ATEE Annual Conference 2015 – Programme and Abstracts Book, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 24 – 26 August 2015
ATEE 2015 Conference Organising Committee
ATEE 2015 Conference Academic Committee
ATEE 2015 Conference Communication Committee
ATEE 2015 Conference Volunteers
Overview of Programme
Keynote Speaker Programme
Keynote Speaker Biographies
9 – 12
Keynote Speaker Abstracts
13 – 16
Roundtable Discussion and Debate Programme
Roundtable Discussion and Debate Speaker Biographies
18 – 22
Roundtable Discussion and Debate Speaker Abstracts
23 – 27
28 – 29
30 – 40
Workshop - How to get published with Routledge
Parallel Sessions Programme
42 – 57
Parallel Session Abstracts
58 – 207
208 – 217
RDC Professional Development of Teachers Abstracts
218 – 220
ATEE Annual Conference 2015 – Programme and Abstracts Book, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 24 – 26 August 2015
Welcome The University of Glasgow, Scotland is delighted to welcome and host the Association for Teacher Education in Europe’s (ATEE) 40th Annual Conference 2015. Founded in 1451, Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world. Over the last five centuries and more, it has constantly worked to push the boundaries of what is possible. The University's reputation and standing as one of the world's leading universities is built upon the work of the men and women who have studied, taught and undertaken pioneering research here. The School of Education, within the College of Social Sciences, has deep roots within the educational traditions of the University of Glasgow and the surrounding environment of Scottish education. These roots include the heritage of Scottish teacher education, of adult and lifelong learning and of research into educational policy and practice. Recognising the importance of local, national and international partnerships and collaboration in teacher education is central to our work. It is fitting that the theme of this year’s ATEE Annual Conference is, Teacher Education through Partnerships and Collaborative Learning Communities. The conference offers opportunities to exchange knowledge and ideas; stimulate discussion and encourage further joint activities and research in the following issues related to the conference theme: Teacher education through collaborative partnerships Multiple and interconnected contexts for teacher education Collaborative learning communities Teachers’ diverse professional learning needs and the implications for teacher educators Blended approaches to professional learning including digital technologies and school, local, national and international peer learning Mentor support and challenge for teachers’ professional learning Teaching for diversity and creativity Leadership for transformational change Teacher educator identities Teacher evaluation and teaching standards The planning and organisation of this conference has been carried out through a partnership model. Without the collaboration of all the partners involved in the Conference Organising Committee it would not have been possible to welcome 300 delegates from 51 countries to Glasgow. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank our main conference sponsors, Routledge Taylor Francis and British Council for the support they have provided. Enjoy the conference!
Professor Kay Livingston (Coordinator of the ATEE 2015 Organising Committee)
ATEE Annual Conference 2015 â€“ Programme and Abstracts Book, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 24 â€“ 26 August 2015
ATEE 2015 Conference Organising Committee Professor Kay Livingston (Coordinator) University of Glasgow Professor Graham Donaldson
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
Professor Geri Smyth
University of Strathclyde
General Teaching Council for Scotland
School Leaders Scotland
Glasgow City Council
Garnetbank Primary School
Scottish College of Education Leadership
Educational Institute of Scotland
Association of Headteachers and Deputes in Scotland
ATEE Annual Conference 2015 – Programme and Abstracts Book, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 24 – 26 August 2015
ATEE 2015 Conference Academic Committee Kay Livingston (Chair) Graham Donaldson Geri Smyth Ninetta Santoro Lorraine Ling Laurinda Leite Joan Stephenson Joana Salazar Noguera Gyorgy Meszaros Asa Morberg Icara da Silva Holmesland Ellen Beate Hellne-Halvorsen Birger Brevik Ronny Sannerud Radka Wildova Zuzana Manourova Kerryn McCluskey Annemieke Mol Lous Monique Leygraaf Teresa Vilaça OLena Shyyan Esmahan Agaoglu Mireia Montané Sandra Lund Elizabeth Oldham Laurinda Leite Elsa Price Miroslava Cernochova Davide Parmigiani Zdenka Gadusova David McMurtry Peter Kliemann Karl Attard Quinta Kools Leah Shagrir
ATEE 2015 Conference Communication Committee
ATEE 2015 Conference Volunteers
Gaele Macfarlane (Coordinator)
Gaele Macfarlane (Coordinator) Hui Lu (Team Leader)
Alex Burdon EIS Elaine Docherty Education Scotland Evelyn Wilkens GTCS Fiona Ross Glasgow City Council
Ancheli Chen Chris Colebrook Chubing Xia Danyang Guo Huey-Jye You Jin Qu Li Ma Manal Mohammed A Alshammari Nor’ain Binti Sulaiman Nuramira Binti Anuar Amelia Bint Ismail Rui Sun Samir Halliru Weng Ding Wenting Wang Xiaomeng Yuan Xingyu Chen Xuhong Liu Zhen Fu Ziyou Wang
Overview of Programme
Monday 24 August 2015 08.30 – 09.30 09.30 – 10.30
10.30 – 11.15 11.15 – 11.45 11.45 – 13.00 13.00 – 14.30 13.45 – 14.30 14.30 – 15.45
15.45 – 16.15 16.15 – 17.30 17.30 18.00 – 19.00
Registration Hillhead High School Pupils’ Welcome to Glasgow Welcome to ATEE Conference (Professor Kay Livingston, University of Glasgow) ATEE President (Joana Salazar Noguera) Glasgow Gaelic School (Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu) Choir Conference Opening Address (Angela Constance, Scottish Government’s Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning) Keynote – Shaping the Future (Professor Graham Donaldson, University of Glasgow) Coffee break Parallel Session 1 and Symposium 1 (see detailed Parallel Session Programme and Symposium Programme for titles of papers and authors) Lunch/Poster Presentations Welcome to conference participants who are attending the ATEE Annual Conference for the first time Roundtable Discussion and Debate 1 Teacher Education through Partnerships: Scottish Perspectives (Presentation: Ken Muir, Chief Executive, General Teaching Council for Scotland. Panel: Larry Flanagan, General Secretary, Educational Institute of Scotland; Professor Kay Livingston, University of Glasgow; Graeme Logan, Strategic Director, Education Scotland; Maureen McKenna, Executive Director of Education Services, Glasgow City Council Coffee break Research and Development Communities (RDC) meeting 1 Buses depart for Civic Reception Civic Reception – Glasgow City Chambers
Overview of Programme Tuesday 25 August 2015 09.00 – 10.00 10.00 – 10.30 10.30 – 12.00 12.00 – 13.15 13.15 – 14.30 14.30 – 16.00
16.00 – 16.15 16.15 – 17.30 17.30 – 19.00 20.00 – 22.30
Keynote – Mentoring to support teacher learning Ellen Moir Founder and Chief Executive of the New Teacher Center, Santa Cruz, USA Coffee break Parallel Session 2 and Symposium 2 (see detailed Parallel Session Programme and Symposium Programme for titles of papers and authors) RDC Meeting 2 Lunch/Poster Presentations Roundtable Discussion and Debate 2 Teacher Education through Collaboration: International Perspectives Presentation 1: Thomas Pritzkow, Policy Officer, European Commission Directorate-General for Education and Culture Presentation 2: Susan Douglas, Senior Adviser, Schools Team, British Council, Discussant: Professor Lorraine Ling, La Trobe University, Australia Coffee Break General Assembly (ATEE Members only) EJTE Editorial Board Meeting (Board Members only) Social Dinner and Scottish Ceilidh (Glasgow University Union Debating Hall)
Wednesday 26 August 2015 09.00 – 10.00 10.00 – 10.30 10.30 – 12.00 12.00 – 13.00 13.00 – 14.00 14.00 – 15.30 15.30 – 16.00 16.00 – 17.00
Keynote: Partnerships in Teacher Education - Empty Rhetoric? Professor Kari Smith, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Coffee Break Parallel Session 3, Symposium 3 and How to Get Published with Routledge Workshop (see detailed Parallel Session Programme and Symposium Programme for titles of papers and authors) RDCs meeting 3 Lunch Parallel Session 4 Coffee break Closing Session: Professor Graham Donaldson, Professor Kay Livingston and Professor Joana Salazar Noguera Quinta Kools
Keynote Speaker Programme
Monday 24 August 2015 Chair
10.30 – 11.15
Gillian Hamilton Shaping the Future Professor Graham Donaldson, University of Glasgow
Tuesday 25 August 2015 Chair:
09.00 – 10.00
Kay Livingston Mentoring to support teacher learning Ellen Moir, Founder and Chief Executive of the New Teacher Center, Santa Cruz, USA
Wednesday 26 August 2015 Chair:
09.00 – 10.00
Rukhsana Akhtar Partnerships in Teacher Education – Empty Rhetoric? Professor Kari Smith, Norwegian National Doctoral School in Teacher Education
Key Note Speaker Biographies
Professor Graham Donaldson Graham Donaldson taught in secondary schools in Scotland before working for the national curriculum body in Scotland as a curriculum evaluator. He joined Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education in 1983 and ultimately as head of the organisation he guided it through major structural reform as it became an executive agency of the Scottish Government. He also radically reformed the approach to inspection, combining clear accountability with self-evaluation and capacity building. In addition to being the chief professional advisor to Ministers on education policy, he personally took a leading role in a number of major reform programmes and was instrumental in the development of the Scottish Government’s curriculum reform programme, Curriculum for Excellence. Following his retirement from HMIE he was asked by the government to undertake a personal review of teacher education in Scotland. His report ‘Teaching Scotland’s Future’, published in 2011, made 50 recommendations which have all been accepted by the government and a major implementation programme is now under way. The report has also aroused considerable interest internationally. Graham has established a high profile internationally, lecturing extensively, working as an international expert for OECD, and advising governments and NGOs. Until 2012, he also led SICI, the international inspectorate organisation, for 5 years as President. At the invitation of the Welsh Government, he is currently undertaking a major review of national curriculum and assessment arrangements in Wales. He is also working at Glasgow University where he is a Professor in the College of Social Sciences.
