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Cosmic


THE CONTEXT OF MONTESSORI COSMIC EDUCATION AND CULTURAL STUDIES There is a cosmos It contains non-living elements It contains living elements: plants and animals and people People have needs – food, clothing, shelter Fulfillment of needs gives rise to culture

Cosmic Education and Cultural Studies in a Montessori 3-6 environment encompass history, geography, social studies, physical and life sciences and the creative expressions of man through art and music.

Montessori defined the goal of education as “the development of a complete human being, oriented to the environment, and adapted to his or her time, place and culture.”

Maria Montessori believed that education without acknowledging the natural interconnectedness of all things is but mere facts – isolated bits of information – that do not bring wisdom or a sense of personal responsibility and dignity.

“Cosmic Education is a way to show the child how everything in the universe is interrelated and interdependent, no matter whether it is the tiniest molecule or the largest organism ever created. Every single thing has a part to play, a contribution to make to the maintenance of harmony in the whole. In understanding this network of relationships, the child finds that he or she also is a part of the whole, and has a part to play, a contribution to make.” (Lillard quotes a Montessori trainer, Phyllis Pottish-Lewis, in The Scientist Behind the Genius.)

THE COSMOS (the universal reality) History – Man’s relation to time Geography – Man’s relation to space Natural Sciences – Man’s relation to matter and energy Dustin Kosek

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Table of Contents Rationale References HISTORY (time) Sense of Time Language of time Introduction to the Passage of time* Calendars and Time Lines Linear Calendar* Standard Calendar* Days of the Week Months of the Year Time Line of a Day Time Lines of a Year* Seasons Personal Time Line* Birthday Ritual* Clock exercises Introduction to Clock* Telling Time to the half hour Telling time within five minutes Cosmic Time Pre-history – History Time Line of Man on Earth* History Lessons – story form, cosmic view* Origin of the Universe – Creation Stories Evolution of Life on Earth History of Man on Earth

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GEOGRAPHY (space) Impressions of the Universe – what we can observe The Day Sky Gifts of the Sun* Clouds* Rainbows Flying Objects The Night Sky – Star Bag* Galaxies and Stars Planets Moon and its phases Flying Objects Space Travel Changes – Earth and Sky Climate and Weather – Weather Kids Journal* Wind and Waves Earthquakes and Eruptions Introduction to Geography/Mapping Language of location and direction* Making a Map* Directions of the Compass Physical Geography Land, Air and Water Classification* Land, Air and Water animals Planet Earth Inside the Earth* Volcanoes Parts of the Volcano puzzle and card material* Types of volcanoes in Hawaii Ring of Fire and formation of Hawaiian archipelago Types of rocks - collections Water % of earth’s surface; fresh/salt, water cycle Land and water globe* Land and water forms* Picture folders of local land formations and features Land and water card material* Land features* Climates and environments* Political Geography Continent globe – continents then oceans* Transition from Continent globe to Hemisphere Map or World Map* Hemisphere or World Map* Dustin Kosek

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Animals of the world Puzzle map of the child’s own continent – e.g. North America for Hawaii (In Hawaii the next puzzle would be Puzzle map of Hawaiian Islands) Puzzle map of child’s own country – e.g. United States Other puzzle maps Making own large maps from Puzzle map material Flags Parts of a Flag Hawaiian flag Flags of different Countries* Cultural Geography Continent Boxes/Folders* Children of the World Celebrations of the World

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Rationale The Cosmic curriculum was created by Dr. Maria Montessori through her observations and studies in India. She discovered that children are in constant search of information. Wanting to explore the world around them, Dr. Montessori created lessons and activities for children to do just so. The Cosmic curriculum helps children to see the interconnectedness of everything that surrounds us and more. It helps the child to learn who they are in relation to the world through direct experiences. The Cosmic curriculum includes lessons in history, geography, social studies, physical and life sciences, art and music. “All things are part of the universe, and are connected with each other to form one whole unity. The idea helps the mind of the child to become focused, to stop wandering in an aimless quest for knowledge. He is satisfied having found the universal centre of himself with all things." (Maria Montessori, To Educate the Human Potential). “Cosmic Education is a way to show the child how everything in the universe is interrelated and interdependent, no matter whether it is the tiniest molecule or the largest organism ever created. Every single thing has a part to play, a contribution to make to the maintenance of harmony in the whole. In understanding this network of relationships, the child finds that he or she also is a part of the whole, and has a part to play, a contribution to make.� (Phyllis Pottish-Lewis, Lillard, The Scientist Behind the Genius.) The cosmic curriculum allows children to see where they fit in to the world around them. In the primary years, the child focuses on applying names to objects in relation to their environment. Maps are introduced, first at a local level, then working towards the entire world. Animals are classified into various different categories such as vertebrate and invertebrate or living and non-living. The child learns to care for themselves and their Dustin Kosek

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surroundings; including taking care of animals and plants. Following Montessori’s Four Planes of Development, the child in the primary years is introduced to the cosmic lessons so that when they move on to the next plane of development, they are ready to begin their search of who they are in the universe by expanding to research. In the first of the Four Planes of Development the child is really exploring all that is around him or her. From the age of 0-6, the child is beginning to make sense of all of their senses. Playing in any form is work for them as they take in sounds, sight, smell, touch, and taste. The materials used in the Montessori Primary classroom utilize the senses of the child, helping to fine tune them for the preparation of reading and writing. The child truly learns through their senses in this plane of development. The maps that are introduced are textural and visually pleasing. Interaction with plants and animals help the child to become aware of their surroundings. The work done in the primary classroom, sets the stage for the learning to come. In the second plane of development, the children use the information learned from the experiences in the primary classroom and begin to research their interests. They begin to put the pieces together of who they are and why and how they are in existence. In this second plane of development, the children have moved on from the primary classroom to elementary with ages of 6-12. The children become aware who they are within society and can understand more abstract concepts. The Cosmic Curriculum is one of the most important areas of the child’s learning. The cosmic curriculum helps the children to become more independent and aware of more aspects of their environment.

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References Lillard, A.S. (2005), The Science Behind the Genious, New York, Oxford University Press, Inc. Montessori, M. (1967). The discovery of the child. New York: Ballantine. Montessori, M. (1995). The Absorbent Mind. New York: Henry Holt and Company Montessori, M. (2007), The Formation of Man, Amsterdam, Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company.

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References

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COSMOS CLASSIFICATION SCHEMA Cosmic education is the study of universal reality. The material in the curriculum is based on the study of Man as he relates to: Matter and Energy (the natural sciences) Space (geography) Time (history)

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LIFE SCIENCE SCHEMATA A. Observation (opportunities to look at life, to see how things live, to learn their names to gain love for and respect for life) 1. Live Specimens – in the school environment or studied in natural environments through field trips 2. Models (real life sized or miniatures) 3. Card Material (photographs, drawings) 4. Puzzles/charts 5. Simple information books 6. Picture collections B. Classification 1. Materials a. Sorting 1) real objects 2) objects as models of things 3) pictures of things 4) names of things b. Vocabulary – reading classification 1) Naming – three period lesson 2) Parts to the whole 3) Definitions 4) Who Am I? 5) Story cards/Command cards/Independent Research Cards 2. Classification Modes a. Standard – kingdoms b. Categorizations – connections (new ways of looking at things)

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C. Mini Environmental Units – focusing in on a particular thing or on a particular relationship of things (e.g. animal homes, migrations, means of protection) CONSIDERATIONS FOR “PLACE-BASED” CURRICULUM Sr. Christina Marie Trudeau who recently was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award by the American Montessori Society initiated Chaminade’s Montessori Teacher Training Program in 1976. In their statement regarding this award AMS cited Dr. Trudeau’s emphasis of “Montessori’s Cosmic Plan of Education as the foundation for all the teacher education programs with which she has been associated. Each program uses the culture of the place where it is situated, as well as the natural environment, as the basis of integrating curriculum and making materials rather than relying (solely) on European materials and organizing curriculum according to disciplines.” CLASSROOM AMBIENCE – Classrooms in Hawaii should reflect the natural beauty of the tropical environment. Ideally, the classrooms should be open to and incorporate the outdoor surroundings, taking advantage of the temperate year-round climate. Furnishings of the indoor environment should include: Natural materials – mats, containers and contents Art work and/or photographs of local flowers, places, people of importance and trademark vistas such as rainbows, sand and sea, mountains and waterfalls Living things - plants (ferns and common in door plants – baskets of flowers) and animals (e.g. anole) Artifacts PRACTICAL LIFE – In addition to the traditional practical life activities, programs in Hawaii should incorporate “culturally appropriate” activities that are common to the local culture. (Materials used may lend themselves to actual mini environmental units if interest exists or may lead to full-on cultural integrated curriculum units.) Care of Self Sand dusting (feet) [have a bin of sand for children to step in and then brush off on a mat or outdoors] Feet washing Slipper scrubbing Applying sunscreen [using a hypoallergenic lotion in a measure controlled bottle to assure a small amount] Packing for a beach day [bag with a towel, sunscreen, sunglasses, water bottle, book, shovel, pail, mat, etc. that the children unpack, arrange, and put back] Care of Outdoor Environment Dustin Kosek

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Plant and maintain a Hawaiian garden including local plants to study - kalo, kukui, banana, hibiscus, coconut, sweet potato, pineapple etc. Set-up a simple rain catchment system for plant watering, water table and water activities. Bamboo rake and ”local” oil can dustbin

Care of Indoor environment Sweeping and “Slipper” mopping [with washcloth-slipper “mitt”] Polishing - wooden calabash, decorative shells and/or artifacts Collection of seeds: prepare for use in environment Skill building Use natural material containers [bamboo, coconut, wood] Use seeds, shells, stones etc. Use chopsticks and saimin spoons for transfer Stringing lei [learning skill as well for special visitor] Simple lau hala weaving Grace and courtesy Mahalo for removing your shoes [entering the classroom] Presenting lei Learning from/ helping kupuna Food preparation Local fruit/vegetables – peeling, cutting and preparing [lychee, papaya, banana, mango, guava, Juicing lilikoi] Holiday-related projects [pounding rice mochi for New Years, making Juk, making lau lau, making mochi for boys/girls/ day, stacking the mochi and oranges for New Years] Everyday – [pounding poi, making haupia, prune mui, fried rice, saimin] Art Making natural dyes with plants Printing “tapa” style with bamboo patterns Painting with hala brushes Leaf and flower prints – lauaʻe, kukui etc. Gyotaku SENSORIAL – Our environment in Hawaii offers many, many wonderful opportunities for sensorial exploration of the world. We should take advantage of nature’s beauty by linking reality to the basic sensorial objectives and materials. The many colored hibiscus blossoms are wonderful for color sorting. Shells are perfect for grading in size discrimination. When interest demands, these objects from nature can be developed into mini environmental units or even into full-on cultural integrated curriculum units. Sorting by shape, color, size etc. or natural material – seeds, nuts, shells Dustin Kosek

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Shells – size gradation, rough and smooth Flowers – color matching, smelling Rocks – shape, rough and smooth Bamboo spindles for length – pairing and gradation Fruits – tasting Ocean water vs. fresh water – tasting, smelling Music Music with Hawaii instruments Learning hula and other ethnic dances of major cultures represented in Hawaii MATH Counting with natural material – making sets Counters for mystery game Measurement activities in the environment Recipes for local dishes LANGUAGE Introduce names of Hawaiian plants, Hawaiian animal life, Hawaiian ocean life, Hawaiian places of interest etc. G & C role-play cards [Have a basket of cards the children can choose from with a partner. Prompts on the front of the card can read, “A kupuna is crossing the street with several bags. What could you say? What could you do?” The two children act out the scene. On the back of the card have examples for control of error like “May I help you carry something? Would you like to take my arm?” Other situations might include – a visitor arrives from the mainland and it’s your job to greet them, a visitor comes into the classroom and doesn’t remove their shoes, your auntie is preparing for a big party, etc. CULTURAL History – simple stories of Hawaiian history; also legends Geography Study of each Island to include Island flower and other specialness Study of Pacific Rim – ancestral origins of people in Hawaii Science – Activities should be about that which the children can understand sensorially about the world around them – our geological characteristics, our climate and weather, our plants and animals. The time to introduce characteristics of other environments like snow is WHEN studying that part of the world. Botany – important to use plant life in the immediate environment Matching cards to realty Matching parts of to reality, i.e. seed, flower, leaf to the plant/tree Zoology – study the birds in the area, the bugs and small animals in the Dustin Kosek

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environment Culture Celebrate Hawaii’s multi-ethnic culture and cultural celebrations that are a part of living in Hawaii

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FUNDAMENTALS THE FUNDAMENTAL EXERCISE (MONTESSORI LESSON PLAN) These are the basic aspects involved in planning exercises and activities for the children that the teacher writes up and practices before offering it to them. AGES: What ages are appropriate for this activity? MATERIAL: What is needed to perform the exercise? PRESENTATION (Lesson): What is the sequence of performance steps? Logical analysis of steps Use of language – introduction and nomenclature Motives of perfection – potential of refinement Limits required by ground rules or materials or purpose DIRECT AIMS (Objectives): Why is this exercise beneficial to child’s development? Basic skills or qualities to be gained INDIRECT AIMS (Scaffolding): What skills or qualities are indirectly strengthened by the activity? Developmental preparation for future learning Bi-product opportunities offered by this material POINTS OF INTEREST (Motivation): What are the keys to success? Stimulating interest Focusing attention Giving major clues for success CONTROL OF ERROR (Self-assessment): What can go wrong and how to prevent it? Control error potential Auto-education features LANGUAGE: What is the new language offered? EXTENSIONS: Where can the child go from here? NOTE A: The Fundamental Exercise may also include a section entitled “Preparation” or “Prior Experience” that outlines what skills and/or concepts the child needs before engaging in this activity. In this manual that section has not been included although the outline of lesson plans gives the appropriate sequence when necessary. NOTE B: Activities generally lend themselves to one or more of these types of presentations: Individual Lesson – a presentation made to any child who is interested and ready Selective Lesson – a presentation made to s small interested group Dustin Kosek

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Collective Lesson – an initial presentation or review given to an entire group when all would benefit from such a lesson, often used as an “introduction” to a curricular topic

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THE THREE PERIOD LESSON Maria Montessori borrowed this basic technique of teaching nomenclature from Edward Seguin. The brief and clear format presents two or three stimuli or objects at a time offering the child the opportunity for simple discrimination leading to clear storage in memory. Using two objects is usually more effective than three in these lessons. It is stressed that giving of vocabulary comes AFTER the child has had concrete experience with the concept involved. Precise vocabulary is always used, uncluttered by lengthy discussions which distract and create confusion. Here is a technique that supports the child’s learning – always use the last mentioned object or stimulus in each transition. For example, when beginning the second period, ask the child to “show me” the last object named when putting the objects out on the workspace. Pattern: AB-BA-AB FIRST PERIOD: “This is __________.” Present one object in isolation and say, “This is Africa.” Have child repeat the word Then remove Africa and present second object in isolation and say, “This is Europe.” Have child repeat the word Remove Europe and then bring both to the workspace one by one naming each. SECOND PERIOD: “Show me __________.” With both objects in front of the child ask the child to identify the last named object. “Show me Europe.” Child points to Europe and says the name. “Show me Africa.” Child points and says the name. Teacher allows for LOTS of practice in the second period using different instructions such as “Hide Africa,” “Put Europe on your head.” Continue with the AB-BAAB pattern. When confident the child will succeed in naming the objects, remove the objects from sight and proceed to the next step. THIRD PERIOD: “What is this?” Present one object and ask the child, “What is this?” Remove the first object and present the second repeating the question. Repeat a few times If the child is unsuccessful, repeat the activity at another time.

