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StellrScopE

Eleanor Gates-Stuart


‘Spikes’ Photograph by Dr Megan Hemmings, CSIRO


Contents ACT Chief Minister’s Foreward

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StellrScope - The Centenary of Canberra

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Artist Preface - StellrScope

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The Art of Wheat Improvement – From the Age of the Impressionists to the Digital Era

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Farrer Memorial Trust

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William Farrer – Father of the Australian Wheat Industry

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Bioinformatics and the Life Invisible

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StellrScope: A Techno-tapestry of Art and Science

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StellrLume

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Art, Science and Science Communication

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Invisible Bubbles

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X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

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3D Wheat and Weevils

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Interactivite Narrative

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Pufferfish

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Acknowledgements

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Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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Supporting Text

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This is a Centenary of Canberra project, proudly supported by the ACT Government and the Australian Government

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StellrScopE

Eleanor Gates-Stuart


StellrScopE ACT Chief Minister’s Foreword Canberra artist Eleanor Gates-Stuart’s ‘StellrScope’ is an extraordinarily creative and innovative art work. Its stunning fusion of art, science, and digital technologies is sure to inspire everyone who views it.

堪培拉艺术家埃莉诺·盖茨-斯图亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart)的作品‘StellrScope’是一件出类拔 萃的创造性艺术品。炫目的艺术、科学和数码技术 的完美结合将会让每位观众大开眼界深受启发。

This exciting project has come about through the Centenary Science Art Commission, which made it possible for a local artist to work in residence with a nominated science institution to develop a new work for exhibition in Canberra’s centenary year.

这一激动人心的项目是通过世纪华诞科学艺术委员 会得以实现的,它令当地的艺术家能够入驻提名的 科学机构,共同开发为堪培拉世纪华诞展会准备的 新作品。

Eleanor’s project is the result of a close partnership with the CSIRO. It explores and builds on the story connecting William Farrer’s early research on wheat at ‘Lambrigg’ near Tharwa to the ground breaking agricultural research currently being conducted at CSIRO. She manages to tell this story in new and beautiful way, using the latest digital technology to observe the remarkable stages of wheat growth and development. Recognising Canberra’s role in the nation’s scientific achievements is an important goal of the Centenary. ‘StellrScope’ will leave a lasting legacy of our Centenary and reinforce our city’s reputation as a world leader in the fields of science and the arts. ‘StellrScope’ will be on exhibition at Questacon in August this year, coinciding with its 25th anniversary celebrations. An exhibition documenting the ‘StellrScope’ residency is also being held at the CSIRO Discovery Centre. On behalf of the ACT Government I’d like to thank the William Farrer Trust for their sponsorship of this beautiful catalogue. I’d also like to express my appreciation to the CSIRO, who have worked in close partnership with Eleanor and the Centenary team to produce this amazing work. Katy Gallagher ACT Chief Minister

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埃莉诺的项目是通联邦科学与工业研究组织 (CSIRO)紧密合作的成果。它探索了威廉·法洛( William Farrer)早期在兰姆布里格(Lambrigg)索瓦 (Tharwa)附近的小麦研究到联邦科学与工业研究 组织(CSIRO)目前正在进行的开创性的农业研究, 并将两者联系起来在此基础上创造了一个故事。 她用一种新颖而且美丽的方式将这个故事娓娓道 来,使用最新的数码技术观察小麦生长和发展的重 要阶段。 世纪华诞的一大重要目标是认可堪培拉在国家的科 学成就中的作用。‘StellrScope’将会为后人留下一 份持久的世纪华诞的财富,并可以加强我们的城市 作为艺术和科学方面国际领军人物的美誉。 ‘StellrScope’ 今年八月将在科斯达康(Questacon) 展出,恰逢其25周年纪念庆典。记录‘StellrScope’ 入驻的一个展览也会在联邦科学与工业研究组织 (CSIRO)发现中心举行。 代表首都领地政府,我向威廉法洛信托基金 (William Farrer Trust)赞助了如此精美的目录表示 感谢。此外我还想向一直同埃莉诺和世纪华诞团队 密切合作创作了如此令人惊叹的作品的联邦科学与 工业研究组织(CSIRO)表达我的谢意。 凯迪·格拉赫(Katy Gallagher) 首都领地首席部长


Preface - StellrScopE The Centenary of Canberra One of the main aims of The Centenary of Canberra has been to reveal Canberra in a new light; to show a city much more diverse in every imaginable way than the political mono-profile that frequently steals the thunder of the national capital’s other splendid achievements. Scientific achievement has been core to the innovative spirit of this city, and in the history of the CSIRO one can discover a national agenda through its priorities. When I looked at the number of fine Canberra-based artists working, often in intense collaborations, on scientific themes , it seemed that a science-art commission was a good way to illustrate the strengths of both domains. ‘Traces of Words Over Time’ Carbon Copy Paper from William Farrer’s Field Book. National Library of Australia

The expressions of interest drew strong proposals, and StellrScope was appealing to the adjudicating panel because it connected so well with the history of this region – in particular to the experiments here of William Farrer, and the crucial role that the CSIRO subsequently played in following those experiments to develop 100% of Australia’s (and 70% of the world’s) resilient wheat strains. The relationship of that story to the highly sophisticated technology used today to tackle the challenges of research and experiment towards feeding an exploding global population, is expressed in the kind of media which Eleanor Gates-Stuart has explored in this project.

这是堪培拉世纪华诞展现堪培拉光芒的主要目标之 一;表现出一座城市除了具有常常会抢走国家首府 其它杰出成就的单一政治面貌外,还可以具备任何 更加多元化的风貌。 科学成就一直以来都是这座城市创新精神的核心, 你可以在联邦科学与工业研究组织的历史上发现科 学创新一直都是国家日程安排的首要项目。在我审 视一系列堪培拉艺术家创作的优秀作品时,通常它 们都是在不同的科学主题上进行深度合作的成果, 看起来科学艺术委员会对诠释两个领域的强势项目 都是大有裨益的。 流露出的兴趣吸引了有力的提案,Stellrscope则因其 与本地区渊源的历史深深吸引了委员会-特别是对本 地的威廉·法罗的实验,以及联邦科学与工业研究 组织(CSIRO)在后续的澳洲100%(世界70%的)高 抗性小麦株实验开发中起到的重要作用。今天使用 这一高度复杂的科技解决研究挑战的故事的关系, 以及围绕怎样让全球不断膨胀的人口吃饭的实验, 埃莉诺-斯图亚特在已开发的项目中使用本类媒体做 了表述。 我非常感谢联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO),感 谢坤斯塔克(Questacon),以及所有热情回复埃莉 诺在开发这一项目过程中提出的请求:我相信这将 是所有人幸福快乐的源泉。

My thanks to CSIRO, to Questacon, and to all those who have responded generously to Eleanor’s requests in the development of the project: I trust it will be a source of great enjoyment to all.

罗宾·阿彻(Robyn Archer AO) 堪培拉世纪华诞创新董事

Robyn Archer AO Creative Director, Centenary of Canberra  

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Artist Preface - StellrScopE StellrScope builds on a story connecting the Canberra region to Australia’s major crop to deliver a science artwork for the Centenary of Canberra. It celebrates 100 years of wheat innovation from the days of William Farrer through to the present day research undertaken at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), namely in the Future Foods Flagship and Computational Informatics. Coining the term, StellrScope, to describe translating information complexity into a simplistic visual rendering of meaning, is significant in such a project where the volume of scientific information is possibly overwhelming for non-scientists and requires a comprehensive visual interpretation. In tackling such a project, the processes involved are not always predetermined and respond much more to the direction of ideas, content building, researching and an aesthetic understanding and construct for creating the artwork. That being said, the question of “how to represent 100 years of meaningful content in a singular artistic outcome for the Centenary of Canberra as well as an artwork with equal value and understanding for CSIRO?”, is the challenge. StellrScope takes a step beyond the biological fingerprint codes, evident in my previous artworks, and is a deep and intense scrutiny of the remarkable physical and biochemical traits of organisms in physical plant structures. Despite first appearances, quantitative sciences like mathematics, informatics and statistics have long-standing and deep connections to biological science. Statistics owes much to motivating problems in agriculture, such as animal and plant breeding. Modern molecular biology is currently awash with data from instruments that tell us about the DNA of living organisms – informatics, particularly computational science, is an essential part of dealing with this deluge of data. StellrScope simplifies this complexity into stunning images of aesthetic analysis and graphical interface, extracting complex visualisation data with image to construct narrative via interactive hemispherical displays, named StellrLume Domes as an installation artwork for the Centenary of Canberra. This work is a result of collaboration at CSIRO, working with scientific leaders Dr David Lovell and Dr Matthew Morell including many other valued scientific researchers and linkage partners such as the William Farrer Trust. Notably In Canberra, this all ties in to the work of the CSIRO’s Food Futures Flagship’s Advanced Grains Theme (led by Matthew) which is currently looking at new strategies to understand how the genome of a wheat plant affects its physical traits: its phenome. And this, in turn links to work of the Australian Plant Phenomics Centre which seeks to measure and understand the physical traits of plants as they develop in different environments.

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StellrScope建立在将堪培拉地区同澳大利亚的主要 作物联系起来为堪培拉世纪华诞输送艺术作品这样 一个故事的基础上。它庆祝的是,通过未来食品旗 舰计划与计算信息学,纪念小麦创新自威廉·法洛 (William Farrer)时代到现在联邦科学与工业研究组 织(CSIRO)开展的研究已有100周年历史。 StellrScope这一名词,描绘的是将复杂的信息翻译 成简单的视觉方式传递的信息,在这样一个项目中 具有重要意义,如此大量的科学信息对非科学人员 而言可能会让其无法招架,因此需要一种全面的视 觉解读。要解决这样一个计划,工作过程就不会总 是事先决定好的,而是要对思考方向、内容塑造、 研究和美学的理解以及打造艺术作品做出更多的回 应。尽管这样说,但是“如何在为堪培拉世纪华诞 准备的一场单一的艺术结果中呈现出100年的时间里 所蕴含的丰富内容,以及能够具备与联邦科学与工 业研究组织(CSIRO)同等价值的艺术作品”,这无 疑是一大挑战。 StellrScope要比生物指纹代码走的更深,这在我之 前的工作中是显而易见的,而且对作物结构中有机 体的显著物理和生物特性进行了有深度有力度的观 察。尽管表面看来,数学、信息学和统计学这样的 数量科学同生物科学有着长久而且深入的联系。农 业激励问题让统计学受益颇多,如动物和作物育 种。现代分子生物学正在被仪器为我们收集到的活 的有机体的数据淹没-而信息学,特别是计算机科 学,是解决信息泛滥的重要组成部分。StellrScope 将复杂的信息简化为具备美学分析和图形界面的炫 目图片,用图片提取复杂的视觉化信息用于组成 叙述。叙述是通过互动半球展示仪实现的,也就 是为堪培拉世纪华诞安装的设备,名为StellrLume Domes。 这是同联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO),科学 领袖大卫·拉威尔博士(Dr David Lovell)和马修· 莫瑞尔博士(Dr Matthew Morell)以及其他卓越的 研究人员和威廉·法洛信托基金(William Farrer Trust)这样的联系伙伴共同合作的成果。特别值 得留意的是所有这些都同联邦科学与工业研究组织 (CSIRO)的未来食品旗舰计划高级谷物主题(由 马修率领)的工作相关,这一项目目前正在寻找能 够理解小麦作物的基因组如何影响其物理特质,即 非增值部的新策略。而这又转过来同澳大利亚作 物非增值部学中心(the Australian Plant Phenomics Centre)的工作联系在一起,他们的目标是测量并 理解作物在不同环境下生长过程中的物理特质。 这一具备国家级影响的创举无疑将威廉·法洛早期 的研究成果进一步发扬光大,他无疑会为本研究中 体现的财富和StellrScope项目的灵感感到无比自豪。 有趣的是威廉法洛曾说过:“我发现我的笔记保存 的非常没有系统性,以至于某些工作阶段哪些是最 重要的都不记得了... ...如果处理得当,这些信 息应该为其他想要尝试类似工作的人提供建设性信 息,无论是谷类作物或是其它栽培作物。”他的工 作已经有人接手,希望StellrScope能够通过堪培拉世 纪华诞决定成立科学艺术委员会这一有远见的决定 做出重大贡献,向过去一百年的时间里澳大利亚的 创新谱写一曲壮美的赞歌。


‘Notebook’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

This innovation of national significance certainly extends the early research achievement of William Farrer who no doubt would be immensely proud of this research legacy and inspiration towards to StellrScope. It is interesting to note that William Farrer1 said, “I find my notes have been kept so unsystematically and that so much has been forgotten which was of principal interest at some stage of the work…if justice where done to it, it would be likely to furnish suggestive information to others who might wish to take in hand work of a similar character, either with cereals or with some other domesticated plants”. His work has certainly been taken in hand and hopefully, StellrScope, plays a significant contribution to this through the Centenary of Canberra’s foresight to award this science art commission and pay tribute to Australian innovation over the last one hunred years. Making it happen Rather than a methodological approach of selecting particular years with events, the focus of StellrScope has been centered on various themes, such as growth and development, pest and disease, technology and bioinformatics, including health and future food. Since the project is situated with the department of Computational Informatics it might begin with images using numerical data, or code, as visualisation methods are often extracted from data, such as algorithm or more typically, data sets. Mathematically applying a formula to represent artistic methodology and thus, identifying the process of image making did not equate to the real symbiotic process of the interconnected relationship of the scientist and artist. At CSIRO, there is a unique relationship between the sciences and art. The key to this is importantly around relationships and the mutual respect in sharing knowledge and understanding of the inherent value of research expertise. Confidence and trust go hand in hand as words and images are exchanged, as well as personal insights and stories unfold. As with science, it is not always what appears on the surface that tells the story but the means to explore the evidence, or in this case, the visual narrative within the beauty of the aesthetic. StellrScope is an opportunity to encompass a visual dialogue and set of references within the artwork itself. Interestingly these results have in fact been encoded into the artwork, embedded as visual layers, accessible via interaction, an informatic and installation that is the intention of artwork. One thing is certain, the visible impact of being the resident Science Art Fellow in CSIRO shows the artist as a creative catalyst amongst researchers and scientists, with evidence and integration of ideas influencing other research directions and public programs.