Ellen Moir Ellen Moir is Founder and Chief Executive Officer of the New Teacher Center (NTC), a national organization dedicated to improving student learning by accelerating the effectiveness of new teachers and school leaders. She is recognized as a passionate advocate for our nation’s newest teachers and for the students they teach. Ellen founded NTC in 1998 to scale high quality teacher induction services to a national audience. NTC strengthens school communities through proven mentoring and professional development programs, online learning environments, policy advocacy, and research. Today NTC has a staff of over 150 who work closely with educators and policymakers across the country. NTC seeks to work in high-poverty schools in underserved communities to ensure that the nation’s low-income, minority, and English language learners, those students most often taught by inexperienced teachers, have the opportunity to receive an excellent education. Ellen is widely recognized for her work in beginning teacher development and school reform. She has extensive experience in public education, having previously served as Director of Teacher Education at the University of California at Santa Cruz and worked as a bilingual teacher. Ellen has been named the 2014 Brock International Prize in Education Laureate, became a Pahara-Aspen Education Fellow in 2013, an Ashoka Fellow in 2011, and is a recipient of the 2011 Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship. Other major awards include the 2013 NewSchools Venture Fund Organization of the Year Award, 2010 Civic Ventures Purpose Prize Fellow, 2008 National Staff Development Council Contribution to the Field award; the 2008 Full Circle Fund Impact Award; the Harold W. McGraw, Jr. 2005 Prize in Education; and the 2003 California Council on Teacher Education Distinguished Teacher Educator Award. Ellen has also co-authored many publications, including Keys to the Classroom and Keys to the Secondary Classroom, New Teacher Mentoring: Hopes and Promise for Improving Teacher Effectiveness, and Blended Coaching: Skills and Strategies to Support Principal Development.
ATEE Annual Conference 2015 â€“ Programme and Abstracts Book, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 24 â€“ 26 August 2015
Professor Kari Smith Professor Kari Smith taught English as a foreign language in elementary and secondary school for 20 years. She also has a long experience as teacher educator, first as a school based teacher educator, mentoring student teachers, and then as an institutional based teacher educator of English Teaching Methodology. Professor Smith has held several management positions in teacher education, as Head of English Department before taking on responsibilities as the Head of Secondary School Education at Oranim Academic College of Education. In 2005 she accepted the position as Chair at the University of Bergen in the Section of Pedagogy, and from 2007-2012 she acted as the Head of Teacher Education at the University of Bergen. Professor Smith was one of establishers of the Norwegian National Doctoral School in Teacher Education (NAFOL) in 2010, which is a network of 23 Norwegian Teacher Education Institutions and the Research Council of Norway. NAFOL provides extensive support to about 114 teacher educators during their doctoral studies. From January 2015 her main responsibilities lie with the Norwegian University of Technology and Science (NTNU) where she takes on a leading position in the daily running of NAFOL. Professor Smith has published widely within the domains of assessment, teacher education, mentoring, induction, recently, professionalism of teacher educators. She is one of the founders of the International Forum for Teacher Educator Development (InFO-TED), a group of international experts working to create an international framework for a professional education for teacher educators. Internationally Professor Smith is frequently invited as a conference speaker and seminar leader, and she is active in several international professional associations ATEE, ECER, NERA, AERA, and EARLI where she has been a Coordinator for SIG 1, Assessment and Evaluation, and is currently (till end of August 2015) one of two coordinators of SIG 11, Teaching and Teacher Education in EARLI.
Keynote Speaker Abstracts
ATEE Annual Conference 2015 â€“ Programme and Abstracts Book, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 24 â€“ 26 August 2015
Shaping the Future Professor Graham Donaldson University of Glasgow
The significance of what our young people learn during their relatively short school lives has never been greater, yet the nature and purpose of school education remains highly contested and general agreement on the characteristics of an excellent education system remains elusive. Graham Donaldson will consider the social, economic and technological forces that are reshaping school education and argue that we require greater clarity and agreement about the purposes of school education in the context of such forces if we are to avoid an increasingly reductionist and instrumental school experience for our young people. We have important insights into the characteristics of high quality education systems, not least in relation to the need for a confident, creative and highly competent teaching profession. The twentyfirst century teacher will be more than an excellent practitioner, vital though that is, but will be a rounded educational professional committed to his or her own career-long professional learning. The selection and early formation of such teachers will be of critical importance but we will also need a culture of teacher education that encourages and supports professional confidence and growth. New and closer partnerships between schools and universities and collaborative cultures involving teachers and teacher educators should be important hallmarks of educational quality. For twenty-first century teachers to be fully effective, we also need to create the conditions that will allow them to deploy their skills flexibly in ways that meet the varying and changing needs of young people. A constrained environment with tight prescription and rigid accountability is unlikely to provide such conditions. Rather a dynamic culture of professional learning, distributive leadership and collegiality with clearly understood professional responsibilities should predominate. Accountability remains important but as a constructive driver of improvement rather than an engine of compliance and control. Graham Donaldson will explore the above issues in the context of developments in Scotland, Wales and Sweden. He will argue for a systemic approach to educational change built on a powerful mobilising vision of the purposes of school education and a strong teaching profession that has the freedom and responsibility to make that vision a reality.
Mentoring to support teacher learning Ellen Moir Founder and Chief Executive of the New Teacher Center, Santa Cruz, USA
Collaborative partnerships between new teachers and qualified, trained, and well-supported mentors can make the difference between a good year and an amazing year, freer of frustrations and ripe with successes. In this keynote address insights and research from over 25 years of working with teachers will be shared and the following key themes will be discussed: how well-prepared mentors stay at the cutting edge as they support the next generation of teachers; using mentorship to improve teacher’s practices that translate into improved outcomes for pupils; forging strong mentoring relationships to develop new teachers who are keen analysts of pupil learning and thoughtful, reflective strategists around their practice. The educational community will be called on to accept responsibility for beginning teacher and mentor success by forging strong relationships and creating sustainable structures and conditions that ensure such collaborative relationships are effective. It is these adult learning communities that not only accelerate the growth of beginning teachers, but serve as excellent vehicles for the lifelong learning and development of all teachers.
Partnerships in Teacher Education- Empty Rhetoric? Professor Kari Smith Norwegian University of Science and Technology/University of Bergen In the Call for this conference there is a quote from The Council of Europe’s Conclusions on Effective Teacher Education that “Teacher education programmes should draw on teachers' own experience and seek to foster cross-disciplinary and collaborative approaches, so that education institutions and teachers regard it as part of their task to work in cooperation with relevant stakeholders such as colleagues, parents and employers” (The Council of the European Union, 2014/C 183/05). Political decisions at the European and national levels strongly push in the direction of establishing partnerships between the practice field and higher education institutions, but there is less discussion of how this is to be done, and even less financial support for establishing, developing and sustaining partnerships in education. Moreover, does the academy form genuine partnerships with the practice field, or do we in higher education invite schools to be our partners on our premises? Is the vivid argumentation in favour of partnerships empty rhetoric or do we practice what is preached? In this presentation I will first present a brief overview of central partners for teacher education before critically elaborating on partnerships between higher education and the practice field.
Roundtable Discussion and Debate Programme Monday 24 August 2015 Chair:
14.30 – 15.45
Professor Graham Donaldson Teacher Education through Partnerships: Scottish Perspectives Ken Muir, Chief Executive, General Teaching Council for Scotland
Larry Flanagan, General Secretary, Educational Institute of Scotland Professor Kay Livingston, University of Glasgow Graeme Logan, Strategic Director, Education Scotland Maureen McKenna, Executive Director of Education Services, Glasgow City Council
Tuesday 25 August 2015 Chair:
14.30 – 16.00
Lucy Young Teacher Education through Collaboration: International Perspectives Thomas Pritzkow, Policy Officer, European Commission - Directorate-General for Education and Culture Supportive and reflective communities of practice Susan Douglas, Senior Adviser, Schools Team, British Council
Professor Lorraine Ling, La Trobe University, Australia
Roundtable Discussion and Debate Speaker Biographies
Kenneth B Muir Chief Executive General Teaching Council for Scotland Kenneth Muir was appointed Chief Executive of the General Teaching Council for Scotland in September 2013. Prior to that, he had worked in HMIE/Education Scotland for 18 years, having previously held various senior posts in schools and education authorities. Kenneth has held a number of senior management posts within HMIE/Education Scotland, At different times over almost 10 years as HM Chief Inspector, he has had responsibility for inspection and review in pre-school centres and nursery classes, primary and secondary schools, independent schools, pre- and post-registration of schools, school care and accommodation services, colleges, prison inspections and initial teacher education. In April 2012, he was appointed to Strategic Director (Schools) and Director of Inspection, Education Scotland as part of the creation of the new educational body, Education Scotland. Kenneth is the author of a number of Geography textbooks and is a regular speaker at national and international conferences. He has been a member of many national education groups, including the Curriculum for Excellence Management Board and the National Implementation Board, and he is a Non-Executive Director of the Scottish College for Educational Leadership. He chairs the Ministerial Group which is reviewing the first two years' experience of assessment within the new National Qualifications. He has a particular interest in the Finnish education system where he has worked with Helsinki University and the Finnish National Board of Education.
Thomas Pritzkow Policy Officer, Schools and educators European Commission, DG Education and Culture Thomas works at the European Commission's Directorate-General for Education and Culture where he is part of the team in charge of EU policies in the field of school education. His responsibilities are linked to policies in support of the teaching professions: teachers, school leaders and teacher educators. He is one of the co-ordinators of the ET2020 Working Group on Schools policy. Previously, he worked on the EU’s funding programmes for the schools sector (Comenius, Erasmus+). Thomas, who is from Freiburg, Germany, has a background in EU studies and geography and worked as an editor and press officer in the private sector before joining the European Commission in 2008.
Susan Douglas Senior Adviser, Schools Team, British Council
Since leaving headship in 2006, Susan has held a number of key roles with a wide variety of national and international organisations including the British Council, the National College for Teaching and Leadership (NCTL) and Teaching Leaders. Since 2012, she has also held the role of Chief Executive Officer of the Eden Academy Trust in West London. In her position as Senior Adviser at the British Council, Susan provides sector expertise and advice to a wide number of educational programmes involving ministries of education, school leaders, teachers and young people across approximately 60 countries worldwide. She currently has responsibility for leadership and professional development programmes and conferences in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa and works with headteachers and ministry officials throughout these regions. As CEO of the Eden Academy, Susan leads the board of a multi-Academy Trust in West London. Susan was instrumental in the founding and development of the academy which provides education for children aged 3-19 with a range of complex needs. The Academy currently comprises 5 schools and including a newly opened free school (January 2015). At NCTL, Susan has worked closely with the senior leadership team providing policy advice and strategic services.