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NATURAL SCIENCES Dr. Montessori said “But if for the physical life it is necessary to have the child exposed to the vivifying forces of nature, it is also necessary for his psychical life to place the soul of the child in contact with creation.” Living and Non-Living classification* NON-LIVING – Physics for the Young Child – (matter & energy) Includes Earth and Space sciences covered in Impressions of the Universe in Geography) States of Matter - Solid, Liquid, Gas activities* Sink and Float* Forms of Energy (could also include sound, chemistry, and electricity, but NOT nuclear energy) Gifts of the Sun (light, heat) Magnetic-non-Magnetic* Simple Machines: levers, inclined planes, screws, pulleys, wedges, wheel and axle* LIVING – Life Sciences – (Botany and Zoology) Solicitous care for living things affords satisfaction to one of the most lively instincts of the child’s mind. Nothing is better calculated than this to awaken an attitude of foresight. Maria Montessori Preparation of the Outer Environment Gardening activities Care of plants and animals Preparation of the Inner Environment Nature or “wonder” table Care of plants and animals Plant and Animal Classification – “Kingdoms”* Observation, naming, collection, sorting, classification, parts to the whole BOTANY The Plant – observation of plants, parts of the plant - puzzle and nomenclature (see schemata that follows), needs of plants, care of plants The Root – observation of roots, functions of roots, shapes of roots, parts of the root – puzzle and nomenclature The Stem – observation of stems, function of the stem The Leaf – observation of leaves, function of the leaf, shapes of the leaf (nomenclature), parts of the leaf – puzzle and nomenclature, Botany Cabinet with cards* The Flower – observation of flowers, function of the flower, parts of the flower– puzzle and nomenclature* The Seed – observation of seeds, function of the seed, parts of the seed – nomenclature, experimentation Dustin Kosek 19


The Fruit – observation of fruits, function of the fruit, parts of the fruit nomenclature Parts of the Plant we Eat activity Trees and plants in school environment – nomenclature cards* Flowers of Hawaii Flowers of the Islands Making of Lei Fruits of Hawaii Watering the Garden* Sweet Potato Experiment* ZOOLOGY Animal Classification – Vertebrates and Invertebrates (sorting activities)* Observation of Animals Needs of Animals Care of Animals in classroom environment* Parts of the Animal – Puzzle and Nomenclature Cards* Vertebrates: Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals* Invertebrates: Arthropods - Insects & arachnids & crustaceans, Mollusks, Echinoderms, Annelids* Life Cycles of Animals – Butterfly Metamorphosis* Humans: Parts of the Body Our Senses* Parts of the Skeleton The Story of Man as told through the study of culture with the needs of man approach – (See ideas in Cultural Geography) Time Line of Man – early humans to present – pictorial time line with significant developments such as tools, inventions, development of language and mathematical systems (optional but nice for K level; also good model for unit time lines) Example: Time Line of Man in Hawaii* BIOMES AND HABITATS Card Material Dioramas* Field Trips

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HISTORY (time)

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INTRODUCTION TO THE PASSAGE OF TIME Ages: 3-5 years Material: Various timers: a set of one-, two-, three-, and five- minute hourglass type egg timers with proper labeling An hourglass A spring wound kitchen timer with clear numerals A sundial A clock mounted on the wall with a good sized face, easily readable numerals, and a sweep second hand Presentation: 1. Introduce only the one-minute egg timer at first. Bring it to the work area to get the child’s attention and turn the glass over, directing his attention to the falling sand. 2. Let the child do it himself a few times, then explain that the falling sand in the glass is like a little clock and the sand takes exactly one minute to fall completely through. Say, “Let’s do it again, and see how long a minute really is.” 3. Draw the child’s attention to the wall clock and the sweep second hand. Explain that this takes exactly one minute. After he’s seen it go around a few times, conduct a test to check whether the two are the same. 4. Introduce different timers, two-minute, and three-minute and five-minute timers. Leave them on the shelf for investigation. 5. Another time introduce the spring-wound kitchen timer. Explain that an hour is a really long period of time. Compare it to the hourglass if you have one available. Allow the child to experiment independently. 6. Introduce the sundial. (It should come with instructions for positioning in a window.) See notes under “Gifts from the Sun” Direct Aims: To give the young child an initial sense of the basic units of time Points of Interest: How long is a minute, two minutes, five minutes, and an hour? The novelty of the various timing devices; seeing the sand fall Language: Minute, hour, timer, hourglass, sundial Points of Interest: Control of Error: None necessary

Variation: Other timing devices: digital clock, stop watches, etc. Dustin Kosek

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Extension: Suggest experiments, such as trying to hold your breath for a whole minute while the sand runs down. Try to sit still without a sound for one minute, five minutes, and so forth. NOTE: It is extremely important to give children the common vocabulary to time. Time is a very difficult concept for the young child. Take every opportunity to draw the child’s attention to the time of the day and talk about the cycle of time. Talk also about yesterday, today and tomorrow, last week, the near future, etc. Use clock time to announce transitions such as “It is 11:30 and time to prepare for lunch.”

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

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LINEAR CALENDAR Ages: 3-6 years Materials: A desktop calendar of the type having each day printed on a separate sheet of paper Tape or thumbtacks Colored markers A long open space on the wall Presentation: 1. Begin on the first day of the month. Bring a tray with the calendar, tape and marker to the circle 2. Say, “Today we are going to begin our class calendar. A calendar is used to mark each day as it goes by.” Show the class the sheet for today. 3. “This piece of paper represents today. Today is the first day of October. 4. Point to the word “October” – “This says October, the name of the month. Point to the numeral “1” – “This is how we write “1” – today is the first day of October.” 5. There are thirty‐one days in October. Each day we will put another sheet of paper on our wall until we have thirty-one sheets‐ one for each day. 6. Before we put today’s calendar sheet on the wall, lets make a record of what the weather is like today. Use the markers to draw a symbol of the weather. If there has been a special event, record that too. 7. For weekends, it gets talked about on Mondays and the children can see if they remember the weather. Periodically, the children will count all the days along the linear calendar. 8. At the end of the month tally up the weather days. Review any special days. Then start the next month. Direct Aims: To create an initial sense of the calendar as a device for recording the passage of days To give a concrete impression that there are a lot of days in a month Indirect Aims: To prepare for more advanced time line understanding Points of Interest: Placing one sheet for each day Drawing the weather symbol Watching the line of pages get longer and longer Language: Day, week, month, weekend, weather, vocabulary, calendar Control of Error: The teacher Variations: Use stick on symbols to represent the weather rather than drawing Dustin Kosek

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Extensions: As the month ends, tape all the sheets together to form a time line. At the end of the school year, tape all nine months together to form a longer time line to review with the children.

Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

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THE STANDARD CALENDAR Ages: 4-5 years Material: A teaching calendar, wood or cardboard, with removable cards for the names of the months, the days of the week and numerals 1-31 in separate baskets Presentation: Note: The child/children need to be familiar with the linear calendar and the days of the week. This activity is usually presented separately to a smaller group of children. After its introduction, it is placed in the room as an activity to be worked with rather than used as the class calendar. 1. Gather the children around the calendar and explain that this is the kind of calendar that adults use, except that the day and dates can be moved around. 2. Begin by selecting the appropriate month and put it in the proper place on the calendar. 3. Show the children the days of the week and then place them in their spot showing the children where each one belongs. 4. Select the tablet for the first day of the month; take the children over to the linear calendar. 5. Ask the children what day of the week the first day came on. When they know, return together to the calendar and place the “1� on the correct day of the week. 6. Continue to place the remaining days in sequence. Invite the children to repeat the activity when they like. Direct Aim: To teach the children how to use the standard calendar Points of Interest: Seeing a calendar that lets us look at an entire month at one time Pieces that can be moved around Control of Error: The linear calendar or a printed calendar Extensions: Printed standard calendars Blank calendar pages for the children to write and illustrate their own calendars (e.g., using a standard calendar as a guide, child can find the month of his birthday and build a calendar of that month with this material.) Introduce the Days of the Week in timeline form; same with Months of the Year Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced Proficient Partially Proficient Novice Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

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TIME LINE OF A YEAR Note: This example is a time line of a year introducing the two seasons in Hawaii and the changes in weather, temperature, environment, plants and animals, and celebrations. It is inspired by the book Sun and Rain written by Stephanie Feeney. An example of time line representing the four seasons common to many areas of the world follows. Ages: 4-6 years Material: Time line, accordion style, divided into twelve equal sections, November through April are colored green; May through October are colored yellow Tray with: Names of the months in a year Set of pictures, coded by color and numerals Book Sun and Rain by Stephanie Feeney Presentation: (Group) 1. Gather children in the circle and explain that we are going to learn about the seasons in Hawaii. Read the book Sun and Rain. 2. Lead a discussion about the seasons in Hawaii, the wet season (“hoʻoilo”) and the dry (“kau”) season. Ask the children what are some of the differences they noted about things during the wet season and the dry season. 3. Display the Time Line of a Year depicting the seasons of Hawaii. 4. Starting in the first section, have children put the months of the year in sequence along the top. 5. Note that January through April are green. Those months belong to the wet season. Note that May through October are yellow. They make up the dry season. And the two remaining months of the year, November and December belong in the wet season. 6. Using the picture in pairs, work with the children and their remembrance of the story to place pictures in appropriate months. 7. Children who have had the demonstration may work with the material whenever they want. Show the children where the material is located. Direct Aim: To introduce the two “seasons” that Hawaii experiences in a year Indirect Aim: To increase awareness of the changes in nature according to the seasons Points of Interest: Color-coding of time line Pictures Language: seasons, weather, temperature and the vocabulary associated with all the pictures Dustin Kosek

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Control of Error: The teacher The coded material Extensions: Children can make their own book of the seasons in Hawaii Children can compare the seasons of Hawaii to the seasons of other places, e.g. Alaska More in depth studies of seasonal changes having to do with weather and its effect on the environment are very interesting to the children. The Ancient Hawaiian Moon Calendar that is published each year has a lot of information especially as to seasonal fishing and agricultural practices. Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

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PERSONAL TIME LINE Ages: 4-6 years Material: A timeline made of heavy paper about 4-feet long and 9 inches wide, ruled using a dark marker along the bottom, 2 inches from the lower edge. Divide this line into eight 6-inch segments and mark them from birth to age eight, starting at the far left. The paper is attached to a dowel on each end and rolls up like a scroll. Photos - Families have been asked to bring in photos of their child for each year of the child’s life starting with Birth – the photos should be labeled and dated – put in an envelope bearing the child’s name; children’s envelopes are filed alphabetically by first name Note: It is a nice custom to have the family of a birthday child bring in the photos on the child’s birthday. After the birthday, the photos are available for that child to do the activity. Presentation: 1. Invite the child to do his own personal time line. Show where the timeline is kept and the file of pictures. Carry the time line and picture envelope to a prepared rug on the floor. 2. Unroll the time line. 3. Take the pictures out of the envelope and put in mixed array. 4. Point to the first section on the left and say “birth” – “Can you find a photo of you when you were first born?” Place the photo in the appropriate space. Continue in this fashion until the child’s current age Direct Aim: To give the child a graphic picture of the passage of time in his life Indirect Aim: To prepare for more advanced time lines Variation: On the event of a child’s birthday, a vertical time line with pictures attached may be hung in the classroom NOTES: Another popular time line is a timeline of the human life sequence recording changes in ten-year increments start with newborn and ending at age ninety with pictures illustrating how we change with time.

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

Dustin Kosek

35


BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION RITUAL Ages: 3-6 years Material: Candle or some representation of the sun Months of the year labels Continent globe Presentation: 1. Invite all the children to sit in a circle around a mat. Place a candle or other object on the mat to represent the sun. Place the labels for the months of the year in sequence radiating out from the sun. 2. Have the child whose birthday it is carry the Continent globe. 3. Explain the earth goes around the sun or orbits around the sun and each orbit takes a whole year. 4. As you tell a short story of the child’s life with notes obtained from the family, the child walks around the sun once for each year he has been on earth. Discuss major events and abilities gained in the child's life as he walks around the sun. He may bring in one or two pictures for each year. 5. Make the child's birthday special. Recognize its importance in a manner appropriate to the individual child, i.e., sing Happy Birthday, read them a special story, give a special lesson, etc. Parents may be willing to bring in a treat that the child can share with his classmates. Direct Aims: To understand that the earth orbits the sun and it takes one whole year To help the children realize the passage of time and how it relates to his personal growth and development. Points of Interest: Holding the globe and walking around the sun Counting the number of times the child walks around the sun Control of Error: The teacher Extensions: For a child who is reading you can have the child help set up the printed labels of the months of the year and arrange them around the sun.