梦想成真 StellrScope不止使用特别的方法选择有重大事件的年 份,它还将重点放在了许多其它主题上,像是成长 和发育,害虫与疾病,技术与生物信息学,包括卫 生与未来食品。自项目落户计算信息学部以来,一 开始的时候可能使用的是数字数据的图片或代码, 因为视觉化的途径通常都是从数据中提取的,像是 算法或更传统的数据集。运用数学的方法使用公式 来表现艺术方法学,因此确认图片制作的过程并不 等同于科学家和艺术家相互关联的真实的同生共栖 过程。在联邦科学与工研究组织(CSIRO),艺术与 科学之间的关系是独一无二的。其主要原因是双方 的关系以及在分享知识、理解所研究的专业知识过 程中的相互尊重。话语和图片的交流伴随着信心和 信任,以及独到的见解和层层铺开的故事。科学并 不总是流于表面的故事叙述,而是发现证据或在美 学的壮丽中用视觉叙述的方式。 StellrScope 是一次能够容纳视觉对话与艺术作品自 身的一套引用资料的机会。有趣的时这些结果经过 编码后写入了艺术作品中,从视觉层面嵌入,能够 通过互动进行接触。信息和安装才正是艺术作品的 意图。有一件事是确定的,那就是驻扎在联邦科学 与工业研究组织(CSIRO)的科学艺术伙伴所产生的 实实在在的影响,显示艺术家就像是研究人员和科 学家之中的创造性催化剂,用证据和整合的想法影 响了其他人的研究方向和公共计划。 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)有资格为他们在 科学艺术创举1和他们80多年的历史上同艺术之间的 关系获得热烈的掌声。毫无疑问StellrScope提供 了在一个多学科的研究机构内部开发不同空间领域 的专题研究项目。证据和不凡的价值源自国家科学 组织的研究经催化后网络活动的增长和注入本项目 之中的合作协同作用。艺术作品描述了澳大利亚昆 虫收集(Australian National Insect Collection)、生 态系统科学、未来食品、作物产业、计算信息学、 材料科学和工程学的研究参与,包括澳大利亚同 步加速器,国家电影和声音档案(the National Film and Sound Archive)以及澳大利亚国家图书馆。这 些结果为艺术家和科学家在研究发表、会议论文、 各式各样的展览和媒体封面等终端进一步延伸了 StellrScope项目。 公式十分简单: • 竭诚合作,开放分享信息 • 尊重研究的诚信与IP敏感性 • 思想开放,愿意开发新想法(并考虑到所有相 关方各自的时间限制) • 致力完成 • 有一说一-问问题是有益的

1 W. Farrer. ‘The Making and Improving of Wheats for Australian Conditions’,* March 1898. Agricultural Gazette of N. S. Wales. A paper read before the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science, 10 January, 1898.

• 不好的结果仅仅是寻找其它好方法的不同途径

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‘In the Field’. Photograph by Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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Artist Preface - StellrScopE ...continued CSIRO is to be applauded for its commitment to science art initiatives2 and its relationship to the arts in its 80+year history. StellrScope certainly provides a topical research project with many dimensions to explore in a multidisciplinary research organisation. The evidence and extraordinary value of this stems from the catalytic growth of network activity across the research of the national science organisation and the collaborative synergy invested in the project. The artworks draw on research participation from the Australian National Insect Collection, Ecosystem Sciences, Food Futures, Plant Industry, Computational Informatics, Material Sciences and Engineering including the Australian Synchrotron, the National Film and Sound Archive and the National Library of Australia. The outcomes extended the StellrScope project for both artist and scientist into research publication, conference papers, multiple exhibitions and media coverage. The formula is simple: • willingness to collaborate and openness in sharing information • respect for research integrity and IP sensitivity • openness to explore new ideas (recognising independent time constraints of all parties • commitment to deliver • say it as it is – questions are helpful • negative results are only a different method to focus positive alternatives.

大卫·爱德华(David Edwards)在他的作品«科学艺 术(ArtScience)»1一书中提到巴黎的实验室艺术科 学中心(Le Laboratoire Artscience Centre)有三大原 则: 1. 多处理物品少处理结果 2. 实验永远不重复 3. 结果永远是好的 这的确就是StellrScope项目所恪守的创造性准则, 在合作过程中有新的也有最初的,不施加会限制过 程的结果。

埃莉诺·盖茨-斯图亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)科学艺术伙伴 加州大学荣誉研究教授 2013堪培拉世纪华诞科学艺术委员会

Interestingly, David Edwards in his book, ArtScience,3 refers to the three principles that apply to his art stories at Le Laboratoire Artscience Centre in Paris: i. Process matters more than results, ii. Experiments are never repeated, iii. Results are never bad. Truly a creative approach in which the StellrScope project adheres to be like, in that collaborations are new and original and do not impose results to limit process. Eleanor Gates-Stuart

CSIRO Science Art Fellow Honorary Research Professor, UCSC Centenary of Canberra Science Art Commission, 2013

2 CSIRO Science Art: http://www.csiro.au/Portals/Education/Programs/ SCIENCE-ART.aspx 3 Edwards, D. ArtScience: Creativity in the Post-Google Generation, Harvard University Press 2008, P181 Le Laboratoir: http://www.lelaboratoire.org/en/who-we-are.php

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The Art of Wheat Improvement – From the Age of the Impressionists to the Digital Era Wheat is a remarkable crop, grown in a wide range of temperate latitudes across the world. The 600 million metric tonnes produced annually are a major source of calories and protein for humanity, but also form the basis of very important cultural and culinary experiences for people from all walks of life. The opportunity to work with Eleanor Gates-Stuart in her capacity as a Science Art Fellow with CSIRO, and as awardee of Science Art Commission of the Centenary of Canberra, has been an important collaboration between Eleanor and a wide range of scientists involved in wheat research at CSIRO. As scientists, we marvel at the complexity, the elegance, the utility and the productivity of this most important crop. We see that there is artistic appeal at a variety of levels, from a field of wheat rippling in the breeze, to the regimented architecture of an ear of wheat, to the fascinating structure of a developing meristem, to the sub-cellular architecture of the grain or the leaf. However, as scientists, while we respect the inherent beauty and visible appeal of the plant and the crop, our days jobs are primarily concerned with the understanding and improvement of function and utility. Wheat has a special relevance to Australia, as it is our most valuable export crop, contributing between $4 and $5 billion dollars in export revenue per year and generating about $2 billion dollars in domestic economic activity, through farming, other rural employment, and the grain accumulation, export, flour milling, and food production industries. The most extraordinary aspect of wheat is the vast array of end products for which the wheat can be used, ranging from traditional uses such as breads, breakfast cereals, pastas, biscuits, cakes, flat breads, steam buns to the hundreds of variants of each category of end use. It is not as well known that wheat is also extensively used for industrial purposes such as ethanol production and paper manufacturing. Wheat established a tenuous foothold in Australia through the introduction of wheat strains from India, Europe and the Americas, but these wheats did not thrive in the challenging Australian climate, struggled in our soils, and were susceptible to a variety of devastating diseases. The extraordinary pioneering work of William Farrer set in train a process that continues to this day, using the genetic principles established by Mendel to improve all aspects of wheat productivity and quality.

‘Visionary’ Reference: William Farrer’s Field Book. National Library of Australia

A remarkable feature of Farrer’s early work was that not only did he seek to produce wheats with adaptation to the environment, and resistance to disease, he was also ahead of his time in seeing genetics as a vehicle

小麦是一种了不起的作物,生长于世界各地的中纬 度地区。每年产量为六亿吨左右,是人类卡路里和 蛋白质的主要来源,它构建起各行各业人士文化和 烹饪体验的重要根基。 埃莉诺·盖茨-斯特亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart),凭 借自己的能力同联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO) 结为科学艺术伙伴(Science Art Fellow),同时她还是 堪培拉世纪华诞科学艺术委员会获奖者,得到合作 的机会对埃莉诺,对许多参与小麦研究的联邦科学 与工业研究组织(CSIRO)的科学家来说都具有重要 意义。作为科学家,我们为这种最重要的作物的复 杂、优雅、用途和产量惊叹不已。我们看到不同的 层面有不同的艺术吸引力,从微风中麦田荡起的金 色涟漪,到麦穗严谨的建筑结构,到发育的分生组 织不可思议的结构,到谷物或叶子的亚细胞构造。 在欣赏作物和谷物固有的魅力和可见的吸引的同 时,我们日常的工作中最关心的就是对功能和用途 的理解和改进。 小麦同澳大利亚有特殊的关系,作为我们价值最高 的出口作物,每年出口创收四十亿到五十亿澳元, 并通过农耕、其它郊区就业以及谷物累积、出口、 磨面以及食品生产业产生约二十亿澳元的国内经济 活动价值。 小麦最为非比寻常的一面是多种多样使用小麦为原 料的终端产品,从传统的使用小麦制作的面包、早 餐麦片、意大利面、饼干、蛋糕、扁平面包和蒸 包,到数百种不同类别的终端用途。小麦不为人所 熟知的是它也被广泛用于乙醇的生产和造纸等工业 目的。 通过从印度、欧洲和美洲引入小麦品种,小麦在澳 大利亚建立了薄弱的立足之地,但这些小麦并未能 在澳大利亚气候的挑战下蓬勃生长,它们在土壤中 苦苦挣扎,并且无力抵抗一系列毁灭性的疾病。威 廉·法洛(William Farrer) 所开展的卓绝的先驱工作 建立起了一套沿用至今日的程序,采用由曼德尔 (Mendel)提出的遗传学原理改善小麦生产力和质 量的所有方面。 法洛早期工作的一大显著特征为他不仅寻求让小麦 适应环境,抵抗病虫害,还超前的预见了遗传学作 为改进用他的小麦制作的面包质量的工具。法洛同 费德里克·古思瑞(Frederick Guthrie)的合作使得 澳大利亚有了重视能够满足顾客需求的高质量小麦 的这一传统,对此两人功不可没。生产小麦获得了 生产力的三连胜,抵抗疾病和质量至今依然是小麦 行业的圣杯。 从二十世纪六十年代以来,小麦遗传学、小麦农业 经济学和抗病力已取得了长足的进步。绿色革命带 来的生产力的变化是建立在对诺贝尔奖得主诺曼· 宝拉格(Norman Borlaug)及其同事的降低作物高度, 通过将更多生物量而不是营养体,转入谷物以提高 生产力的方式的认可。小麦研究依然是联邦科学与 工业研究组织(CSIRO)作物科学研究的核心关注内 容,联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)的科学家是 11


to improve the bread-making quality of his wheats. Farrer’s collaboration with Frederick Guthrie was critical to initiating a strong tradition in Australia of focusing on the production of high quality wheats that meet consumer needs. Producing wheats that hit the trifecta of productivity, disease resistance and quality remains the holy grail of the wheat industry to this day. Tremendous advances have been made in wheat genetics, but also wheat agronomy and disease resistance, from the 1960’s onwards. The step changes in productivity brought about by the green revolution were based on the recognition by Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug and colleagues that reducing plant height allowed increases in productivity through converting more of the biomass produced into grain, rather than vegetative mass. Wheat research remains a core focus of the plant science research of CSIRO, where CSIRO scientists are world leaders in understanding the physiology of the crop, studying how the plant copes with water, and understanding how the crop performs in response to nitrogen, to heat, and more recently, to increasing levels of carbon dioxide. These studies have led to tangible outcomes for wheat breeders, for agronomists, for farmers, and ultimately, for the nation. Over the past few years, the pace of development of the tools for wheat genetic improvement has dramatically increased. Only a few years ago, wheat genetic maps with a thousand molecular markers were state of the art, as was a genetic transformation efficiency of less than 1 per cent. Increases of over 50 fold in both marker density and transformation efficiency have dramatically redefined what is possible. The challenge for the scientists is to now harness these tools to increase the rate of crop improvement to meet Australia’s agricultural production needs, while also contributing to the global need to increase food production in the face of food security concerns, climate change challenges, and the need to not only supply calories but balanced nutrition to the world’s population. Eleanor’s contribution has been multi-faceted and challenges us to re-evaluate our subject from a range of perspectives. Eleanor undoubtedly relates to the wheat plant and crop as a source of artistic inspiration, reminding us of the beauty and elegance of the underpinning biology. However, Eleanor also asked us questions about the science that required that we articulate the basic drivers underpinning the research. Why are you studying germination? Why are some plants waxy in appearance and other aren’t? Why does it matter if there are awns or not? These questions draw the scientist out to articulate to a non-specialist the purpose and value of their work. Eleanor has also 12

理解作物生理机能,研究作物怎样处理水,以及理 解作物在遭遇氮、热,以及近来出现的二氧化碳水 平升高时如何反应等方面的世界级领军人物。这些 研究为小麦育种员、农业经济学家、农夫乃至整个 国家带来的是实实在在的成果。 在过去几年,小麦遗传改良工具的开发速度增长很 快。仅仅在几年前,小麦遗传地图的技术发展标准 为标有一千个分子标记,因为遗传转换效率为低于 1%。而今标记密度和转换率升幅都已超过了50倍, 很大程度上将所有可能的事物重新定义。科学家面 临的挑战是怎样管理使用这些工具来增加改进作物 的比例从而满足澳大利亚农业生产的需求,同时致 力于满足全球提高粮食生产以应对食品安全隐患、 气候变化挑战和为全世界人口提供卡路里以及均衡 的营养的需要。 埃莉诺的贡献是多层面的,激励我们从许多不同的 角度再次评估我们的研究主题。埃莉诺无疑将小麦 这种农作物和艺术灵感联系起来,提醒我们其后支 撑的生物学是多么的美丽和优雅。然而埃莉诺也提 出过科学问题,这就需要我们清晰地解释支持研究 的基本驱动因素。为什么研究发芽?为什么有的作 物外表有蜡质有的没有?有芒没芒有什么区别?这 些问题让科学家抽身出来向一位非科研人员解释他 们的工作目的和价值。埃莉诺还挑战我们,让我们 解释我们工作中一些比较抽象的部分。如何将含有 重要生产特质的小麦基因组同特定区域的联系这样 的遗传学要领和统计数据可视化展现给门外汉观 众?她的图像不只要捕捉具体科学,包括我们科学 中抽象的范畴。 在同科学词汇进行互动的同时,埃莉诺就像一位嫁 接好手,看着不同小组之间相互的工作并鼓励他们 谈论他们是如何通过共同主线交流他们的工作的。 埃莉诺通过科学艺术委员会做出的贡献以及在科学 艺术伙伴(Science Art Fellow)度过的时光中就如同 在本次展会中所包含的一代人的成果一样,可得见 摸得着。埃莉诺捕捉到了科学研究以及科学家无比 激动的时刻,并将其制成图片,欢迎问询和进一步 的参与。然而除了这些具体的成果,埃莉诺的工作 还有另外一种无形的历久不衰的财富,那就是开拓 艺术和科学创造力与表达之间的相似与差异,这对 科学家和艺术家来说都是大开眼界。 我可以自信的代表所有参与本项目的小麦科学家声 明,能够与埃莉诺进行互动实属幸事。本次工作中 的图片将有助于传达我们多年工作的目的与精神。 我们期待继续拓展科学与艺术的联系,因为这两者 都能够丰富人们的生活。 马修·莫瑞尔博士(Dr Matthew Morell ) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)未来食品期间计 划 主题组长