Emeritus Professor Lorraine Ling La Trobe University, Australia Professor Ling was the foundation Executive Dean of Education at La Trobe University in Australia for the past ten years. She joined La Trobe University following a career as a teacher in metropolitan and rural areas. She has been in teacher education for over 30 years holding many roles as well as Executive Dean including Director of Educational Engagement, Director of Bendigo Campus, and has established teacher education programs across several regional and remote campuses in Victoria. She has worked as a World Bank consultant in Indonesia in conjunction with a project for the retraining of Indonesian teachers and teacher educators as well as participating in and directing projects involving delegations from Indonesia, Vietnam and China. She has undertaken educational consultancies in many countries and has led several partnership and collaboration activities both nationally and internationally. Lorraine is a past chairperson of the Research and Development Centre for Professional Development within the Association for Teacher Educators in Europe. She demonstrates a strong commitment to education and training in regional, metropolitan and offshore contexts and regularly contributes to debates and forums concerning education at a state, national and international policy level. Her research focuses on education policy and the policy construction process, values in education, higher education and teacher education, the changing nature of academic work, educational leadership and management, and networks and partnerships in education. Professor Ling has edited and authored several books and journal articles and is currently co-editing a book focusing on the Methods and Paradigms in Education Research.
Roundtable Discussion and Debate Speaker Abstracts
Teacher Education through Partnership: Scottish Perspectives Ken Muir Chief Executive, General Teaching Council for Scotland The report Teaching Scotland's Future, written by Graham Donaldson and published in 2011, pointed to a number of important developments in relation to improving initial teacher education. Amongst them was: A new concept of partnership among universities, local authorities, schools, national agencies and other services which embraces selection, course content and assessment, which sets practical experience in a much more reflective and inquiring culture and which makes optimum use of ICT for professional learning. This discussion and debate session will build on the morning keynote delivered by Prof. Graham Donaldson. It will comprise an initial scene-setting input that will use the developments in Scotland as a case study to explore system-level collaboration and partnership that is designed to produce a confident, creative and highly competent teaching profession. This will include the respective roles of ITE universities, local authorities, schools, professional associations, Education Scotland and GTC Scotland in initial teacher education; some of the key elements of the teacher education "infrastructure"; the challenges faced in establishing Donaldson's "new concept of partnership" in Scotland; and the benefits of a partnership approach, including the gains achieved and aspired for, and the impact on children and young people. After the scene-setting input, participants will be invited in their table groups to consider the following questions. To what extent is the Scottish approach to developing closer partnerships between schools and universities, and collaborative cultures involving teachers and teacher educators, similar/different to the experiences in your own country? What strengths would you identify from your own country's approach to developing closer partnerships and collaboration and what areas still need to be developed further? What are the limitations/barriers to greater partnership and collaboration in your own country? From their discussions, the table groups will be invited to draw up questions to put to the panel via post-its, the Twitter Wall and questions from the floor. The questions will be used to generate the discussion and debate session between participants and the panel comprising: Graeme Logan, Strategic Director, Education Scotland Kay Livingston, Professor of Educational Research, Policy and Practice, University of Glasgow Maureen McKenna, Executive Director of Education Services Glasgow City Council Larry Flanagan, General Secretary, Educational Institute of Scotland Kenneth Muir, Chief Executive, General Teaching Council for Scotland.
Teacher Education through Collaboration: International Perspectives Thomas Pritzkow Policy Officer, European Commission - Directorate-General for Education and Culture Under the Education and Training 2020 framework EU countries co-operate on policies to improve the quality and equity of education and training. They recognise the importance of high quality teaching that is based on adequate teacher education and attractive careers. The European Commission facilitates this co-operation between EU Member States. Currently, an EU Working Group on Schools Policy is looking into policies from across Europe that aim to improve Initial Teacher Education. Composed of experts from governments and social partners the group has conducted peer learning on the governance of Initial Teacher Education, on collaborative learning environments (from ITE to professional school practice) and on the role of ITE within a continuum of teacher education. A recurring element of this work has been the great potential of collaboration, both for the governance of ITE systems (involving governments, autonomous ITE providers and other stakeholders) and for teachers' work and professional development. Under the current mandate the Working Group has conducted three in-depth country focus workshops that each combined peer learning and peer review to explore policies and possibilities for improvement in 12-13 countries. Participants consider this process as a good example for collaborative learning between countries. The Working Group is going to summarise its findings in a final report ('Guide on Initial Teacher Education', due November 2015) combining examples from European countries with lessons for policy-makers. This keynote address will present the ongoing work of the group and some of the key findings that will be included in the final report. In addition, the following questions will be posed for the audience to discuss: The role of governments: steering, monitoring, decision-making: is there a correct balance for the governance of Initial Teacher Education? The role of stakeholders (ITE providers, teacher educators, student teachers, schools, teachers etc.): How to create system ownership and support capacity-building for high quality teacher education? How much can different countries and education systems learn from each other to improve teacher education?
Supportive and reflective communities of practice Susan Douglas Senior Adviser, Schools Team, British Council Every country in the world needs a high-quality, inclusive and equitable school system1 that supports young people to develop the knowledge, skills and values to live and work in a globalised economy and to contribute responsibly both locally and globally. However, our education systems worldwide, and the young people within them, face some daunting challenges. While many children remain out of school2, others are in school but not learning the basics3 or are intellectually disengaged from that schooling4. At the same time, employers are demanding higher-order cognitive skills from their workforce, as opposed to the traditional manual and lower-order cognitive skills. If economies are to be successful in the long term, there is growing consensus that school systems need to be clear about the purposes of education and focus on developing young people with core skills and competencies that relate to the world in which they are living (often known as 21st century skills or deep learning skills5) alongside academic mastery. Our educators therefore face challenging times in a rapidly changing environment. At the British Council, we believe that teachers can acquire new skills and improve their practical ability to teach through carefully planned teacher professional development which has a strong relationship with teachers’ practice, and which seeks to create supportive and reflective communities of practice – John Hattie’s collective efficacy6 – both nationally and internationally. Our programmes therefore: • encourage and create opportunities for teachers to collaborate together both nationally and internationally, to improve and sustain their learning after training has been concluded • develop teacher agency and leadership • encourage and support teachers to develop and share resources. Sharing is a critical component of learning communities7 and this structured professional collaboration between diverse groups that focuses on improved teaching ultimately benefits both teachers and young people. In addition, the following questions will be posed to the audience to discuss: How do we ensure that all schools have the opportunity to network with others to avoid some become isolated? What do we best support teachers to learn from each other when contexts vary so substantially?
1 2 3 4 5 6
UNESCO Sustainable Development Goal 4. UNESCO Global Monitoring Report 2012, 2013–14. 2013–14 EFA Global Monitoring Report: Teaching and Learning – Achieving Quality for All, DFID education position paper Improving learning, expanding opportunities Jenkins, L (2013) Wilms and colleagues, (2009) Student Disengagement Data. New Pedagogies For Deep Learning: A Global Partnership. Available online at: www.newpedagogies.info Hattie, J (2011) Visible Learning for Teachers London, Routledge.
Hord, SM (1997) Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory; Leo, T and Cowan, D (2000) Launching professional learning communities: Beginning actions. Issues About Change, Austin, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory;
Discussant: Emeritus Professor Lorraine Ling La Trobe University, Australia
Commentary and responses to the first two presentations will be made at the outset and will then lead into a contextualisation of collaboration and partnership in the current era as it impacts upon educators and provides fertile ground for research producing a firm evidence base for future policy decisions in teacher education. Collaboration, co-operation and partnerships in an era of supercomplexity such as currently exists, brings with it characteristics of instability, insecurity, unknown futures and fragility. As such partnerships and collaborations especially ones that cross borders of any kind either nationally or internationally, will also be likely to mirror these characteristics. However, an era of supercomplexity makes it all the more critical that collaboration occurs in order to increase our capacity to innovate, to be creative and to find novel ways to work in education as in other sectors. In this context collaborations increasingly develop as networks are composed of less traditional partners than may previously have been the case. We now see education systems across all sectors co-operating with each other more and building pathways between them, but also with other partners such as think tanks, philanthropy, consultants, corporate enterprises especially publishing giants, and the media. This is a period when the frames of reference we have traditionally used to guide our actions and decisions as educators are themselves shifting and contested. This context of collaboration and partnerships leads to the critical matter of how these supercomplex collaborations and partnerships can be organised and more importantly sustained when public funding ceases thus raising the need for the public-private collaborations into which education systems and institutions are entering more and more. As some guidance to what the governance of collaborations and partnerships in the current era needs to involve, the OECD report produced in 2013 entitled “Collaborating Across Borders – OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation” provides some important insights. These insights pertain especially to the criteria which need to be addressed for the governance of collaborative partnership activities. The key elements of governance which are amongst the most central considerations for collaborative ventures are outlined in this presentation as a basis for bringing together the thoughts and concepts addressed in the previous presentations. The following questions will be posed for discussion: What kinds of robust research can we as an association such as ATEE and as individuals undertake to provide a firm basis of evidence to inform policy regarding collaboration and innovation in teacher education? How can we best harness the potential of collaboration whilst at the same time celebrating difference and diversity, and respecting jurisdictional and legislative independence? What potential can we suggest be explored to create strong networks with non-traditional partners that are likely to strengthen and enhance teacher education and the policy which guides it?
Symposia Programme Monday 24 August 2015
11.45 – 13.00
Symposium Coordinator: Discussant: Title:
Pete Boyd Anja Swennen The Professional Learning of Teachers: collaboration, workplace learning, knowledge and power
Learning together: examining teacher trainees’ professional learning through collaborative projects using the lens of ‘communities of practice’ Elizabeth West - University of Cumbria
Teacher Researcher: Co-construction of knowledge through systematic inquiry Pippa Leslie - University of Cumbria
Teacher Researchers: power, knowledge and criticality in collaborative practitioner research Pete Boyd - University of Cumbria
Tuesday 25 August 2015
10.30 – 12.00
Symposium Coordinator: Discussant: Title:
Tom Godfrey Kay Livingston English Language Teacher Education Research in Turkey: A Collaborative Research Community reflects on the first 5 years.
Research Group 1:
Expectations of Stakeholders in Higher Education Sector from ELT Job Applicants. Sumru Akcan (Bogazici, İstanbul), Belgin Aydin (Anadolu, Eskişehir), Cendel Karaman (METU, Ankara), Sibel Korkmazgil (METU, Ankara), Alev Ozbilgin (METU, NCC), Golge Seferoglu (METU, Ankara), Ali Fuad Selvi (METU, NCC)
Research Group 2:
To investigate trainee teachers’ perceptions about the quality of the mentoring and induction programme in their school. John O’Dwyer (Bilkent University), Yasemin Kirkgoz (Cukorova University), Eda Ustunel (Mugla University), Tom Godfrey (International Training Institute).