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

Dustin Kosek

37


Dustin Kosek

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INTRODUCTION TO THE CLOCK Ages: 4-6 years Material: Montessori Teaching clock with removable hands and numbers Small basket for the removable numbers Card material including labels Clock stamp Presentation I: 1. Invite the child to learn about the clock. Show the child where the clock is on the shelf and have the child carry the clock to a table within sight of the wall clock in the classroom 2. Remove the minute hand from the clock. 3. “We are going to learn how to tell time on a clock.” Have child put numerals in mixed array in front of the clock. “Look at the wall clock. Where is the numeral “1”? Place the numeral “1” in its proper place on the face of this clock. 4. Have child continue placing the numerals around the clock. 5. Move the hour hand to the numeral “1” and say “The clock says it is one o’clock.” Continue for the rest of the hours. Using the 3 period lesson, teach the names of the hours. In the second period have the child make the time you say. In the third period, say, “What does the clock say now?” Presentation II: l. After the child in comfortable making times on the clock, introduce him to the way we write time, both in the “3 o’clock” form and the “3:00) form. 2. Have the child practice reading the clock labels as well as labeling times he sets on the clock. Explain that “3:00” is how one reads a digital clock. Direct Aim: To teach the child to tell time to the hour Points of Interest: How the hours are arranged on the clock The movable numerals and hands Control of Error: The teacher The wall clock Language: clock, hour hand, minute hand, “o’clock” Extensions: Card material with clock faces on them with times to the hour. Child makes the time on the clock Dustin Kosek

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Child can make a booklet of clock times with rubber stamp of a clock face NOTES: The child next learns to tell time to the half hour with the minute hand attached. “The long hand is used to tell us how many minutes have gone by in the hour. It is called the minute hand.” Make 4 o’clock on the clock – “The clock says 4 o’clock.” Keeping the hour hand on the 4, move the minute hand to the 6 halfway around the clock. “The clock now says 4:30; we can also say half past 4.” After the child understands the half hour, teach the child how to tell time within 5 minutes. The child needs to be able to count by fives. Use the 5 bars, placing one each time you move 5 minutes on the clock. Have child count be fives to 60. “Yes, there are sixty minutes in an hour.” When teaching the analog clock, use the child’s understanding of the fraction insets for “half” and “quarter” for the half hour and quarter hour concepts. Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced Proficient Partially Proficient Novice Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

Dustin Kosek

40


TIME LINE OF MAN ON EARTH Ages: 5-7 years Material: 50’ length of heavy yarn, 49’ and 9” are dark blue or black; 1/5” is red Presentation: 1. Take children outside to a very large cleared area. 2. Give one child one end of the year and tell the child to start walking away, laying the yarn on the ground as he goes. 3. Have the children notice the red end when the line is stretched out. “This long piece of yarn shows how old the Earth is from when it was first formed up until today. This small red piece is the short period that man has lived on the Earth.” 4. Walk the children to the end and start walking back. “This black part shows all of the time when there were no people on the Earth.” As you get near to the red end say, “Way up here was the period the dinosaurs lived on Earth, but there were no people.” Reaching the red part again state that the Earth has been around for a long, long time; people have been here only for a short period of time.” Direct Aim: To give the child a sensorial impression of the short time man has been on the Earth as compared to the age of the Earth Indirect Aim: To prepare for more advanced time lines Points of Interest: The length of the line The short red portion Walking the line Control of Error: The teacher The material Language: words in the presentation Extensions: Child proceeds to the Time Line of Earth’s History Child is introduced to short versions of the Story of the Universe through books

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

Dustin Kosek

42


JERRY’S SHORT STORY OF THE UNIVERSE It is important to assist the child in putting new information into historical sequence in relation to NOW, his present time. WHEN things happen in time is effectively illustrated through story and with a timeline presentation - and for the young child, this timeline needs to be interactive - hands-on, concrete and simple. I like to think of a unit of study's timeline fitting into a simple "story of the universe" which you develop and which is told often, serving to connect all your units of study. For each unit of study, you might elaborate more on that aspect. For example, for a focus on either plants or animals such a story might look like this: A long, long time ago - many hundreds of millions of years ago, the Sun and our Earth, the moon, the planets and all the stars that we see did not exist. Scientists are still discovering exactly how our universe began but we do know there was a great emptiness, dark and cold. This emptiness contained small particles, like dust, which, at some moment in time, were pulled together and exploded, producing light and heat and bits of matter that and spread all over space. Fiery hot particles then began to collect together in different ways to form suns, planets, and all that we see when we look at the sky in the evening.

When our planet earth was formed it was not like it is today. It took millions of years for our planet to develop a solid outer crust and still longer for oceans to form. For years and years, fiery volcanoes boomed and rumbled. The sky was filled with ash. And for a long time, there was nothing but huge, grey ocean and bare, rocky land - not one plant or animal of any kind.

But then, in the oceans, tiny, tiny living creatures formed. They were so tiny you couldn't have seen them without a microscope. They looked like drops of jelly filled with bubbles. Many of these tiny creatures were green. They were plants, the first plants in the world.

It was maybe 500 million years ago when the first tiny sea plants made it possible for life to come onto the land. To live, plants and animals must have oxygen. The first sea plants got Dustin Kosek

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their oxygen from the water just like fish do today. At first there was no oxygen in the air so there were no plants or animals on land. But then the tiny sea plants began to give off tiny bubbles of oxygen, and the bubbles would burst putting tiny puffs of oxygen into the air above the land. After a long time, there was enough oxygen in the air so that plants and animals could live on the land.

Now because of oxygen many plants and animals can live on land. We have trees, flowers, and all kinds of living creatures on land. Plants will grow where there is good soil, water, air and sun. Animals and people will exist where there are plants to eat.

Dustin Kosek

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GEOGRAPHY (space)

Dustin Kosek

45


GIFTS OF THE SUN – light - sundial Ages: 3-6 years Material: Stick Basket of stones (Alternative: piece of paper, clay for stand, ruler stuck in clay – window) (Small Sundials may also be used; directions for reading them accompany a purchase) Presentation: 1. Take the children outside in the morning on a clear day. 2. Push the stick into the dirt in a spot which will receive the most sunlight during the day 3. Note where the shadow of the stick falls and place a stone from the basket at the end of the shadow. 4. Periodically during the day, invite the children to observe the stick’s shadow as the sun makes its journey across the sky, placing a stone at the end of the shadow. 5. Near the end of the day invite children to notice the placement of the stones, indicating the path of the sun from sunrise towards sunset. 6. Explain that the sun is not moving; rather, it is the orbit of the Earth as it travels around the sun, giving us day and night. Use a flashlight and the rotating globe to further demonstrate the Earth’s rotation. Direct Aim: To demonstrate that the Earth rotates around the sun giving us day and night: We have night when our part of the Earth is turned away from the sun's light. We have day when our part of the Earth is turned towards the sun's light. Indirect Aim: To increase awareness of the day sky To introduce shadows Control of Error: The teacher Points of Interest: Shadows Stones Language: Sundial, shadow, rotation, sunrise, sunset, orbit

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

The Universe

Benchmark SC.K.8.2

Identify different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky (e.g., sun, moon, stars).

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Compare different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky

Identify different types Name a celestial object of celestial objects seen in the day or night seen in the day and sky night sky

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient

Novice Recall that there are different types of celestial objects in the day or night sky

47


GIFTS OF THE SUN – light – spectrum and rainbows Ages: 3-6 years Material: Prism on white felt on tray Presentation: 1. Invite the child to the science shelf and the location of the prism. 2. Carry the small tray to the window where light is coming into the classroom. 3. Ask the child what he sees when the sunlight passes through the prism. 4. Explain that light is made up of different colors. A prism breaks the light into its spectrum of colors that we see on the white felt. Have child describe the colors he sees. 5. Explain that a raindrop acts as a prism when it breaks the sunlight into the colors of the rainbow. Direct Aim: To introduce the child to the fact that light is made up of several colors Points of Interest: The prism The colors of the spectrum Control of Error: The teacher Visual – spectrum Language: prism, spectrum, rainbows Extensions: Child can experience making a rainbow with the spray of the hose Child can do numerous activities in “rainbow art” – example: Rainbow Arcs: Remove the wrappers from rainbow-colored crayons: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Let your students use the sides of the crayons to draw rainbow arcs on paper. Or, if the weather is good, invite them to make rainbows on a sidewalk with colored chalk. Another idea is to tape six different colored crayons in a straight line and make a rainbow with one stroke. NOTES: Take this opportunity to caution children - We should never look directly at the sun not even when wearing sunglasses. The rays of the sun are very strong and could damage your eyes or even cause blindness

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

The Universe

Benchmark SC.K.8.2

Identify different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky (e.g., sun, moon, stars).

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Compare different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky

Identify different types Name a celestial object of celestial objects seen in the day or night seen in the day and sky night sky

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient

Novice Recall that there are different types of celestial objects in the day or night sky

49


GIFTS OF THE SUN - heat Ages: 3-6 years Material: Blindfold Presentation: 1. Invite a group of children outside on a sunny day and gather in a shady spot. 2. Ask for a volunteer. Put a blindfold on the child and guide him into the sunlight, asking what his skin feels like. Then guide him back into the shadow and ask him if he notices a change. 3. Explain that we can feel the heat energy from the sun. 4. Ask for others who might want the experience Direct Aim: To have children experience the heat that comes from the sun Indirect Aim: To prepare for further work with heat and temperature Points of Interest: Blindfold Skin sensations Control of Error: The teacher Language: heat energy Extensions: Children can also learn that the heat of the sun causes water to evaporate: have a small paint bucket of water and a paint brush and let the children paint the sidewalk and watch the wetness disappear. NOTES: Caution children about the fact that we should never sit in the sun without protecting our skin. Sunburn is very dangerous.

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

Nature of Matter

Benchmark SC.K.6.1

Classify objects by their attributes (e.g., physical properties, materials of which they are made)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Sorts objects by the materials of which they are made (e.g., wood, cloth, metal, plastic, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., size, color, shape, weight).

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Identify the attributes Classify objects by by which a collection their attributes of objects can be classified, then classify the objects accordingly

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient

Novice

With minimal assistance, classify objects by their attributes

With much assistance, classify objects by a few attributes

51


GIFTS OF THE SUN – energy for plant life Ages: Material: Two ordinary plants that are of the same type in identical pots with the same kind of soil Presentation: 1. Invite a group of children to the activity 2. Bring the two plants to the rug and discuss their similarities. 3. Put one plant in a sunlit spot and the other in shade. 4. Give each the same amount of water. 5. Tell the children that we are going to compare the growth and appearance of the plants over the course of several months. 6. Introduce a journal in which the children are invited to make their observations in drawing and/or writing. Even introduce photos if a digital camera is available. Make sure the children know to always date their journaling. 7. Several times during the experiment, have conversations with the children regarding their observations. Direct Aim: To demonstrate the effect of sunlight on the growth of plants Indirect Aim: To develop journaling skills Points of Interest: The plants Observed changes Journaling Control of Error: Visual The teacher Language: plants, pots, soil, water level, sunlight, shade, growth

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

53


Dustin Kosek

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THE NIGHT SKY – STAR BAG Ages: 3-6 years Material: Drawstring bag Binoculars, real or child made (see note) Flashlight with red acetate film Sky chart – (Bishop Museum online every month) Phases of the moon chart Journal Pen Instructions to parents explaining the project Presentation: 1. Introduce the children to the Star Bag. Let them know that each child will have a chance to take the bag home so that they and their parent(s) will have a “sky watch” evening together. 2. Take each item out of the bag and explain what it is and how to use it. 3. Talk about things they might see and journal about. 4. Every once in a while, review journal entries during group time. Direct Aim: To introduce the children to objects in the night sky Indirect Aim: To increase observational skills To support journaling skills Points of Interest: Objects in the bag Activity with parents What is observed and recorded Control of Error: Adult Language: star, Milky Way, planets, moon, moon phase terminology, shooting star, constellations, binoculars Extensions: Have children make drawings or other artistic expressions of the night sky NOTES: Binoculars: Children love to make their own “binoculars” (works to refine visual field) out of two paper tissue tubes decorated with paper, clipped together with paper clips and with a string which can be tied to each side by punching a hole with a hold punch and fastening. Dustin Kosek

55


Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

The Universe

Benchmark SC.K.8.2

Identify different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky (e.g., sun, moon, stars).

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Compare different types of celestial objects seen in the day and night sky

Identify different types Name a celestial object of celestial objects seen in the day or night seen in the day and sky night sky

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient

Novice Recall that there are different types of celestial objects in the day or night sky

56


THE WATER CYCLE Materials: Glass of water Post-its Labeled diagram of the water cycle Picture, label and definition cards dealing with the water cycle Presentation: 1. Ask the children “How old do you think this water is?” Explain that this water is the same water that has been around since before the time of the dinosaurs and it is just caught up in the water cycle where it falls to the earth as rain, collects into the ocean and turns into vapors when the sun heats the water. This cycle continues over and over and the earth reuses the same water in a never-ending cycle. There is no start to the cycle or end and really, we only break it up into these simple steps to better understand how the earth continually reuses its own energy. 2. Discuss the importance of the water cycle to life on Earth. 3. Review each stage more thoroughly with more detail and simple experiments. a. Precipitation - explain that when water falls from clouds in one form or another it is known as precipitation. Moisture can fall to Earth in different forms: rain, hail, sleet and snow b. Collection – explain that the water that falls on the ground sinks into the dirt and collects in the ground or reaches underground rivers and streams. Water on the ground can also collect in large puddles, which can sometimes flow back into rivers, lakes and streams. Precipitation that falls into lakes, rivers and oceans have a much shorter journey when it comes to being collected but regardless of where the water falls, collection is an important part of the water cycle. After collection, evaporation begins again and the water cycle continues on. c. Evaporation – explain that this is a loss of moisture in the form of water or vapor. Water evaporates off the surface of the Earth as part of the ongoing water cycle. Most of the water evaporates from oceans and seas and some from lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, puddles, and from the soil. The amount of water in the air is called humidity. Try this experiment with the students to illustrate the concept of evaporation: Fill a small jar full of water. Mark the water level with a felt marker. Check daily to see if the water level has gone down. Where has the water gone? Explain that clouds are formed from tiny water droplets or ice crystals that have risen through evaporation from the land and water below. (See Cloud lesson following) d. Condensation – explain that this is a chemical process that occurs when molecules combine and water is eliminated. Dew and frost are forms of condensation. 4. Explain that it is important to understand that the water cycle continues on. Dustin Kosek

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There is no break from one stage to the next and while it is raining over one lake, the sun is warming another lake and the water is evaporating. 5. Show the children where they can find the water cycle chart and the post-its to make their own chart Direct Aim: To introduce the importance of the water cycle to life on Earth Points of Interest: Experiments Post-it Charts Control of Error Printed Water Cycle Chart Language: water cycle, precipitation, collection, evaporation, condensation, clouds, rain, dew, frost, sleet, hail, snow Extensions: Additional experiments

Dustin Kosek

58


Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

Forces that Shape the Earth

Benchmark SC.K.8.1

Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Records daily and seasonal weather changes with simple symbols and describes how the weather changes over time.