‘Multiple of Blue’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

‘Willam Farrer’ Photograph: William Farrer Trust


challenged us to explain the more abstract aspects of our work. How would you visualise for a lay audience the processes of genetics principles and statistical processes that allow the association of particular regions of the wheat genome with key production traits? Her images seek to capture not only the concrete but the abstract aspects of our science. ‘PlantSeedMan’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

In interacting with the scientific teams, Eleanor has acted as a cross-pollinator, seeing connections between the work of different groups and encouraging them to discuss how they would communicate their work through common threads. The contribution Eleanor has made through her Science Art Commission and time as a Science Art Fellow has involved the generation of tangible outcomes such as those included in this exhibition. Eleanor captures the excitement of the research and of the scientists and makes images that invite enquiry and further engagement. However, in addition to these specific outcomes, an enduring and yet intangible legacy from working with Eleanor has been to explore the similarities and differences between artistic and scientific creativity and expression, and this has been an eye opener for both the scientists and the artist. I am sure I can speak for all of the wheat scientists involved in this project who have found it an absolute privilege and pleasure to have interacted with Eleanor. The images that have come from this work will help us to convey both the purpose but also the spirit of our work for many years to come. We look forward to continuing to develop the connection between science and art, as both continue to enrich people’s lives. Dr Matthew Morell Theme Leader, CSIRO Food Futures Flagship

‘Supreme’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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Farrer Memorial Trust When William James Farrer set sail for Australia he could not have imagined that he would one day be referred to as the ‘father of the Australian wheat industries’ for his pioneering work breeding new varieties for Australian conditions. More than a century since his legacy lives on – not only in the Australian wheat fields – but in science’s pursuit of excellence. He was born the son of a farmer in 1845 at Docker, Westmorland, England and began studying medicine at Pembroke College, Cambridge, but at the age of 25 he contracted tuberculosis and migrated to Australia. Working as a surveyor with the Lands Department of New South Wales in the Dubbo district, Farrer saw many failed crops. He believed the Australian conditions were unsuitable for the current types being sown. In 1886 Farrer settled at Lambrigg on the Murrumbidgee River near Queanbeyan and commenced his private experiments of cross-breeding wheat with the idea of producing high yielding, high quality rust and drought resistance wheat. Farrer joined the Department of Agriculture in 1898 working mainly at the Experimental Farm at Wagga Wagga also at Cowra and other experimental farms. Farrer’s first crosses were between the Indian and Canadian Fife wheats, but he soon realised for Australian conditions the productivity of Purple Straw was required. The triple cross of these three wheat types produced his most notable achievement ‘Federation’ wheat, the leading variety throughout Australia from 1910-1925. Farrer’s early maturing wheats established a rapid expansion of wheat growing in Australia. He was Australia’s first durum wheat breeder. Following the death of Farrer in 1906, a committee was formed to raise subscriptions for the establishment of a Memorial Fund, control of which was transferred to a Trust. The Farrer Memorial Trust was established in 1911 to perpetuate the memory of William Farrer and to encourage and inspire agricultural scientists.

当威廉·詹姆斯·法洛升起向澳大利亚航行的风帆 时,他完全没想象到有一天 他竟会因他在澳大利亚的条件下培育多种品系的先驱 工作而被尊为“澳大利亚小麦产业之父”。 他的财富自传承下来已有一个世纪,不仅在澳大利亚 的麦田里,也表现在科学对杰出表现的一贯追求。 他于1845年出生于英格兰威斯特摩兰郡多科尔的一个 农民之家,后于剑桥彭布鲁克学院(Pembroke College, Cambridge)学习医学,但在25岁的时候他感染了肺结 核,后移民澳大利亚。 法洛在担任新南威尔士州多博区(Dubbo)土地局勘测 员时,看到许多枯萎的作物。他相信澳大利亚的情况 并不适于目前耕种的类型。 1886年法洛在靠近澳大利亚昆比恩(Queanbeyan)的 姆鲁比基河(the Murrumbidgee River)的兰姆布里格 (Lambrigg)定居,并怀着提高小麦产量质量及其抗 锈病能力的想法开始了他个人的小麦杂交育种实验。 法洛于1898年加入了农业部,主要在哇嘎哇嘎(Wagga Wagga)以及卡乌拉(Cowra)和其它农场的实验田工 作。 法洛首先将印度和加拿大法伊夫小麦(Fife wheats) 杂交,但很快他意识到澳大利亚的条件需要有紫色稻 草的生产力。这三种类型的小麦的三重杂交使他获得 了最负盛名的‘联邦’(‘Federation’)小麦,这也是 1910年到1925年间澳大利亚各地最主要的品种。 法洛培育的成熟早的小麦在澳大利亚造成小麦生长的 迅速扩张。他是澳大利亚第一位硬粒小麦育种人员。 1906年法洛去世后,成立了一个委员会负责收取成立 纪念基金会的签署费用,收取的资金之后被转到一个 信托基金。 法洛纪念信托基金成立于1911年成立,其宗旨是永远 的纪念威廉·法洛并鼓励激励农业科学家。 获得第一项法洛纪念研究奖学金 (Farrer Memorial Research Scholarship) 的是在1912年至1913年间研究过 磷酸盐效果的W.F.L.·沃特豪斯(W.F.L. Waterhouse)。 最初信托基金会只颁发奖学金,后来加入了年度致 辞。 第一次致辞由尊敬的约瑟夫·里昂(Joseph Lyons)议 员于1936年四月3日在昆比恩(Queanbeyan)宣读, 当时由昆比恩高中(the Queanbeyan Intermediate High School )的孩子向他献上一块银质奖章作为纪念。

The first Farrer Memorial Research Scholarship was awarded to W.F.L. Waterhouse who undertook research into the effects of superphosphate on Australian wheat in 1912-1913.

这块奖牌被捐赠至位于堪培拉的阿朵夫·巴瑟尔图书 馆(the Adolph Basser Library),并在此处展示。

Initially the Trust awarded scholarships and later it included the delivery of an annual oration.

许多法洛纪念奖章的得主都曾在他们的致辞讲话中肯 定了法洛的成就。

The first oration was delivered by the Prime Minister of Australia, the Rt Honourable Joseph Lyons MP on 14

法洛纪念奖章和致辞依然是肯定一位杰出的农业科学 家在研究、教育和行政管理各领域提供的服务的年度

1944年的法洛纪念奖章颁给了与威廉·法洛共同工作 生活的约翰·普里迪汉姆(John Pridham)。


‘SuperStrain’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

3 April 1936 at Queanbeyan when a silver medallion was presented to him by the children of the Queanbeyan Intermediate High School as a memento of the occasion. This medal has been donated to the Adolph Basser Library, Canberra, where it is on display. In 1944 the Farrer Memorial Medal was presented to John Pridham who had lived and worked with William Farrer. Many past Farrer Memorial Medal recipients have acknowledged the work of Farrer in their oration speech. The Farrer Memorial Medal and oration have continued to be presented annually to a distinguished agricultural scientist for service rendered in the fields of research, education or administration. The medallist is chosen by the Trustees of the Farrer Memorial Research Scholarship Fund. In addition the Trust established the Farrer Memorial Travelling Scholarship which is designed to support overseas travel by post-graduates enrolled for a PhD on any aspect of field crop research. This can include attendance at an international conference where a paper or poster is being presented. The Chairman of the Farrer Memorial Trust, Dr Richard Sheldrake AM Director General of the Department of Primary Industries said the Farrer Memorial Trust has a long history promoting the valuable innovative research, activities and contribution of the Australian agricultural industry. “Through the leadership and dedication of distinguished agricultural scientists in research and development we can be sure Australian agriculture will thrive,” Dr Sheldrake said. “This year’s Farrer Memorial Medallist, Andrew Inglis AM is a grain producer who has made a significant national and international contribution to the Australian grains industry through agricultural research and to Australia’s quarantine policies. “Mr Inglis is the current presiding member of the South Australian Natural Resource Management Council, Chairman of the Future Farm Industries Cooperative Research Centre and Chair of the Biosecurity Advisory Council. “To support grains research and development Mr Inglis has chaired a wide variety of Australia’s grain and agricultural bodies including Plant Health Australia, the CSIRO Stored Grain Research Council and the Grains Research and Development Corporation.

盛事。 获奖者由法洛纪念信托基金研究奖学金基金会(the Farrer Memorial Research Scholarship Fund)进行筛选。 此外,信托基金还成立了法洛纪念信托基金旅行奖学 金(the Farrer Memorial Travelling Scholarship),旨在 帮助报名就读任何作物研究领域博士课程的研究生学 生的海外旅行。其中可以包括参加展示论文或海报的 国际会议。 法洛纪念信托基金主席,同时担任第一产业部理事长 的理查德·舍德里克博士(Dr Richard Sheldrake)曾说 过:“法洛纪念信托基金在促进有价值的创新研究与 活动和为澳大利亚农业做出贡献上有悠久的历史。” “通过杰出的农业科学家在研究和开发方面的领导力 和奉献,我们可以确信澳大利亚的农业将会蓬勃发 展,生机勃勃,”舍德里克博士这样说。 “今年法洛纪念信托奖章得主安德鲁·因格里斯 (Andrew Inglis AM)是一位谷物生产者,他通过研究 对澳大利亚谷物业以及对澳大利亚的检验检疫政策在 海内外都做出了重大贡献。” “因格里斯先生现为南澳自然资源管理委员会(the South Australian Natural Resource Management Council) 主席成员,未来农场业合作研究中心(Chairman of the Future Farm Industries Cooperative Research Centre)主 席以及生物安全顾问委员会(the Biosecurity Advisory Council)主席。” “为了支持谷物的研究与发展,因格里斯先生主持了 一系列澳大利亚谷物和农业机构,包括作物健康研 究与发展集团(the Grains Research and Development Corporation)。” “法洛纪念信托基金将继续永远怀念威廉·法洛,时 刻铭记他在服务澳大利亚农业科学上获得的成就,” 舍德里克博士说。 威廉·法洛的工作在小麦研究所(Wheat Research Institute)和哇嘎哇嘎农业所(the Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute)成立之后得到了进一步的延续, 在小麦研究和发展上取得了许多成就。 重点包括: l 将半矮秆小麦引入澳大利亚 l 首次发布基于冰草属(Agropyron)抗病能力的培 育小麦 l 对小麦壳针孢(Septoria 展开全面研究

tritici)和有抵抗力品种

l 建立了‘南部硬度(Southern Hard)’小麦级别 今天,新州第一产业部同阿德莱德大学以及谷类 研究开发集团(the Grains Research Development Corporation)就在塔姆沃斯农业机构(the Tamworth Agricultural Institute)澳大利亚硬粒小麦改良计划建立 了合作伙伴关系。 国家计划关注的是播种早,受轴腐病影响少,产量高 且抗旱的高质量新品种。

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“The Farrer Memorial Trust will continue to perpetuate the memory of William Farrer in recognition of distinguished service in agricultural science in Australia,” Dr Sheldrake said. The legacy of William Farrer’s work continued with the establishment of the Wheat Research Institute and the Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, with many achievements in wheat research and development. Some highlights include: • the introduction into Australia of the semi dwarf wheats • the release of the first wheat cultivar with Agropyron based disease resistance • extensive research on Septoria tritici and resistant varieties • the establishment of the ‘Southern Hard’ wheat grade. Today, NSW DPI works in partnership with the University of Adelaide and the Grains Research Development Corporation (GRDC) on the Australian Durum Wheat Improvement Program at the Tamworth Agricultural Institute. The national program looks at new varieties for early sowing, reducing the impact of crown rot, improving yield, drought resistance and quality. Grain from durum is used to make pasta and semolina products. The quality of Australian durum wheat is regarded by Italian durum millers and processors as among the world’s best. With projected climate change the challenge is to breed varieties that will show improvement in yield and disease resistance. Currently Australia produces between 400,000 and 500,000 tonnes annually, with Australian wheat exported to the Middle East and many South East Asian countries. It is anticipated that Australia’s durum wheat production will rise to bring substantial income benefits to Australian growers and rural communities. Past winners of the Farrer Memorial Medal and copies of their Oration are available on the Department of Primary Industries website http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/about/farrermemorial-trust References: WWAI 2004 Update Durum wheat production, Published by the NSW Department of Primary Industries November 2008 Wheat and Wheat Quality in Australia, D.H.Simmonds, CSIRO Australia 1989 www.dpi.nsw.gov.au au

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硬粒小麦的谷物用于意大利面和粗粒小麦粉产品。澳 大利亚硬粒小麦的质量被意大利研磨工和处理工评为 世界最佳。 气候变化带来的挑战是培育能够在产量和抗病害能力 上有改进的品种。 目前澳大利亚每年产量为 400000 到500000吨,同时澳 大利亚的小麦被出口至中东和许多东南亚国家。 预计澳大利亚的硬粒小麦产量的增加能为澳大利亚的 种植者和郊区社区带来切实的收入和福利。

‘Willam Farrer Notes’ Field Diary National Library of Australia

您可以在以下第一产业部网站获得历年法洛纪念奖得 主及致辞的具体信息: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/about/farrer-memorialtrust 参考出处: WWAI 2004 更新 «硬粒小麦的生产»,新州第一产业部2008年11月出版 «澳大利亚的小麦和小麦质量»(Wheat and Wheat Quality in Australia) D.H.西门斯(D.H.Simmonds),澳大利亚联邦科学与工业研究组 织(CSIRO)1989年 www.dpi.nsw.gov.au

‘Willam Farrer and his wife, Nina De Salis’ Photograph: William Farrer Trust


William Farrer – Father of the Australian Wheat Industry

‘A Nation is Built’ Film Clip: National Film and Sound Archives

It is not widely known that the success of the Australian wheat industry had its origins in the 1890’s near where Canberra is now located. This is where William Farrer conducted his pioneering wheat breeding work at ‘Lambrigg’ on the banks of the Murrumbidgee River. The property that he and his wife acquired could not provide an adequate living and so Farrer worked as a surveyor in northern NSW. During this time he wrote letters to newspapers about dealing with rust diseases in wheat. The newspapers challenged Farrer’s views. Incensed, Farrer returned to Lambrigg and started breeding wheat. His impact was profound. Farrer’s breeding work resulted in a four-fold expansion of the wheat industry between 1897 and 1915 and this resulted in Australia moving from a wheat importer to an important exporter. His wheat varieties have been important in their own right in other countries such as the United States and as parents in breeding programs around the world. William Farrer was an extraordinary observer and innovator. For example, he defined and bred for crop and grain characteristics that are still being actively selected today by wheat breeders and are still widely studied by wheat scientists. Farrer advocated traits such as short, strong stems, sparse tillering, earliness to ripen and narrow leaves all of which can improve the adaptation and yield of wheat to Australia’s tough environment. He also advocated hard grained wheats with a high gluten content to improve the quality of the grain to make better bread. He was instrumental in selecting more disease resistant plants with improved rust resistance and for wheats that may escape rust damage. Farrer also recognised the importance of broadening gene pools and recognised that crossing Indian, Canadian and English wheats as well as making wide crosses to other species were important. All of these are still practiced by contemporary breeding programs and continue to be studied at a more fundamental basis. Farrer was a remarkable pioneer who transformed the wheat industry in Australia and whose legacy continues to inspire wheat scientists today. Without Farrer it is possible that the Australian wheat industry and wheat research community would not be the envy of the world.

