures and organizes public powers, they can be many according to the each town idiosyncrasy and the march of its history; but it has to aim always at shaping a cultivated , pacifist and benevolent man as regards the others for the advantage of all human family”*. Means of social communication are precisely the ones that, particularly through the expressions of Journalism, practice the treatment of information, with these as a message, who have to alert to justify and consolidate that common well-being, in accordance with the legitimate and organic structures of the political community, every town idiosyncrasy and its historical process, helping to shape cultivated, pacifist and benevolent men, for the benefit of all humanity; watching over to make it possible; taking care of the practice of liberties and responsibilities in an authentic democracy. Emphasizing the excelling of common welfare in our judgment can be briefly defined as the


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PI mass of spiritual and material conditions that favor the total development of human being. Applied concretely this generic definition to journalistic affairs, we sustain that common welfare in the field of social communications is all communicative action of information that irreversibly tend to favor, stimulate, increase, encourage and develop cultural and social conditions that allow man, any man, having more to be more and not having for not being. This Table does not intent to be a reference code, but guidelines can be drawn as example in that daily and close relation of those values in order to be crosschecked in the selection and promotion of News and Topics: 1) Knowledge and control of the Democratic State organization as a juridical- moral organism permanent for the temporal; 2) Knowledge and control of the sense of common welfare, virtues and limits of liberties and responsibilities; 3) The State promoting active cooperation of all citizens; 4) The citizens respecting their responsibilities with the State for common well-being; 5) The State avoiding and controlling abuses, corruption, chaos or any type of opposition, impunity, immorality or experience in the community; 6) The State protecting – and not absorbing – the person, the family and the intermediate societies; 7) The State and its firmness in the practice of legitimate and necessary authority; 8) The State protecting in society the life freedom of people and controlling any type of certain damage to common well-being; 9) The State guaranteeing common welfare as belonging to everyone and each one. As a group of conditions of social life that makes possible for associations and each one of their *

Documents of Puebla and Gaudium et Spes.

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members the most plentiful and easier achievement of their own perfection; 10) Every action of the State, political, economic, cultural and social, leading to social well-being; 11) The State facilitating the citizens the necessary solutions for its total development: material, intellectual, social, moral and religious; 12) The State and common well-being as the basis that supports society on the final criterion of political life, rule of authority, reason of being the law and keystone of all legislation”.

N° 12 The Community The community, municipality, City Government – such is the case of Capital Federal – Argentine Republic- etcetera, result as the political, judicial and moral structure of the State in a more local condition for every geographical area of the Nation, and it has certain roles according to the model of organization. It takes particular functions and it can be said that it represents the surname of each city or town, its neighborhood prestige and façade. But that condition of major neighbor entity – that is to say of families and people – forces the municipality or community to a real relation with their people; and to the Media structurally placed in their jurisdiction, as main service and local voice through the journalistic activity; they are in charge of collecting neighbors’ expectations, news and burning topics, assemble them with community action and agree on a vital and creative broadcasting. It is also necessary in this case to guideline the “Permanent References”, adding them to the ones finished in previous chapters:


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PI 1) Knowledge and control of organization and structure of the community or municipality, in all its areas of action, opinions and resolutions; 2) Knowledge and control of the neighbors’ organizations intermediate associations of community or municipality boundary; 3) The community or municipality in its obligations of assistance and physical, moral and social service to the town or city; 4) The community or municipality giving and receiving neighbors’ cooperation, as fundamental immediate structure in the State organization, paying attention specifically to the requirements of people belonging to its jurisdiction, but prevailing these as a group of family units.

N° 13 The Province or Federal State The human being together with other or others form a family that finds shelter in a house, adjoining this with others, they make a neighborhood, and all together in an specific location, they make a community or municipality that together with other communities or municipalities with boundaries constitute a province or Federal State that occupies an specific geographic territory; what is more, it is characterized by its idiosyncratic, historical and evolutional reasons within each Nation. The means of social communication that are preferably a local service for each place, stressed on these Tables - , reaches an appropriate and fair dimension when they serve, not only respecting local needs as regards universal information, but also keeping local preferences, and at the same time, respecting the idiosyncrasy, history, customs

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and characteristics of an entire provincial community. Each province or federal state offers particularities, being and making rich its news and topics spectrum, always that media exists in that territory and practices the concept of balance to assist with a sense of unity and equality all the events of the province, highlighting needs and advances. Each province or federal state has a political organization, which orders and leads common welfare of society according to its structure and in harmony with the national State one. News and topics selection and searching, for journalism that is interested in all that happens or that wait in the province, it is framed in its territorial body, its nature and its people. In this sense, this “Permanent References� can be controlled; they facilitate the organization to administrate News and Topics, to select, to find: 1) Knowledge and control of the organization and structure of the provincial state, in all its areas of action, opinion and resolutions; 2) Knowledge and control of the organization and relation between the national state and the province; 3) Knowledge and control of the intermediate structures of social organization; 4) Knowledge and control of idiosyncrasy, tradition, customs, history and character of the province; 5) Knowledge and control of the different jurisdictions of towns and regions of the province. From their capital cities and the most important ones, to the smallest ones, regardless their extension level, inhabitants or development. 6) Knowledge and interest for the characteristics of each zone, their potentialities, needs and longings, in their nature as well as in


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PI the cultural, social, political, economic, moral and religious; their celebrations, history, costumes and tradition.