Rubric Advanced Report and describe, in detail, weather changes from day to day and over the seasons and identify weather patterns

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons

Partially Proficient Novice Provide examples of Give an example of a weather changes from weather change day to day and over the seasons

59


CLOUDS AND CLOUD FORMATION Material: A one-quart (one liter) jar with a lid Ice cube Cards of the major types of clouds Presentation I: 1. Pour about one inch of water into the jar. 2. Turn the lid upside-down and place it on top of the mouth of the jar. 3. Place four ice cubes inside the lid. 4. Wait and observe for about ten minutes 5. Ask children what they observe (the lid becomes wet and water droplets form underneath the lid. The reason - the water in the jar begins to evaporate. When it hits the cold lid it condenses and changes into small droplets. As more droplets collect, larger drops form, and when they become too heavy, they fall to the bottom of the jar. 6. Explain that clouds are formed in this way. Water evaporates from the Earth and condenses as it hits the cooler higher air. Clouds begin to form as these tiny drops of liquid water are suspended in the air. When enough droplets are suspended and become too heavy for the air to support them, they fall back down to Earth as precipitation. 7. Encourage the students to record and illustrate these experiments in the Weather Journal. Presentation II 1. Take a child or small group of children outside to view the sky. 2. Observe the cloud formations 3. Show the children the pictures of the three main types of clouds and ask if the clouds in the sky are like any one of the pictures 4. When a match is identified, give the name of that type of cloud and its characteristics 5. Then introduce the pictures of the other two types and their characteristics. Teach the names with the 3 period lesson. 6. Show the children where the cards are kept and tell them that they can observe and categorize the clouds any day they want to 7. Encourage the children to add their information to the Weather Kids Journal Direct Aim: To introduce the conditions of cloud formation To introduce the four major cloud formations Indirect Aim: To increase awareness of weather and weather conditions Dustin Kosek

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Points of Interest: Observation Experiment Journaling Control of Error: The teacher Card coding Language: clouds, cumulus, stratus, cirrus Extension: Children can make their own booklet of cloud types Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

Forces that Shape the Earth

Benchmark SC.K.8.1

Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Records daily and seasonal weather changes with simple symbols and describes how the weather changes over time.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Report and describe, in detail, weather changes from day to day and over the seasons and identify weather patterns

Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons

Provide examples of Give an example of a weather changes from weather change day to day and over the seasons

Dustin Kosek

Novice

61


WEATHER KIDS JOURNAL Ages: 3-6 years Material: Weather Journal Pencils Date stamp Presentation: 1. Gather the children and introduce the Weather Kids Journal 2. Explain that each day we are going to check the weather and make an entry in our journal 3. Explain that each child will get a chance to be the “weatherperson” of the day and report on the weather during group time. The weatherperson will then date a new page and record his observation. 4. Explain that any child that would like to make his own observation and add it to the journal is welcome to do so 5. Encourage the children to take time to observe the weather. Let them know they can draw or write about their observation 6. To assist the children in refining their observations, introduce as many weather words as you can so that the children’s observations will be in some detail. Rather than “It is sunny.” Children can be encouraged to explain further. “It is a sunny day. There are scattered clouds in the sky. It is also windy. I don’t think it is going to rain.” Direct Aim: To increase awareness of the sky and the weather Indirect Aim: To give experience in journaling Points of Interest: Being the “weatherperson” The weather Journaling Control of Error: Visual The teacher Language: all weather words

Dustin Kosek

62


Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

Forces that Shape the Earth

Benchmark SC.K.8.1

Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Records daily and seasonal weather changes with simple symbols and describes how the weather changes over time.

Rubric Advanced Report and describe, in detail, weather changes from day to day and over the seasons and identify weather patterns

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Report and describe weather changes from day to day and over the seasons

Partially Proficient Novice Provide examples of Give an example of a weather changes from weather change day to day and over the seasons

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INTRODUCTION TO DIRECTION AND LOCATION Ages: 2-3 Material: Classroom environment Basket and foam ball Presentation: 1. Invite the child to the shelf to find the basket with foam ball and say, “This is the material for learning words that tell us where things are in relation to other things.” 2. Carry the basket to a prepared workspace. 3. Play a simple game with the child, moving the foam ball in different places that illustrate “above and below, on top of, under, behind, next to” etc. 4. Ask the child to put the foam ball in those different locations. 5. Use the same technique in placing classroom materials in different locations. Vary the objects and gradually increase the difficulty, “place the smallest pink tower cube on top of the shelf under the picture of Maria Montessori.” Direct Aim: To introduce the language used to describe direction or positions of objects in relation to other objects. Control of Error: The teacher Points of Interest: The game Language: above, below, over, under, next to, on top of, behind, in front of Extensions: Introduce “right” and “left” Introduce card material that identifies and labels directions and relative position as above

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 3: Develop concepts of shape and space. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Geometry and Spatial Sense: REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: Select and use different representational systems, including coordinate geometry

Topic

Coordinate Geometry

Benchmark MA.K.8.1

Use positional words to describe an object's location (e.g., up, down, above, under, inside, outside)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Describes a certain object's location in the class.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Use a combination of positional words that are easy to follow to describe an object's location

Use positional words to describe an object's location

Use positional words that are difficult to follow to describe an object's location

Use positional words that inaccurately describe an object's location

Dustin Kosek

65


INTRODUCTION TO MAPPING Ages: 3-6 years Material: Large piece of paper Presentation: 1. Take a walk around the school noting different buildings and areas. Take the same walk another day, noting the same things. 2. Back inside, tell the children “We are going to make a map of our school.” 3. Starting with the building you are in, start to draw a map asking children questions about what they see first when they leave the classroom, the different areas and where they are, drawing as you go. Continue until the school is mapped. 4. Explain that this is a map of the school and that it shows us just where everything is located. 5. Put the map on the shelf or post it. Direct Aim: To demonstrate the purpose of a map and how to depict three-dimensional things in two dimensions. Indirect Aim: To prepare for further map work Control of Error: The teacher Visual Points of Interest: Drawing of the map The finished map Language: All language used in the process of creating the map, names of the areas and words to describe location Extensions: Children can use clay to make three-dimensional models of the buildings on the map Children can draw in features of areas such as playground on the map Similar maps of neighborhood may be created NOTES: Other “map language” should be introduced in relation to the geographical material in the classroom – globes, flat maps etc. Compass directions (always map the classroom N-S-E-W) Use of compass Dustin Kosek

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Equator North and South Poles Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Eastern Hemisphere (Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania) Western Hemisphere (Americas) Lines of latitude and longitude Use of Map “keys� Types of Maps: physical, political, contour, underwater map Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 3: Develop concepts of shape and space. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Geometry and Spatial Sense: REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: Select and use different representational systems, including coordinate geometry

Topic

Coordinate Geometry

Benchmark MA.K.8.1

Use positional words to describe an object's location (e.g., up, down, above, under, inside, outside)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Describes a certain object's location in the class.

Rubric Advanced Use a combination of positional words that are easy to follow to describe an object's location

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Use positional words to describe an object's location

Partially Proficient Use positional words that are difficult to follow to describe an object's location

Novice Use positional words that inaccurately describe an object's location

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Dustin Kosek

68


LAND AND WATER GLOBE (aka SANDPAPER GLOBE) Age: 3-5 ½ years Materials: Land and Water Globe Presentation: 1. Invite a child to join you. 2. Show the child where the Land and Water Globe is kept and say its name. 3. Show the child how to carry the globe, two hands on the base. 4. Take the globe to a table. If necessary review its shape, a sphere, with the geometric solid object. 5. Say, “This is a globe. It represents the Earth on which we live. It is a model of our Earth. This globe is the Land and Water Globe because it shows the bodies of land and bodies of water on our Earth.” 6. Explore the globe with tracing fingers with a light touch, rotating the globe. Say, “This is land” when you feel the sandpaper and “This is water” when you feel the smooth surface. 7. Using the 3 period lesson, teach “land” and “water.” 8. Point out the small islands of Hawaii. “This is where we live. This is Hawaii.” 9. Put the globe back on the shelf. Restore work area. Direct Aim: To introduce the two elements that make up the surface on the Earth, land and water To present the shape of the Earth as a special sphere called a globe Indirect Aim: Development of tactile sense Preparation for continent globe Points of Interest: Touching sandpaper and smooth parts on the globe. Feeling the shape of the Earth Color: Land is brown; water is blue. Control of Error: The teacher Vocabulary: Globe Land and water NOTES: It is nice to have a picture of the Earth as seen from space hanging in the classroom Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

Nature of Matter

Benchmark SC.K.6.1

Classify objects by their attributes (e.g., physical properties, materials of which they are made)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Sorts objects by the materials of which they are made (e.g., wood, cloth, metal, plastic, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., size, color, shape, weight).

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Identify the attributes Classify objects by by which a collection their attributes of objects can be classified, then classify the objects accordingly

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient

Novice

With minimal assistance, classify objects by their attributes

With much assistance, classify objects by a few attributes

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CONTINENT GLOBE Age: 3-5 ½ years Material: Land and Water Globe Continent Globe Presentation: 1. Invite the child and show child where the Globes are in the classroom. Identify the Land and Water Globe and introduce the name of the Continent Globe, “This globe is called the Continent Globe.” 2. Take the Land and Water Globe and the Continent Globe to the work area. 3. Explain that both materials are globes and both represent our Earth. 4. Say, “On the Land and Water Globe, bodies of land were rough and brown and bodies of water were smooth and blue. On the Continent Globe, the land is painted different colors; each color is a different land mass on our Earth. We call these different large land masses “continents.” 5. Compare different bodies of land on the two globes, and then put the Land and Water Globe aside. 6. Point to Hawaii on the Continent Globe. Notice that it is the same color as the large body of land near it, orange. Explain that Hawaii is part of the continent North American. “This is our Continent. It is called North America and is colored orange. There are seven main land masses or continents and each one has a special name.” 7. Then say, “This is South America and it is colored pink.” 8. Introduce a third continent such as Asia in the same way. 9. Use the 3 period lesson to teach the names of the three continents. In the second period, have the child trace the outlines on the globe to get the impression of the shapes of the continents. 10. Then introduce the other continents in the same way. 11. Make any and all connections you can depending on the child’s knowledge and personal information, such as, “remember you took a trip to Japan last summer. Japan in on the continent Asia.” 12. Introduce the term “ocean.” “Ocean is the name we give to large bodies of salt water that together cover almost three quarters of the Earth’s surface.” 13. Introduce the names of the oceans and seas starting with the Pacific Ocean where we live. Introduce Atlantic and Indian oceans next, then proceeding to smaller bodies of water, seas, and even on to major lakes. Return material to the shelf and restore work area. Direct Aim: To identify names and locations of the continents To identify names and locations of major oceans and seas To introduce the shapes of the different continents Dustin Kosek

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Indirect Aim: Preparation for World Map Points of Interest: Colors, names and shapes of continents Shapes and names of oceans and seas Control of Error: The teacher Language: Names of the continents and oceans and seas Labels for continents and oceans and seas for reading child to tape on globe

Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 8: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand the Earth and its processes, the solar system, and the universe and its contents

Topic

Nature of Matter

Benchmark SC.K.6.1

Classify objects by their attributes (e.g., physical properties, materials of which they are made)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Sorts objects by the materials of which they are made (e.g., wood, cloth, metal, plastic, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., size, color, shape, weight).

Rubric Advanced Proficient Identify the attributes Classify objects by by which a collection their attributes of objects can be classified, then classify the objects accordingly

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient With minimal assistance, classify objects by their attributes

Novice With much assistance, classify objects by a few attributes

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TRANSITION FROM CONTINENT GLOBE TO WORLD MAP/INTRODUCTION TO WORLD MAP Ages: 3–5 ½ years Material: Continent Globe Hemisphere or World Map Floor rug Set of labels – names of continents and oceans Presentation: 1. Invite child to activity and show child the location of the Continent Globe and the Map Cabinet that holds the World Map. Have child prepare a floor rug and carry the Continent Globe and the World Map to the rug. Show the child the correct way to remove the puzzle map from the cabinet and carry it. 2. Pointing to the globe say “The Earth is a sphere and looks like this Globe. On the globe we can identify the different places on the Earth. A map is another way to identify places on the Earth. A map, however, is flat, like this puzzle map. A map is a flat model that shows a particular area or space. This is the puzzle map of the World.” Make a sphere with your hands. Separate your hands and place each hand palm down on a hemisphere circle on the map, saying, “A map maker has to flatten out what is seen on a globe something like this.” 3. Pick up a puzzle piece and hold it next to the same continent on the globe. Have child match each continent on the globe to the map representation by pointing to the continent on the globe and then on the map. 4. Put the Continent Globe to the side. 5. Starting with North America, pick up the puzzle piece with your dominant hand and place it on the rug, “This is North America.” Trace the opening on the map for North American in a counterclockwise direction and then pick up the puzzle piece with you’re your subdominant hand and trace the piece in a counterclockwise direction and place the piece in the puzzle. 6. Introduce two more continents in this fashion, “This is South America.” “This is Europe,” and invite the child to put the pieces back emphasizing the tracing activity while giving a 3 period lesson. Note: in each hemisphere it is helpful to work Left to Right and Top to Bottom in selecting and removing and replacing pieces, big pieces before small, i.e. in the Western Hemisphere remove NA, SA, Antarctica and then the small piece of Asia. 7. Reintroduce the names of oceans and seas and have the child locate them on the map. 8. Return material to the shelf and restore the work area. Direct Aim: To introduce flat maps and see the correspondence to the actual spherical shape. Dustin Kosek

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Indirect Aim: Preparation for work with other puzzle maps Preparation for writing Points of Interest: Seeing the relationship between the continent globe and the flat map of the world Control of Error: The teacher Continent Globe Language: Map Names of the continents Variations: Blindfold identification Memory identification – separate map and puzzle pieces across the room Extensions: Introduce labels for children that read or just for matching Push-pin activity to make own World Map Children can make their own booklets of the World’s continents

NOTE: This write-up does not include a material common in many Montessori classrooms, the control maps for each puzzle map. Sets of control maps vary; a common set might include a control map with pieces colored in as in the puzzle, a similar map with the names of the continents/oceans/countries as appropriate, a non-colored-in outline map, and a non-colored-in outline map with the names of the continents/oceans/countries as appropriate. Children would then place the pieces on the control map rather than just on the floor rug.

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

75


EXTENSIONS OF GEOGRAPHY – EQUATOR, AXIS, POLES AND COMPASS DIRECTIONS Material: Continent Globe World Puzzle Map Flashlight Simple compass Label cards for the four directions Presentation I: 1. Invite the child or small group to the circle. Have the Continent Globe and a flashlight on the rug. 2. Spin the globe on its stand. “This is how our Earth rotates which makes day and night.” With a flashlight, demonstrate how when one part of the Earth is in light the other part is in darkness. Explain that the Earth rotates on its axis, an imaginary line about which a rotating body turns. 3. Then explain, “When I touch the very top of the continent Globe, I am touching the North Pole. The North Pole is at the top end of the axis and the South Pole is at the bottom end of the axis. Teach the names of the poles with the 3 period lesson if necessary. 4. Tell the children that there is an imaginary line encircling the middle of the Earth, falling the same distance from each pole. This imaginary line is called the Equator. The area above the Equator is called the Northern Hemisphere and the area below the equator is called the Southern Hemisphere. Presentation II: 1.

2. 3.

4. 5. Dustin Kosek

Invite a child or small group to the circle. Have the Continent Globe, the World Puzzle Map and a set of labels for the four directions on the rug. Review the North and South Poles and the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. On the globe, indicate the North and indicate the South while pointing to the poles. Point to the direction of North on the World map and the direction of South. Explain that when we are traveling toward the North Pole we say we are going North, towards the South Pole would be going South. Show the label cards for North and South, introducing each and placing them on the World Map. Point to the left circle of the World Map and explain that just as we have two hemisphere, Northern and Southern if we cut the world 76


6.

in half at the equator, we have two hemispheres if we cut the world in half as in the World Map. Pointing to the left circle, say, “This is the Western Hemisphere.” Pointing to the right circle say, “This is the Eastern Hemisphere. Use the 3 period lesson for teaching vocabulary. Show the label cards for East and West and explain that when we travel in the direction of the Eastern Hemisphere we say we are going East. In the other direction, we are going West. If we are facing North, the direction of East is to the right – the direction in which we first see the sun in the morning sky. West is to the left – the direction in which we see the sun set at night. Use the cards to label the map.