‘Willam Farrer’s Lab at Lambrigg’ Photograh: National Library of Australia

很少有人知道澳大利亚小麦产业的成功始于18世纪 90年代现在堪培拉所在位置附近的地方。姆鲁比 基河(the Murrumbidgee River)岸的兰姆布里格 (Lambrigg)就是威廉·法洛开始他开展先驱的小 麦育种工作的地方。他和夫人所有的产业不足以满 足生活所需,因此法洛在新州北部担任勘测员。在 此期间他多次去信给各大新闻报纸,讨论解决小麦 锈病的问题。报社对法洛的观点提出质疑。盛怒之 下,法洛返回兰姆布里格(Lambrigg)开始小麦育 种。他的影响是深远的。法洛的育种工作在1897年 到1915年的时间里使小麦产业扩张了四五倍,使澳 大利亚从小麦进口国摇身一变成为小麦出口国。他 的小麦品种无论是在自身还是作为在美国乃至世界 其它国家的育种计划中的双亲都具有重要地位。 威廉·法洛是一位出色的观察家和创造者。例如, 他定义并培育了至今依然为小麦育种人员所选用, 并广泛成为小麦科学家研究对象的作物和谷物特 征。法洛认为短小、强壮的秆株、新芽发棵不密 集、成熟早以及叶片窄等特质对改进小麦适应澳洲 严酷的环境提高产量有重要作用。他还主张谷蛋白 含量高的硬粒小麦能够提高小麦质量从而生产出更 好的面包。他通过提高小麦抗锈病能力从而有可能 摆脱锈病损害的抗病能力更强的作物选择方面做出 了重大贡献。法洛还意识到了拓宽基因库,将印 度、加拿大和英国小麦品种杂交,乃至其它品种广 泛杂交的重要性。所有这些都依然得到现代育种计 划的使用实施,并不断在更基础的级别上继续研 究。法洛是一位非凡卓绝的先驱,他使澳大利亚的 小麦产业发生了重大转变,他留下的财富将继续激 励今日的小麦科学家。没有法洛澳大利亚的小麦产 业和小麦研究社区就不能令全世界艳羡不已。 理查德·理查德兹博士(Dr Richard Richards) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO) 伙伴

Dr Richard Richards Fellow, CSIRO Plant Industry

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Bioinformatics and the Life Invisible “Bioinformatics” probably doesn’t mean much to you unless you work in the life-sciences… in which case, there’s a good chance that it means a great deal.

“生物信息学”也许对你来说并不意味什么,除非 你是从事生命科学领域的工作...这样的话,就很有 可能对你来说意义重大。

Bioinformatics is the basis of how we understand, analyse and interpret the massive amounts of information that we can now measure about living organisms—including ourselves and the life forms we depend on to survive.

生物信息学是我们如何理解、分析和解读大量我们 现在可以测量的活的有机体信息的基础-包括我们自 己和其它我们赖以生存的生命形式。

Packed in each of our cells is around three metres of DNA, the biomolecule whose sequence and associated (or epigenetic) modifications provide our “body code”1: the instructions for our cells to develop, differentiate and respond to our environment. Our bodies consist of around one hundred trillion cells, of which around ten trillion are human. In numerical terms, the vast majority of “us” is “them”—the microorganisms on us or in us—challenging our innate anthropocentric worldview. Even our genome is far from the “biggest”. At around three billion bases, our haploid genome2 is dwarfed in comparison to the DNA of wheat. Triticum aestivum— the staff of life—has not one, but three distinct genomes to which each parent donates 17 billion letters’ worth of DNA. On an individual basis, these biomolecules and the information the carry are invisible to us. Collectively, they make up life on Planet Earth. Bioinformatics helps us understand how. Life, the Universe and everything are layered: the things that we can sense directly are but a scintilla of the things that are. But through human ingenuity we can build tools that allow us to extend our perception into these invisible realms, and through mathematics, statistics and computing we can create imaginary models from this information of how these invisible entities behave and interact. Bioinformatics helps us see beneath the surface of life. How apt that the Centenary of Canberra Science-Art Commission has engaged Eleanor Gates-Stuart, an artist whose practice deals in layers of information, meaning and understanding. And as if the overwhelming volume and complexity of modern bioscience wasn’t enough, researchers face a further challenge in finding ways to integrate data from different scales to form a holistic understanding of life as a system.

1 Body Code is the title of Drew Berry’s groundbreaking visualisation of life at the molecular and cellular scale: http://www.wehi.edu.au/ education/wehitv/body_code_drew_berry_2003 2 Haploid refers to all the nuclear DNA that one parent passes on to their offspring.

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包裹在我们的每一个细胞内的是约三米长的DNA,生 命分子的排序和相关(或表观遗传)的修改为我们 提供了“身体编码(body code)”1:指示我们的 细胞发育、分化并对我们的环境做出反应。 我们的身体由约一百万亿个细胞组成,其中约十万 亿为有人性的。从数值的角度来看,“我们”之中 绝大多数是“他们”-在我们身上的以及在我们内部 的微生物-在不断挑战着我们固有的人类学世界观。 尽管我们的基因组与“最大”相去甚远。大约在 三 十 亿 的 基 础 上 , 我 们 的 单 倍 体 基 因 组 1同 小 麦 的DNA相比有如矮小的侏儒。普通小麦(Triticum aestivum)-生命的物质-有不是一组而是三组截然 不同的基因组,双亲各提供一百七十亿字符的DNA。 单个分开来看,这些生物分子和其携带的信息我们 是看不见的。聚在一起,他们便组成了行星地球上 的生命。 生物信息学可以帮助我们理解原由。 生命、宇宙和所有一切都是有层次的:我们直接感 觉到的东西只是所有的东西很少的一部分。但是通 过人类的创造力我们可以制作能够开拓我们对这些 无形领域认知的工具,而且通过数学、统计学和计 算机的使用与操作我们可以创造这些看不见的个体 是怎样行动以及互动的虚拟模式。 生物信息学帮助我们看到生命表面之下的内容。 堪培拉世纪华诞科学艺术委员会采用埃莉诺·盖茨斯图亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart)是多么明智的决 定,她是一位艺术家,能够在工作过程中有层次的 处理信息、含义与理解。 如果数量和复杂程度如此惊人的现代生物科学信息 还不够的话,研究人员所面临的挑战便是寻找将不 同领域的信息整合起来形成一整套系统的理解生命 的方法。 但正如艺术为我们提供了在浩瀚的宇宙前渺小的我 们表达我们的敬畏和感叹的途径一样,它也能解决 我们的理解能力水平之间的关系。 StellrScope同系列广泛的关系网络对话。从“沃森和 克里克的“中央教义”(Watson and Crick’s “central dogma” ):“DNA产生RNA,RNA产生蛋白质”; 到小麦和人类在相互依存和进化的过程中起到的作 用;到科学与技术,研究人员和农夫用来为我们提 供每日所需的面包。

‘Chlorophyllx4’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart Wheat Ear captured with Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging at CSIRO Australian Plant Phenomics Facility


But just as Art has provided an avenue for us to express awe and wonder in the face of a Universe in which we are utterly insignificant, so too can it offer a means to address relationships beyond our ability to comprehend. StellrScope speaks to a broad network of relationships. From Watson and Crick’s “central dogma” that “DNA makes RNA makes protein”; to the roles that wheat and humans have played in each other’s survival and evolution; to the science and technology , the researchers and farmers whose efforts give us our daily bread.

StellrScope提醒我们生命中的一切都是相关联的,即 使我们不能完全明了是怎样关联的。 大卫·拉威尔博士(Dr David Lovell) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO )转型生物学-生物 信息学与解析学组长 澳大利亚生物信息学网络董事 (Australian Bioinformatics Network Director)

StellrScope reminds us that things in life are connected, even if we cannot fully grasp how. Dr David Lovell

Leader CSIRO Transformational Biology – Bioinformatics and Analytics Australian Bioinformatics Network Director

‘Visualising the Sound of Wheat‘ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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title

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‘Hot Seeds‘ Eleanor Gates-Stuart


StellrScope: A Techno-Tapestry of Art and Science The artworks in this exhibition have been produced by Eleanor Gates -Stuart as part of the Centenary of Canberra Science Art commission. In one respect they play an important role in terms of visualising complex scientific discoveries, and in another they communicate in a way that pays homage to the cutting edge technologies that have enabled us to understand our natural world on a micro scale. Science has often been criticised for not communicating itself other than to itself, a view often shared about contemporary art, so it is interesting to see how both of these often misunderstood forms of practice can communicate complex ideas while sharing the same stage. In this respect it is important to note that the function of art in this collaboration goes well beyond just visualising science. Art too, is partly experiment, a test of creativity that attempts to find its own language and voice, a discovery of new worlds, both real and imaginary. In these special moments of discovery, art language touches poetry and through this can stimulate heightened responses in all of us, emotions that are not always quantifiable in scientific terms but are recognisable all the same. Eleanor has worked in close collaboration with a number of scientists from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Canberra. Based on a story of wheat innovation involving genetics, bioinformatics and historical artefacts, StellrScope1 is an emerging body of work connecting the Canberra region to Australia’s major crop science, from the times of William Farrer’s pioneering wheat breeding through to the scientific achievements of the modern era. Eleanor manipulates data in the creation and deconstruction of 3D objects towards the making of a print or moving image, starting from rendered files, point clouds, scans and screenshots using software such as MeshLab, Maya, and Photoshop. The technology assists in the formation of visual content and production, but it is the synergy between artist and scientist that really drives the formation of new languages communicating both science and art, and at best the fusion of the two. Works such as Hot Seeds and Grains utilise an electron microscope to generate the information detail for the artworks. However, the purpose is often twofold in that it supplies base information for the process, but at the same time presents a challenge when working across three and four dimensional spaces. The opportunity to test out 3D scanning of insects at the Australian National Insect Collection, and volumetric data from the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility were the catalyst for Eleanor’s Bugs and Grassland series, both of which were remodeled and transformed as architectural projections for Canberra’s Enlighten 20132 public art event.

由埃莉诺·盖茨·斯图亚特(Eleanor Gates Stuart) 为本次展会准备的艺术作品是堪培拉世纪华诞科 学艺术委员会的组成部分。一方面他们在将复杂的 科学发现视觉化的工作中起到重要的作用,另一方 面他们通过一种交流方式向让我们能够从微小级别 观察我们的世界的尖端科技表达敬意。科学一直以 来被批评除了同自身交流外没有其它交流,这一观 点也适用于现代艺术,有趣的是这两种常常被误解 的实践形式却能够在相同的舞台传递交流复杂的理 念。这样来看艺术的功能在本次合作中已经超越了 只是将科学视觉化,这一点非常重要。艺术同样也 是实验,它是试图找出自己的语言与声音的创造性 测试。艺术语言带有诗意,藉此能够激发我们所有 人高度的回应,情感通常无法用科学词汇具体量 化,但所有情感都是清晰可见的。 埃莉诺同堪培拉联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO) 的多位科学家紧密合作。StellrScope 是建立在包含 遗传学、生物信息学和历史收藏的小麦创新的故 事,它是一种新兴的作品载体,将堪培拉区域同 澳洲主要作物科学领域连接起来,从威廉·法洛 (William Farrer)的先驱小麦育种到现代的科学成 就。 埃莉诺为了制作一幅印刷物或移动的图像能 够自如的运用数据制作拆析3D物体,从使用 MeshLab、Maya、和Photoshop这类程序的渲染文 件、点云、扫描和截屏开始。技术有助于形成新语 言的视觉内容和产出,但是艺术家和科学家之间蕴 含的能量才是艺术与科学见形成新语言的动力,在 二者融合为一体时效果最佳。如«火热的种子(Hot Seeds)»和«谷物(Grains)»这样的作品使用了电 子显微镜生成艺术作品所需的信息细节。然而目的 通常都是双重的:提供过程所需的基础信息,但 同时在跨越三维思维空间作业时又存在挑战。在 澳大利亚国家昆虫收藏处(the Australian National Insect Collection)获得的3D昆虫扫描测试,以及澳 大利亚植物表型组学设施中心(The Australian Plant Phenomics Facility)提供的海量数据催生出埃莉诺 的«虫(Bugs )» 和«草地(Grassland)»系列,两 堪培拉«启 者均经过重新改造和转型,成为2013� 发»公开艺术庆典的建筑投影。 科学家和艺术家的合作看起来似乎是会招惹麻烦, 设计和建筑一直都是材料科学的盟友,随着新材料 和工序的不断发展,功能和美学在我们打造的环境 内的基础关系也得到了持续的更新。相比之下,科 学与艺术的互动却是寥寥可数,在历史上某一特定 时间,科学与艺术的关系形成了一种思考、培育充 满活力且独特表达的语言的方式,其中许多已让我 们的生活产生了良好的变化。这些科学与艺术相辅 相成的珍贵时刻证明了在16世纪的欧洲艺术与宗教 之间相互依存的关系,或艺术的表现以及通过超现 实主义或表现主义表现的意识,进而对所有形式的 后现代文化产生影响。当科学发现与公共艺术成功 结合时,我们便开始理解不仅过去的表现,还包括 我们未来的潜力。 伟大的公众艺术让观者从智力、情感和精神上全方 位参与,所有这些都比信息本身重要。这是我们如 何解读信息并将其投射,能激励我们所有人内在的 21