Research Group 3:
A phenomenological study of an online peer mentoring experience on lesson planning: Prospective EFL teachers’ reflections during practice teaching. Sedat Akayoğlu (AIBU, Bolu), Anıl Rakıcıoğlu Söylemez (AIBU, Bolu), Zeynep Ölçü Dinçer (Erciyes, Kayseri), Gülden Taner (METU, Ankara), Gözde Balıkçı (METU, Ankara)
Symposia Programme Wednesday 26 August 2015
10.30 – 12.00
Symposium Coordinator: Discussant: Title:
Maxine Cooper Noella Mackenzie World Federation of Associations for Teacher Education
The World Federation of Associations of Teacher Education (WFATE) as a worldwide teacher education network, challenges and possibilities. Maxine Cooper (Federation University Australia), Asa Morberg (Högskolan i Gävle) Jane McCarthy, Frances Van Tassell, Mireia Montane, Joana Salazar, Joan Stewart, Paul Resta and others from the Members of the Board of WFATE.
Technological and Educational Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEeL programs in Higher Learning Institutions: breaking new frontiers. Elijah I. Omwenga, Peter W. Waiganjo, Robert O. Oboko, Christopher M. Gakuu, Harriet J. Kidombo, Joyce K. Mbwesa University of Nairobi
Symposium 1 The Professional Learning of Teachers: collaboration, workplace learning, knowledge and power Symposium Overview: Convener: Pete Boyd Discussant: Anya Swennen This symposium investigates collaborative learning by teachers. The three papers investigate three different cases of collaborative teacher projects. The first case is the development of student teachers as peer collaborators during their initial teacher education programme in the north of England. The second focuses on experienced teachers collaborating within a Primary school in London and pursuing their own practitioner inquiry projects related to the theme of growth mindset. The third case focuses on a collaborative research project involving a teacher researcher team from the early years provision in two neighbouring schools in Liverpool. The three papers investigate a range of collaborative working by teachers from planning and evaluation of teaching, through classroom inquiry to a school research and development project involving another school. All three papers adopt a sociocultural theoretical perspective in their attempts to understand the complex and contested dance around agency and structure played out by teachers within their workplace settings. The first paper, by Liz West, examines the introduction of student teachers to collaborative working and learning. This paper applies and evaluates the concept of ‘community of practice’ (Lave & Wenger 1991; Wenger 1998). The analysis shows that student teachers were able to form supportive ‘peer communities’ as they completed the required collaborative tasks. These peer communities overlapped with the well-established teacher communities of practice within the work placement school and in which the student teachers were only peripheral members. The second paper, by Pippa Leslie, investigates the professional learning of experienced teachers involved in their own independent collaborative practitioner inquiry projects supported by a university-based research mentor. The paper uses and evaluates Engestrom’s ideas on expansive learning and workplace interventions to understand the impact of the teacher research project and the development of a learning community. The focus of the teacher research inquiries was on growth mindset and this also provided an opportunity to consider the mindset of teachers in relation to their own professional learning. The third paper, by Pete Boyd, reflects on a more top down practitioner research project focused on adult-child interactions in two neighbouring early years settings in Liverpool. This paper focuses on power and knowledge and the possible domestication of practitioner research when it becomes focused on the evaluation of the techniques of schooling rather than daring to ask difficult questions about Education. This paper considers theoretical perspectives on the learning organisation, on knowledge power and on distributed leadership to reflect on and understand the contribution of the collaborative teacher researcher project to professional learning and school improvement. Together the three papers contribute to understanding of theory and practice in collaborative teacher learning with a particular focus on the potential of peer learning within teacher learning communities.
Learning together: examining teacher trainees’ professional learning through collaborative projects using the lens of ‘communities of practice’ Elizabeth West University of Cumbria This paper examines the perceptions of two trainee teachers regarding the learning derived from and through their participation in collaborative projects with their peers. The trainees followed a one-year secondary education postgraduate course within a UK university-based training programme as well as completing two school –based training placements, the latter representing two-thirds of the course. The collaborative projects were interspersed across the phases of university based training and the findings suggest that timing appears to have informed perceptions of the learning derived from the projects. The study uses theories of situated learning and ‘communities of practice’ presented by Lave and Wenger (1991) and Wenger(1998) to explain the process of learning through these projects and questions the degree to which these theoretical framework helps to explain learning within a community of peers. Short semi-structured interviews were conducted at the end of the course which sought to tease out the perceptions of the nature and process of learning and whether the learning derived from later projects differed from earlier projects. The research suggests that a ‘community of peers’ was seen as a key feature of the trainees’ learning from these projects, reinforcing and surfacing prior learning, and providing a window into practice experienced by their peers in other school departments. The power of dialogue with peers was noted as influential as was the opportunity to observe peers’ teaching and the reciprocal nature of advice and sharing practice. The findings suggest that the parity of the trainees’ positions in relation to a professional ‘community of practice’ was perceived by the trainees as informing their sense of identity and shaping their envisaged trajectory within the professional ‘community of practice’. This suggests that while Lave and Wenger’s(1991) ‘communities of practice’ offers a useful lens through which to explore situated learning, it may not fully reflect the dynamics and potential influence of peer to peer learning. It suggests that the distinctiveness of potential contributions to teacher education through peer to peer learning is worth further consideration both within different contexts for initial teacher education and through early career reflections on learning.
Teacher Researcher: Co-construction of knowledge through systematic inquiry Pippa Leslie University of Cumbria This paper presents findings from an inquiry developed within the context of a partnership between a primary school and university. It investigates the professional learning of experienced teachers involved in their own independent collaborative practitioner inquiry projects supported by a university-based research mentor. The purpose of the study was to focus on the exploration of strategies for the facilitation of teachers’ professional learning through sustained teacher research projects. This paper uses and evaluates Engestrom’s ideas on expansive learning and workplace interventions to understand the impact of the teacher research projects and the development of a learning community. The primary school commissioned the design and leadership of a five day Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programme with research mentoring provided by the partner university. The design remit for the CPD involved the combining of a whole staff teacher professional development day, early in the academic year, with the facilitation of a smaller practitioner research group throughout the year. The rapidly expanding inner city school is situated in the South of England and has 60 teaching staff. At the time of the study it was moving from a having a 1.5 form intake to a 5 form intake over two sites. The percentage of pupils from minority ethnic groups is significantly higher than the national average. A sociocultural theoretical perspective is adopted to explore the complex concepts of agency and structure within professional learning. The findings of the study highlight the interrelationship between different areas of professional learning and important roles that collaboration, reflection and enactment have in the development of strategies to facilitate teacher research. It suggests that the development of sustained, shared learning opportunities impacts on the effectiveness and sustainability of the strategies developed. This paper also suggests that there may be a relationship between the beliefs of the teacher researcher about their own abilities and the impact and sustainability of their professional learning. The teacher researcher inquiries focused on the development of Growth Mindset. The identification of person’s Mindset is based on an implicit theory about how their beliefs about their own intelligence and ability impact on their behaviours as a learner (Dweck 1998, 2006). Research suggests that Mindset may impact on both the development of self regulation and an individual’s engagement with learning that is challenging, which also provided an opportunity to consider the Mindset of teachers in relation to their own professional learning.
Teacher Researchers: power, knowledge and criticality in collaborative practitioner research Pete Boyd University of Cumbria
This paper reports on a case study teacher researcher project that involved early years teachers from two neighbouring inner city schools and used video recorded clips of classroom practice as the primary data source. The research and development project was commissioned by the head teachers of the two schools and the teacher researchers were supported by a university based researcher mentor. The paper questions the distribution and influence of power and knowledge within the practitioner research project. From a pragmatic school leadership perspective it asks 'who is the learning organisation for?' From a more philosophical perspective it asks 'how is knowledge used within the project and its educational setting to define and control power?' The research project was focused on teacher strategies for developing learning conversations with four to six year old children. The research team developed an analytical framework based on a wellestablished body of public knowledge including learning theory, research evidence, professional guidance and policy. This paper reports on issues of power and knowledge arising from the project, including the value placed on different ways of knowing, the impact of classroom video, the relationships between different stakeholders and the influence of contextual factors including the local community (Kemmis 2006; Bolam et al. 2005; Fenwick 2001; Haslam et al. 2014). Overall we found that classroom video has considerable power to drive professional learning. We argue that a carefully developed and facilitated collaborative practitioner research approach provides an effective framework to nurture that learning as a contribution to school improvement. We also became aware of the need to adopt a critical stance and ask deeper questions about education, rather than focus only merely evaluating the techniques of schooling. The level of ownership of this project by the teacher researchers involved is a contentious issue and it seems debatable if meaningful ownership by teachers is possible of a top-down school inquiry project, even if it is conducted within the ethical framework of a practitioner research project.
Symposium 2 English Language Teacher Education Research in Turkey: A Collaborative Research Community reflects on the first 5 years Convener: Tom Godfrey Discussant: Kay Livingston, University of Glasgow The three research papers in this Symposium represent the output of the first five years of evolution of the collaborative research community ELTER (English Language Teacher Education Research) which was formed by a group of Teacher Educators from a range of institutions in 2011. ELTER aims to contribute to the improvement of the overall quality of English language teacher education in Turkey by encouraging effective teacher education practices. Turkey has a shortfall in qualified teachers and this along with a highly centralized, regimented structure, and a lack of local and institutional autonomy creates a need for reform and innovation in teacher education. The system at present fails to promote teacher development indeed, on the contrary it encourages ‘hoarding’ of ideas and resources rather than knowledge sharing and collaboration across institutional boundaries. It emerged from the initial ELTER Colloquiums that exchanging knowledge collaboratively entails rhizomatic structures that grow exuberantly and proliferate in unforeseen ways. Despite being united by a common purpose, it was apparent that there were complexities of concepts dividing the discourse between the state and private sectors. The interaction across environments presented in these papers demonstrate the opportunities for negotiating meanings as well as the challenges of tackling divergent discourses. The four papers reflect this diversity. Themes: The three papers as a whole build up a picture of teacher education in Turkey. The first two papers contemplate a broader view by eliciting empirical data to explore stakeholders’ perceptions in an attempt to build a picture of existing conceptions in order to argue for change on a national level. They highlight the role of school administrators (group 1) and the interconnections between the mentor, school and school administration in a teacher’s experiences during their practicum (group 2). Both studies take as their initial premise that in order to promote change the perceptions of key stakeholders and the influences of context need to be addressed. The third paper focuses on specific features of teacher education practice with the aim of improvement. Group 3 reports on a research project designed to organize an online peer mentoring network to guide prospective EFL teachers to prepare and implement lesson plans throughout their practice teaching experience. All three papers, despite differences of focus and methodology, mirror an epistemology advocating reflective practice, both as researchers attempting to explore their environment but also as a methodology for understanding the ways teachers conceptualize problems and interventions. Another commonality across the four papers is their over-riding purpose to serve teachers’ professional needs and encourage change. Theoretical Framework and relevance to the conference theme: All three papers are case studies of collaborative research. The collaboration demonstrates sharing of both data and decision-making. The groups represent partnerships over several institutions that encompass both the state and private sectors. There is an interdependency in terms of establishing common goals and collective action. In these areas ELTER provides a template for the Council of Europe’s call for enhanced cooperation, partnership and networking in keeping with the conference theme. It is hoped that through the skillful guidance of the ‘discussant’ the challenges and constraints involved in collaborative research will be deliberated and the experiences of ELTER can be helpful in informing other professional learning communities. Demystifying Language Teacher Recruitment Process in Higher Education: 35
Views of Educational Leaders Sumru Akcan (Bogazici, İstanbul), Belgin Aydin (Anadolu, Eskişehir), Cendel Karaman (METU, Ankara), Sibel Korkmazgil (METU, Ankara), Alev Ozbilgin (METU, NCC), Golge Seferoglu (METU, Ankara), Ali Fuad Selvi (METU, NCC) Current discussions in educational research often emphasize the relationship between the teacher quality and student achievement. Considering the importance of having a strong workforce, schools need to hire high-quality teachers from the pool of candidates interested in these positions. A considerable portion of the ELT graduates join the teacher workforce in schools of Foreign Language in state and private universities. Therefore, it is imperative to uncover the expected qualities/competencies of ELT professionals by the stakeholders. Focusing on the views of school administrators related to teacher recruitment processes and qualifications, this qualitative case study explores how qualified/entry-level ELT professional identity is constructed in nine institutions of higher education in Turkey. Our sample included three institutions from each of the three largest cities in Turkey – Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. We conducted semi-structured interviews with the administrators who had roles in teacher hiring processes. Out thematic analysis of the data revealed elements related to five emerging categories. These were (1) language proficiency, (2) openness for professional development and self-reflection, (3) self-confidence, (4) critical thinking and intellectual curiosities, and (5) pedagogical knowledge. Demystifying English teacher recruitment procedures for universities, our study also has implications for pre-service language teacher education. It is our hope that recruiters, teacher candidates and teacher educators can benefit from reflecting on these findings.