Direct Aim: To introduce the child to the fact that the Earth rotates on its axis which gives us day and night To introduce the child to the terminology to describe the directions on the Earth and the position of the Equator Indirect Aim: To prepare for more advanced work with maps and geographical concepts Points of Interest: The rotation of the Earth The imaginary line of the Equator The directions Control of Error: The teacher Language: axis, equator, North Pole, South Pole, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, North, South, East, West Extension: Introduce the compass as a tool that people use to tell them which direction they are going. The needle on a compass always points toward the North; we use the compass by turning it so the needle always points to the “N” (for North). Orient the puzzle map of the world so that the top corresponds to the compass N. Then have child label the map explaining that it now truly represents the orientation of the world. NOTE: You should post a set of large label cards on the walls of the classroom, indicating North, South, East and West. Also have the compass and set of labels available on the map stand for the children to use when they do map work, orienting the puzzle map and labeling it.

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

78


ANIMALS OF THE WORLD Ages: 3-5 years Material: Jigsaw puzzle map of the World Three models of typical animals of each continent in a basket Presentation I: 1. Invite a small group of children to join you at a rug. Bring the basket of animals to the rug. 2. Discover which animals the children can identify. For the remaining animals, give a 3 period lesson naming the animals. Use three or four animals at a time. Talk about each animal relating some special characteristic and something about the habitat in which it lives. 3. Continue according to the interest of the children introducing all the animals. 4. Replace materials. Presentation II: 1. Invite the children to set out a rug, the World Map and the basket of animals. 2. Isolate an animal on the rug. Ask the children to identify the animal. Remind them of a special characteristic and what kind of place it lives in. Then tell the children the name of the continent on which the animal lives. Invite a child to remove the continent from the map. 3. Invite another child to place the animal beside the continent puzzle piece. Continue in the same manner with other animals according to the interest of the children. Direct Aims: To introduce the child to a wide variety of animals and teach the appropriate names To relate animals to the continents on which they live Indirect Aim: To stimulate interest in animals and geography, habitats and ecosystems Points of Interest: Animal models Association of animals to continents Control of Error: The teacher Extensions: Introduce card stories and pictures of animals. Discuss these pictures with the child, paying special attention to how each animal is equipped for its own particular Dustin Kosek

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environment. Keep a good selection of books in the classroom or direct the children to the library according to their interest. Readers should be encouraged to label their work.

Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Partially Proficient Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Novice Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

80


Dustin Kosek

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PUZZLE MAP OF THE CHILD'S OWN CONTINENT Ages: 4-6 years (after the child knows the continents) Material: Puzzle map of North America Presentation: 1. Invite child. Go to the map cabinet and say, "We are going to get the map of your continent". 2. Remove the map and carry it to a mat. Remind the child his continent is North America. "Let us get the globe and find North America." Have a child locate North America on the globe. 3. Go back to the puzzle map. This puzzle map shows all the countries in North America. “A country is a particular land area with its own government and people. 4. Review with the child how to remove a piece of the puzzle carefully. Have the child remove all the insets. Suggest the child work from L to R, T to B both in removing and replacing the pieces. 5. Trace the frame for one country with your dominant hand and then pick up the corresponding puzzle piece with the subdominant hand and trace it with the dominant hand in a counter clockwise direction. Carefully replace the pieces into the map. 6. Working with two or three countries at a time, give the names of the countries in a three period lesson. If possible, include an interesting fact regarding each country to which the children can relate. 7. Review the names of the oceans that surround the continent. 8. Replace map in cabinet. Direct Aims: To introduce the concept of “country” To introduce the countries on each continent Indirect Aims: To stimulate interest in geography To strengthen wrist for writing Another opportunity to enforce L to R, T to B Points of Interest: Puzzle pieces Control of Error: The teacher The puzzle Language: country, nation Dustin Kosek

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NOTE: All continent puzzle maps are introduced in the same way. The map of the United States is a difficult map and children usually find it easier to do the continent maps and then tackle the map of the United States. HERE IN HAWAII, children should be introduced to the Map of Hawaii early, either before or after the Puzzle Map of North America. As it is a simple map and the children find it fascinating to learn about the different islands, the Map of Hawaii might be introduced after the child is very comfortable with the World Map and has the knowledge that Hawaii is part of North America. Extensions: Encourage the children to build the continent on the rug. Introduce sets of pictures for each country. Have child trace around the puzzle insets on a sheet of paper and color in the map or use colored paper or fabrics and cut or push pin to make a map. When the child is reading, introduce the printed labels.

Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

83


Dustin Kosek

84


COUNTRY FLAGS Material: Basket of miniature flags for a continent Puzzle map of the continent Card for each country with puzzle piece shape in color, name of country and flag of the Country Floor rug Presentation: 1. Invite child to do the flag exercise. Show child the material and bring to prepared floor rug. 2. Place the map on the left side of the rug and lay out the country cards in rows on the right side. 3. Lay out the flags in a row at the bottom of the rug. 4. Explain that each country of the world ha a special flag of its own which is used as a symbol of the country. Country flags are used to show which country people belong to. 5. Point to a flag on one card. “This is the flag of ________.” Point to the name of the country. “This word says __________.” 6. Point to the shape of the country and ask child to find the shape in the puzzle map. Ask child to place shape on the corresponding card. 7. Point to the flag on the card and ask child to find the corresponding flag and put it next to the picture on the card. 8. Child can then continue matching each set. 9. Put set away by naming the country, putting the puzzle piece back in the frame, placing the flag in the basket, and collecting the cards, returning all to shelf. Direct Aims: To introduce the idea that flags are symbols of countries To introduce the flags of individual countries Indirect Aims: To build interest in further work in cultural geography Points of Interest: Layout Flags Matching Control of Error: The teacher The cards Language: names of countries, flag, symbol Dustin Kosek

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Extensions: Introduce the Hawaiian Flag, its symbolism, history, etc. Teach parts of a flag – pole, flag, halyard Have children make their own personal flags Have children make booklets of the flags of each continent Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

86


Dustin Kosek

87


CONTINENT BOXES OR FOLDERS Ages: 3-6 years Materials: Color-coded plastic or cardboard boxes with continent shape and name of continent Objects from continent such as stamps,
 paper money, coins, postcards, bookmarks, stickers, small items of culture
 CDs of global music Books or View Master reels Envelopes (same color as continent) for pictures of flags, landscapes, plants, animals, people, houses Puzzle map of the Continent Presentation: 1. Invite a child to select a continent he would like to learn about. Show the child where the Continent Boxes are located on the shelf. Have child select the box and carry it to a prepared rug on the floor. Have the child bring the World Map to the rug. 2. Have child select the continent puzzle piece and place it just to the right of the puzzle map that is on the left side of the rug. 3. Select items from the box and put them on the rug, naming and discussing each one with the child. Continue as long as there is interest. 4. Introduce the envelopes of pictures in the same manner. 5. Each continent box should be presented in the same manner. 6. Have child carefully replace the contents and return material to the shelf and the map cabinet. Direct Aim: To provide the child with multi-sensory impressions of the people, lands, and cultures of other nations Indirect Aim: To build a base of information on which the other child can construct a more abstract and technical perspective of other nations To develop a lasting interest in further study Points of Interest: Objects and other material in the boxes Control of Error: The teacher Language: all language associated with items in the boxes NOTE: Picture folders of each continent may also be used in a similar manner

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

89


Dustin Kosek

90


LAND, AIR AND WATER – The Three Elements Ages: 3-5 1/2 years Material: Three clear containers with lids, one identified with a brown bottom (painted or glued paper), one with a blue bottom and one is left clear Tray A set of photos depicting scenes that highlight natural aspects of land, water and air, mounted on brown, blue or white cardstock as appropriate Basket of animal objects to sort according to where the animal lives (most of the time) Presentation I: (Group) 1. Invite children to learn about the three things that make up our Earth, Land, and Water. 2. Have on the mat in front of you the tray of three bottles, marked but empty. 3. Say, “The Earth is made of land and water on the surface and the air above.” 4. Pick up the container marked blue, open it and ask, “Who can get me some water?” 5. When volunteer returns with water in the blue container, cap it and say, “This is water.” 6. Then ask, “Who can get some land?” and discuss, if necessary, what is land made of. Cap the container and say, “This is land.” 7. Ask if someone can bring some air; this leads to interesting discussion which should end in realization that there is air in the container. “This is air.” 8. Introduce the set of pictures and have the children identify which element is shown in the picture. Sort the pictures under the appropriate containers. 9. Show the children where they can find the material on the shelf. Presentation II: (Individual) 1. Invite child to find the material on the shelf, prepare his workspace and bring the tray of containers, the set of photos and the basket of animal objects to the rug. 2. Review the three elements and ask the child to sort the pictures. 3. Then introduce the basket of animals and after identifying each, have the child decide whether this animal is found primarily on land, in water or in the air. Have child sort the objects. 4. Return the material to the shelf and restore the work area. Direct Aim: To present the three elements of our world To build an understanding of the different forms and features of the three elements Dustin Kosek

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Indirect Aim: Preparation for work with maps and geographical concepts Preparation for science experiences with the three states of matter – solid, liquid, gas Points of Interest: Containers Photographs Animal objects Control of Error: The teacher The color-coding on the back of the pictures The sorting layout Language: Land: mountain, desert, beach, playground Air: sky, clouds, rainbow, wind, breath, steam Water: ocean, river, waterfall, stream, pond, rain, sleet Names of animals Names of features in photographs Extensions: (see Physical Science – States of Matter)

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 2: Explore physical properties of the world. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 6: Physical, Earth, and Space Sciences: NATURE OF MATTER AND ENERGY: Understand the nature of matter and energy, forms of energy (including waves) and energy transformations, and their significance in understanding the structure of the universe

Topic

Nature of Matter

Benchmark SC.K.6.1

Classify objects by their attributes (e.g., physical properties, materials of which they are made)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Sorts objects by the materials of which they are made (e.g., wood, cloth, metal, plastic, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., size, color, shape, weight).

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Identify the attributes Classify objects by by which a collection their attributes of objects can be classified, then classify the objects accordingly

Dustin Kosek

Partially Proficient

Novice

With minimal assistance, classify objects by their attributes

With much assistance, classify objects by a few attributes

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Dustin Kosek

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LAND AND WATER FORMS Ages: 3-5 1/2 years Material: Ten land and water models prepared in trays– island and lake, cape and bay, peninsula and gulf, isthmus and strait, archipelago and system of lakes Tray with pitcher for water and sponge Land and water objects in basket Set of Land and Water 3 part cards Set of Land and Water definition cards Land and Water folders – with examples of familiar land and water forms, especially in Hawaii, land forms on brown cards and water forms on blue Display: start with one or two pairs of forms on shelf; tray with pitcher and sponge to one side and corresponding card material and basket of objects to the other side Presentation: 1. Invite child and show the child where the material is located. 2. Prepare workspace with mat. 3. Select one corresponding pair of forms and carry to mat. i.e. island and lake 4. Carry tray with pitcher and sponge to workspace. 5. Take pitcher to water source and fill (may use a mark to indicate level of water) and return to workspace. 6. Show child the form and explain that this is a model. A model is something we use to represent the real thing. A model is usually smaller than the real thing. Then say, ”This is an island. We live on an island. An island is a body of land surrounded by water.” 7. Point to the pitcher of water. “We can make an island by pouring water around it.” Pour water slowly into form. “We now have an island. An island is a body of land surrounded by water.” 8. Point to second form and say, “This is a lake. We have some lakes in Hawaii, for example, Lake Wilson near Wahiawa. A lake is a body of water surrounded by land on all sides.” 9. Have child pour water into form to make a lake. “You have made a lake. A lake is a body of water surrounded by land.” 10. Teach the names with the 3 period lesson. 11. Carry forms one by one to water disposal bucket and empty them demonstrating how to pour from a corner. 12. Wipe the forms and pitcher and try with the sponge. 13. Return all material to the shelf. Dustin Kosek

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Direct Aim: To give child a sensory impression of the different land and water forms on the Earth Indirect Aim: To prepare child for more abstract work with the geographical materials Control of Error: The teacher Water spills Points of Interest: The land and water forms Water Process of making the actual form Language: Names of the land and water forms Extensions: Introduce a small boat and an animal in a small basket that the children can place appropriately on the land or in the water. Invite children to make their own land forms (clay on small paper or plastic trays) Encourage children to make forms in the sand table Children can use the 3 part card material Children can make their own Land and Water Forms booklets Children can cut pictures from magazines and make their own booklets Readers can work with the definition material

DEFINITIONS (arranged for the making of definition strips): an island is a body of land surrounded by water a lake is a body of water surrounded by land a cape is a body of land jutting out into the water a bay is a body of water surrounded mostly by land a peninsula Dustin Kosek

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is a long narrow neck of land extending into the water a gulf is a long narrow inlet of water extending into the land an isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two large pieces of land a strait is a narrow strip of water connecting two larger bodies of water an archipelago is a group of islands in a body of water a system of lakes is a group of lakes in an area of land

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

98


LAND AND WATER FORMS - CARD MATERIAL Ages: 3-6 years Material: One set of cards for each of the ten major geographical land and water forms Ten land and water models Presentation: 5. Invite child and show where the material is on the shelf. 6. Prepare floor mat 7. Carry two familiar sets of land and water forms to the mat 8. Carry card material to the mat 9. Lay the models across the top of the mat and review the names, giving a brief definition of each model. 10. Holding one of the cards, ask which form it matches. Child places the card under the form. 11. Repeat for the other forms, two corresponding sets at a time until the child can match and name all the land and water forms. 12. Replace materials when finished. Presentation II: 1. Child brings 3 part card material to the mat. 2. Layout the control (large card) cards and have child match the pictures 3. Child then matches the labels to the control card 4. Review names of the land and water forms with child 5. Return materials to shelf Direct Aim: To associate the three dimensional form with the two dimensional representation on the card Indirect Aim: To prepare for further work with maps and geographical material Control of Error: The teacher Points of Interest: Comparison of 3-D and 2-D representations Language: Names of the land and water forms Extensions: Children can draw and label their own depictions of land and water forms Children can make land and water forms booklets Readers can work with the definition material

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

100


INSIDE THE EARTH ACTIVITY Ages: 3 – 6 years Material: One recipe of clay for class of 20 students (see below) Presentation: (Group) 1. Group gathers in circle with teacher 2. Provide each child with balls of clay, waxed paper and piece of floss 3. Starting with making the small ball of red for the inner core, talk the children through the exercise while modeling the process 4. When all layers have been made, demonstrate how to cut the ball in half with dental floss to expose the layers of the Earth Direct Aim: To provide a concrete representation of the layers of the Earth Indirect Aim: To prepare for work with geological ideas Control of Error: The teacher The cut surface showing the layers Points of Interest: The clay The process The revealing of the interior of the ball of clay representing the Earth Language: Inner core, outer core, mantel, crust Extensions: Children can label the layers with toothpick flags A Styrofoam ball cut in half and colored on the outside in blue and the layers of the earth drawn on the cut sides can be used with card material for this activity NOTES: CLAY RECIPE 2 cups water 2 cups flour 1 cup salt 2 teaspoons cream of tartar 2 Tablespoons vegetable oil Dustin Kosek