While the collaboration between scientists and artists might seem an invitation for disaster, design and architecture have always been regular bedfellows with the material sciences, as the development of new materials and processes constantly refreshes the fundamental relationship between function and aesthetics within our built environment. In comparison, the interplay between science and art has been more sporadic but one in which at particular points in history, the science art nexus has formulated a way of thinking, nurturing dynamic and unique expressions of language, many of which have changed our lives for the better. These rare moments of collision where science and art feed each other have proven as significant as the inter-dependent relationship between art and religion in 16th century Europe, or the manifestation of art and consciousness as seen through surrealism or expressionism, the impact of which has affected post modern culture in all its forms. It is when scientific discovery in conjunction with public art succeeds that we start to understand the potential of our future, not just a representation of our past. Great public art engages the viewer intellectually, emotionally and spiritually, all of which are far more important than mere information itself. It is how we interpret information and project it that stimulates creative thought in all of us, how we decode the signs, how we re-think our histories and how we might imagine our futures. Art opens up new thinking because the art itself, however simple it might appear, presents a multi layered tapestry and one in which our assumptions, prejudices and beliefs are unpicked and examined. Art places demands on the viewer to see beyond what can be seen and to question the nature of our history and philosophy through the tiny threads that are presented to us. For instance, the science underpinning this series of artworks attempts to prove a particular position in terms of the origins of life on earth. From a thematic position and through their sourcing of scientific data surrounding insects and plants, these works propagate and support our assumptions about the Darwinian theory of evolution. Interestingly though, the ambient and ephemeral quality of their resulting 3D and projection technologies propose a more temporary line of enquiry, one that might place doubt on our fundamental belief systems that rely so heavily on acceptance of scientific evidence and the permanency of knowledge. The works in this exhibition also refer indirectly to a significant point in our history where art, science and communication was most eloquently displayed, in the botanical copperplate engravings of Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, more commonly known as Banks’ Florilegium. These prints play an important part in our colonial history, standing as a marker of both artistic and 22

创造性思维,我们如何将讯号解码,我们如何回 顾历史以及如何想象我们的未来。艺术开辟了新思 路,因为艺术本身尽管看起来似乎很简单,呈现的 却是错落有致的有如多层挂毯的内容,此中我们的 设想、偏见和信仰未经拣选和审视。艺术对观赏者 提出要看到表面之下的内容,并通过我们面前呈现 的蛛丝马迹质问我们的历史和哲学本质的要求。例 如科学支持了意图证明在地球生命起源中的某一特 定立场的一系列艺术作品。从理论立场和通过他们 就昆虫和作物提供科学数据,这些工作传递并支持 了我们对达尔文进化论的设想。然而有趣的是,他 们生成的3D和投影技术的环境性和短暂性显示查询 线路更具暂时性,人们可能会对我们如此依赖接受 科学依据和知识的持久性的基本信念体系抱有怀 疑。 展会的作品也间接提及我们历史中重要的一环,即 艺术、科学与交流以最雄辩的姿态,出现在约瑟 夫·班克斯和丹尼尔·索兰达( Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander)植物铜板雕刻中,它更为人所熟知 的是班克斯的«集锦»(Banks’ Florilegium)。这些印 刷品是我们殖民史的重要组成部分,它是艺术与科 学进程的标记。科学图释使用当时可用的技术试图 转换新世界和新语言的信息,这是对我们如何理解 自身起源的一场长久的测试。随着技术的进步,我 们现在可用的技术不断增加,转换新知识的需求为 我们呈现了一种互动性更强的交流方式,观赏者能 够在其中起到更多的解释说明的作用。 委员会的雄心壮志既是对艺术本身也是对堪培拉世 纪华诞(the Centenary of Canberra)。她的方式是实 验性的,不受任何限制,其技术是最尖端的,而且 反响将是无法预测的。从这一角度而言,这是真正 的艺术与科学进程,是开放式结果的调查,无论是 发现还是启示,其不可预测性都是可以分享并且被 庆祝的。我希望各位能够欣赏展会中的艺术作品, 以及它们所呈现的涵义。 克莱维·巴思妥(Clive Barstow) 克莱维·巴思妥(Clive Barstow)是一位艺术家兼作家, 西澳珀 斯伊迪斯科文大学(Edith Cowan University)创造艺术教授,中国 上海科技大学名誉艺术教授。

1 StellrScope: http://stellrscope.com/ 2 Enlighten 2013: http://enlightencanberra.com.au/event-info/ architectural-projections/

‘Wheatear3y’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart


scientific process. Using the technology available at the time, these scientific illustrations attempted to transmit information about new worlds and new knowledge, a lasting testament to our understanding of how we came to be. With the advances in technologies available to us today, the need for the transference of new knowledge has presented us with a more interactive form of communicating and one in which the viewer can play a more interpretive role.

(Endnotes)

1 StellrScope: http://stellrscope.com/ 2 Enlighten 2013: http://enlightencanberra.com.au/event-info/ architectural-projections/

The commission is ambitious for both the Centenary of Canberra and for the artist herself. Her approach is experimental and unrestricted, the technology is cutting edge, and the response will be unpredictable. In this sense it is a true artistic and scientific process, an openended investigation of both discovery and enlightenment in which unpredictability can be shared and celebrated. I hope you enjoy the artworks in this exhibition, as much for what they propose as for what they represent. Clive Barstow Clive Barstow is a practicing artist and writer, Professor of Creative Arts at Edith Cowan University Perth and Honorary Professor of Art at the University of Shanghai Science and Technology China.

‘The Measure of Volume’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

1 StellrScope: http://stellrscope.com/ 2 Enlighten 2013: http://enlightencanberra.com.au/event-info/ architectural-projections/

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‘StellrLume‘

title

StellrLume Domes are two hemispherical projections based in an installation setting that allows people to interact with the display delivering content to the viewer(s). An overhead Kinect depth camera relays information about objects (e.g., hands) placed over the hemisphere and ‘virtual shadow’ data is used to mask one video stream projected onto the inside surface of the hemisphere to reveal a second different video stream. In effect, people can cast shadows onto the hemisphere yet, instead of causing an absence of illumination, these shadows reveal a new layer of imagery and form the basis of the StellrScope visual narrative, reflecting wheat innovation over the century. A collaboration made achievable with Pufferfish, an Edinburgh based company specialising in interactive spherical displays. StellrLume Domes 是安装于底座的两个半球状投影设备,使人们可以 同向观众展示的内容互动。顶部的Kinect深度相机传递着置于半球上 方的物体的信息(如:双手),“视觉阴影”数据用于覆盖一束投射 在半球内部表面的视频流从而引出第二束不同的视频流。其实人们可 以在半球上投影,然而这些阴影没有导致照明消失,而是翻出一层新 的想象图,形成StellrScope的视觉叙述,反映了一个世纪以来小麦创 新。我们是同擅长互动球形展示技术的爱丁堡河豚鱼(Pufferfish)公 司合作实现这一项工作的。

‘Willam Farrer Notes’ Field Diary National Library of Australia

‘A Nation is Built’ Film Clip: National Film and Sound Archives

‘Bread’ Micro CT Scan Dr Sherry Mayo

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‘Inner’ Image revealed when hand is held over dome

Videos consists of rendered animation, artifacts, film archives and digital images

‘StellrLume‘ Domes

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title

‘Wheatear Section’ Micro CT Scan Dr Sherry Mayo ‘Magical Fusion’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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title ‘Wheatear Section’ & Weevil’ Micro CT Scan Dr Sherry Mayo ‘MAGICal B’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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Art, Science and Science Communication Genuine partnerships between artists and scientists represent a new form of interdisciplinary practice that can have a significant influence on the public’s engagement with science. Such partnerships, with respectful exchange of ideas and perspectives, can also help both artists and scientists see things in new light. It is for this reason that I was excited when Questacon was presented with the opportunity to host an art-science commission to help celebrate the Centenary of Canberra. The chosen topic of wheat improvement to feed Australia and the world is highly significant in a Canberra context with a strong history of research and significant current innovation. Visualising this scientific experimentation and creating art works that engage and communicate to multiple audiences has been the challenge of this ACT Government Centenary Commission. The artist Eleanor Gates-Stuart has worked closely with CSIRO scientists to interpret and conceptualise the theme of wheat experimentation. Questacon is a busy hands-on science centre with a predominantly youthful audience and some interesting but difficult spaces for exhibits. Creating a work of art for such a challenging environment has influenced the output of the work. It has led Eleanor in some new directions that embrace Questacon’s hands-on philosophy using digital media. It has been fascinating to see her ideas emerge as the project has proceeded through a deepening understanding of the science, the history and the technology used. Eleanor has remained true to her approach of visualisation of scientific themes seen in previous works such as ‘FingerCodes’, displayed at CSIRO Discovery in 2011, that link scientific understanding with artistic interpretation. Science has always relied on artistic skills to communicate ideas. Whether it is the sketches of Leonardo, the illuminated manuscripts of medieval lapidaries and herbals or the 16th century rhinoceros drawing of Durer, the early history of exchange of scientific ideas relied on illustrators. Before the advent of photography, drawings and paintings were, with the printed and spoken word, the principle means of scientific communication. Oil paintings, drawings and water-colour paintings gave life to landscapes and plant and animals specimens. An 18th century Stubbs painting of a Canadian moose was used to demonstrate that the giant elk antlers found in Irish peat bogs were in fact from a large extinct animals and this in turn helped unpick the notion of a great ‘chain of being’ and opened up thought to imagine a theory of evolution. Natural history artists recorded newly discovered species and landscapes during the voyages of discovery around the world. 30

艺术家与科学家之间真正的伙伴关系代表着一种新 的学科间实践形式的出现,这对提高公众参与科学 有着重大影响。在相互尊重的基础上进行思想和观 点交流的合作关系也有助于艺术家和科学家从新的 角度看待事物。正因此在科斯塔康(Questacon)得 到担任协助艺术-科学委员会庆祝其堪培拉百年华诞 的机会时,我感到兴奋不已。 所选的主题改良小麦满足澳大利亚和世界的需求在 拥有强大的研究和创新历史的堪培拉是有着重要意 义的。将这一科学试验视觉化并创造让多元化的观 众参与交流的艺术作品一直以来都是首都领地政 府世纪华诞委员会所面临的一大挑战。艺术家埃莉 诺·盖茨-斯特亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart)同联邦 科学与工业研究组织的科学家紧密合作将小麦试验 的主题解读并概念化。 科斯塔康(Questacon)是一间繁忙的实践科学中 心,拥有大量年轻观众,和一些有趣却有空间困难 的展品。为这样挑战性的环境创造艺术作品影响了 作品的产出。而这引导埃莉诺到新的方向,接受科 斯塔康(Questacon)使用数码媒体的实践哲学。 随着对科学、历史与技术的理解逐步的加深,她的 想法伴随着项目的开展也层出不穷,这真是非常奇 妙的。埃莉诺依然忠于将科学主题视觉化的工作方 式,如先前‘手指代码’(‘FingerCodes’)这样作 品,它是在2011年联邦科学与工业研究组织发现之 旅(CSIRO Discovery)中展出的,它将科学理念同艺 术解读结合。 科学总是需要依靠艺术技巧来交流思想。无论是李 奥纳多达芬奇的素描,诠释中世纪宝石工匠和草本 植物的手稿,还是16世纪多勒(Durer)绘制的犀牛 图,早期科学思想的交流依赖于插图画家。在发明 摄影术之前,印刷的有叙述文字的绘画是科学交流 的主要方式。油画、绘画和水彩画赋予景观、植物 和动物标本以生命。18世纪斯塔布斯(Stubbs)绘 制的一幅加拿大驼鹿的画作展示了在爱尔兰的泥潭 沼泽发现的巨大的麋鹿鹿茸其实是来自一种大型的 已绝种的动物,从而有助于将大‘存在链’的观念 切断,开辟想象进化论的新思路。自然历史学家记 载了在环球发现之旅中发现的样本和地貌。 19世纪的艺术家受到自然现象的吸引,很多人到 维苏威火山去进行他们宏伟的启发之旅。描述维苏 威火山爆发的油画有很多,其中一幅由德比的约瑟 夫·怀特( Joseph Wright of Derby)绘制,他的作品 同样描绘了科学的实践和科学交流。他的画作«发现 磷»,«太阳系仪»和 体现空气特性的«真空瓶»在科 学被职业科学家程式化之前,为进入科学世界提供 了不同的视角。 摄影的发明创造了交流思想和科学实践的新媒介。 望远镜和显微镜的图像为更多观众带来了新的世界 与发现,而且能够更多的参与科学主题。 讲授解剖学、鲜花和海洋生物的玻璃模型或是分子 的木制模型要求不仅要有想象力还要有对科学的理 解。这样精心制作的模型在将知识从科学专家转移 到受训者的过程中起着重要的作用。新材料和技术


‘GrassLand Series’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart Scanning by Dr Chuong Nguyen

19th century artists were drawn to natural phenomena and many to Vesuvius as part of their grand tours for inspiration. There are many oil paintings of Vesuvius in eruption including one by Joseph Wright of Derby who amongst his works also illustrated the practice of science and science communication. His paintings of the discovery of phosphorus, the explanation of an orrery and the use of a vacuum vessel to demonstrate properties of air provide insights into the world of science before it became institutionalised with professional scientists.

为这样的教学辅助提供了便捷和改进。保存动物组 织的生物塑化技术的发展开创了一种颇具争议性的 艺术新形式:即以奇异的姿势保存人类和动物的尸 体。

The advent of photography created a new medium for exchanging ideas and for the practice of science. Images from telescopes and microscopes brought new worlds and discoveries to a wider audience and allowed greater involvement with scientific subjects.

科学与技术不断为艺术的表达创造新的媒体。纸、 印刷技术、摄影和丙烯酸颜料的开发都为艺术家提 供了新的契机。计算机、计算机能力的提高和软件 的开发开创了数码虚拟影像作为艺术新媒介的先 河。数码媒体是科学交流转型的有力工具,它为艺 术家和科学家的合作孕育了肥沃的土壤。计算机产 生的虚拟图像和视觉化软件为科学和科学交流创造 了新的动态图画语言。

Models such as those produced to teach anatomy, glass models of flowers and sea-creatures or wooden models of molecules required creative ability as well as understanding of the science. Such well-crafted models played an important role in knowledge transfer from expert scientist to trainee. New materials and techniques facilitated and improved such teaching aids. The development of plastination techniques to preserve animal tissue has created a controversial new art form from preserved human and animal bodies mounted in exotic poses. Film, photography and the medium of television changed the relationship between science and the public forever, allowing the growth of popular science magazines and natural history film-making that has opened up the world. Photographs from space have transformed how we see our planet. Time-lapse and slow motion photography has changed the ways we see the world around us. Both artists and scientists have been able to exploit photographic media to interpret and share scientific ideas. Science and technology continually create new media for artistic expression. The development of paper, printing technology, photography and acrylic paint have all created new opportunities for artists. Computers, enhanced computing power and software development have opened up digital imagery as a new medium for art. Digital media is powerfully transforming the communication of science and creating very fertile ground for collaborations between artists and scientists. Computer generated imagery and visualisation software have created a new dynamic pictorial language for science and science communication.