N° 14 The Immediate Inter-provincial Region The more the geographic perimeter broadens in the information process, the jealous demands broaden. The flow of News and Topics that move and point to the social means of communication, immense, endless, presents among its diverse risks the one of altering the criterion to value priorities. This may happen when we arbitrary give in to the impulse of choosing News and Topics, according to the immediate effective impact of their content. They can be valuable for their cause, but at the same time not valuable in their effects. Neither is that News and Topics of remote origin in physical distance to the place or territory that the means of social communication covers, or at the same time, imposing that costume or trend, more sensitive or emotional than intellectual, those News or Topics move and occupy the informative space of others with less impact, but regional. This is the reason why on Table N° 8 “Regional Priorities” are proposed and an order is progressively set in stages, which give location to the immediate inter-provincial region, constituted with neighboring provinces barely separated by the tangents of national geography, but surely linked by migratory relation, economic, cultural, educative exchanges, etc. To all that was exposed, these “Permanent References” are added, as complementary ideas:

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1) Knowledge and control of the idiosyncrasy, tradition, costumes, history and characteristics of each neighboring province: 2) Knowledge, control and attention to the migratory flow, causes and reasons, stimuli. 3) Evaluations, knowledge and support to the regional efforts and projects, in politics, economy, culture, education, science, sanitation, society, tourism, labor, communication, etc; 4) Special attention to the needs and solutions that transmit and consolidate inter-provincial bonds as human communities of people.

N° 15 The Country as Geographic Unit Having properly praised the composition and function of the national State, common administrator for the geographic country, it is very little what can be added in this part of “Permanent References�. In the case of other provinces that are part of the Country, but that for distance and tangential separations are not immediate to the covered location by means of social communication in its journalistic expression, the News and Topics that come from those states and provinces, even though they keep in their references the same guidelines of analysis drawn and applicable in all the cases; they modify mainly in the proportion that is given to them as regards broadcasting space. An unquestionable exception is made with issues of national interest, wherever they were produced or waiting for journalistic management, and with any News or Topic of valuable human importance as part of the brotherhood and national solidarity. At the same time, it is worth emphasizing that


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PI in the geographical and political composition of the country, which is integrated by all provincial states, there is a case of justified interest; regardless the distances: the place where the Capital of the Country is settled. Not as regards the News and Topics of general character from that zone and its people precede or leave behind similar ones from zones that have been marked as priorities (the community, neighboring communities, the province, neighboring provinces, provinces of the region) but to that which means relation with the events due to the location of the national government, of intermediate and private national organizations, that usually coincide in placing their headquarters.

N째 16 The Region of Neighboring Countries The News and Topics of foreign origin offer to the means of social communication, generally through News Agencies and international Media, and in less degree through correspondent, what makes possible to verify the common unity in only one universe, delegating to journalism the most formidable enterprise: the notable intercommunication of humanity. Nobody as journalism, until today, can perform that enterprise. Nobody as journalism can stop training better and better for that enterprise. It is not about the local community or the neighboring communities anymore, which news and messages can even be transmitted without major difficulties, even without the media. The international community delimited by nations, but substantially international community of people, is familiarized in its

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existence by the intercommunication irreplaceably possible through journalistic service. The News and journalistic Topics of international character physically encompass all the spectrum of the universe divided into continents, but in just one globe classified in two hemispheres: the Northern or Boreal, with the European-Asian continents and North America, and the Southern or Austral hemisphere, with the African, Australian and South America continents, giving more precise characteristics for race origin, language and religion instilled during the discovery, colonization and decolonization of towns. Take the case of Spanish spoken American nations, or Latin America that make up a tendency of cultural unity and present common characters under multiple aspects, above all in their religious origin. This label of Latin America is not for free because all of it has received the mark of Spanish and Portuguese culture, religion and language, of Romanic origin, and in the middle of the XX century the postwar European migrations. Causes like these have imposed their mark in many other continents, and even though the relation of the towns with their roots tried to be interrupted, their peoples keep the loyalty and signs of their idiosyncrasy. In the transition and beginning of the XXI century, the “globalization” prints completely new characteristics. For the News and Topics of foreign origin that must be selected or highlighted in a special search, “Idea Journalism” proposal is applicable in all its phases. They must be promoted to the category of Information-Message and receive appropriate treatment, especially when through them the international community is strengthened as community of people and nations.


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PI As regards the “Region of Neighboring Countries”, the observation and recommendation that show the tendency of these Tables applies, as far as the selection of News and Topics respects the range of priorities that arises by placing first that important information coming from neighboring countries, linked by geographic proximity. It is then possible to repeat the same example given before, as regards the influence of events according to the distance, knowledge and familiarity with the place of origin and greater identification with their people. In this case, the following “Permanent References” apply. 1) Knowledge and control of the geography, political organization, idiosyncrasy, tradition, customs, history and characteristics of neighboring countries; 2) Knowledge of the migratory flow and the exchange between neighboring countries; causes; reasons; stimuli; 3) Interest for the realities and multiples or bilateral projects for the development of an international neighborhood, in economic, cultural, educational, scientific, tourist and sport aspects, etcetera, and particularly for those initiatives or important contributions that preserve and promote peace, justice and human dignity among the countries linked by neighborhood and origins; 4) Pay special attention to national or exceptional events that happen in neighboring countries as a consequence of all human, political, economic, social, cultural and spiritual process; celebrations, events, etcetera; not only as news reason, but as service for the brotherhood of peoples, for the immigrants of those countries, and above all, helping the international fraternity with neighboring nations, certainly with common ideals in their

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peoples.

N° 17 The Region of Countries of the Continent In the case of News and Topics that come from abroad, it comes after the interest for the neighboring countries, the interest for all the non neighboring countries of the continental region: with these “Permanent References�: a) Knowledge and control of the continental region; b) Knowledge of the common exchanges between countries of the continental region; c) Evaluation and preponderant interest of the great projects and continental objectives; d) Knowledge and respect for well-known international organizations and special attention to their aims; e) Interest for the realities and bilateral projects for the development of the continental international neighborhood, in the economic, cultural, educational, scientific, tourist and sport aspects, etcetera, and especially for those initiatives or contributions that best preserve and promote peace, justice and human dignity among the countries linked by continental bonds; f) Pay special attention to national or exceptional events that happen in countries of the continent as a consequence of all human, political, economic, social, cultural and spiritual process; celebrations, events, etcetera; not only as news reason, but as service for the brotherhood of peoples of the continent, for the immigrants of those countries, and above all, helping the international continental fraternity, certainly with common ideals in their peoples.