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Food coloring Combine all ingredients, mix well and cook over medium heat in large bottom pot or electric frying pan. Stir constantly until clay forms a soft ball that is not sticky. Remove from heat and knead until it forms a smooth round ball. For a class of 20 Students: 1 batch red for center of inner core 1 batch yellow for outer core 2 batches orange for the mantle 1 batch green for the land of the Earth 1 batch blue for the water of the Earth Combine small pieces of blue and green to make outer crust Waxed paper for flattening clay Fishing line or dental floss to cut the spheres in half Source: I Wonder What’s Out There - Joanne DeFilipp Alex Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Partially Proficient Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Novice Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

102


PARTS OF THE VOLCANO Ages: 3-6 years Material: Model of a volcano Volcano puzzle Nomenclature cards Presentation: 1. Invite a small group of children to join you outside if a volcano is within viewing. 2. Have an informal talk about what volcanoes are and how our islands were formed by volcanoes and that the archipelago is still being formed. 3. Inside, show the model of the volcano. Identify the parts that the model shows. 4. Introduce the puzzle and present a lesson on the parts of the volcano using the 3 period lesson. 5. Introduce the card material and establish the language that is known, giving a 3 period lesson for language to be learned. Direct Aim: To introduce the parts of a volcano Indirect Aim: To prepare children for further geological study Control of Error: The teacher The puzzle Visual match Points of Interest: The real volcano The model Working with clay to form own models Language: Volcano, cone, magma chamber, caldera, lava, plume Extensions: Children can draw their own volcanoes and label the parts Children can make Parts of the Volcano booklets Children can be introduced to the types of volcanoes through models and vocabulary cards for each type (simple clay on tray models) Children can use clay to make their own volcanoes Children can map out the major volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands Children can be introduced to plate tectonics and the Rim of Fire-Pacific Basin Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

104


LAND AND WATER FEATURES Ages: 4-6 years Material: Folders of picture of land and water features, primarily from child’s own environment, including but not limited to volcano, crater, mountain, mountain peak, mountain range, cliffs, plain, river, river valley, estuary, tributary, waterfall, stream Labels for features represented Presentation: 1. Invite the child to take the folders to a mat on the floor and view them. 2. Introduce features the child might recognize from his own environment, i.e. Palolo stream, Diamond Head, Manoa valley, Waimea Falls etc. 3. Discuss the pictures and introduce the proper language. Direct Aim: To increase child’s awareness of the variations in land and water features that make up the environment around him Control of Error: The teacher Points of Interest: Recognition of familiar sights Language: Names of features Proper names of common features in child’s environment Extensions: Children can make drawings of land and water features and label Children can make models of land and water features in sand table or with clay Children can make topographical maps NOTES; Other features which you might introduce: meadow, desert, marsh, creek, geyser, tundra, cove, grasslands, woodlands, rain forest, savannah, wetlands, canyon, reservoir, mesa, beach, delta, cave, fiord, pass, bluff, dam, channel, sand dune, coast, plateau, lagoon, cliff, reef, tree line, canal, swamp, harbor, hill, oasis.

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

Dustin Kosek

106


CLIMATES AND ENVIRONMENT (see also “Habitats and Biomes”) Ages: 4-6 years Material: Folders for Deserts, Jungles, the Arctic, Temperate regions each a different color Pictures mounted on paper the same color as the folder that show aspects of life in that type of climate – typical landscape, animals, plants and people and how they live Presentation: 1. Invite child and show where the material is located in the classroom. 2. Select one folder and bring to floor mat. “This folder has pictures in it that show what life is like in the desert.” “A desert is a hot, dry place where it hardly ever rains. The ground is usually covered with sandy soil. Not too much grows in the desert.” 3. Show child the pocket labeled “Land” and ask children to describe what they see. 4. Continue to the pocket of “Animal” pictures. “These are some of the animals that like in the deserts.” Converse about what is in the pictures. 5. Introduce the “Plant” pocket pictures discussing how these plants are able to live in the desert and then the “People” pocket pictures and dhow it affects what people wear and the houses they live in. 6. The remaining folders are introduced in the same manner on different days. Direct Aim: To give children an impression of the characteristics of the four basic climates found on Earth Indirect Aim: To prepare for further study of plants, animals and cultures – adaptations to climates Control of Error: The teacher Color-coding Points of Interest: The pictures Language: Names of characteristics of the climates Names of the various animals, plants and people introduced in the pictures Extensions: Children can cut pictures from magazines to make their own climate books Dustin Kosek

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Children can use View Master material on the subject Children can prepare mini-environments as examples of each climactic area (dioramas) Children can take a field trip to the zoo to see various animals and what they need Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL STUDIES Standard 6: Develop geographic awareness Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 7: Geography: WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

Topic

Physical characteristics in Spatial Terms

Benchmark SS.K.7.1

Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes (e.g., land, water, roads, cities)

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Locates and describes physical characteristics of objects represented on a map or globe.

Rubric Advanced Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with accuracy

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with no significant errors

Partially Proficient Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with a few significant errors

Novice Identify location and physical characteristics represented on maps and globes, with many significant errors

108


NATURAL SCIENCES

Dustin Kosek

109


Dustin Kosek

110


LIVING – NON-LIVING Ages: 3+ years Material: A basket of objects, an equal number each of things living and things non-living A set of, coded on the back, of things living and things non-living Labels: "Living" and "Non-Living" Presentation I: (individual or small group) 1. Discuss with the children how we know something is “living.” Have them observe many things in the classroom and outside the classroom, identifying whether things are living or non-living. Have the children answer the question “why do you think so?” Discussion should end with a re-cap of ways we know the difference: it eats, it breathes, it grows, it moves on its own. Something is described as “non-living” if it does not ear, it does not breathe, it does not grow and it does not move on its own. 2. Introduce a basket of objects representing living and non-living things. Have the children identify the objects first. 3. One by one, ask the children whether the object represents something that is living or non-living, sorting the objects into two columns. Use the label that says “living” at the top of the column of living objects, “non-living” at the top of the other column of non-living objects. 4. Show the children where the material is located on the shelf and invite them to use the material whenever they choose. Presentation II: At a mat or a table, show the child how to sort the pictures into the living and nonliving categories under the appropriate labels. The children can check their work by referring to the coding on the back. Direct Aim: To draw the child's attention to the difference between "living" and "nonliving" things Indirect Aim: To lead the child into simple classification Points of Interest: The objects and pictures Control of Error: The teacher The color-coding on the back of the pictures Variation: Change the objects and pictures often to renew interest Extensions: Dustin Kosek

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Use objects and things from the environment Children can make booklets of living and non-living things either by cutting pictures from magazines or drawing the pictures themselves. Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

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STATES OF (NON-LIVING) MATTER – SOLID, LIQUID, GAS Free exploration of all states of matter is easily offered through use of the classroom water table outfitted with straws, plastic tubes, corks, and different containers. Experimentation is achieved in the classroom with simple experiments set up on the shelf. After a demonstration, a child may use the material, aided by a command card. Command cards outline the experiment procedure either with representative drawings or simple written words. Sources for experiments abound on the Internet. Several should be added to this cosmic album as you design and develop them for your classroom. Some ideas follow: Experiments with air Air bubbles Air in a balloon Air in water Air power Experiments with water Sink and Float Water seeks own level Evaporation Waterpower Surface Tension Experiments with solids All sensory activities (size, color, texture, shape, weight) Soil samples Rock collections Plastic, elastic or rigid Changing states of matter Container of ice in pan Hot plate to melt Continue heating to evaporate Make butter – turning liquid into solid Observation and data recording is an important part of the scientific process. Children should be encouraged to record their observations when doing an experiment. Science journals or small booklets should be encouraged in a simple “Date, Material, Process, Observations” format to prepare for more advanced science study. SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF MATTER: Similarly, simple experiments with heat, light, motion, sound, magnetism and electricity should be introduced in the 3-6 classroom Dustin Kosek

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Dustin Kosek

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SINK AND FLOAT Age: 3+ years Material: Box of objects that sink or float, even number of each, changing frequently Bowl Pitcher for water Sponge Tray Presentation I: 1. Invite a child to join you and have him carry the material to a table. Arrange the materials neatly and in order of use. 2. Have the child almost fill the jug with water and pour the water into the bowl. 3. Select an object. Ask the child to identify it the object and have him explore it. 4. Discuss if the object is heavy or light, small or large. Then gently drop the object into the water. Observe if it floats or sinks. Remove and dry the object. Placing it to one side. 5. Repeat the procedure for a contrasting object, only this time place it to the other side. 6. Repeat for the remaining objects. 7. Introduce the labels “sink” and “float” and place them above the corresponding column of objects on the mat. 8. Invite the child to repeat the activity, guessing whether the objects will sink or float. 9. When finished empty, dry and replace the materials. Presentation 2: 1. Using a small ball of plasticine, gently drop it into the water; it will sink. 2. Then shape the plasticine like a bowl and watch it float. 3. Invite the child to manipulate the plasticine and observe which shapes sink or float. 4. Let child discover the “why.” Presentation 3: 1. To compare the buoyancy of salt and fresh water, fill two identical containers about two-thirds full of water. 2. Add salt to the water in one container, a tablespoon at a time and stirring vigorously until no more salt will dissolve. 3. Get two large ice cubes the same size, put one into each container and note which ice cube protrudes the most from the water Direct Aims: To encourage the child to explore whether different objects sink or float To lead the child to simple classification Dustin Kosek

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Indirect Aim: To prepare for further study of properties of matter Points of Interest: Watching the objects sink or float Control of Error: The teacher Variation: Use of prepared classification card with two columns labeled “sink” and “float” Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 1: Engage in scientific inquiry. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 1: The Scientific Process: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: Discover, invent and investigate using the skills necessary to engage in the scientific process

Topic

Scientific Inquiry

Benchmark SC.K.1.1

Use the senses to make observations

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Uses the five senses (i.e., sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) to make observations about objects and events.

Rubric Advanced Use appropriate senses to make detailed observations on what is actually observed

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Use appropriate senses to make observations on what is actually observed

Partially Proficient Use the senses to make limited observations on what is observed

Novice Use the senses to make observations that are inaccurate or inferred

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Dustin Kosek

117


MAGNETIC – NON-MAGNETIC Ages: 3+ years old Materials: Large magnet Basket of metal and non-metal objects, an equal number of each (change frequently) A felt cloth Labels for “magnetic” and “non-magnetic” Tray Presentation: 1. Invite a child to join you and carry the materials to a table. Lay out the felt mat and arrange the materials neatly, in order of use. 2. Introduce the magnet, "This is a magnet, it attracts things. Let's discover which objects it will attract." 3. Remove a metal object from the basket and place it on the felt mat. Hold the magnet close to the object; it will be attracted to the magnet. “This is magnetic.” Invite the child to try. “This word says ʻmagnetic.’” Place the label on the mat and place the metal object under the label. 4. Repeat the procedure for a non-metal object. It will not be attracted to the magnet. “This is ‘non-magnetic;’ this is not attracted to the magnet. This word says ‘nonmagnetic.’” Place the label to the other side and place the non-metal object under it. 5. Invite the child to continue, sorting the items according to whether or not they are attracted to a magnet. When finished, replace the materials. Direct Aims: To explore the use of a magnet and to discover what it attracts To draw the child's attention to the difference between magnetic and nonmagnetic objects Indirect Aims: To lead the child to simple classification Points of Interest: observing the “attraction” Control of Error: The layout

Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 1: Engage in scientific inquiry. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 1: The Scientific Process: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: Discover, invent and investigate using the skills necessary to engage in the scientific process

Topic

Scientific Inquiry

Benchmark SC.K.1.1

Use the senses to make observations

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Uses the five senses (i.e., sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) to make observations about objects and events.

Rubric Advanced Use appropriate senses to make detailed observations on what is actually observed

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Use appropriate senses to make observations on what is actually observed

Partially Proficient Use the senses to make limited observations on what is observed

Novice Use the senses to make observations that are inaccurate or inferred

119


SIMPLE MACHINES Ages: 4-6 years Material: A basket of everyday objects that demonstrate the 6 simple machines we use to do “work”. These include pulleys, inclined planes, levers, wedges, screws, wheels and axles. A set of cards of common examples of the 6 simple machines and a set of labels for each Presentation: (small group) 1. With a group of children, explore the basket of everyday objects that are examples of six simple machines we use to help us do our work. Identify each object as you remove it from the basket and lay it on the mat. 2. Select one of the objects and give the name of the machine, “This is a doorstop. It is an example of a wedge which is used to fill the space between two objects, in this case to ensure they will not move.” 3. Put the label “wedge” on the mat and place the doorstop under the label. Then select the cards that show different types of wedges and discuss their usages with the children getting the children to identify how each helps us to do work. Put the cards, once identified, in a column under the object. 4. Continue through the material for as long as interest remains. 5. Show the children where the material is kept and invite them to use it. Introduce the idea that once they know all the machines, they should mix the cards and sort them. Direct Aim: To introduce children to the workings of simple machines Indirect Aim: To prepare for more advanced work with mechanical concepts Points of Interest: The examples themselves Noting how the machine works Control of Error: The teacher Color-coding of cards Extensions: Take a walk in the neighborhood and have a small group of children identify any simple machines they see

Dustin Kosek

120


Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 1: Engage in scientific inquiry. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 1: The Scientific Process: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: Discover, invent and investigate using the skills necessary to engage in the scientific process

Topic

Scientific Inquiry

Benchmark SC.K.1.1

Use the senses to make observations

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Uses the five senses (i.e., sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) to make observations about objects and events.