Collaboration for Improvement - Researching across Institutional Boundaries – the Practicum Role in Training Teachers for the Turkish School System John O’Dwyer (Bilkent University), Yasemin Kirkgoz (Cukorova University), Eda Ustunel (Mugla University), Tom Godfrey (International Training Institute). Context: Effective practice for postulants to the teaching profession depends crucially on the success of the practicum, itself dependent on collaboration between schools, mentors, and training institutions. The study reports on a collaborative research project between teacher educators working across institutional boundaries from different education faculties in Turkey. Research Approach/Questions: The study investigates trainees’ perceptions of the quality of their practicum experience in the collaborating institutions. The questions are: What factors determine novice teachers’ perceptions of their practicum experience? What role do mentors and institutions play in contributing to that experience? What explains novice teachers’ experiences? Theoretical Framework: The study’s epistemology recognises novice teacher identity is constructed through experience. The impact of the practicum on trainees’ professional learning is explored and analysed using an induction measure to gather perceptions of the mentor/induction process. Trainees’ experiences are then grounded through interview data to confirm or extend previous findings. Research Methodology: The Langdon Induction and Mentoring Survey (LIMS), developed to survey effective induction and mentoring (2012), was adapted for the research. 250 trainees from four separate education institutions completed a 53-item survey on their experience, and on their mentor’s and the school administration’s roles in their practicum. Statistical techniques were applied to the data: MANOVA; comparison of means; and factor analysis. In addition, selected trainees were interviewed and the data analysed qualitatively using content analysis. Findings: Tentative findings from the first cohort of data (150 analysed) show significant differences between graduate and undergraduate practicum experiences, and between different schools. Significant differences also appear in a comparison of means of the three dependent variable categories, viz. trainees’ own experience; mentor support; and institutional support. Further data are currently being analysed and interviews undertaken. Content analysis is expected to provide a rich picture to help account for variability between statistically significant findings. Implications for teacher education: The quality of the practicum in Turkey gives cause for concern and collaborative findings will strengthen the argument for change at a national level. Relevance to conference theme: A learning community set up three years ago amongst a group of interested teacher educators in Turkey established this collaborative research with a view to enhancing networking and cooperation for professional improvement. Bibliography. Langdon, F.J. et al (2012) Uncovering perceptions of the induction and mentoring experience: developing a measure that works. Teacher Development Vol. 16, No.3 399 – 414. 37
A phenomenological study of an online peer mentoring experience on lesson planning: Prospective EFL teachers’ reflections during practice teaching Sedat Akayoğlu (AIBU, Bolu), Anıl Rakıcıoğlu Söylemez (AIBU, Bolu), Zeynep Ölçü Dinçer (Erciyes, Kayseri), Gülden Taner (METU, Ankara), Gözde Balıkçı (METU, Ankara) The study aims to report on a research project designed to organize an online peer mentoring network to guide prospective EFL teachers to prepare and implement lesson plans throughout their practice teaching experience. The online peer mentoring network will be utilized among three universities offering EFL teacher education programs in Turkey. The participants will be senior prospective EFL teachers attending the Practice Teaching course. The aim of this phenomenological study is two-fold: exploring the prospective teachers’ perspectives on peer collaboration for lesson planning and their attitudes towards using technology for collaborative professional development. The research questions for this study are identified as follows: 1. How do the PTs organize the lesson planning processes through an online peer mentoring experience within the Practice Teaching course? a. What aspects of lesson planning do PTs focus and reflect on their and peers’ practices throughout the practice teaching course? b. What challenges and benefits do the PTs reflect on throughout the technology integrated professional collaboration experience in practice teaching? 2. To what extent is participating in an online peer network throughout the Practice Teaching course effective for professional learning of PTs in terms of using technology for professional collaboration? Using qualitative data from self-reports, focus-group interviews and contents of the feedback provided by the peers for the lesson plans; the online peer mentoring experiences of the prospective EFL teachers will be examined and analyzed through content analysis. In addition to this, participants’ attitudes towards using technology for professional development will be explored through surveys. Possible findings will indicate the extent to which prospective EFL teachers have the chance to recognize the significance of supporting and transforming the professional learning processes through collaborating with others and reflecting on their teaching practices. In addition, prospective EFL teachers will reflect on the lesson planning process and explore the necessary steps and alternative ways of implementing a lesson plan. Another possible finding will be the prospective EFL teachers’ appreciation and embracement of multidimensional practices of professional learning through collaboration using technology. The challenges, limitations and opportunities of the proposed online peer network will be highlighted. Based on the results of the study, implications for EFL teacher education programs will be suggested.
Symposium 3 “The World Federation of Associations of Teacher Education (WFATE) as a worldwide teacher education network, challenges and possibilities.” Asa Morberg, Maxine Cooper, Jane McCarthy, Frances Van Tassell, Mireia Montane, Joana Salazar, Joan Stewart, Paul Resta, Elijah Omwenga, University of Nairobi, Kenya and others from the Members of the Board of WFATE WFATE aims to encourage active dialogue and international exchange of research and practice in initial and in-service teacher education. WFATE’s members come from a wide variety of countries worldwide. As a result, WFATE is a multicultural association with a wide expertise on the various fields of teacher education and in service learning. WFATE tries to increase the co-operation between individuals and institutions involved in Teacher Education by promoting international networks. WFATE supports all kinds of Partnership and Collaborative Learning. Teacher Education through collaborative partnerships is one of the themes of the conference. A symposium will be arranged to discuss the development of WFATE, the organisation itself. Looking backwards? What can we see by looking at WFATE today? The future is nothing that just comes; its members create the future for WFATE. What future do we want for WFATE? What kind of development is desirable? The symposium is arranged by Members WFATE Board to give an opportunity to discuss the challenges and possibilities of WFATE. The future is the most important perspective to view. The symposium starts with a short historical presentation on WFATE as a network. The symposium continues with WFATE as a network today. The final part is the future for ATEE as an important European network. What scenarios can be seen? What scenarios do we want to see? How can we support a desirable development? How can we do that? What are the actors working for the future? The Structure of the WFATE Symposium is planned to be: Introduction to WFATE WFATE short historical background WFATE today WFATE in the future Summary
Technological and Educational Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEeL programs in Higher Learning Institutions: breaking new frontiers Elijah I. Omwenga (University of Nairobi), Peter W. Waiganjo (University of Nairobi), Robert O. Oboko (University of Nairobi), Christopher M. Gakuu (University of Nairobi), Harriet J. Kidombo, (University of Nairobi) Joyce K. Mbwesa (University of Nairobi) The demand for university education has continued to grow and hence there has been a phenomenal expansion in enrolments, which is not matching the expansion of facilities. For instance, several reports in Kenya highlight the importance of affordable, accessible and quality education through elearning platforms to achieve education for all as envisaged by the Millennium Development Goals. As institutions of higher learning gear up to offer their academic programmes by Distance Education and eLearning (DEeL) mode of instructional delivery, there are concerns from stakeholders about the quality of the diplomas and degree awards. This can be attributed to inadequate quality assurance standards to assess the quality and value of DEeL academic programmes. The aim of this study was to identify, develop, validate and implement a quality indicator set for ICT-supported distance education (aka DEeL) in the East African region. Based on an established set of indicators, the research developed a valid and reliable instrument to monitor the quality of ICT-supported higher education programmes. The implementation of the indicator set, its instrument and their definitions will enhance the management of higher education as offered through the DEeL mode. A problem tree analysis approach to define the problem, the causes and effects and how these affect the different stakeholders, namely, the Learner, Institution, Employer and Government was used. The study employed a cross-sectional mixed method approach to collect data. We envisage that this study will vindicate the cross-cutting efforts in terms of training, course materials production and research interests in the area of adaptive programming using AI techniques, learner support systems and adoption of ICT-supported Distance Education.
Publishing Workshop Wednesday 26 August 2015
10.30 – 12.00
Gilbert Scott Randolph Room
Workshop: How to Get Published with Routledge Presenter: Catherine Watt, Managing Editor, Education Journals, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group This presentation from Routledge offers advice to authors on how to best prepare papers for the journal peer review process, and how to give papers the best possible chance of progressing through peer review to publication. The presentation includes guidance on how to choose the correct journal to submit your paper to, how to tailor your article for your chosen journal, and do’s and don’ts of manuscript preparation. This is an opportunity for authors at any stage in their academic career to come and find out about the common pitfalls authors make when submitting their work and how to avoid them, in order to give their papers the best possible chance of success. There will be an opportunity to answer any questions from the audience at the end of the presentation.
Parallel Sessions Programme
Monday 24th August 2015
Time: 11.45 -13.00
Chairperson: Jolana Ronkora Theme: Primary and Pre-primary Education Paper Title The Competence of Learning to Learn. From 001 University to Primary Education Classrooms 002
Preparing student teachers and teachers for the multicultural school and pre-school through international practicum and collaboration.