电影、摄影和电视媒介永远改变了科学与大众之间 的关系,越来越多的流行科学杂志和自然历史影片 的制作打开了整个世界的大门。发自太空的影像颠 覆了我们对地球的看法。延时摄影和慢动作摄影改 变了我们看待周围世界的方式。艺术家和科学家从 未停止寻找解读分享科学理念的摄影媒体。

从洞穴壁画到数码视觉化,科学一直都需要一种图 画语言来交流。艺术家们受到科学的吸引和启发, 而科学家们则寻求艺术的图解。在基础的关系上, 艺术与科学融合的趋势催生出新的合作伙伴关系, 和令人敬佩的兼具科学家与艺术家的作品。科学与 艺术正在汇集到一起,而艺术家和科学家便是埃莉 诺·盖茨-斯图亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart)负责的 堪培拉世纪华诞委员会的核心。 开发小麦的主题与近来涌现出的食品安全问题紧密 相关。堪培拉的作物科学家在过去100年内做出了具 有全球重大意义的许多发现,并且他们的成就还在 继续。提高小麦品系来提高收成并为全世界提供粮 食是科学的一大重任。100年前当堪培拉刚刚被命名 的时候,全世界的人口约为16亿。只有第二次绿色 革命才能够持续为全世界飞速增长的90亿人口提供 足够的食物。 科学产生新的知识和工作为国家和世界人民解决问 题。艺术产生看待事物的新方法并注入新的见解到 我们身边的世界中。可以是挑战是挑衅。也可以是 灵感是洞悉。本次展会会让您思考科学在社会中的 作用,会让你思考国家的首府所开展的许多重要的 科学研究。 Stelrscope 是埃莉诺·盖茨-斯图亚特(Eleanor GatesStuart)同工作在科学发现前沿的联邦科学与工业研 究组织(CSIRO)的科学家共同合作开发新媒体的努 力的结晶。 本次展会运用最新的计算机技术捕捉、 生成并操控开发新型数码艺术媒体的图像。科斯塔 康(Questacon)非常荣幸作为堪培拉世纪华诞项目 这一盛事的一份子负责展会的展出。 格兰汉姆·杜兰特(Graham Durant) 科斯塔康(Questacon)董事

From cave paintings to digital visualization, science has needed a pictorial language for communication. Artists have drawn inspiration from science, and scientists have 31


turned to art for illustration. The new fusion of art and science moves beyond these basic relationships to a new partnership and a new respect for the work of both artist and scientist alike. It is this coming together of science and art, artist and scientists that is at the heart of this Canberra Centenary Commission by Eleanor GatesStuart. The theme of the development of wheat is particularly relevant at a time of mounting concern about food security. Plant scientists in Canberra have made major discoveries of global importance over the past 100 years and continue to do so. Improving wheat strains to improve yields and feed the world is a critical task for science. 100 years ago when Canberra was named, the world’s population was around 1.6 billion. Only a second green revolution can sustainably feed a world with a population projected to rise to over 9 billion people. Science generates new knowledge and works towards solving problems for the nation and for the people of the world. Art generates new ways of looking at things and presents fresh insights into the world around us. It can challenge and provoke. It can also inspire and inform. This exhibition should make you think about the role of science in society. It should make you think about some of the important science being undertaken in the nation’s capital. Stelrscope is the product of genuine collaboration between Eleanor Gates-Stuart who is exploring new media and CSIRO scientists who are working at the leading edge of discovery. It is an exhibition that uses the latest computing technology to capture, generate and manipulate images of relevance exploiting new digital artistic media. Questacon is proud to be able to display this exhibition as part of our Centenary of Canberra program. Graham Durant

Professor Graham Durant AM

Director, Questacon

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‘Wheatear Series’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart Scanning by Dr Chuong Nguyen


title

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Invisible Bubbles Breads are a staple in most people’s diets and the bread wheat is more highly priced than any other wheat. Thus selling wheat for breads is profitable for farmers. The rule of thumb for bakers in selecting flour has been to use flour with high amounts of gluten protein for making breads. A lot of wheat grown in Australia is not high in gluten proteins and thus, are not suitable for making high quality breads. At this time, the gold standard bread wheats grow only in North America. There could be many reasons for this including the soil quality and the climate in the respective countries. We are working to improve the technology for making breads using low protein Australian bread wheat and plan to compete in the export markets with North American flours. Our approach is to understand how structure develops in breads and cakes and how it affects the texture that consumers experience. Texture is a global word that is used to convey the experience of handling and masticating foods. For example, we know breads and cakes are highly porous, but cakes are crumbly, which means pieces come off easily. For breads, pieces have to be torn off. During mastication, breads are soft and chewy while cakes are also soft, but not chewy. Visually, breads and cakes are porous substances. While one cannot see air bubbles in the dough (and batters) when they are mixed, there are numerous air bubbles in doughs. When yeast (or the leavener in cake batters) produces carbon dioxide, the gas collects in these preexisting bubbles which then expand, i.e., the dough rises. It is then baked in the oven when the bubbles expand further and the starch gelatinises imparting solidity to the structure. Ultimately, the bubbles start to coalesce with each other. If most of them have coalesced completely then one gets a large puff, as in Indian Chapattis. If most of them coalesce, but only partially so a solid wall separate portions of each bubble, then one gets the crumb like structure of breads. In breads and cakes, the solid walls will ultimately fracture, which is an essential step as it helps to stabilise the internal pressure of bubbles with that of the atmosphere, a critical requirement for maintaining the expanded structure when the products are taken out of the oven. Thus, if a cake collapses when taken out of the oven, it means the bubbles had not expanded far enough and the porous structure had not permeated the solid phase. Having identified that elasticity is the key to imparting functionality of doughs, we are developing techniques to control bubble structures in doughs and expand the use of flours in making specialty products. We are also researching how composition of flour and wheat affect the elasticity of doughs and thereby develop gold standard wheat in Australia. Dr Sumana Bell

Research Director, Centre for Grain Food Innovation CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences CSIRO Animal, Health and Food Sciences

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面包是许多人餐桌上的固定主食,用于制作面包的 小麦价格也比其它小麦价格高很多。因此销售面包 小麦对农民而言是利润丰厚的。烘培师的首要原则 是对面粉的拣选,制作面包时通常要使用谷蛋白含 量高的面粉。许多澳洲生长的小麦谷蛋白含量不 高,因此不适合用于高品质面包。这一时期,黄金 标准的面包小麦仅在北美生长。形成这种状况的原 因有很多,包括土壤质地以及相应国家的气候。我 们努力在改进使用低蛋白的澳大利亚面包小麦制作 面包的技术,并计划采用北美面粉的出口市场。 我们采用的方法是理解面包和蛋糕的结构如何形 成,以及质地将对消费者的体验产生什么影响。质 地是全球用于表达处理和咀嚼食物的体验的共同关 键词。例如我们都知道面包和蛋糕是多空的,但是 蛋糕更易碎,这也就意味着蛋糕上的碎屑更容易掉 落下来。而面包的碎屑则是需要用手撕落。咀嚼过 程中,面包是柔软耐嚼的,蛋糕也是柔软的,但不 耐嚼。 从视觉角度而言,面包和蛋糕都是多空物质。人 们看不到面团(和面糊)中的气泡,当将它们混合 时,在面团中便有了大量气泡。当酵母(或蛋糕面 糊中的酵素)开始生成二氧化碳,先前已有的气泡 在收集气体后开始膨胀,如此面团就会胀起来。在 气泡进一步膨胀时将其置入烤箱内烘烤,淀粉的胶 质使得结构得到固定。最后气泡开始互相合并。如 果大部分气泡完全合并,人们就会得到一个巨大的 泡芙,就好像印度的薄煎饼一样。如果大部分气泡 部分结合,那么气泡间就形成了一道坚固的墙壁, 这样人们就得到了易碎建构的面包。面包和蛋糕内 部的坚固壁垒终究要分崩离析,这是在这样的环境 下帮助稳定气泡内部的压力的重要步骤,是将产品 取出烤箱后保持扩张结构的重要要求。因此如果蛋 糕在取出烤箱后塌陷,这就意味着气泡扩张幅度不 够,多空结构未能渗透至固化阶段。 不是所有面团中的气泡在烘培期间都会连接在一 起。这些面包中的气泡是肉眼看不见的,大部分气 泡相互联结在一起,使得面包的结构没那么容易被 扯碎除非有人抓住一块并把它扯出来。证实了弹性 是形成面团功能的主要因素后,我们开发出控制面 团中气泡结构和使用面粉扩张制作特殊产品的技 术。我们还研究了面粉和小麦的构成对面团弹性的 影响,进而制定了澳大利亚小麦的黄金准则。 苏玛娜·贝尔博士(Dr Sumana Bell) 谷物食品创新中心研究董事


‘Bubbles’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart X-Ray Phase Imaging by Dr Sherry Mayo

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X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging Conventional x-ray imaging, such as the x-ray scans taken in a hospital, rely on the absorption of x-rays by an object in order to form an image. Phase-contrast makes use of the refraction or bending of x-rays to form an image, and results in x-ray images in which edges and fine features of the object are particularly highlighted. We soon extended this technique to three-dimensional or tomographic imaging with x-rays, enabling us to make beautiful 3D images of samples which do not strongly absorb x-rays and which would have been difficult or impossible to image using conventional methods. We use this technique for 3D microscopy, essentially like a CAT-scan but on a tiny scale. One of the particularly gratifying aspects of working in this area is the ability to take our three-dimensional scans and to use them to produce beautiful imagery and movies of our samples using rendering software. Using such software we can open the sample up to reveal internal features and highlight different aspects of structure. These kinds of images and movies are also much more accessible and easy to understand than many other types of scientific data, and are a great way to communicate science to the wider community. For this reason I was very excited to be asked to collaborate on the StellrScope project. In highlighting science relating to wheat, we have imaged samples including wheat ears and grains, wheat pest insects and an end-product, bread. All are low-density samples with intricate fine-scale structure, so x-ray phase-contrast imaging is an ideal method for bringing out the structure and beauty of these specimens. All the samples were scanned using our x-ray microfocus source scanning system in Melbourne. The rendering of the three-dimensional data we produced was done using Drishti and Avizo software packages. In many cases the three-dimensional data were converted into surfaces or other formats which could be further manipulated by Eleanor for incorporation into different elements of the exhibition. It is especially gratifying that scientific methods like x-ray phase-contrast and 3D printing have been able to contribute to the image-making and ‘art’ component of a project highlighting wheat science. It has been very interesting to see how the raw material of 3D scans has been transformed into different types of imagery and artefacts by Eleanor and other collaborators. I hope that members of the community who visit the StellrScope exhibition are encouraged to think about science in a different way by seeing elements of scientific work visualised in a variety of forms, from beautiful images and movies to the solid reality of titanium threedimensional prints of insect forms. Dr Sheridan Mayo Senior Scientist, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering 36

传统的X射线成像,像是医院使用的X射线扫描仰仗 物体对X射线的吸收从而形成图像。相衬技术使用X 射线线的折射形成图像,并且形成的X射线图像重要 物体边缘清晰、特征细致。我们很快将这一技术的 使用扩展到X射线三维或层析成像,使得我们能够做 出无需吸收高强度的X射线,以及传统方法很难做出 的或是根本不可能做出的美妙的3D样品图象。我们 使用3D显微镜学,很像是计算机X射线轴向分层造影 扫描图(CAT-scan),但不是在微小范围。 在这一领域中特别令人满意的一点是能够使用我们 的三维扫描技术生成美丽的虚构图和我们用于表现 软件样品的影片。 使用这样的软件我们可以打开样品揭示其内部特征 并着重指出结构不同的方面。这类图片和影片相比 其它类型的科学数据更容易接触而且也更容易理 解,是同更广大的社会交流科学的好方法。因此我 非常乐意接受为项目提供协助的要求。 在重点指出与小麦相关的科学同时,我们也有图象 化的样本,包括麦穗和谷类、小麦害虫和终端产 品,面包。都是难度高结构精妙密度的样本,从而 X射线相衬对比成像成为这些标本结构和美丽的理想 方式。所有样本均经过我们墨尔本的X射线显微测焦 源扫描系统扫描。我们生成的三维数据是通过使用 Drishti 和Avizo程序包。很多情况下三维数据被转换 为表面或其它能够进一步由埃莉诺操纵控制用于植 入其它不同展示元素的格式。 尤其令人欣慰的是X射线相衬对比和3D打印这样的 科学方法一直以来对图像制作和诠释小麦科学的 艺术组成部分做出了贡献。看着埃莉诺和其他合作 人士是怎样将原材料的3D扫描转变成不同的虚构 图和假象实在是非常有趣。从美丽的图片和影片到 坚硬的三维打印的钛金属害虫实体,我希望造访 StellrScope展厅的社区成员能够在看到科学工作的 组成部分通过多种多样的形式视觉化后能够以不同 的方式来思考科学。 舍立丹·玛永博士(Dr Sheridan Mayo ) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO) 材料科学与工程部 高级科学家

‘BugDome’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart


3D Wheat and Weevils 3D vision plays a crucial role in enabling us not only to interact with the physical world everyday but also to perform measurements for scientific research. Normally the role of scientists is making sense of the raw scientific data, however it has been found that science art emerges. In biological research, automatic 3D reconstruction is a new tool to digitise the living things such as plants and insects. Such 3D digital information is revolutionising our understanding of the nature and how best to manage and maintain our ecosystems. Living creatures are very complex biological systems, so creating their accurate digital copies and extracting meaningful information are both challenging topics. While researchers try to make sense of their data in their narrow field of research, science artists such as my collaborator Eleanor GatesStuart has been investigating new ways to make sense of scientific biological data from public and artistic perspectives. At CSIRO, it is very important to collaborate with other researchers to solve multidisciplinary problems. This also applies to my research in developing systems for scanning plants and insects and creating their 3D models at high quality and high speed. With support from CSIRO Transformational Biology and the Australian National Insect Collection (ANIC), I developed a 3D insect scanning system. I initially worked with Eleanor to share my research data and create 3D models of bread and wheat for her StellrScope project and together we started a new collaboration bouncing off ideas to push the limits of both of our domains. Among several topics in our collaboration, Eleanor’s insect artworks caught the most attention and interest from wider range of people. Eleanor expanded her search to environmental effects on wheat productivity such as climate change and wheat pests, i.e. wheat weevils, leading to further collaborations across several CSIRO divisions. As found by Dr Megan Hemming, high temperature strongly affects early development of wheat spikes and consequently reduces the final number of wheat grains. On the other hand, wheat weevils can survive extreme pressure under grain silos and spoil the grains. Due to millimeter size of wheat spikes and wheat weevils, researchers need to examine them under microscopes. As Eleanor and I wanted to create holograms of these specimens, creating models of these tiny specimens was the first step to overcome. That started my investigation of 3D reconstruction of wheat spikes using Scanning Electron Microscope images in collaboration with Dr Mark Talbot. On the wheat weevil side, Eleanor expanded her connection to Dr Rolf Oberprieler and Dr Eric Hines at who provided weevil specimens to create 3D models. These connections initiated my new scanner developments to scan insect specimens of millimeter sizes. This 3D modelling of tiny specimens continued to evolve and led to connection to with Dr Mayo Sherry for Micro CT, Dr John Barnes and Mr Chad Henry for 3D Titanium printing.