Rubric Advanced Use appropriate senses to make detailed observations on what is actually observed

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Use appropriate senses to make observations on what is actually observed

Partially Proficient Use the senses to make limited observations on what is observed

Novice Use the senses to make observations that are inaccurate or inferred

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BOTANY – THE WORLD OF PLANTS INTRODUCTION: Without plants, no life would be possible on Earth. Only plants, with the help of sunlight, can build up living material from water, minerals and air. Single-celled plants were among the first living things on Earth. Plants have adapted successfully to almost every known habitat, with over 360,000 species ranging from microscopic algae to giant redwood trees. Especially in our fast-paced world characterized by urbanization and technological advances, children do not have as many opportunities to explore nature as freely as in the past. Psychologists argue that this is having a detrimental effect on our children as they miss connecting to all forms of life and experiencing the interconnectedness of all things in the world around them. “Nature Deficit Disorder” is the term given to today’s dilemma. It is important for us to create as many opportunities as possible to introduce the child to nature and natural materials. KEY MATERIALS FOR BOTANY: Plants in the environment (PL activities – caring for plants) Nature walks A Nature or “Wonder” table Tools for observing nature Opportunities for collections Plant experiments The Leaf Cabinet Plant classified picture cards Puzzles and card material of plant parts An outdoor garden and tools (PL activities for gardening) Books, songs, poems about plants Art materials for prints and rubbings, etc. PLANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: It is optimal to have a light, airy classroom that opens out into a lovely yard, both cultivated and uncultivated, and a garden to be tended by the children. Tools for both the indoor and outdoor environments should be child-sized and available at all times. Children should be shown the proper care of plants: watering, cleaning and polishing leaves, trimming, feeding for indoor plants and raking, digging, planting, weeding, watering, flower cutting and arranging for gardening projects. Choose plants that are interesting for different reasons, i.e., flowering, non-flowering, different leaf shapes, edible, and non-edible. Early in the year give a lesson on how to care for each plant. Removing dead leaves and washing leaves are interesting exercises. You may also make up a card for each plant which includes the following information: its name, where it was originally grown/came from, its watering and care needs and any interesting facts concerning the plant. Dustin Kosek

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Flower arranging is a further way to enjoy plants. Refer to the write up found in the Practical Life Manual. A plant press can be made of layers of cardboard and newspaper. The children could make their own press or you may have a commercial one they can all share. The children can identify the various leaf shapes and create booklets. In addition, children can make cards from mounted pressed flowers and greenery. Children enjoy making sachets of potpourri with dried flowers. Introduce plants on a sensorial level with an emphasis on taste. Include fruits and vegetables as part of the snack table. Fresh juice squeezed by hand is always popular. Discuss what part of the plant is edible, i.e., leaf, root, etc. Nutmeg or cinnamon can be grated and used in cooking or taken home. Planting a fruit or vegetable and then eating the produce is a great project. An herb garden can provide many activities. Sprouts are also fun to grow and tasty. In addition, you may wish to explore the importance of smell to taste. Remember, what you are trying to give the children is a total experience with plants. NATURE WALKS: Small groups of children work best as such walks should be taken at the child’s pace and according to whatever interests them along the way. Children should be given both sensorial and scientific language. OBSERVATION is the key. Some walks should be for collection; be sure that the children understand to only collect non-living things on the ground and not to take anything but flowers from the plants. NATURE OR “WONDER” TABLE: Every classroom should have a Nature or “Wonder” Table that serves as a source of inspiration for all that goes on in the nature part of the environment. It should be changed in some way each day and children should be encouraged to bring in specimens for the table. There should be a basket of observation tools such as binoculars, a magnifying glass and measuring equipment. Just putting something in a small basket under a tripod standing magnifying stool such as an interesting piece of bark or an unusual seed – left there for the children to discover – creates the kind of interest you want children to have in the natural environment. It is also very helpful to have a Nature Journal and writing tools for children to record their observations and experiences of “wonder.” Encourage children to bring in specimens they find. The Nature or Wonder Table is for exploration of all living things, plant and animal. PLANT EXPERIMENTS: Simple experiments bring an aspect of the plant world to the attention of the child. In Montessori, an experiment is usually shown to one child at a time as a presentation with the material kept on the shelf for his use. Example: Needs of Plants – planting mustard seeds in two saucers in four different conditions, comparing the two as to growth over time One with light, warmth and water and one deprived of light One with light, warmth and water and one deprived of water One with light, warmth and water and one deprived of warmth (put in refrigerator) One with soil and one with cotton ball; give both light, warmth and water Roots – Plant beans on wet cotton ball in small baggie and tape to a window Plants from seed – plant avocado seeds suspended in glass of water with toothpicks Dustin Kosek

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Plants from root vegetables – plant sprouted tops of carrots or parsnips in small bowl of Water Plants from tubers – suspend potato in glass of water and watch “eyes” sprout (write-up follows) CLASSIFIED PICTURE CARDS: Every classroom should have sets of picture cards of various plants especially of those in the nearby environment. Indoor plants, plants in the garden etc. make nice sets. Also have sets of trees and flowers growing in the area. If at all possible, start a lesson with having the child experience the real object first. For example, if the set is Trees, take the child out to observe a tree that is in the set and then return to the classroom and have the child work with the cards, matching the cards in precise and neatly laid out rows. More advanced sets can be created matching leaf to tree, seed pod to tree, seeds to tree, flowers to tree and children enjoy taking the cards out into the environment to make the matches. PUZZLES AND “PARTS OF” CARD SETS: When possible display on the botany shelf wooden puzzles depicting the parts of a plant, a leaf, and a flower or other plant of interest such as the coconut tree, kalo plant, etc., if living in Hawaii. Accompanying the puzzle should be a set of 3 part cards that include ones with a picture of the complete plant realistically colored as in the puzzle. Then there will be cards for each part with just that part colored. There should also be printed outlines on paper for the child to make his own booklets. Wall charts which show first the complete flower, leaf or plant and then horizontally each of the parts as in the cards are often found in Montessori environments and serve to stimulate children’s interest. Always start with the whole, the plant, and worked down into the parts, each time giving greater detail. Begin with a real specimen. After identifying the parts using a real specimen, follow through with classified cards. Introduce the cards to the children. Establish the language that is known and give a three period lesson for the language to be learned. At the reading stage, introduce the printed labels. Children who read may move on to definition cards for all of these subjects. The same procedure is used for kinds of roots, leaf margins and venation. NOMENCLATURE FOR BOTANY: (some variation depends on the puzzle used) Plant: leaves, branches, stem (trunk), roots Leaf: margin, blade, veins, petiole Flower: corolla, stamens, pistil, calyx, petiole LIFE CYCLE ACTIVITIES: Sequence cards of the life cycle of plants may be used in the classroom as an important lesson in the stages of plant growth. Children enjoy making their own plant life cycle charts or stories.

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PARTS OF A FLOWER Ages: 3 – 6 years Material: A flower, preferably hibiscus in Hawaii Parts of a Flower puzzle (control card optional) Parts of a Flower cards Presentation: 1. Invite the child to learn about the parts of a flower. Show child where the puzzle and card material is located and have child bring the material to a floor rug. 2. Provided you have good examples of real flowers in the vicinity of the school, invite the child to accompany you to the outdoors and select a flower from the bush. Return to the classroom with the flower. The hibiscus is perfect for this activity. 3. Compare the real flower to the puzzle, pointing out each part and saying the name, having the child repeat the name. 4. Lay the flower down next to the puzzle and remove the pieces of corolla and put on the mat. “This part of the flower is called the corolla.” Continue in this manner with all parts. Using the 3 period lesson, teach the names of the parts the child does not know. 5. Have the child return the pieces to the puzzle frame. 6. Depending on the child’s interest, continue with the lesson by introducing the card material and invite the child to make his own booklet of the parts of the flower whenever he wants. Direct Aim: To introduce the names of the parts of a flower Indirect Aim: To prepare for further study in Botany Points of Interest: The real flower The puzzle Control of Error: The teacher The puzzle and cards Language: flower, corolla, stamens, pistil, calyx, petiole (some puzzles do not separate the calyx and the petiole Extensions: Children may make their own parts of a flower booklet Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

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TREES AND PLANTS AROUND OUR SCHOOL Ages: 3-6 years Material: Set of pictures of trees and plants around the school Set of pictures of leaves of trees and plants around the school Set of pictures of flowers of trees and plants around the school Set of pictures of seed pods and/or seeds from trees and plants around the school Presentation: 1. Draw children’s attention to the trees and plants around the school whenever you are near them, giving their name. Take walks with small groups of children for this purpose too. 2. After children have started to notice the trees and plants and show interest, introduce the set of cards that have pictures of the whole tree or plant. Have a child take a picture into the school area and find the tree. Gradually introduce all the pictures and have the children learn names with the 3 period lesson if necessary. 3. Gradually have the children work with the leaf cards in the same way, then the flower cards, and then the seed cards. The children will discover that they can layout cards in a pattern matching leaf, flower and seed to the picture of the tree or plant. Direct Aim: To create interest in and knowledge of the surrounding trees and plants Indirect Aim: To increase child’s awareness of his surroundings Points of Interest: The trees and plants Making the match Control of Error: Cards for parts of each tree will be colored the same with dots. Language: names of the trees and plants Extensions: Further study into the usages of the tree or plant in the culture

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

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BOTANY CABINET Ages: 4-6 years Material: Wooden cabinet with three drawers, each containing several wooden insets and frames the shapes of leaves Three sets of cards used in same way as Geometric Cabinet with solid, thick outline and thin outlines of the shapes Presentation I: 1. Invite a child to work with the botany cabinet. Have the child bring one tray to a rug on the floor. 2. Bring the solid colored shape card set to the mat. 3. Demonstrate how to remove the insets, line them up on the mat, and then match the cards to the inset. 4. Then have the child choose one shape and take the card into the environment to search for a leaf having that shape. 5. The child continues exploring in this manner until he loses interest. Presentation II: (small group) 1. Invite a small group of children to join in a leaf hunt. 2. Have children gather leaves from the ground in a designated area. 3. Take leaves into classroom and place on a floor rug. Show the children where the Botany Cabinet is on the shelf and have a child bring the drawers of the cabinet to the rug. 4. Put all the trays in view on the rug and invite children to sort the collected leaves, placing the leaf next to the inset which best describes its shape. 5. After lots of work with the cabinet and leaves, teach the names of the leaf shapes using the 3 period lesson. Presentation III: 1. Invite a child who has worked with real leaves and the cabinet to work with the card material in the same manner as the Geometric Cabinet cards are worked with. 2. When child is familiar with the names of the shapes, introduce labels for the names of the shapes. Direct Aim: To introduce the child to the classification of leaf shapes To interest the child in going into the environment and exploring, looking for leaves to match the shapes

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Indirect Aim: Eye-hand coordination, control of movement, concentration Points of Interest: Shapes Making the match Control of Error: Visual Language: names of the shapes: orbiculate, spatulate, elliptic, reniform, cordate, ovate, obcordate, obovate, triangular, sagittate, hastate, lanceolate, linear, aciculate Extensions: Leaf hunts Children can press leaves, make leaf prints or rubbings, etc. Child makes own booklet of leaf shapes; he may paste real leaves onto squares of paper and label them or trace the shapes from the cabinet and label. Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

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Dustin Kosek

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WATERING THE GARDEN Ages: 3-6 years Material: Water Source – large bucket or trash can filled with water* 2-3 small watering cans/pitcher Aprons Presentation: 1. Invite the child to water the plants. Have child put on an apron and fill one of the small watering cans. 2. With two hands, show the child how to carry the can to any plant in the garden and empty it. 3. Child can continue to water plants according to interest. 4. Child returns the pitcher to the water source and removes the apron. Direct Aim: To give an experience of caring for plant life Points of Interest: Watering can Seeing the wet soil after watering *A very simple water collection system is possible by rigging a large trashcan fed by a drain spout from roof gutters to catch rainwater for this purpose

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

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SWEET POTATO PLANT EXPERIMENT Ages: 3-6 years Material: Small sweet potato Glass Toothpicks (4) Pitcher Small sponge Tray Small journal for recording Presentation: 1. Invite child to do the activity. Have child bring tray to a table. Have child get water in the pitcher. 2. Show child how to hold the sweet potato with the pointy end down and push four toothpicks crosswise into the vegetable about two-thirds of the way up. 3. Direct the child to put the pointy end of the sweet potato in a glass so the toothpicks rest on the rim and then fill the glass almost to the top with water. 4. Invite the child to place the glass in a sunny spot. Have child put the small journal next to the glass. Discuss that he should observe the potato each day to see if roots have started to sprout from the bottom and to record his observations in the small journal. The journal will also be a way to record when he needs to change the water that should be done every 3 days. 5. Have child empty the pitcher, wipe the tray if necessary and return tray to shelf, refilling with a potato, 4 toothpicks, glass and small journal. In a few days, roots will begin to sprout from the bottom; in about 2 weeks, leaves and stems will start sprouting from the top. Keep the plant in the glass until it gets too big — usually in a couple of months — then plant it 3 to 4 inches deep in a pot filled with potting soil. Keep moist. The sweet potato is a member of the morning glory family; just like that flower, you can train the vines to grow wherever you want.

Direct Aim: To provide an experience in observing plant growth Indirect Aim: To refine observation and journaling skills To offer an experience in responsibility – caring for the plant Dustin Kosek

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Points of Interest: Potato Toothpick activity Observing Recording Control of Error: The Teacher Visual Language: sweet potato, toothpick, roots, leaves, stems Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

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ZOOLOGY – THE WORLD OF ANIMALS INTRODUCTION: There are more than one million different kinds (species) of animals that live on our planet and new species are being discovered all the time by scientists and naturalists. Living creatures can be found in almost every part of the Earth. Their evolution has tended to adapt them to living in a particular habitat in their environment. They move from place to place in a variety of ways: they walk, crawl, swim, hop, fly, glide and burrow. Their bodies range in complexity from a single cell to many cell groups that are highly specialized in functions. The animal kingdom is separated into subgroups called phyla. While we do not get into scientific phyla classification in detail in the 3-6 classrooms, we do teach the vertebrates and talk about insects, arachnids and mollusks. KEY ZOOLOGY ACTIVITIES: Animals in the environment – observation and care of Collection – on walks Nature or “wonder” table Sorting – models and/or pictures Living/Non-living Plant/Animal Vertebrates/Invertebrates Vertebrate Classes Fur/Feathers/Scales How animals travel Types of: bird beaks, animal feet/footprints Matching – models and/or pictures Examples within a species Examples within a biome Animal to home Animal to what it eats Animal classified picture cards and booklets Animal Puzzles and card material of animal parts Books, songs, poems about animals; movement activities Art materials for making models, shoebox habitats (dioramas), biome murals ANIMALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: To the extent possible within the regulations of the State for schools, have live animals in the child’s environment, both indoors and out. Here are some basic considerations for animals in the classroom:  Animals take care. As a teacher you must insure the proper care of the classroom animal. If you do not like birds, do not have a bird in the classroom.  Feeding of animals should be the responsibility of the teacher; children can help. There are ways to control against over or underfeeding yet it still needs a lot of supervision.

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     

Establish ground rules for watching and caring for the animal as to how many children at a time, appropriate behavior, etc. Lessons on handling of the animal should be given in the case of animals that the children may actually touch. Name the animal and label his habitat. Place “parts of the animal” material nearby. Encourage observation and recording of the animal’s behavior and discuss these observations. Keep and observation journal nearby and encourage recordings. You can even make a photographic record in the journal with children’s observations. Through pictures and books provide children with a lot of information about the animal. Place picture and simple children’s books nearby. Encourage children to write and illustrate stories about the animal.

NATURE WALKS: see Botany information on nature walks. Children love bug hunts and should have small bug boxes available in the classroom for finding, observing, and then releasing bugs. NATURE OR “WONDER” TABLE: see Botany information on the nature or “wonder” table. For the tripod magnifying glass, pick up things you see on your way into school – a butterfly wing, a bird feather, etc. CLASSIFIED PICTURE CARDS: Sets as described in Botany section and should include sets for domestic and wild animals, for the types of a class of animals such as various reptiles, or examples of a particular animal such as snakes, or animals that live in certain habitats or on certain continents - the classification categories are endless. PUZZLES AND PARTS OF ANIMAL CARD SETS: When possible, display on the zoology shelf wooden puzzles depicting the parts of animals. This should include the five classes of vertebrates and a few invertebrates. Children love the butterfly puzzle. Accompanying each puzzle should be a set of 3 part cards that include ones with a picture of the complete animal realistically colored as in the puzzle. Then there will be cards for each part with just that part colored. There should also be printed outlines on paper for the child to make his own booklets. Wall charts which show first the complete animal and then horizontally each of the parts as in the cards are often found in Montessori environments and serve to stimulate children’s interest. ZOOLOGY NOMENCLATURE: Fish: caudal fin, pectoral fin, anal fin, ventral fin, lateral line, head, dorsal fin Amphibian: (e.g. Frog) ear, forelegs, body, head, hind legs, foot Reptile: (e.g. Turtle) carapace, plastron, legs, head, claws, tail Bird: claws, kegs, head, beak, tail, wing, breast Mammal: (e.g. Horse) hind legs, hooves, ears, mane, neck, tail forelegs, body, head Insect: (e.g. Cockroach) head, thorax, abdomen, antennae, wings, legs, mouthparts. LIFE CYCLE ACTIVITIES: Sequence cards of the life cycle of animals are fascinating to children and should be used in the classroom as an important lesson in the stages of animal Dustin Kosek

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growth; the differences among the five classes of vertebrates, in itself, is exciting. Categorizing animals as egg layers or bearing their own is just one way to expand children’s interest. Children enjoy making their own animal life cycle charts or stories.