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N° 18 All the Countries and Regions of the Universe A great part of the relation dialog-social among men, above geo-political divisions or ideological differences, is done by means of information; mission delegated to journalism to carry out that formidable enterprise that implies the intercommunication of humanity. This is why, as “Permanent References” for all the countries and regions of the universe, we underline again the categories established in Table N° 7 and its chapters related to the Human Being and the Family, as well as the respect for each National State. At the same time, the universe of nations, despite all difficulties and divisions, will continue as changeless witness of its own and changeless truth: it is one, even though it is tried to be fragmented, by lines on the maps, by wrong decisions of power and control or by hiding or manipulation of topics and information. “Idea Journalism” certainly assumes the universality of Journalism and in its Tables; it has distinguished the priorities with reasons. But it never relegates the Human Being and the Family, common to all Universe, as a “New Despotic Order” pretends, which is promoted with the impositions and ambiguities of the “globalization”. Some other guidelines are recommended for the journalistic treatment of News and Topics, saving that about the relation of informative interests according to the distance that separates the origin of them: 1) Knowledge and control of the great topics common to all men and as expression of the final sense of every man, within just one time

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universe; 2) Knowledge and respect for well-known international organizations and special attention to their aims; 3) Knowledge, support and promotion for the great projects of humanity in the spiritual, moral and material level; 4) Attention for the events of each country and continent.


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Methodology of Critical Analysis THINKER II


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Interceptor of Manipulations* Prolog This thinker method, interceptor of manipulations through information, as instrument for critical, active and creative analysis, is created for every person to use it – especially Professional Journalists and social communicators- test what they are offered or what is broadcasted on mass media to be true or false or doubtful. It is a counter-system: thinker and personalizing, which aim represents the doctrine, theory and methodology of “Idea Journalism” method that informs, educates, guides, makes other think and promotes. It has proposed to help restoring or confirming man’s dignity in the process of information by social means of communication.

Know How to Think Objectives

Make Others Think Let Them Think

Miguel A. Perez Gaudio

*Manipulation Interceptor Method. Thinker. Reg. Int. Prop. 33296. Miguel Perez Gaudio


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Specific Objectives 1째 To intercept the Only Sense and Vertical Communication of Information that constitute as public. It must be considered as public information all that has a social destination, regardless the genre, characteristic or format. 2째 To promote the total practice of Critical, Active and Creative Sense as Human Right for Freedom of Conscience. 3째 To toughen freedom.

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4째 To neutralize the trans-cultural effects of national and international Media and Multimedia.

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References The Media (*) “The communion and progress of human cohabitation are the final aims of social communication and its instruments: television, radio, press and Internet. Even though they are especially directed to the individual, they really affect and move to all the society. Therefore, no effort must be omitted for the “addressees” (the ones who see, listen to or read) to be able to understand exactly when they are given these instruments to benefit and be able to actively participate in social life; only this way, these instruments will get their total efficacy. The Media, in each place, must be judged and valued as far as they help common welfare; that is: their news, art and amusements must be useful to the life and progress of the community. It is necessary for all communication to adjust to the main law of sincerity, honesty and truth. It is not enough then, the good intentions and a straight will for a communication to be honest. It is also necessary for the communication to broadcast the facts from the truth and for itself to have it own intrinsic truth. The respect and moral value of communication does not come only from its content or its theoretic teaching, but also from the reason that determines it, from the form and technique of expression and persuasion, from the circumstances and diversity of the men it is addressed.” The Addressees (*) “The audience has some possibilities – and therefore obligations as well- more serious than * “Communio et Progressio.”


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PI what is usually believed. An authentic dialog depends greatly in the addressees themselves. If they can stand the influx of information as silent listeners, the communication will be oriented in an ONLY SENSE, without answer, even though the informers try to establish a dialog. The addressees will really be the active part if they interpret straightly the contents presented as information by the Social Means of Communication, judging and praising them according to their source and context; if they select carefully and effectively and with a demanding critical spirit; if, in the cases that require it, they complete the received information with facts acquired from other sources; if they do not hesitate to frankly express their agreement, their doubts or their disapproval.�

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Instructions on how to use the MIM • Any topic-information can be critically analyzed through the MIM. • If the information to be analyzed is in print, it can be marked or cut; whereas, in the case of audiovisual offer – radio or television -, the alternative may be taking note of their main points, as a reminder, or the recording as faithful reference. If the information was obtained in Internet, it is better to work on the screen or the printed page. • The analysis is interactive and guided by the Tables of Reference, methodologically elaborated and the analytical, printed, oral or audiovisual discourse is sequentially constituted. The Manipulation Interceptor Method is represented in a chart with five pedagogical screens and a referential keyboard. Each of the screens contains a symbolic clue, and each key is sign and symbol of consult, strengthening the pedagogy of critical analysis and construction of information-message in the concept of Idea Journalism.


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Tables of Reference To facilitate the answers

The stated definitions and categories are referential and not excluding of others that the user of the MIM may replace or add if he considers it pertinent.

INFORMS

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The descriptive analysis according to the Formal Clues (general ideas by which the analyzed material becomes understood as regards its form). 1) Information 2) Mean of origin or of Social Communication 3) Broadcasting 4) Language 1- Intercepted information (material for analysis) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write the title of that information or the reference of what it is about. Mean of origin or of social 2communication (vehicle of information) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write the name of the mean that was the vehicle for that information and the place, city or country it belongs. Examples: • Newspapers; magazines; News Agencies; issues; books; mailings; brochures. • Radio or television broadcasters; Internet

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(Web pages); videos. • CD; cassette; records. • Wallpapers; stickers. Note: If the information is not local write down the agency name and the place of origin also – if it is registered – specifying whether it is national or foreign. 3- Public Broadcasting (time precision) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the date when the information was published (in the case of printed media) or the date and time (in the case of radio, television or internet). 4- Formal Language (the way to say it) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the characteristic of the information, taking as a reference the guidelines below. a- In the case of journalistic information • news (event) • news in brief (tale) • comment (interpretation made by the media) • interview • report (treatment with genre interaction) • editorial (opinion of the media) • reader’s letter (personal opinion) • phone call (personal opinion) • opinion of a well-known person • representative document of social interest • service information (weather forecast, transportation, hospitals, pharmacies, etc) • photography (with connotative epigraph) • cartoon and sketches (with connotative messages)