The Experiences of Early Childhood Educators working with Children of Ethiopian Background.
Room: Stair Building Room 222 Author(s) Paula Mayoral - Ramon Llull University; Eva Liesa - Ramon Llull University Sissel Tove Olsen - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences; Kari Bratland - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences; Anikke Hagen - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences Esther Firstater - Gordon College of Education; Laura Sigad - Oranim Academic College of Education; Tanya Frankel _ Gordon College of Education
Chairperson: Kerryn McCluskey Theme: Secondary Teacher Education Paper Title Establishing a Learner Perspective on Cross004 Institutional Collaboration and Module Delivery in the Context of Irish Initial Teacher Education (ITE). Cultural dynamics of teacher education programme 005 design and enactment: dilemmas in developing 'good' teaching. Contradictions in the Theory of Student Teacher 006 Learning.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 253
Chairperson: György Mészáros Theme: Education for Social Justice, Equity and Diversity Paper Title Power relations, collaboration and construction of a 007 learning community through participatory research in a teacher education curriculum development project.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 356
Who's in control? Research Collaboration with Teachers and Power Relations.
Negotiating power relations in SOLARbrunn: Initiating citizen science in a Research & Education cooperation for the development of a regional energy concept.
Author(s) Susan Rogers _ Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology; Jarlath Lydon _ Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology Paul Conway - University of Limerick; Rosaleen Murphy _ University College Cork Alaster Douglas - University of Roehampton
Author(s) György Mészáros - Etelka Busi Eötvös Loránd University; Attila H. Horváth - Etelka Busi Eötvös Loránd University; Nóra Rapos - Etelka Busi Eötvös Loránd University Monique Leygraaf - University of Applied Sciences iPabo; Jeroen Waveren - University of Applied Sciences iPabo Ilse Bartosch - University of Vienna; Anna Streissler - Umweltdachverband/Forum Umweltbildung; Viktor Schlosser University of Vienna
Chairperson: Maria Machado Vilaça Theme: Culture, Qualify of Life and Citizenship Paper Title Teachers’ use of representations for teaching and 010 learning: Cultural Implications.
Room: Stair Building Room 227 Author(s) Bruce Waldrip - University of Tasmania; Sutopo Sutopo - University of Malang
Professional Identities of Portuguese In-service Teacher Educators in Health Promotion and Education.
Maria Teresa Machado Vilaça - University of Minho
Health and Values Promotion through Partnerships and Collaborative Learning Communities - costeffective policy and administrative approach in Teachers’ Education.
Olena Shyyan - Lviv State University of Physical Culture; Iryna Turchyk - Drogobych State Pedagogical University; Natalya Sorokolit - Lviv In-service Teacher Training Institute; Yuriy Nakonechnyy Lviv In-service Teacher Training Institute; Natalya Zharska - Lviv State University of Physical Culture; Yevgeniya Slyvka - Lviv State University of Physical Culture; Oleksandra Khudoba - Lviv Regional Institute of Public Administration
Chairperson: Esmahan Agaoglu Theme: Educational Leadership and Management Paper Title Teacher leadership and learning networks: findings 013 from a 3-year project. 014
Getting a Foot in the Door: Helping Education Students "Kick It" During Interviews.
Partnership and Collaboration in Teacher Education: A Critical Reflection.
Chairperson: Laurinda Leite Theme: Science and Mathematics Education Maths Paper Title Investigating Irish Prospective Primary Teachers’ 016 Awareness of Applications of the Ratio Concept: Implications for Teacher Education.
Room: Gilbert Scott Turnbull Room Author(s) Maria A. Flores - University of Minho; Cristina Parente - University of Minho Robyn Huss - University of West Georgia; Christie Johnson - University of West Georgia; Judy Butler - University of West Georgia Carol O'Sullivan - Mary Immaculate College Room: Gilbert Scott Randolph Room Author(s) Elizabeth Oldham - Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin; Patsy Stafford Maynooth University; Valerie O'Dow Marino Institute of Education
Ratio Project Continued.
Elsa Price - Faulkner University
Investigating representations of ratio among highschool mentors & teachers involved in mathematics teacher training in Israel: implications for teacher education.
Batya Amit - Levinsky College for Education
Chairperson: David Parmigiani Theme: Teacher Education and Digital Technology Paper Title Between smartphones and tablets: improving teacher 019 education programmes through mobile devices.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 355 Author(s) Davide Parmigiani - University of Genoa; Marta Giusto - University of Genoa
Using partnerships in initial teacher education: A model for growing, defining and guiding universityschool partnerships.
Linda Hobbs - Deakin University; Mellita Jones - Australian Catholic University; Coral Campbell - Deakin University
Think, Code, Succeed: The Programming Studio as a games-based collaboration.
Pamela Cowan - Queen's University Belfast; Elizabeth Oldham - Trinity College Dublin; Ann Fitzgibbon - Trinity College Dublin
Chairperson: Miroslava Cernochova Theme: Teacher Education and Digital Technology Paper Title Video pedagogy and competence based teacher 022 education: Categorizing the pedagogical use of video - practices in competence based education. 023
The dynamics and challenges of collaborative task development.
Creating Collaborative Learning Communities Through Global Partnerships.
Chairperson: Joan Stephenson Theme: Curricula in Teacher Education Paper Title Expert in Teaching - IRIS Connect. 025
Room: Stair Building Room 230 Author(s) Janne Länsitie - Oulu University of Applied Sciences; Juha Pousi - Oulu University of Applied Sciences John De Cecco - University of the West of Scotland, Ton Koet - Universiteit van Amsterdam , Lindsay Dombrowski University of the West of Scotland Sirkku Männikkö Barbutiu - Stockholm University Room: Gilbert Scott Room 251 Author(s) Annemette Heine Wullum - VIA University College; Frits Hedegaard Eriksen - VIA University College
Student Teachers’ Perception of Teaching Competences and Its Impact on Their Readiness for The Job.
Zulaikha Mohamed - Ghent University; Martin Valcke - Ghent University; Bram De Wever - Ghent University
Multicultural Education Programmes in Initial Teacher Education in England: The Case Studies of SCITT (School-centred Initial Teacher Training).
Yoko Morito - University of Tokyo
Chairperson: David McMurtry Theme: In-Service learning and the Development of Practice Paper Title The Role of the General Teaching Council for 028 Scotland in encouraging Teacher Education through Collaborative Partnerships. 029
Conversation patterns in mentoring conversations during internship in initial teacher education (ITE).
Educating the phronetic teacher.
Chairperson: Karl Attard Theme: Professional Development of Teachers Paper Title Partnerships and Professional Learning: Navigating 031 the Unknown.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 250 Author(s) Tom Hamilton - General Teaching Council for Scotland; Vikki Robertson - General Teaching Council for Scotland Sissel Østrem - University of Stavanger; Nina Helgevold - University of Stavanger; Gro Næsheim-Bjørkvik - University of Stavanger Cristian Simoni - University of Padua
Room: Gilbert Scott Melville Room Author(s) Lorraine Ling - La Trobe University; Noella Mackenzie - Charles Sturt University
An Exploration of the Impact of Teachers' Ontological and Epistemological Beliefs on Approaches to Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Middle Years' Program at the International School of Amsterdam.
Mary Kelly - The International School of Amsterdam
Mentoring beginning teachers: exploring the impact on the mentors’ professional development.
Kay Livingston - University of Glasgow
Chairperson: Leah Shagrir Theme: Professional Development of Teacher Educators Paper Title What Do Participants Learn from Participating in a 034 Research Group?
Getting to the Crux of a Creative Collaborative Academic Colloquium.
Processes in movement: A promising "tango" between the Community of Policy-Makers and the Community of Teacher Educators.
Room: Gilbert Scott ForeHall Room Author(s) Quinta Kools - Fontys Teacher Education Institute; Bob Koster - Fontys Teacher Education Institute; Tine Béneker - Fontys Teacher Education Institute, Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke - Fontys Teacher Education Institute Gaele Macfarlane - University of Glasgow; Hilal Atli - Bilkent University; Sally Hirst Istanbul Training Institute; Bahar Gun Izmir University of Economics Michal Golan - MOFET Institute
Tuesday 25th August 2015
10.30 – 12.00
Chairperson: Birger Brevik Theme: Technical and Vocational Teacher Education Paper Title From campus to Online Learning -Experience from 037 the first year of online training in Technical and Vocational Education and Training.
Room: Stair Building Room 227 Author(s) Steinar Karstensen - Oslo and Akershus University College
Subject content of the study program and the overall competence to teach as technical and vocational teacher.
Birger Brevik - Oslo and Akershus University College; Kurt Einar Stokke Oslo and Akershus University College
TVTE Indigenous knowledge in the light of a social theory of learning and Vocational Teacher training in Uganda
Arne Ronny Sannerud - Oslo and Akershus University College
How profitable is it to use pedagogical improvisation in order to enhance diversity in teacher practice?
Åse Nedrebø Bruvik - Oslo and Akershus University College; Sidsel Sandtroen Høgskolen - Oslo and Akershus University College
Chairperson: Monique Leygraff Theme: Education for Social Justice, Equity and Diversity Paper Title Action research and learning schools with focus on 041 "Early intervention in schools to prevent learning difficulties".
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 356 Author(s) Karin Roernes - University of Tromsoe; Vivian Nilsen - University of Tromsoe
What kind of intercultural competences do the students bring in to the intercultural class?
Vibeke Solbue - Bergen University College; Ingrid Helleve - University of Bergen
The writing buddy-scheme at two teacher education institutions – (how) does it work?
Dialogues about poverty: meeting the diverse needs of student teachers.
Geir Luthen - Østfold University College; Solveig Strangstadstuen - Norwegian University of Life Sciences; Bente Klevenberg - Norwegian University of Life Sciences; Kristin Solli - Østfold University College Hanneke Jones - Newcastle University
Chairperson: Esmahan Agaoglu Theme: Educational Leadership and Management Paper Title The Reflections of Teacher Educators Related to 045 Teachers’ Professional Learning Needs.
Room: Gilbert Scott Randolph Room Author(s) Esmahan Agaoglu - Anadolu University
The effect of transformational leadership on educational outcomes: An overview of research.
Maria Eliophotu Menon - University of Cyprus
Development and Embedding of the Horizontal Learning System into the Hungarian Institutional System of Pedagogical Services.
Instructional Leadership of successful school principals and their support for PD of Teachers.