3D视觉效果对我们每天同物理世界的互动和科学研 究的绩效评估有重要的作用。通常科学家负责理解 原始科学数据中的含义,然而科学艺术出现了。在 生物学研究中,这样的3D数码信息颠覆了我们对大 自然的理解以及怎样最好的管理保持我们的生态系 统做法。生态系统中的各种生物是非常复杂的,因 此为它们创造准确的数码拷贝并提取有意义的信息 便成为颇具挑战性的课题。当研究人员努力讲清楚 自己的研究领域的数据时,像我的合作者埃莉诺· 盖茨-斯特亚特(Eleanor Gates-Stuart)这样的科学 艺术家则一直在寻找新的让科学生物数据从公众和 艺术的角度更能说的通的方法。 在联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO),同其他研究 人员合作解决跨学科问题是非常重要的一部分。我 的研究也是一样的,即开发扫描作物和昆虫生成高 质量高速的3D模型的系统。在得到联邦科学与工业 研究组织(CSIRO)革命性生物学和澳大利亚国家昆 虫采集(ANIC)的帮助后,我开发出了一套3D昆虫 扫描系统。 我最初同埃莉诺合作,同她分享了我的研究数据, 并为她的StellrScope项目创造了面包和小麦的3D模 型,此外我们还共同开始了一项新的合作让跳跃的 思维推动我们双方领域的极限。在我们合作的众多 项目中,埃莉诺的昆虫艺术作品吸引了许多人的注 目和兴趣。 埃莉诺将她的研究扩展至环境对小麦生产力的影响 效果,如气候变化和小麦害虫象鼻虫。梅根·弗莱 明博士(Dr Megan Fleming)发现高温对麦芒早期发 育有很大影响,会导致小麦最终谷物数量减少。另 外小麦害虫小麦象鼻虫能在谷物筒仓的极端压力下 存活破坏谷物。由于麦芒和小麦象鼻虫的尺寸是毫 米(mm)级的,所以研究人员要在显微镜下观察它 们。埃莉诺和我都想创建这些标本的全息影像,创 建这些微小的标本的模型是要跨越的第一步。已经 开始的对使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)图片的3D重 建得调查是同马克·涛波特博士( Dr Mark Talbot) 共同合作的。小麦象鼻虫这边,埃莉诺扩大了她同 若夫·欧泊布里拉尔(Dr Rolf Oberbrieler)和艾瑞 克·海恩斯博士(Dr Eric Hines)在澳大利亚国家昆 虫采集(ANIC)的联系,也是他们提供了象鼻虫标 本创建3D模型。这些联系引导了我最新的毫米尺寸 标本昆虫扫描仪的开发工作。这一微小标本的3D模 型还在不断进化,并同玛育·雪莉博士(Dr Mayo Sherry)的显微CT(Micro CT)、约翰·巴恩斯博士 (Dr John Barnes)和乍德·亨利先生的3D钛打印技 术都取得了联系。 阮彰博士(Dr Chuong Nguyen) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO) 计算信息学(CCI)

Dr Chuong Nguyen CSIRO Computational Informatics (CCI) 37


‘Weevils’ Titanium Bugs by Eleanor Gates-Stuart in Collaboration with Dr Chuong Nguyen and Dr Sherry Mayo

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Interactive Narrative In the late Seventies and early Eighties, Michael Naimark created a number of artworks at MIT that explored the idea that a movie projector might be able to move around a physical space in just the same way as a movie camera. Naimark was inspired by the Haunted Mansion from Walt Disney World in which “a movie of a woman’s talking face was projected onto a mannequin head in such a way that the eyes, nose, and lips line up” thereby giving the impression of a full colour hologram. Naimark referred to this as “relief projection, where an image is projected on a screen whose shape is the same as the image.” In 1991, Naimark briefly experimented with projecting imagery that could be digitally altered in real time. This was the genesis of what we now refer to as Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR), also sometimes known as Projection Mapping. Essentially, this involves taking a projector, like a classroom data projector, and precisely overlaying computer graphics onto objects in the physical world. The ‘in situ’ nature of SAR displays results in a number of benefits. They allow the user to keep their eyes directly on whatever physical task they are concentrating on, without the mediation of a screen, and they provide a consistency in stereo depth perception between the real and virtual elements of the scene. SAR also usually permits any number of viewers without the need for additional hardware and leaves those viewers free to interact with each other without ‘containing’ each of them within a Head Mounted Display (HMD) or a smart phone. In StellrScopε we use SAR techniques to bring computer graphics into our human-scale physical environment. In order to facilitate interaction between the graphics and as many people as possible, we use overhead depth cameras – that sense Red, Green, Blue, and distance for every pixel. Custom software then extracts the forms of hands, heads, handbags, … - whatever is passed over the top of the projection surface. Elements of the digital content are selected based on where ‘virtual shadows”’land. In this way, the audience must become an active participant, in order to experience the entire narrative. In our research at CSIRO, we have made use of interactive SAR in a variety of application areas. We have designed prototypes to allow scientists to ‘beam’ into a quarantined virus lab, medical specialists to examine a patient hundreds of kilometers away, and remote maintenance workers to help troubleshoot a problem with some machinery. The StellrScopε project has provided a chance to consider our research from an alternative perspective, and we have already formed new hypotheses and devised new techniques as a result of this wonderfully collaborative Science+Art experience. Matt Adcock Research Engineer CSIRO Computational Informatics

七十年代末八十年代初期,麦克·内马克(Michael Naimark )在麻省理工大学(MIT)创作了大量艺术 作品,探索一台电影投影仪象电影摄影机以相同的 方式以在物理空间内移动的想法。内马克受到迪斯 尼乐园幽灵鬼屋的启发,在一部电影中一个女人正 在讲话的脸被投射到一个模特头部,眼睛、鼻子和 嘴唇依次排列,从而出现了一个彩色的全息影像。 内马克将其称为“浮雕投影,也就是图像投射在同 图像形状相同的屏幕上。” 1991年,内马克进行了简单的能够实时进行数码 调节的投射虚构图的实验。这就是我们现今空间 增强现实(SAR)的起源,有时还被称作投影映射 (Projection Mapping)。简单来说,需要一台投影 仪,就像教室里使用的数码投影机,并且要精确的 将电脑中的绘图覆盖在现实世界中的物体上。 空间增强现实展示的‘原地’性质形成了许多自然 可供性。无论关注的物理任务是什么,它们能够无 需屏幕的媒介就可以保持用户的双眼的导向,并能 提供连续的场景现实与虚幻元素的立体深度感知。 空间增强现实还能容纳更多观众,无需额外硬件, 从而观众能够自由互动,无需将自己包在头戴式显 示器(HMD)或智能手机中。 我们在StellrScopε 中使用了空间增强现实技术把电脑 图形带入我们人类层面的物理环境中。为了方便图 形和尽可能多的观众进行互动,我们使用了架空高 射深度相机-能感应任何距离的每一个红色、绿色和 蓝色像素。客户软件之后提取出手、头、手提包等 物品的形态,传递到顶部表面投影。数码内容元素 的选择是建立在“虚拟土地”基础上的。这样观众 必须成为积极的参与者,才能感受到完整的故事。 我们在联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)的研究 在许多应用领域使用了互动的空间增强现实。我们 设计的原型让科学家可以‘投射’进一间隔离的病 毒实验室,医学专家能够在几百公里以外检查病 人,以及帮助工人解决某些机器故障进行远程维 护。StellrScopε项目为我们提供了一个从不同的方向 看待我们研究的机会,我们已经形成了新的假设理 论并根据本次科学与艺术体验的精彩合作准备了新 的技术。 马特·阿多可(Matt Adcock) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO )计算信息学 研究工程师 马特毕业于麻省理工大学媒体实验专业和澳大利亚 国立大学,在那里他还是一位兼职讲师。

‘WheatWave’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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Pufferfish Pufferfish are delighted to have been able to collaborate with Eleanor, the Centenary of Canberra Science Art Commission and CSIRO on a project that lies close to our hearts in its ambition to articulate a complex narrative through visual media; melding history, cuttingedge science, technology and art to offer access and understanding through experience.

河 豚 鱼 ( Pufferfish) 很 高 兴 有 机 会 同 埃 莉 诺 (Eleanor)、堪培拉世纪华诞委员会和联邦科学与 工业研究组织(CSIRO)合作,开发一个如此靠近 我们首都心脏,雄心勃勃地使用视觉媒体、融合历 史、尖端科技与艺术,通过体验获得信息和理解诠 释一个复杂叙述的项目。

Farrer’s concern with the ‘experience’ of his Wheats; the importance to him that they should not only be viable, resistant crops, but also suitable for the purposes of baking, optimised for the experience of human consumption, distinguished him amongst his scientific contemporaries. And so with this project; Eleanor and the CSIRO team focussed not just on the scientific and historical facts behind the messages, but on the experience of those messages.

法洛担心对他的小麦的“体验”;对他而言重要性 在于它们不仅是可以变化的,抵抗力强的作物,而 且适合用于不同的烘培目的,将人类消费的体验最 优化,这使得他从他同时代的科学人物中脱颖而 出。同样一个项目,埃莉诺和联邦科学与工业研究 组织(CSIRO)关注的不仅仅是信息背后的科学和史 实,还有这些信息所带来的体验。

Eleanor’s vibrant visual style and her desire to realise a physical manifestation of otherwise ephemeral digital media, saw her harness the latest in optical design and screen manufacture to create dynamic interactive artworks bespoke to the Centenary Commission. Designed to float at crop height, the domes invite visitors to discover an intriguing artistic perspective on the work, using technology and art to entice a new appreciation of Farrer’s legacy through StellrScope. When Eleanor approached Pufferfish, she already had a strong concept of how her “StellrLume Domes” should look and feel as artworks, so our role was really to support and advise as to the technical means of realising her vision. It was important to the team that the experience of meeting the StellrLume domes should have a magical quality to it, so the technology deployed should facilitate this without becoming an end in itself. A simple yet precision set of optics was employed to map the light from a single hidden projector onto the inside surface of a specialist acrylic dome. This method neatly harnesses the beauty and suppleness of projected light in covering the organic shape of the StellrLume Dome. Allowing it to glow from within and be approached from all sides as an object in its own right, rather than simply a screen to be watched. We examined with Eleanor and her colleagues at CSIRO how interaction might be introduced to the piece, exploring ways a sense of magic might be created by deploying an on-sphere touch surface. The route that seemed to offer the most magic was to introduce a gestural interface via a Kinect sensor, so that users might push through layers of video as hands through a wheat field. This familiar technical route, along with the development of the visual elements in Eleanor’s native Maya, allowed the team access to a design and programming process, adaptable and for application. Pufferfish UK 40

埃莉诺使用活力四射的视觉风格和其它短暂数码媒 体实现物理表现的意愿,采用最新的光学设计和屏 幕制作来生成动态互动艺术作品呈现给世纪华诞委 员会。穹顶设计为浮动在作物高度,它邀请参观者 从引人入胜的艺术角度审视这一作品,使用技术和 艺术通过StellrScope向法洛留下的财富以全新的方式 表达敬意。 当 埃 莉 诺 找 到 河 豚 鱼 ( P u f fe r f i s h ) 时 , 她 对“StellrLume Domes”作为艺术作品看起来以及感 觉起来应该是怎样已有了很强的概念,所以我们的 作用其实是为实现她的设想提供技术支持和建议而 已。对团队而言见到the StellrLume Domes的体验要 具备魔术般的品质是非常重要的,因此采用的技术 应为此提供便利而不是将其终结。 我们使用了一组简单却精确的镜片从位于专业丙烯 酸穹顶内部表面的一个隐藏的投影仪安排光线。这 种方法巧妙的利用了投射出的光线的魅力与柔性来 遮盖StellrLume Dome本身自然的形状。让它可以从 内部发光,而且能够象接近一个物体那样从所有方 向接触,而不单单只是供观看的屏幕。 我们和埃莉诺和她在联邦科学与工业研究组织 (CSIRO)的同事一起检查了互动能够怎样介入其 中,探究通过使用置于球上的触摸表面创造一种魔 术般的感觉的方法。能够提供最具魔力效果的路径 应该是一种通过Kinect传感器的手势界面,所以用 户可以在通过将手穿过麦田的动作穿过层层视频。 这种熟悉的技术路径,同埃莉诺自然的Maya视觉元 素结合,让团队得以进行设计和编程工作,使之具 备适应性能够应用。

‘Collection’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart


Acknowledgements The Australian Federal Government ACT Chief Ministers Office Centenary of Canberra Robyn Archer AO and her team CSIRO Megan Clark Joanne Daly David Toll Jim Peacock Oona Nielssen Matthew Morrell Kit Chow Colin Cavanagh Megan Hemming Marcus Newberry Steve Swain Steve Jobling Jose M. Barrero Sumana Bell Shou Wang Richard Richards Rosemary White Mark Talbot Kerrie Ramm Rachel Fitzgerald Arwen Cross John La Salle David Yeates Beth Mantle Rolf Oberprieler Eric Hines John Taylor Frank de Hoog Simon Barry Bronwyn Harch Annette McGrath David Lovell Sean O’Donoghue Christian Stolte Sherry Mayo Tomasz Bednarz Con Caris Christine O’Keefe Bob Anderssen Chuong Nguyen Matt Adcock Benita Vincent Warren Muller Alec Zwart David Feng Dulitha Ranatunga Candace Culyer Kathryn Zaraza Karen Barndt Daphne Bruce Francis James Bob Furbank Xavier Sirault Jiaming Guo John Barnes Chad Henry Jonathon Roberts Elliot Duff Cris Kennedy