Methodology of Analysis

PI b- In the case of propaganda • individual or institutional “solicitude” • official communication of institution • miscellaneous news (it can be noticed when the informing institution is named. It usually includes expressions such as “informs”, “says”, “communicates”, “claims”, etc) • rumor or version (when information of this type is confirmed, it becomes journalistic; otherwise, it is propaganda) • “disguised” propaganda (this character can be deduce in many cases after the first reading) • Ideological message (promotion of ideas of particular sector) • Message relating to a particular sector (promotion of activities of a particular sector) c- In the case of publicity • graphic commercial ad • sound commercial ad • audiovisual commercial ad • signs and wallpapers dIn the information

case

of

entertainment

• centered on radio or television Internet (web pages), graphic, games

shows,

e- In the case of information in the format of musical song (musical genres) f- In the case of literary (poems, essays, etc)

information

g- In the case of information with material award as Prizes (commercial contests on television and radio)

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EDUCATES

decomposition Analysis of informative discourse according to Idiomatic Clues (ideas by which the analyzed material is understood as regards the grammatical role of its expressed or connotative components) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Who says To whom it refers With what firmness How to judge

5- Who says (the obvious addressor) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down who shows in the information as the responsible for it, with nouns or names. It can be a person (or more than one), institutions, social groups, companies, etc. If it is not specified, write “it does not sayâ€?. 6- To whom it refers In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down to whom it explicitly or implicitly refers as addressee. It can be a person (or more than one), institutions, social groups, companies, etc. Examples: •

Social sector

7- With what firmness or hesitation (firmness in saying) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down briefly the sentence/s used by the addressor (identified in 5), which have the most relevant verbs (the ones in indicative mode, etc)


Methodology of Analysis

PI 8- How to judge or determine (qualification) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down briefly the sentence/s used by the addressor (identified in 5), which have the most qualifying expressions (it is always possible to identify an adjective) GUIDES

deductions Internal analysis of the information according to the Hidden Clues (ideas by which the analyzed material presents circumstances intentionally hidden by the addressor) 9) Indirect Addressors 10) Beneficiaries 11) Damaged Note: Essential information must be discovered here, that are usually underlying, hidden. They are deduced with the help of other already determined information (first and second screen). Sometimes the results are probable; other times, just possible. One person, institution, company, etcetera, can show in both instances, but with valid and different reasons. 9- Indirect Addressors (the addressor undercover) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, mark who the probable or possible addressor or co-addressor of the analyzed information is. It can be one person (or more than one), institutions, social groups, companies, etcetera, which are not explicitly mentioned.

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Bare in mind that: a- In the case of journalistic information, it might be: An announcement or event covered by a journalist (which can be deduced by the reading), or an announcement or event that has been communicated to the media by the relative sector, with their perspective and through their press office. b- In the case of propaganda, it might be: • Press offices of any type, providing propaganda “disguised” as miscellaneous; • Political parties, political-ideological organizations, organizations relative to any type of sector, etcetera, with identical procedure; • Institutional Communication Companies, publicity with non explicit ads “disguised” as journalistic information. They use this resource promoting ideas, products, people, organizations, etc. • Companies, undercover, leading information for their own benefit, damaging other companies. The typical examples are cinematographic and show companies, discographers, sport companies, etc. • Survey companies for public opinion c- In the case of publicity, it might be: • Publicity companies creating explicit ads paid by sponsors that are not always mentioned; or themselves, undercover. 10- Beneficiaries In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the name of the one that benefits from the information, even though there is no explicit name. It may be one or more people, institutions, companies, social


Methodology of Analysis

PI groups, countries, etc. 11- Damaged In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the name of who can feel damaged with the negative reference of the information, even though it may not be explicit in it. Such name can belong to people, companies, social groups, countries, institutions, and etcetera. MAKE OTHERS THINK

basis of principles and reasoning

Projective analysis of the informative message contents, according to Cultural Clues (ideas by which the analyzed material shows agreements or vital contradictions) Every man has the right-duty of demanding moral, ethic-social and religious basis, in all areas of social cohabitation, and especially in the field of information and content of mass media, which are characterized as public instruments due to its cultural function. The basis belong to the cultural identity and the national being, concrete in each nation, that at the same time accepts and respects the universal human values, integrating them in all their positive aspects. Consequently, it does not disregard the pluralism of ideas, as far as they aim at a system of social cohabitation for Common Well-being. Each user of this method will answer in his chart according to cultural convictions. There are only references given here. 12) Values 13) Man Vision 14) Society Vision 12- Values that are accepted or denied in

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the message In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the judgments that you make from the main contents of the analyzed information. This procedure is applicable for journalistic topics, publicity, propaganda, entertainment, etc. The following may help you as a referential guide. Does it respect, cut down or atrophy the rights of the human being? Why? • to life • to security • to freedom • to think • to express • to cultural goods • to be more educated • to respect • to reputation • to privacy • to his family privacy • to his house privacy • to his mail privacy • to the protection of the law • to seek the truth • to defend ideas • to information • to make a family • to the resources to support it • to progress as a family • to give birth • to educate the children • to family intimacy • to the stability of the family bond • to believe and spread his faith • to educate his children according to the desire of them • to a stable job • to a fair salary • to find with more safety his own subsistence • to appropriate housing