László Horváth - Eötvös Loránd University; Tünde Simon - University of Szeged; Anikó Kovács - Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development Beyza Himmetoğlu - Anadolu University; Coşkun Bayrak - Anadolu University 47
Chairperson: Mireia Montané Theme: Global Education Paper Title Partnerships for Innovation in Teacher Education. 049 From Local Collaborative Learning Communities (the COMconeixer project in Catalonia, Spain) to international networks (the KBIA project in the USA). An investigation of student teachers’ professional 050 development following a teaching placement in Southern Africa. 051 052
Global citizenship and teacher education: transformative learning through international practicum. Enriching education with Intelligent Physical Arts: CirSchool European project. Moving beyond 21st Century Learning?
Chairperson: Elizabeth Oldham Theme: Science and Mathematics Education Maths Paper Title In-service science teacher education: an analysis of 053 the diversity of courses available in the north of Portugal. 054 055
Teacher and student multi-modal reasoning about representations to develop students’ conceptual understandings in science. Current teaching standards and norms for the natural sciences in Serbian primary and secondary schools.
Three Partite Co-operation” Supporting Science Teacher Education.
Chairperson: Elsa Price Theme: Science and Mathematics Education Maths Paper Title Children’s Mathematical Reasoning: Scottish Schools 057 and the state of play.
Room: Stair Building Room 222 Author(s) Mireia Montané - Col·legi de Doctors i Llicenciats de Catalunya; Joana Salazar University of Balearic Islands; Sandra Lund - Knowledge Building In Action Gerd Wikan - Hedmark University College; Jørgen Klein - Hedmark University College Jørgen Klein - Hedmark University College; Gerd Wikan - Hedmark University College Mireia Montané - Col·legi de Doctors i Llicenciats de Catalunya; Ian Smith – Albert & Friends Circus; Trea Owens – Albert & Friends Circus; Anna Locchi - III Circolo Didactico; Michele Paoletti - III Circolo Didactico; Thanassis Karalis University of Patras Room: Gilbert Scott Room 355 Author(s) Laurinda Leite - University of Minho; Luís Dourado - University of Minho; Sofia Morgado - University of Minho Bruce Waldrip - University of Tasmania; Vaughan Prain - La Trobe University Milan Stojkovic - Friedrich Schiller University Jena; Vanja Manitasevic - The Regional Teaching Training Centre; Jelena Andjelkovic - The Regional Teaching Training Centre Ari Myllyviita - Viikki Teacher Training School of University of Helsinki Room: Gilbert Scott Room 253 Author(s) Andrew Gallacher - University of Glasgow; Helen Martin - University of Aberdeen
Math Bubble Project – teachers’ peer tutoring as a basis for changes on teaching elementary school mathematics in Poland.
Malgorzata Zytko - University of Warsaw
Using argumentative activities to assist Taiwanese primary teachers to teach mathematical reasoning. Limitations in mathematical and pedagogical content knowledge among first and second-grade in-service and pre-service mathematics teachers.
Tsu-Nan Lee - The University of Melbourne Juhaina Awawdeh Shahbari - Al-Qasemi Academic College of Education; Amal Sharif-Rasslan - Al-Qasemi Academic College of Education; Shaker Rasslan - Al-Qasemi Academic College of Education
Chairperson: Davide Parmigiani Theme: Teacher Education and Digital Technology Paper Title DIY philosophy in school practice and in teacher 061 education.
Social Presence in Digital Learning Environments.
A Developmental Model for introducing the E-Portfolio methodology. Teacher Education Students’ attitudes towards the use of information and communication technology: Some Implications for Teacher Education in Croatia.
Chairperson: Joan Stephenson Theme: Curricula in Teacher Education Paper Title Lesson Study within Initial Teacher Education – 065 towards a European paradigm?
Room: Stair Building Room 230 Author(s) Miroslava Černochová - Charles University; Tomas Jerabek - Charles University; Petra Vankova - Charles University Monica Johannesen - Oslo and Akershus University College; Leikny Øgrim - Oslo and Akershus University College Philip Bonanno - University of Malta Ivana Batarelo Kokić - University of Split; Sandra Car - University of Zagreb; Kristina Klišanin - University of Split Room: Gilbert Scott Room 251 Author(s) Deborah L S Larssen - University of Stavanger; Wasyl Cajkler - University of Leicester
Research-based teacher education: Learning through, and about, research and inquiry.
Hilde Afdal - Østfold University College; Kari Spernes - Østfold University College
The role and impact of professional communities on the development of initial teacher education curriculum, concerning particularly the teaching practice.
Nóra Rapos - Eötvös Loránd University; György Mészáros - Eötvös Loránd University
Contributing to the achievement of essential skills for teacher profession in a university teacher pre-service course.
Maurizio Betti – University of Bologna; Laura Tartufoli – University of Bologna; Andrea Ciani – University of Bologna; Stefania Lovece – University of Bologna
Chairperson: David McMurtry Theme: In-Service learning and the Development of Practice/ Secondary Teacher Education Paper Title Powerful partnerships in Australia: university, public 069 institution, primary schools and pre-schools.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 250 Author(s) Noella MacKenzie - Charles Sturt University
Teaching without a specialisation: Policy climate framing potential for learning.
Teachers’ Professional Learning Activities in Hungarian Schools.
Linda Hobbs - Deakin University; Colleen Vale - Deakin University; Chris Speldewinde - Deakin University; Zahra Zahra Parvanehnezhadshirazian Deakin University Erika Kopp - Eötvös Loránd University; Ágnes Vámos - Eötvös Loránd University
Collegial Learning as a Tool in Teacher Educators’ Professional Development.
Ruth Serlin - The MOFET Institute; Michal Golan - The MOFET Institute
Chairperson: Kristina Martensson Theme: Professional Development of Teachers Paper Title Teacher Evaluation and Teaching Standards - a Model 073 from Scotland. 074 075 076
“I had my briefcase and there was coffee”: How can we realise the Scottish vision of teacher career-long professional learning? Teachers and principals’ perceptions about the new policy on teacher evaluation: Findings from research carried out in Portugal. Teacher education and Teacher Standards – how teacher agency can be developed through collaborative partnerships between employers, universities and government.
Chairperson: Professional Development of Teachers Theme: Karl Attard Paper Title Asking the right questions: helping prospective 077 teachers become reflective practitioners.
Room: Gilbert Scott Melville Room Author(s) Tom Hamilton - General Teaching Council for Scotland; Jacqueline Morley - General Teaching Council for Scotland Anna Beck - University of Glasgow Maria A Flores - University of Minho Misty Adoniou - University of Canberra; Mary Gallagher - Australian Catholic University
Room: Gilbert Scott Turnbull Room Author(s) Karl Attard - University of Malta
Teacher education and the school context matter for beginning teachers’ professional learning in DI.
Debbie De Neve - Ghent University; Geert Devos - Ghent University
Inter-organizational learning communities: challenges for professional emancipation.
Isabel Fernandes - University of Minho
Emotions and power to teach.
Säde-Pirkko Nissilä - Oulu University of Applied Sciences; Marja Koukkari - Oulu University of Applied Sciences; Asko Karjalainen - Oulu University of Applied Sciences; Pirkko Kepanen - Oulu University of Applied Sciences
Chairperson: Quinta Kools Theme: Professional Development of Teacher Educators Paper Title The ‘untidy’ world of teacher educator collaboration. 081
Room: Gilbert Scott Forehall Room
The professional development of teacher educators in the context of vocational education!
Marije Veraa - Fontys University of Applied Sciences
Teacher Educators as Curriculum Developers: Exploration of a Professional Role.
Marina Bouckaert - Fontys University of Applied Sciences
One of life’s most precious gifts: time or scope?
Marieke van Asten (Quinta Kools) - Fontys University of Applied Sciences; Quinta Kools - Fontys Teacher Education Institute
Author(s) David Powell - University of Huddersfield
Wednesday 26th August 2015
10.30 – 12.00
Chairperson: Icara Holmesland Theme: Research Observatory Paper Title “Too hot, too cold or just right’: Modeling teacher 085 supply, retention, and the Goldilock’s principle.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 356 Author(s) Paul Conway - University of Limerick; Ray Lynch - University of Limerick
Hope and Zest: Important Predictors of Teacher Satisfaction.
Polona Gradišek - University of Ljubljana
Recognition and validation of knowledge in collaborative learning communities of educators and training providers.
Icara Holmesland - Oslo and Akershus University College; Leif Erik Eriksson NTI-Multilateral Monitoring Management
Discourse theory: Methodological approach to VETteachers´ writing practices.
Ellen Beate Hellne-Halvorsen - Oslo and Akershus University College
Chairperson: Elsa Price Theme: Primary and Pre-primary education Paper Title Learning through and for Practice, a radical reform of 089 the concept and practice of student teacher professional experience premised on a 'cognitive apprenticeship' model and deeply embedded in a strong collaborative partnership model.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 251 Author(s) Rosa Murray - University of Edinburgh
Cluster – the creative technique with activities of preschool children.
Adelina Hajrullahu - Kadri Zeka University; Minavere Rashiti - Kadri Zeka University
Teacher Education through Collaborative Partnerships: The Service Component.
Elsa Price - Faulkner University
Enlisting support - one hundred years on: Learning through place in a collaborative World War One history project between Primary students and PreService Teachers.
Jenene Burke - Federation University Australia
Chairperson: Kerryn McCluskey Theme: Secondary Teacher Education Paper Title The crucial role of the teacher in improving 093 educational outcomes for Indigenous school students.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 253 Author(s) Kerryn McCluskey - The University of Queensland
Student Teachers’ Learning Journal Supported by Peers.
Orsolya Kálmán - University of Eötvös Loránd
Lesson Studies in Teacher Education Practicum - A Danish experience.
Arne Mogensen - VIA University College; Peter Rostgaard - VIA University College; Ella Joergensen - VIA University College
Closing the gap - a Secondary Teacher Education collaborative and equal partnership between teacher education and the practice field linked to teacher students` preservice training.
Olav Erik Kolstad - Østfold University College; Geir Luthen - Østfold University College
Chairperson: Miroslava Cernochova Theme: Teacher Education and Digital Technology Paper Title From Face to Face to Facebook: The contribution of 097 Facebook to learning in MOOCLEx.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 355 Author(s) Rivka Wadmany - Kibbutzim College of Education, Technology and Arts; Orly Melamed - Kibbutzim College of Education, Technology and Arts;
Mixed resources for improving educational quality process: An educational innovative project.
Gabriel Lazar - Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau; Maria-Ema Faci Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau; Iuliana Lazar - Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau; Adriana Malureanu S.C. Ascendia Design SRL Bucuresti; Liliana Mata - Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau; Calin Mateian - S.C. Alfa Vega SRL Bucuresti
ICT in Teacher Education in Israel.