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PLANT AND ANIMAL SORTING Ages: 3 - 5 years Materials: An assortment of living items, both plant and animal, from the indoor or outdoor environment A basket of models of plants and animals, an equal number of each A set of pictures of plants and animals, an equal number of each Labels “plant” and “animal” Presentation I: (This is usually a group presentation) 1. Place one or two of each category, plant and animal, on the mat, and say “We are going to talk about things that are plants and things that are animals.” 2. Have the children name or describe the objects. 3. Explain, “There are many ways I could group these objects – perhaps by color or size. However, today, I am going to group the objects by if they are plant or if they are animal.” 4. Select, for example, a little potted plant. “This is a plant that we have in our classroom.” “This plant is called a fern.” Name an attribute that makes it a plant. Say “The fern has roots and it makes its own food” and then place the plant to one side. 5. Select an animal, for example a snail. “This is a snail.” “This snail does not have roots and cannot make its own food. It eats to get its food or nourishment.” Place the snail on the mat next to the plant in its own column. 6. Select another example of a plant and identify, and say “Plants are living things that usually make their own food but they cannot move around.” Place the plant below the first example. 7. Select another animal example, identify it and say, “Animals are living things that eat food for fuel and they can move around.” Place the animal under the first example. 8. Continue if you have more examples. Then review “These are plants. All the plants have roots and they make their own food. They also cannot move around.” 9. “These are animals. All animals eat food for nourishment and they can move around. Both plants and animals grow.”

PRESENTATION II: (individual or small group) 1. Invite child to this exercise and show where the material is located on the shelf. Have child bring the basket of objects and labels to the floor rug or table. 2. Identify the objects with the child and show the child how to put the labels in two columns and sort the objects according to “plant” or “animal.” 3. Introduce the card material and have the children sort the cards similarly. Direct Aims: To develop an understanding of the differences in how plants and animals live Dustin Kosek

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Indirect Aims: To prepare for more advanced work in classification Points of Interest: Living examples and models Learning the differences Control of Error: The teacher Color-coding on card material Vocabulary: plant, animal, names of examples Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

140


VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES SORTING Ages: 4-6 years Materials: A live example of an invertebrate such as a worm A Child A basket of objects that are examples of vertebrates and invertebrates, an equal number of each A set of pictures of animals that are vertebrates and pictures of animals that are invertebrates Labels, “vertebrates” and “invertebrates” Presentation I: (group presentation) 1. Gather a small group to the rug and invite them to a lesson on two different classifications of animals. “Do you have a ?” “Some animals do not have backbones like humans do. Today we are going to learn about animals with backbones like us and animals that do not have backbones. 2. Show the children a worm or other invertebrate. “This animal does not have a backbone. Animals without backbones are called invertebrates.” 3. Have a child show where his backbone is. Can you find your backbone? Animals who have backbones are called vertebrates.” You are a vertebrate. So is Sam, our guinea pig. So is Teddy the turtle.” 4. Have children identify the objects in the basket. One by one have children identify the objects and say whether the object represents an animal with or without a backbone. When the children identify a snake, say “A snake doesn’t have a backbone so it is an invertebrate.” 5. Once the objects have been sorted, introduce the labels and put they on top of the appropriate column. 6. Show the children where the material is kept on the shelf. Presentation II: (individual or small group) 1. Repeat the above with the card material, placing the pictures in front of the child in mixed array and the labels in two columns at the top of the mat. Make sure the child can identify all the animals in the pictures. Direct Aim: To assist the child with discriminating between animals with and without backbones

Points of interest: Their own backbone The models Dustin Kosek

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Control of Error: The teacher Color-coding of the cards Vocabulary: backbone, vertebrate, invertebrate

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

143


PARTS OF A FISH Ages: 3-6 years Material: Live specimen – fish tank (if possible) Puzzle of the Parts of a Fish Card material for Parts of a Fish Presentation: 1. Invite a small group of children to the fish tank, if available, and discuss what they see as the different parts of the fish. 2. Bring the children to a floor run with the parts of the fish puzzle. (If you have a realistic relatively large model of a fish with parts of the fish easily discernable, you would use this before the next step.) 3. Remove the pieces from the puzzle, more or less in a L to R progression, naming the part as you go and relating to what the children had observed in reality. 4. With the parts pieces on the map, teach the names with a 3 period lesson if necessary. 5. Ask a child to replace a part that you name, again starting L to R. 6. Introduce the card material, showing them the 3 part card procedure if they are not familiar, and invite the children to make their own parts of a fish booklet. Direct Aim: To familiarize the child with the major distinguishing external parts of the fish Indirect Aim: To stimulate interest in the class of fish and further study Points of Interest: Observing reality The puzzle The “parts” isolated on the cards Control of Error: The teacher The puzzle The control cards Language: caudal fin, pectoral fin, anal fin, ventral fin, lateral line, head, dorsal fin Extensions: Classified cards of the types of fish common to Hawaiian waters Care of a classroom aquarium Study the life cycle of the goldfish – adult goldfish – eggs – fry – adult goldfish Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

145


BUTTERFLY METAMORPHOSIS Ages: 3-6 years Material: Fish tank Branches and leaves from the crown flower (milkweed) plant Visible eggs and/or caterpillars on leaves Screen cover, removable Journal, date stamp and pencils 3 part cards of the different stages of metamorphosis Set of sequence cards of the butterfly life cycle with control card Presentation: 1. Invite the children to circle and discuss that we are going to set up a habitat that will allow us to watch the amazing life cycle of the butterfly, particularly butterfly metamorphosis. Explain that metamorphosis is a transformation or different stages of development of each and every insect before it becomes an adult. 2. Bring materials to the circle and walk through setting up the branches and leaves in the fish tank, having selected children help to keep interest up. 3. Talk about the life cycle of the butterfly – the four different stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis) and adult butterfly. (SEE NOTES BELOW) 4. Explain that when the butterfly emerges and is ready to fly, we will carefully release it to the outdoors. 5. Put the habitat on a table where the children can sit and watch when interested. 6. Explain how the children can record their observations in the journal. 7. Also show the children the card material for the stages of butterfly metamorphosis and the sequence cards. Direct Aim: To create an opportunity for children to witness butterfly metamorphosis To develop recording skills Indirect Aim: To increase awareness of insects in the environment To encourage children to write stories using story cards Points of Interest: Observation of the process Recording Releasing the butterflies Control of Error: The teacher Dustin Kosek

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Color-coding of card material and the control card Language: metamorphosis, butterfly, Monarch, milkweed, crown flower, eggs, larva, caterpillar, pupa, chrysalis Extensions: Children can make booklets of the phases of metamorphosis and/or the life cycle sequence Children can find pictures in magazines of different kinds of butterflies, including the Kamehameha butterfly native to Hawaii Children can write stories about how a caterpillar becomes a butterfly NOTES: Eggs: Female butterflies are very choosy about the plants they would want to lay their eggs on. The female Monarch butterfly would prefer to lay eggs only on milkweed plants. Laying of eggs commences the first phase of butterfly metamorphosis. The underside of the leaves is where you find the butterfly eggs. These are white in color and are very small. It takes almost a week for the eggs to hatch. The larva develops inside the egg and nourishes on the yolk of the egg. Finally, the larva makes a small hole in the egg and emerges on the leaf. Here the second stage begins. Larva: The larva of the butterfly is called caterpillar. The caterpillar grows fast feeding on the leaves. In two weeks they become an adult caterpillar. The adult caterpillar has eight pairs of legs. As the caterpillar grows longer it outgrows and sheds its skin. This process is called as molting. In this stage of butterfly metamorphosis, caterpillar molts its skin around five to six times. The fully-grown adult caterpillar looks for a safe place to pupate. Once the caterpillar finds a place to pupate. It makes a silk-like mat on the surface and hangs upside down. It hangs for one whole day like this and takes the shape of the alphabet "J". Pupa: The skin of the caterpillar is shed for the final time and the casing takes the color of jade. This casing is called chrysalis. Though initially chrysalis is soft gradually within an hour it hardens to form a protective shell. Within the chrysalis the caterpillar slowly turns into a butterfly. The body parts of the caterpillar disintegrate to form the body parts of the butterfly. The transformation period of chrysalis to butterfly takes around 10 to 15 days. Adult: The hardened chrysalis cracks and the butterfly emerges from it. The wings of the butterfly are small and wet. It clings onto the shell of the chrysalis. Slowly the wings and the body of the butterfly enlarge. The wings are wet and take about an hour to dry; then the butterfly is ready to fly and be released.

Dustin Kosek

147


Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Partially Proficient Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Novice Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

148


BIOMES AND HABITATS Ages: 4 1/2 – 6 years Material: Shoe box or box-like material OR fish tanks Sand, soil, plants, real or crafted Animal objects Presentation: 1. Introductory discussions would include the following information • Energy comes from the sun 
 • Energy moves in cycles 
 • Everything in nature is connected to everything else 
 • Plants and animals are especially adapted to their natural environment 2. When studying a particular animal habitat or biome, children enjoy making dioramas depicting the characteristics of that particular habitat or biome (a community of life forms). 3. Usually in small groups, the teacher holds a discussion on the characteristics of a particular habitat or biome and the group talks about and decides how they might represent certain characteristics while building the diorama. 4. The teacher helps the children gather the materials needed and guides the children in the diorama construction. Direct Aim: To introduce children to different animal habitats and to different biomes or ecosystems that are found in the world Indirect Aim: To create opportunities for children to display their knowledge; an excellent assessment tool Points of Interest: All materials The completed diorama Control of Error: The teacher Photographs and information on the habitat or biome Language: Habitats: jungle, woodland, meadow, marsh etc. Biomes: Tropical forest, temperate forest, grassland, polar regions, wetlands, oceans, mountains, deserts etc. Dustin Kosek

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Extensions: Children can make miniature real habitats for live plants and animals Children can make biome murals NOTES: An excellent source of ideas and free material on biomes is: www.wasecalearning.com Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE Standard 3: Explore characteristics of living things. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 3: Life and Environmental Sciences: ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity, and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of matter and energy in the environment

Topic

Interdependence

Benchmark SC.K.3.1

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Identifies ways that plants and animals are similar and different and records observations as a group.

Rubric Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Describe detailed similarities and differences between plants and animals

Identify similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize a few similarities and differences between plants and animals

Recognize, with assistance, some obvious similarities and differences between plants and animals

Dustin Kosek

150


HUMANS – SENSES Ages: 3-6 years Material: Label cards for each of the five senses with the name and image of sense organ Photographs taken of children in the classroom that demonstrate the use of each of the five senses, approximately 5 of each and always an equal number for each. Include all children if possible. Presentation: 1. In a small group, discuss the five different senses that we use as humans and the sense organs we use 2. Introduce each label card and make sure the children can identify and name the sense 3. Show the individual pictures that have been placed on the mat in mixed array and ask a selected child to place the picture in the column where it belongs. There always is discussion about their classmate in the photo. Continue in this manner with all the cards. 4. When all cards are placed, review the five senses. 5. Show the children where the material is to be placed on the shelf and invite them to do the activity when they so choose. Direct Aim: To explore how we use our five senses Indirect Aim: To interest children in the human body and its attributes Points of Interest: Images of sense organs Photographs of all the children Control of Error: Color-coding on back of the cards Language: eye, see, vision, ear, hear, hearing, nose, smell, mouth, taste, fingers, touch Extensions: Exploring and learning about all the human body parts

Dustin Kosek

151


Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN I: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH AND SAFETY Standard 4: Increase sensory awareness. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 5: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health

Topic

Communication Skills Across Topic Areas

Benchmark HE.K-2.5.1

Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Shows how people communicate in ways other than speaking (e.g., people communicate nonverbally with gestures, body language, and facial expressions).

Rubric Advanced Consistently use effective verbal and nonverbal communication

Dustin Kosek

Proficient Usually use effective verbal and nonverbal communication

Partially Proficient Sometimes use effective verbal and nonverbal communication

Novice Rarely use effective verbal and nonverbal communication

152


TIME LINE OF THE HISTORY OF MAN IN HAWAII A variation of a Time Line of the History of Man (on Earth) Ages: 4-6 years Material: A Time Line from the first voyage of man to Hawaii to present – accordion style A set of pictures of the various “immigrations” of man in Hawaii and major periods of governance, rule of the “alIʻi,” as a Territory of the United States, and Statehood, in a box. A box of objects representing a contribution that each group of people brought to Hawaii and symbols of the major periods of governance Presentation: 1. Introduce a small group of interested children to hear the story of when and how man came to Hawaii and what they brought with them 2. The story can be told in several installments. With each arrival of man, point out the date on the timeline, place the appropriate picture on the time line, and place the symbol of a contribution that group made in Hawaii 3. The material should be placed on the shelf where those children who have heard the story can select and work with the time line. Direct Aim: To give children information about the important groups of people who have come to Hawaii and what they contributed along with who governed the islands Indirect Aim: To offer a visual representation of historical time as it applies to the settling and governance of Hawaii Points of Interest: Length of the Time Line Pictures and objects Control of Error: The teacher Outlines for placement of cards Language: words in the story Marquesans, Polynesians, Capt. Cook, Christian Missionaries, Asian plantation workers, the “Aliʻi,” King Kamehameha, Territory, Statehood Extensions: Children can make their own interpretive time line in drawings and writings Dustin Kosek

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Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: DOMAIN IV: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICS Standard 4: Develop and use measurement concepts. Hawaii Content and Performance Standards: Standard 4: Measurement: FLUENCY WITH MEASUREMENT: Understand attributes, units, and systems of units in measurement; and develop and use techniques, tools, and formulas for measuring

Topic

Measurement Attributes and Units

Benchmark MA.K.4.3

Tell time to the hour

Sample Performance Assessment (SPA)

The student: Tells the time on an analog clock and on a digital clock when it displays a time on the hour.

Rubric Advanced Proficient Partially Proficient Novice Consistently tell time Usually tell time to the Sometimes tell time to Rarely tell time to the to the hour correctly hour correctly the hour correctly hour correctly and explain how to tell time to the hour

Dustin Kosek

154

Cosmic Album-Dustin Kosek  

Cosmic album by Dustin Kosek

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