Methodology of Analysis

PI • to a fair free time • to a free economic initiative for society • to be free from misery • to property, with social mortgage • to protection, in the case of underage • to the necessary benefits of security and social health • to a dignified life and death, in the case of elderly • to public representation • to participate in public life • to participate freely of social responsibilities • to be defended against pornography • to be defended against drug addiction • to be defended against alcoholism • to be defended against corruption • to a press that defends the family • to make, know and have more to be more Do you recognize these violations and aggressions against human being? • homicide, genocide, euthanasia, abortion, suicide • mutilations • physical and mental tortures • poor living conditions • imprisonment without reason • deportation • slavery • prostitution • ignominious working conditions • disrespect for man’s freedom • considering the worker as a mean for income • subversive terrorism • State terrorism • Drug dealing • Social discrimination • Poverty promotion • Consent of poverty • Ignoring others poverty Does it respect or deny religious rights of

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man? • recognizes God • forgets or denies God • jeers at God or its faith • degrades God’s faith • honors the parents • teaches life care • teaches the true love • teaches not to rob • teaches to tell the truth • teaches not to be envious • teaches to be satisfied with the necessary • teaches faithfulness between spouses • teaches not to be greedy for other people’s • praises cleanness of heart • supports gentleness • teaches justice • fosters charity • praises peace • teaches how to be hopeful Praises or condemns these anti-values? • greed • desire to increase own duty • power abuse • people’s avarice • avarice of the family as such • avarice of the nation (abuse of having) • suffocating materialism • abuse of property • public sensuousness and permissiveness 13- Man vision In the appropriate place on the screen, write the idea given about the man in the analyzed information. For example: • Consumerist vision It sees human being as simple instrument of production and consumption • Individualist vision (liberal) It sees human dignity only as an instrument of economic efficacy and as subject of individual


Methodology of Analysis

PI freedom • Collective vision It sees the aim of human existence as the development of material production forces. The person and it conscience give in to the social, materialist and atheistic. • State vision It puts the individual to the unlimited service of a hypothetical total war against cultural, social, political, economic and ideological conflicts. Individual and State freedom are confused with the will of the nation. • Scientist vision It subdues all to the technical-scientific and only recognizes as true all that science can prove. In the name of science it all justifies; including the insults to human being and its dignity. It recognizes a new power: technocracy and a kind of materialized social engineering in the arms race, biogenetics, techno electronic and robotics, with their consequences of greater economic production, unemployment and birth control – which attacks the family-, social insecurity, etc. • Psychological vision It sees almost only human being’s psyche. It presents man as a victim of erotic instinct or as a mechanism that responds to stimuli, without freedom. • Determinist vision It sees man not as his own owner but as victim of hidden forces with which only cooperation or humiliation is possible. Subjection to horoscopes, parapsychology, spirits, occultism, etc. • Permissive vision Noticeable deformation in neo-liberal societies which, due to a misinterpretation of freedom, tolerate excesses that lead to its distortion: licentiousness. • Transcendental-religious vision It sees a person in man, a conscious being,

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owner of himself. A being that, in a horizon of freedom, progressively constructs his pace, engaging with values and engaging in dialog with other people and especially with God. A being with sense, focused to an aim, which is spiritual plenitude, knowledge expansion and love in communion with the Infinite Being. • Authoritarian vision • Despotic vision 14- Vision of the society and of the world In the appropriate place on the screen, write down which idea of the world and the society is given in the analyzed information. It might be one of these: • Atheist That denies or rejects God’s existence • Collective It tends to general nationalization, trusting the State the production and distribution of all type of wealth. • Conservative That responds to economically privileged and concentrated groups opposed to pacific social transformations. • Dissociating (that denies the need for a fair and participative cohabitation order, promoting the suspension of any legitimate authority, by any mean) • Hopeful It sees with optimism the development of human events and anticipates a good ending. • Fraternal It considers universal brotherhood valid, with all its connotations. • Ideologist It watches the world and society in the light of a certain system of ideas. • Imperialist colonialist It attributes to highly developed powers the false right of cultural, political, economic, social and ideological dominance over developing


Methodology of Analysis

PI countries, for geo-political aims. • Materialist It takes matter as the only principle of the being; it denies the existence of other human values, such as the spiritual, intellectual, moral, aesthetic ones, etc. • Optimistic It was funded in society and world’s kindness; it considers positively all the events in which man participates. • Pessimistic As opposed to the optimistic vision, it sees man and his environment as fatal expressions of evil. • Political Seeking common well-being, it tries to conciliate the events and situations according with compatibilities. • Progressing It sustains the need for renewal before moderation. • Racist It inspires racial superiority, ignoring and denying the equal dignity of any human being. • Secularist It vindicates autonomy of the worldly before God, usually with a religious loss. • Triumphing Having exaggerated self-confidence and sense of superiority as regards the rest overvalues its own accomplishments. PROMOTES

perception of manipulations This is the determinant moment in the exercise of critical, active and creative analysis, through the manipulations interceptor thinker. It has to be discovered by oneself the quality and hierarchy of information – with the capacity to weigh, evaluate and judge-; whether this, intentionally or not, constitutes an act of

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manipulation, or on the contrary, it does it as an act of human promotion. This last operation is not “against something”, but it is a reactive interception that promotes vindicating the sublime dignity of human being. 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)

Truths Lies Doubts Persuasion techniques Cultural influence

Resolution Would it be true, false or doubtful? Firstly, reread the analyzed information. Then, scan the complete, consulted and resolved facts on the major screen. This way, revising the clues and results, you will be able to answer in the manipulation perceptive screen what you discovered or presuppose in the content of the analyzed information. References of techniques.

potentially

manipulating

• Intentional It is when inaccuracies substitute authentic facts. • Partial When a partial interpretation of that informed is incorporated. For example, using pejorative adjectives (inconsistence, clumsy, disordered, useless, vain, false, shy, uncertain, poor, inconsiderate, etc) and stereotypes (people’s will, liberation, State’s interests, popular struggle, conscience of class, popular democracy, etcetera) • Fragmented When information consists of pieces or fragments, and even that, partial truths are assembled to give the appearance of complete truth.