Questacon Professor Graham Durant AM, Sally D’Addio, Jared Wilkins and team Farrer Memorial Trust Phil Anquetil Harriet Skinner National Library of Australia National Film and Sound Archive of Australia Australian National Insect Collection PufferFish UK and all the team Paul Bourke Research Associate Professor Director, iVEC @ University of Western Australia Andrew Squelch Senior Research Fellow Curtin University Ajaye Limaye VisLab, ANU Super Computing Facility Prof Sue Stocklmayer Director, Australian National Centre for the Public Awareness of Science, Australian National University Prof Clive Barstow Head of School School of Communications & Arts, Edith Cowan University George Weston Technologies Tip Top Bakery Peter and Kate Gullett Denise Holehouse Roger Hausmann Emily Hungerford Iain Stuart Translation by Bing Han StellrScope Artwork Production StellrLume: Eleanor Gates-Stuart , Chuong Nguyen, Matt Adcock, David Feng, David Lovell, Sherry Mayo, Pufferfish UK Lumarca: Eleanor Gates-Stuart, Matt Adcock, Dulitha Ranatunga, Jose Jimenez-Berni, Credits: Lumarca - Matt Parker, Albert Hwang and Elliot Woods Holograms: Eleanor Gates-Stuart, Chuong Nguyen, Sherry Mayo, Zebra Imaging US StellrScope Composition by Marlene Radice ‘Excerpts from A Nation Is Built 1938 (Frank Hurley, Australia 1938), NFSA title ID 7586. Courtesy of the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia’. William Farrer Archives, Courtesy of the National Library of Australia and the William Farrer Trust Filming at Lambrigg, Courtesy of Peter and Kate Gullett

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Eleanor Gates-Stuart Present Science Art Fellow, The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (2012-present) Artist-in-Residence - Special Research Project: ‘StellrScope’, the Centenary of Canberra Science Art Commission, awarded by Australian Capital Territory Government, Chief Minister’s Office and the Australian Federal Government Research Professor, Art Department, Division of Arts, University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) US (2011-present) Honorary appointment. Education PhD Researcher. Science Communication, Faculty of Science, Australian National University (ANU) (p/t) Graduate Certificate in Higher Education, ANU (2006) Master of Arts, Printmaking: Chelsea School of Art, The University of the Arts, London, UK (1982) Bachelor of Arts (Honours), Fine Art: Printmaking Sheffield Hallam University, UK (1980) Recent Research Positions International Visiting Artist Residency, Leeds Metropolitan University (LMU) UK, (2011) International Visiting Professor, UCSC, US (Fall 2010) Visiting Researcher, National ICT Australia (NICTA) Australian Research Centre of Excellence, (2010-2007) Academic Fellow, Research Sabbatical, ANU (2009 – 2008) Visiting Taiwan Scholar, Taiwan Ministry of Education Award (2008) International Curator-in-Residence, (New Media), National Taiwan University of the Arts & Kuandu Museum (2007) Current Exhibitions ‘StellrScope’, Science Art Commission, Questacon, Part of the ACT Government Centenary of Canberra (2013) ‘Hot Seeds: the Scithetic Dimensions’, Discovery Centre, CSIRO, (2013) ‘Embracing Innovation Volume 3’, Craft ACT: Craft and Design Centre, (2013) 33rd MiniPrint de Cadaqués, Taller Galeria Fort, Cadaques, Spain & Galerie L’Etangd’Art in Bages, France, (2013) ‘Enlighten’, Architectural Projections, the National Library of Australia, the Museum of Australian Democracy (Old Parliament) and Questacon (2013) ‘Finger Codes’, Discovery Centre, CSIRO, (2011) ‘DS01’, ‘Born Digital – New Materialities’, Curated by Paul Thompson, Grays School of Art, UK, (2011) ‘Finger Codes’, Mary Porter Sesnon Art Gallery, Santa Cruz, US (2010) Recent Publication Barstow, C and Gates-Stuart, E. ‘StellrScope, the Centenary of Canberra’s Science Art Commission’ (Article) Imprint -Vol.48 Number 1 2013. Print Council of Australia Publication www.eleanorgatestuart.com 42

现任 2012至今,联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)科学艺 术伙伴(Science Art Fellow) 生活艺术家-特别研究计划 : ‘StellrScope’,澳大 利亚堪培拉世纪华诞科学艺术委员会,由澳大利亚首 都政府,澳大利亚联邦政府首席部长办公室颁发 2011年至今,美国圣塔克鲁兹加利福尼亚大学 (UCSC)艺术系艺术部名誉研究教授 教育 澳大利亚国立大学(ANU)科学系科学交流专业,博士 研究员 (P/T) 澳大利亚国立大学(ANU),高等教育本科 (2006) 英国伦敦艺术大学切尔西艺术学院版画复印,文科硕 士学位(1982) 英国谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学美术:版画复印,文科学士 学位(荣誉)(1980) 最近研究职位 英国里兹城市大学(LMU),驻校国际访问艺术家 (2011) 美国 圣塔克鲁兹加利福尼亚大学(UCSC),国际访问 学者(2010年秋) 澳大利亚杰出成就研究中心(Australian Research Centre of Excellence)澳大利亚信息与通信研究所 (NICTA),访问研究员(2010-2007) 澳大利亚国立大学(ANU)休假研究,学术伙伴 (2009-2008) 台湾教育部大奖,访问台湾学者(2008) 台湾国立大学艺术博物馆(新媒体)国际驻馆博物馆 馆长(2007) 当前展览 堪培拉世纪华诞,科斯塔康(Questacon),科学艺术 委员会,‘StellrScope’(2013) Discovery Centre, , (2013) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO),发现中 心,‘Hot Seeds: the Scithetic Dimensions’(2013) 工艺首都领地:工艺及设计中心,‘拥抱创新第3卷’ (2013) 33rd MiniPrint de Cadaqués, Taller Galeria Fort, Cadaques, Spain & Galerie L’Etangd’Art in Bages, France(2013) 澳大利亚民主博物馆(旧议会)和科斯塔康 (Questacon),澳大利亚国家图书馆,建筑投影,‘ 启发’(2013) 联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO),发现中心,‘手 指代码’(2011) 英国格蕾丝艺术学院,保罗·汤普森(Paul Thompson)监管,‘天生数码-新物质性(Born Digital – New Materialities)’,‘DS01’(2011) 美国圣塔克鲁兹,玛丽·波特·赛瑟农艺术馆,‘手 指代码’(2010) 最近出版物 巴斯托(Barstow), C和盖茨-斯图亚特(GatesStuart), E. ‘StellrScope, 堪培拉世纪华诞科学艺术委 员会’ (文章) -卷.48 号1 2013. 澳大利亚出版署 印制. (Barstow, C and Gates-Stuart, E. ‘StellrScope, the Centenary of Canberra’s Science Art Commission’ (Article) Imprint -Vol.48 Number 1 2013. Print Council of Australia Publication) 网址:www.eleanorgatestuart.com

‘Compositional Extract’. Eleanor Gates-Stuart


Supporting Text Eleanor has been one of those ‘secret treasures’ that you come across in CSIRO. I met her when she was applying for her Centenary of Canberra Science Art Commission. At the time she had a role in communications with a collaborative project that CSIRO was overseeing – I still have some of the posters that she designed. I had oversight for the agribusiness part of CSIRO, the science of which is very strong in our Canberra laboratories. Eleanor and I explored a number of project ideas that came to form the basis of her StellrScope. I was excited by the possibilities that she brought to showcase great science through art and design. Science can be a bit inaccessible to the broader community with its jargon and specialist knowledge. Researchers are often very careful to present their work in a considered and objective way. What is often not projected is the deep passion, creativity and insight that researchers bring to their discoveries. Eleanor’s work Stellrscope bridges the gap between the objective and the passion; it communicates the beauty and power of scientific endeavour. I have been inspired by Eleanor’s work. I get a great sense of excitement and pride about what CSIRO has achieved when I look across Eleanor’s developing work. It has been great to highlight the achievements that have come from our Canberra-based work over the past 80 years. I wanted to put more and more activities into her scope, although common sense has prevailed. My greatest lesson? While the products seem very different: an installation versus a new plant variety, science art and scientific research are built on common foundations of insight and innovation; of beauty of design and execution well done. Dr Joanne Daly CSIRO Strategic Advisor, Environment Group Eleanor is a lecturer and Honorary Research Professor in the Art Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Her latest work takes place at the border of science and art, as she explores how pressing scientific problems and their solutions can be visualized. Eleanor’s work is incredibly timely, as we are at a difficult crossroads in terms of society facing extremely challenging scientific and social problems and a general lack of scientific knowledge in our community. It is critical that we share rigorously researched information with the general public and our policy-makers in a way that is both easy to understand and palatable. By translating research results into a variety of “languages” visual language being an amazing key for understanding, we change the way we understand the world around us. The interplay of science and art is something we in the Arts at UCSC are actively engaged in, particularly as we work towards launching our Institute of the Arts and Sciences. Our students have benefitted from Eleanor’s creative approach, both in the classroom and from her own research. David Yager Dean, Arts Division Distinguished Professor, Art, UC Santa Cruz

Being involved in this unusual Science-Art project has been a wonderful way to share and communicate my area of science. I research how very early stages of plant development influence grain yield in wheat. Hidden deep inside the leaves of a wheat plant are tiny organ primordia that develop to form the flowers and grain. These beautiful, miniature structures evolve through a number of mysterious and unusual shapes as the wheat flowers and grain develop. I have spent many hours examining this process under a microscope, in order to understand how early developmental events contribute to final grain yield, and have always found the structures beautiful and interesting in a visual as well as a scientific sense. It has been a privilege to discuss this work with Eleanor and fascinating to see her work with my images, and with mature wheat spikes, to create artworks. Although science may often be thought of as rather dry and numerical, in fact research often involves working with objects that are visually interesting or beautiful, and with things that that evoke an emotional, rather than factual, response. StellrScope has been a great opportunity to share this aspect of plant science through Eleanor’s unique art. Dr Megan Hemming Research Scientist and MAGIC Projects Scientific Co-ordinator CSIRO Food Futures Flagship I still recall quite vividly the first meeting I had with Eleanor to discuss what area of science I was involved with as I was struck with her interest in obtaining a real understanding of my work. I have been fortunate enough to be involved with Eleanor’s work, in particular, through the MAGICal series which reflects the scientific work I have developed in MAGIC (Multi-parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross) wheat. Eleanor and I had a number of discussions regarding what MAGIC is and what the scientific ideas behind the project were. What became very evident as Eleanor began working on the MAGICal series was how many alternative artistic interpretations she was able to generate which in turn gave some alternative perspectives on the work I do, each interpretation with a slightly different perspective on the subject matter. Wheat MAGIC was developed as a genetic resource for understanding the genetics underpinning wheat performance; central to this is the idea of using natural breeding methods to both break up parts of the wheat genome and bring other parts together, which she illustrates in an abstract form through ‘MAGICal_Fusion’. Some of the wheat varieties used in developing MAGIC are descendants of varieties first developed in Australia by William Farrer and hence provide a nice link between the era of Farrer and the genomics era of today where sequencing and computational biology play an important role in understanding the make-up of our wheat varieties, again depicted through Eleanor’s series MAGICal9 series reflecting Eleanor’s take on the use of sequencing and high dimensional data integration. In addition to Eleanor’s MAGICal series I was also fortunate enough that Eleanor, through photography, created some amazing images of wheat spikes and grain, one of which ‘Beauty of Grain’ was used on the front cover when we published the first paper describing our MAGIC research in the Journal of Plant Biotechnology. It has been a great pleasure in sharing in a small part of Eleanor’s journey in putting together an amazing collection that brings art and science together.

Plant Phenomics seeks to attack the problem of feeding a burgeoning global population by bringing digital imaging, robotics and computing to bear to find the highest yielding wheat varieties for our farms of the future. Converting a wheat plant or a crop in the field to an ‘in silico’ digital representation which can be quantified and modelled is an art form of itself. The breeders eye has long been the ‘spectrometer which chooses the best of the best, while now we have new tools to delve into the growth and workings of wheat in 3D. Where art meets science at Stellrscope is in visualising the beauty of these models, rendering the complex dynamics of plant development over time and the creative spark which can kindle a feast for the eyes or a feast for the hungry bellies of a growing world.

Dr. Colin Cavanagh
 Wheat Functional Genomics
 CSIRO Food Futures Flagship

Dr Bob Furbank Scientific Director and Group Leader High Resolution Plant Phenomics Centre, CSIRO

Dr Tomasz Bednarz Research Scientist CSIRO Computational Informatics

The projects led by Eleanor speak to me straight away - they always present clear vision of connecting science and art in a beautiful way. Last year, we had exciting discussions about hemispherical domes and way of visualising 3D models on them using fisheye projections, etc. It is always very interesting for me to observe the design and development process of such projects. It is always great to discuss and exchange ideas with passionate people, very inspiring - positive vibes, and positive impact. Looking forward to collaborate more with Eleanor and team in the very near future.

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title

I would like to express a huge “thank you” to everyone who has supported this wonderful project, StellrScope, and to acknowledge the collaboration, expertise and time spent together in making StellrScope happen… including contribution at all levels, here in Australia and around the world. Eleanor Gates-Stuart 我希望向所有对这一StellrScope精彩卓绝 的项目提供支持的人说一声“谢谢您” ,StellrScope能够成为现实的是合作、专业的 知识和共同度过的时光相结合的成果,无论 是在澳洲以及全球所有层面所做出的贡献。 埃莉诺·盖茨-斯特亚特

My first impression was that mixing art and science from the perspective of wheat quality improvement would not be an easy task! I must say that I was blown away by the first image of Eleanor’s that I saw on ‘StellrScope’ – I just wasn’t expecting that kind of image. The pictures of the wheat that had been taken in the lab and field were transformed into complex colourful images and you really had to look at the image for quite some time to try and work out what the original image was and how it had been manipulated electronically. Not only that, but the images all had names, I guess trying to convey what the artistic message was behind the composition. I look forward to seeing how all these various images will be put together in the final presentation and how they will be used to tell a story of discovery and exploitation of the properties of the wheat grain. I certainly know that looking at the images makes you think about what has gone into making it look the way it does and hopefully it will give non-scientists a different viewpoint of the discovery process and what we are trying to do with modern biotechnological approaches to crop improvement. Dr Steve Jobling Research Scientist Food Futures Flagship CSIRO Plant Industry

‘BioWheat’ Eleanor Gates-Stuart

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StellrScopE Exhibition Catalogue by Eleanor Gates-Stuart © 2013 Published by CSIRO Food Futures Flagship & Computational Informatics Printed in Australia ISBN: 978-1-4863-0088-4 ISBN: 978-1-4863-0089-1 www.stellrscope.com All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronical or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the author.

StellrScopE 展会目录 埃莉诺·盖茨-斯特亚特© 2013 由联邦科学与工业研究组织(Eleanor Gates-Stuart)印制 澳大利亚印刷 ISBN: 978-1-4863-0088-4 ISBN: 978-1-4863-0089-1 www.stellrscope.com www.eleanorgatestuart.com 所有权力保留。未经作者事先书面许可,不得将本出版物中任何部分 以任何方式,电子或机械,包括复印、录制或任何其它信息储存及检 索系统复制或转换为其它形式。


StellrScope Catalogue  

StellrScope Exhibition Catalogue by Eleanor Gates-Stuart. StellrScope is the work of artist, Eleanor Gates-Stuart, recipient of the Centena...

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