Methodology of Analysis

PI • Interested It is when facts are presented in such way that they lead to misinterpretation, and this may be favorable to certain interests. • Conditioned When they describe events in such way that they arouse doubts or exaggerated fears without basis, with the specific intention of conditioning people’s future action (or communities’ or governments’) 15- Truths It can be truth the assertion that is presented in the information with clarity, accuracy and responsibility. Think; consult, if necessary; and decide. 16- Lies It can be lie the assertion that is presented in the information, and that according to your own knowledge and judgment are not true. Think; consult, if necessary; and decide. 17- Doubts It can be considered doubtful, an assertion presented in the information, which according to critical analysis, is confusing, uncertain or ambivalent. Decide about the three presented instances (*Truth *Lie *Doubt) with the judgment elements that you can find in the analyzed information, going deeply into the whys? 18- Persuasion techniques (Persuading is inducing, moving, and forcing others with reasons to believe or do something) In the appropriate place of the screen, write down the technique you discovered in the presentation of the analyzed information, and which ones you consider evident. As a reference, there are some categories listed, which might belong or be alternative for each mean of social communication (press, radio and television)

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Overwhelming Confusing

Determinist

Effective Disguised

Exciting Impressionist

Insidious Bad intentioned Negativist

Disturbing

Seductive Sensationalist

It overwhelms with exaggerated amount of data It seeks to neutralize personality with ambiguous language It seeks to catch the addressee intellectually to make his will work as the message proposes It aims at the easy and fast reception of the message It tries to hide identity and responsibility of the addressor’s “authorized speakers”, “a faithful source”, etc It weakens primary interests It seeks the fast adherence to the way of presenting the information, more than to the reality of the issue dealt in it It tries to deceive, working maliciously It tries to bend the addressee’s position It proposes quietness before all mistake, injustice, immorality, atrocity, etc It tends to arise doubts and vacillations about truths and natural realities It seeks adhesion It presents an issue in a highlighted way to create a climate of real interest around it, making use of simple conditional sensations. The elements that can be used, among others, are:


Methodology of Analysis

PI In press: • magnifying headlines, by their text and font size • unmeasured photography or pictures • exaggerated texts about the issue On radio and television: • sustained emphasis of the voices • annoying background music • exaggeration or manipulation of the images • presentation and development of the issue with magnifying intention Subliminal

Terrifying

Intentional headline

Arbitrary location

Violent

It tries to influence the unconscious. It works under the frame of consciousness It tries to inspire fear or exaggerated fright. It tries to attract with unreal headlines It seeks the insidious comparison of two or more pieces of information, or exaggerates the importance of one or more. It transmits ways of violent actions to provoke identification with them

19- Cultural influence In the appropriate place of the receiver screen, write down the category that you consider valid

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for the analyzed information and its broadcasting in the specific media. It can be pro-cultural, trans-cultural or both. It requires a brief justification. Pro-cultural It is necessary that man, for his cultural development, knows things completely and faithfully; properly and accurately, in order to understand the world he lives in and to be able to freely elaborate his own judgments and criterion. And with that participate actively and efficiently in his social environment. It is also, to have presence in different economic and political, social and religious situations today. Trans-cultural Every manipulating action is trans-cultural in itself, for instance, when superiority is given to events that do not have real importance for the local community to which it provides the service of mean of social communication; or when superficial or non transcendental events are intertwined with really important events. Man wastes time with this, in a mediocre exercise that does not allow him appreciate high and useful things.


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Glossary

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We make a brief list – in alphabetical order- of the main thematic denominations used and proposed in this book This way we try to preponderantly strengthen the concepts, and give a guideline the easily facilitates the reader to place himself in their meaning. In order not to abound, the ones more commonly used in “Idea Journalism” have been chosen. A Action of educating: it tends for Information-.Message not only to make events known, but also to clarify words, concepts and confusing ideas, because mass media should be schools shapers of people. Action of guiding: it complements the effect of information, guiding human action, deduced from itself, for his good. It is a sequence that gives concrete answers to human needs. Action of informing: all that is informed is constituted by the objective elements, helping the needs as service that updates man in the transformation of society. Action of promoting: the changes and transformations that take place throughout history depend, greatly, on the creativity with which “Idea Journalism” identifies with the aspirations that live in human nature and that tend to a constant promotion and increase of their current condition, with proposals. Action of thinking: in all communication, the action of thinking is present. It is “idea Journalism” responsibility, in the treatment of Information-Message, to suggest that the addressee practice his natural capacity for discernment, for him as a person and for the social context he lives in. All the countries and regions of the universe: they are also object of information-message before the common problems of man in contemporary history (see Tables of Reference). Analysis: is the capacity the Journalist must practice to value the merits for common welfare, which must praise and highlight information treatment and broadcasting. Anonymous: all and any. Without nomination or identity. Area: is the aspect that covers a Topic-Information at its beginning, determining who the responsible/s is/are. Authorial Journalism: it implies that every journalist assumes as autonomous professional with stable dependence to a media, the responsibility on the treatment of productions, growing as a thinker before each one of them and giving himself through his own


Glossary

initiatives. C Challenges: is the one that “idea Journalism” launches for the process of information to construct it as message; in such way that its contents are valid in the shaping of people. It seeks a more perfect justice in the relation Journalism- Society- Man. Chart: basic methodological facts for analysis, treatment and elaboration of Information-Message in “Idea Journalism”. Common welfare: is the group of material and spiritual conditions that favor total development of human being. Specifically applying this generic definition to journalistic affairs, we can claim that Common welfare in the field of social communications is all communicative action of information that irreversibly tends to favor and stimulate. To help common welfare is the aim and objective of its functions, increase, encourage and develop cultural and social conditions that allow man, any man, to have more to be more. Communications: (journalistic). They have the mission of broadcasting by oral or written word, sounds or images –graphic or in motion- all that, trusted to its mediation, is useful to answer informative and cultural expectations of society for common welfare. They are social: which means that the interests of owners and/or manipulators should never come before to the interests of society (Common Welfare). They are means: consequently, mere public instruments and not aims themselves. Help common welfare is the aim and objective of their functions. They are massive: as opposed to selective messages, its massive character is taken from the fact that they are oriented publicly and unlimitedly to all society regardless the age or social, cultural, ethnic or religious groups. Community (Municipality): is the political, legal and moral structure of the State with a more local character in each geographic zone of the Nation; its roles must deserve a referential treatment as group of family units. Control of results (effect and foreseeable course): when broadcasted information reaches public opinion, it follows an evolution course that professional responsibility must control to evaluate if it has accomplished the positive role it was assigned by the conception of “Idea Journalism”. From the permanent topics favoring man (justice, peace, freedom,

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Glossary

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human promotion, etc.) until the most concrete and reduced because they demand sequential care, they should be attentively followed in their development and result. Country, geographical unit: its importance as topic of Informationmessage relates with the political unit of the country and the news that originate in the place where the capital of the country is. Covering: is the projection (Institutions, people, groups, etc.) of the Topic-Information, baring in mind the repercussion that it has on the social group, considering the logical and possible circuit that the topic suggests when moving in society (to whom). Crisis and journalism: the crisis that destroys humanity must be assumed by “Idea Journalism� with the clear and defined purpose of helping to overcome and solve them. They can not be used to scandalize and sell more information. Critical analysis: investigation task that is developed based on content analysis, with criterion and methodology that facilitates proves and conclusions. (See: MIM Manipulation Interceptor Method). D Documents: it complements the task of familiarization; investigating and enriching the informative process with all the physical or objective elements available. Documents (Joint): they form spontaneously or for necessity in organized sectors of society (public or private). The participation of journalism in them aims at its broadcasting and enrichment in the treatment according to the social importance they have, because they can be generators of important topics. E Events (surprising or foreseen): every event that happens and deserves social communication has implicit elements that can promote the treatment of important issues, whether they are sudden or foreseen events. Experts: are those people that by their knowledge of the event or by their specific cultural capacity must be consulted to truly and correctly inform. F Familiarization: is the historical and/or joint documentation, and the requested to experts for improving its treatment.


Glossary

Family: vital cell and basic core of all society. The increasing technology in social communication must adjust stages: a) action of informing; b) action of educating; c) action of guiding; d) action of making others think; e) action of promoting.

G Genre: are the different characteristics of form and journalistic culture in which a topic can be elaborated (news, briefs, reports, comments, round tables, etc.) H Human being: the human being, its imminent dignity and transcendence, is inexhaustible source of news and topics. All the links in it, in favor or against, must be carefully watched by identified journalistic affair and caring for life, development, participation, responsibility and well-being of man and all men. I Idea Journalism: its main longing is to effectively reinstalled man as the center of social communication of information and the history process. It is made up of: substantial training; doctrine that justifies it; making theory; methodologies; deontology guidelines and referential tables. Ideology: its respect must be guaranteed, but information management cannot be used in predetermined manipulations by Mass Means of Social Communication. Immediate inter-provincial region: group of neighboring provinces linked by migratory relations, economic, cultural and educative exchanges, etc. Incidence: the journalist, when broadcasting information, must be conscious of the consequences that this will produce on society; he must keep in mind that the basic is discerning what is positive for man and society. Information: is all action broadcasted by the means of social communication about past or coming events, from a strictly objective point of view: however, in our conception, information is all that is communicated, even though that is guided, as in the case of publicity and propaganda. Information consequently, to be

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Glossary

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faithful to “Idea Journalism”, must be subjected to a selection and deontology and methodological treatment that make its broadcasting compatible. Information- Message: is the demand for each piece of information (fact or opinion) that is broadcasted to have, for the treatment it received, a beneficial creation for man and society, cohelping a new humanism. Information (permanent): all kind of news service. Inwardness: is the capacity that the journalist must practice for the information he communicates, understood and assumed, to become a message, capable of being interpreted and lived by the addressees of the communication, in such way that everyone’s wellbeing prevails over particular’s well-being. (Sense and Objective) K Knowledge: professional responsibility forces the journalist to a certain and deep knowledge of the social reality in its main expressions and problems. M Man and information: the only real owner of true information that means of social communication broadcasts is man. Therefore, truth cannot be distorted, changed or silenced. The man has the right human rights- to receive it to nourish it spirit, with the same right he has to be given the means for his complete development. This implies restoring man in the center of information. Media: instrument that modern technique offers for social communication N National State: the State as organizer of Common Welfare of the social group is one of the permanent references to which means of social communication should give special attention, in such way that the existing legal order helps the formation of cultivated, peaceful and benevolent men. Non conformism: the one existing between man and means of social communication, before pressures, pushes and neutralities without substances in the use of these means.


Glossary

O Objective: it is determined by the social aspect that encourages Information-message in man’s favor; it is a harmonic, concrete and stable human promotion service. Opinions (independent): spontaneous appeal to authorized and competent people to pass true and concrete judgment or opinion on problems of public interest, not necessarily as result of preexisting information. P Pedagogical forms: Information-Message has the following stages: a) action of informing; b) action of educating; c) action of guiding; d) action of making others think; e) action of promoting. Pedagogy of the Information-Message: the transmission of information does not exhaust in its communication of the news. It must be fruitful as message, enriched by the pedagogical, cultural and relevant for the promotion of man and the human community. Permanent questions: for “Idea Journalism”, they constitute the permanent questions and problems, which for their meaning and transcendence for man and society welfare have to be present in the question of service of the social communicator. Presentation of the Information-Message: in its broadcasting, content must always prevail over the forms. Certainly, journalistic forms and styles, the better they are offered, respected the content and objective of “Idea Journalism”, are essential for their better efficacy. The style is formal; the aim responds to the creative vocation of the journalist for the service of humanity. Pressures: competitiveness of different media in their urge to broadcast news puts sideways the need to relief psychological pressures of man today, broadcasting contents that subdue him. Province or federal State: group of places and organized communities that occupy an specific geographical territory, characterized by idiosyncrasy, political division, historical data, physical conditions, etc. within the evolution of each Nation (see Table of References). Primary facts: every topic needs to have basic primary facts answering the following questions: what happened? How? When? Where? Who?, and any other reference. Prophetic moan: “A moan, we can even call prophetic, moves around the world to denounce the growing interior suffering of men

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Glossary

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as their wealth increases and the hunger for a greater absent wealth” (Paul VI; Rome, 17/11/76) R Range of values: for “Idea Journalism” it constitutes the epicenter of permanent priorities for and in the service of a range of values that is the following: 1) the human being; 2) the family as the vital cell of society; 3) the State organized for common well-being; 4) the Community of linked Nations by their neighborhood and continental idiosyncrasy; 6) all the universal community of nations. Region of neighboring countries: in the case of Hispanic America, it is integrated by common characteristics derived from its cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic conditions. Its problems must be deeply known by the social communicator (see Tables of Reference) Region of countries of the continent: its proximity with the addressor mean of social communications indicates its relevance in the treatment of information (see Tables of Reference) Regional priorities: they come from the closest borderline to journalist labor: 1) the community, town or city; 2) the communities, towns or neighboring cities; 3) province or federal State; 4) immediate inter-provincial region; 5) geographic country; 6) region of neighboring countries; 7) region of countries of the continent; 8) all the countries of the regions of the universe. Removing ideologies: freed the message of information from all sector or group ideologies, the proposal of removing ideologies will take journalism to a pre-eminence of objectivity that rationally adjusts to the needs of man today. Responsibility: the greater amount of news to broadcast that shake society, demand a greater responsibility in their selection and qualitative treatment by the journalists. Return to society: all information after its elaboration and treatment returns to society, this situation originates new information or social changes derived from the mutual exchange. Rumors or versions: they are the “murmur” of society. They must not be promoted until they have been responsibly verified. Their treatment demands taking the following into account: nothing is true, as far as it is not true. S Sequence-sustainability: is the development that should be given


Glossary

to the Information-Message according to the used media (press, radio-TV, etc.) for the public opinion to be fully informed. Selection (of the information): professional skill capable of withdrawing from disordered massiveness. Selection must be conscious and logical, systematic and vital. Sense: are the support values and the reason for which Information-message is elaborated. It cannot collide with man’s well-being. System: is an organization that encompasses all relevant moments, in such way that all those moments together are mutually determined and constitute a whole. T Tables of categories: listing of issues and questions, concrete or fortuitous for the news and topics proposal, before formal aspects. Tables of journalism: guiding, referential and methodological structure for the vital systematization of informative organization in the journalistic process through the Mass Means of Social Communications. Its purpose is to invite to think about the value of information, taking into account that the man is the cause, basis and aim of all social organization. Topic: all matter that is offered as journalistic information to be broadcasted in any of the means of social communication. it can be originated in the professional labor of a journalist, news agency and non professional being when it comes from public or private institutions or experts. Trends: “Idea Journalism� must be able to change the limits for competitive success in communication, into real, necessary and fascinating triumphs for man. U Universality of journalism: it consists in having a great openness to all men of the universe, which supposes the use of modern techniques of information, incorporating criteria, contents and qualities that turn them intrinsically effective for universal common welfare. Universal communication: it must be unquestionably guaranteed by the truth, reliability, the richness of its treatment, the selection criterion and promotion of information.

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Glossary

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V Vital participation: it is the one of the journalist when it assumes, in the elaboration of the information, his responsibility and methodology to transmit it.


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Bibliography for Compared Analysis

• ACCARDO, Alain – Journalists before the mechanisms of cooption • BUNGE, Mario –Science, its method and philosophy • CALMON ALVES Rosental. Journalism for Internet. • CAMINOS MARCET, Jose Maria – Journalism of investigation. Theory and practice • CASTELLI, Eugenio – Journalism manual – Plus Ultra – Dec. 1981 • COLOMBO, Furio – Last news about journalism. International journalism manual • COLOMBO, Furio – Scientific news • COLOMBO, Furio – International news. Trans-national news • COLOMBO, Furio – Economic news • COMMUNIO ET PROGRESSIO • DADER, Jose Luis – Precision Journalism • DEL BONO, Edward – Creativity • FRAGA, R.; BARROS, C.; MARTINEZ VIVOT, A.; BÔLER, W. – Self-perception of journalism in Argentina. • FUNDACION PARA UN NUEVO PERIODISMO EN ARGENTINA. (Fundation for a new journalism in Argentina) G. Garcia Marquez. A new journalism for a new social order • GASTALDI, Italo Francisco – Basic topics of anthropology


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• HALPERIN, Jorge – Journalistic interview, Intimacy of public conversation • MARIAS, Julian – The Communication of Thought • MERAYO PEREZ, Arturo – Journalists for the information century • Critical Thinking vs. Unique Thinking – Debate Topics • PIEDRAHITA TORO, M. – Modern Journalism. History, perspectives and tendencies towards the year 2000 • QUIVY, Raymond – Manual of Investigation in Social Sciences - 1997 • RAMONET, Ignacio – The Tyranny of Communication • RAMONET, Ignacio – Effects of globalization in developing countries • REYES, Gerardo – Investigation Journalism • MOWLANA, Hamid and Wilson, LAURIEL J. – Communication, Technology and Development • UNESCO – Just One World, many voices • ZAVOLI, Sergio – Communicate Our Time


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Index

page Silent and Silenced News Journalism in Social Sciences Reference Investigations Principles of Idea Journalism Theory and Methodology Methodological Process Society and Trend Familiarization Inwardness Return to Society Message to Society Journalistic Discourse in Information Message Results Control Tables of Journalism Tables Methodology of Critical Analysis Glossary Bibliography


“Idea Journalism” proposes: • Considering information, not as a rhetorical service of gathered words, sounds and images, but as a service of messages that are elaborated providing news, facts, opinions as intellectual, moral and spiritual support for peoples’ lives. This demands a solid professional training, beyond the empiric, re-qualifying the professional role in the dimension of a cultural operator, leader and manager of information, autonomous and authorial, with technical, methodic and methodological support that this book contributes to with the premises: know how to think, make others think and let them think.

Idea Journalism  

Periodismo Idea en inglés