Olzan Goldstein - Kaye Academic College of Education Miri Shonfeld - The MOFET Institute; Merav Asaf - The MOFET Institute
Chairperson: Kay Livingston Theme: Professional Development of Teachers Paper Title Partnerships, Supercomplexity and Fragility. 100
Room: Gilbert Scott Melville Room Author(s) Lorraine Ling - La Trobe University
The portfolio as the indicator of teachers’ continuous professional development.
Teachers' perspective on in-service teacher education in Greece.
Magdolna Chrappán - University of Debrecen; Rita Bencze - University of Debrecen Efterpi Bilimpini - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
The Impact of Written Language in Mentoring.
Sissel Østrem - University of Stavanger
Chairperson: Carol O’Sullivan Theme: Professional Development of Teachers Paper Title Masters Level Learning through Action Research. 104
Room: Gilbert Scott Turnbull Room Author(s) Dean Robson - University of Aberdeen; Roseanne Fitzpatrick - University of Aberdeen
Fostering student teachers’ research attitude.
Femke Timmermans - HAN Research Centre Quality of Learning; Gerda Geerdink - HAN Research Centre Quality of Learning
Action research as a model of CPD: views of teachers.
Timothy Murphy - University of Limerick; Cathal de Paor - Mary Immaculate College
Professional Learning Communities: Developing Reflection Abilities by Action-Research.
Cecilia Assael - Diego Portales University; Ignacio Figueroa - Diego Portales University; Paula Guerra - Diego Portales University
Chairperson: John O’Dwyer Theme: Professional Development of Teachers Paper Title What is at stake? The Impact of Performance 108 Evaluation on Teacher Identity.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 250 Author(s) Hatice Celebi - MEF University; Gaele Macfarlane - University of Glasgow
Team teaching EFL: Perpetuating the “Native Speaker Fallacy”?
Peter J. Collins - Tokai University Gary Scott Fine - Tokai University
Experience as knowledge in teachers’ professional development.
Heidi Regine Bergsager - Østfold University College
Thinking together? Teacher autonomy, collaboration and professional development in Turkish lower secondary schools.
Betul Khalil - Open University
Chairperson: Leah Shagrir Theme: Professional Development of Teacher Educators Paper Title Developing Teacher Identity in Teacher Education. 112
Room: Gilbert Scott Forehall Room Author(s) Maria A. Flores - University of Minho
What kind of support and supervision experience novice teacher educators in Norway the first three years in the profession?
Ketil Langørgen - Bergen University College
Teacher Educators as Emerging Professionals.
Let’s make a plan: Educating future teachers for understanding and managing the multicultural classroom.
Jennifer Yamin-Ali - University of the West Indies Eva Martinsen Dyrnes - Østfold University College; Gudrun Jonsdottir - Norwegian University of Life Science; Gerd Johansen Østfold University College
Wednesday 26th August 2015
14.00 – 15.30 53
Chairperson: Arne Ronny Sannerud Theme: Technical and Vocational Teacher Education Paper Title Learning logs and self-assessment against learning 116 outcomes.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 251 Author(s) Steinar Karstensen - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences; John David Holt - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences; John Eivind Storvik - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences Birger Brevik - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences; Chris Serwaniko - Kyambogo University
A Comparative Study on the Master in Vocational Pedagogy respectively offered at HiOA in Norway and KYU in Uganda and its implication to Vocational Teacher Education.
Student Self-Assessment and Teacher Role Change in Competence-Based Special Teacher Education.
Pirkko Kepanen - School of Vocational Teacher Education
Vocational Pedagogy and the Epistemology of Technical Vocational Practice and Learning Traditions.
Mustafa Trond Smistad - Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences
Chairperson: Chairperson: Odd Helge Lindseth Theme: Primary and Pre-primary education Paper Title Norwegian socialisation values: Implications for 120 kindergarten teachers and assistants.
The implementation of ICT in the kindergarten environment: implications for teacher education.
The voice of the teacher: finding a balance in teacherstudent interaction during primary EFL reading instruction.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 250 Author(s) Odd Helge Lindseth - Hedmark University College Esther Firstater - Gordon College of Education; Noga Magen-Nagar - Gordon College of Education; Nitza Schwabsky - Gordon College of Education Laura Buechel - Zurich University of Teacher Education Rebecca Charboneau - University of Stavanger
Chairperson: Kerryn McCluskey Theme: Secondary Teacher Education Paper Title University-school partnerships for quality initial 124 teacher education: Are pre-service teachers’ mentoring needs met? 125
Quality Improvement of Hungarian Initial Teacher Education.
Developing student teachers’ lesson analysis skills.
Models of secondary teacher education in the EU.
Chairperson: György Mészáros Theme: Education for Social Justice, Equity and Diversity / Inclusive and Special Needs Paper Title Attitudes towards immigrants among student 128 teachers.
Room: Gilbert Scott Room 253 Author(s) Rovincer Najjuma - Makerere University; Elaine Wilson - University of Cambridge Orsolya Kálmán - University of Eötvös Loránd; István Vilmos Kovács - University of Eötvös Loránd; Judit Szivák - University of Eötvös Loránd Kaja Oras - University of Tartu; Edgar Krull - University of Tartu; Sirje Sisask University of Tartu; Annela Liivat University of Tartu László Galántai - University of Pécs Room: Gilbert Scott Room 356 Author(s) Morten Løtveit - Hedmark University College; Liv Susanne Bugge - Hedmark University College
How to collaborate with whom? a perspective of a teacher educator of a small size local university in Japan.
Masahiro Saito - Asahikawa University
Teacher Education and the Segregated School.
Looking anew at collaborative professional practices: The positioning of team teaching in Irish education system to attend to systemic goals associated with inclusive and professional learning.
Niclas Månsson - Mälardalens University College; Ali Osman - Mälardalens University College Finn Ó Murchú - University College Cork
Chairperson: Esmahan Agaoglu Theme: Educational Leadership and Management Paper Title The Role of School-Environment Relations in 132 Successful Schools. 133
How can we develop teacher identity of pre-service teachers: Teacher Educators’ Perspective.
Room: Gilbert Scott 155 Author(s) Damla Ayduğ - Anadolu University; Esmahan Agaoglu - Anadolu University Ceyhun Kavrayıcı - Anadolu University; Esmahan Agaoglu - Anadolu University
Chairperson: Elizabeth Oldham Theme: Science and Mathematics Education Maths / Curricula in Teacher Education Paper Title Interconnected Contexts for (student) Teacher 134 Education: An insight from a Study of Mathematical Identity.
The meaning of Function in the mathematics textbooks.
Collaboration between ITE students during practice A possible future learning community.
Chairperson: David Parmigiani Theme: Teacher Education and Digital Technology Paper Title The Digital Literacy of Young Children: Educational 138 Challenge.
Room: Gilbert Scott Forehall Room Author(s) Patricia Eaton - Stranmillis University College; Christine Horn - Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology; Maurice Oreilly – St. Patrick’s College Drumcondra Xhevdet Thaqi - Kadri Zeka University Lut De Jaegher - University College Artevelde Ghent Sandra Jederud - Mälardalens Högskola Laila Niklasson - Mälardalens Högskola Room: Gilbert Scott Room 355 Author(s) Linda Daniela - University of Latvia; Zanda Rubene - University of Latvia; Irēna Žogla - University of Latvia Gulriz Imer - Mersin University
The Perceptions of Candidate Teachers' Self-efficacy Related to Using Instructional Technologies.
An Analysis of Special Education Teachers and Student Teachers' Problematic Internet Usage and Their Self-Efficacy.
Hakan Sari - Selcuk University; Mustafa Safran - Higher Education Council
An Analysis of Pre-School Teachers' and Student Teachers' Problematic Internet Usage and Their SelfEfficacy.
Zarife Secer - Necmettin Erbakan University; Semseddin Gunduz - Necmettin Erbakan University
Chairperson: Maria Flores Theme: Professional Development of Teachers Paper Title Changing approaches to initial teacher education 142 through collaborative partnerships.
Room: Gilbert Scott Melville Room Author(s) Yvonne Bain - University of Aberdeen; Douglas Weir - University of Aberdeen
Learning in collaboration: Exploring processes and outcomes through a longitudinal multiple case study design.
Benedicte Vanblaere - Ghent University; Geert Devos - Ghent University
Study of teachers’ perceptions of collaborative culture and its effect on teachers’ practices in NIS, Pavlodar.
Nazym Ospanova - Nazarbayev Intellectual School
Primary teacher training Reflection-oriented Process: conceptions and practice in Science Teaching.
Aparecida de Fátima Andrade da Silva Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Maria Eunice Ribeiro Marcondes - Universidade de São Paulo
Chairperson: Karl Attard Theme: Professional Development of Teachers/Primary and Pre-primary education Paper Title Promoting collaborative work and reflective practices 146 in pre-service and in-service teachers education.
Room: Gilbert Scott Turnbull Room Author(s) Paula Guerra - Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
An Experienced Teacher’s Professional Learning Needs: Possible Implications for Teacher Education.
Sukran Saygi - Middle East Technical University
Action Research on Students’ Action Learning: An Alternative Collaborative Supervision Practice between University-Based Teacher and School-Based Teacher for Development of Mutual Understanding of Research & Development.
Annfrid Steele - University of Tromsø
Master Teacher and Teacher Researcher career stages in Hungary.
Erika Kopp - Eötvös Loránd University; Judit Szivák - Eötvös Loránd University
Parallel Session Abstracts
001 - The Competence of Learning to Learn. From University to Primary Education Classrooms Paula Mayoral, Eva Liesa Ramon Llull University, Spain This project(1) aims at improving the training model of Teacher Education for Primary School undergraduates by developing the competence of learning to learn (L-L) as university learners and at the same time as prospective teachers that will have to teach this competence to their pupils. Being an autonomous learner is closely linked to the kind of concept about learning, one’s own command of knowledge, and the type of learning or study strategies that are used to solve more or less complex situations. From this perspective, our intention is to understand and improve teaching and learning situations on the basis of deep knowledge about the thoughts and actions of university teachers involved in different specific didactics and also on the basis of active teachers’ knowledge about what methodological strategies and instruments are the best to teach to learn. This research is interpretational with a qualitative method, using content analysis of university and active teachers’ discourse. The dimensions of analysis are (a) concepts on the meaning of the competence of learning to learn; and (b) appropriate teaching and assessment strategies to achieve this competence. Participants were 8 university teachers from different areas of knowledge, and 12 school teachers in charge of innovation projects to promote this competence in their respective centres. For data collection, instruments were a focus group in the university context and in-depth interviews in the school context. All data were transcribed and analysed with the Atlas-ti qualitative analysis programme. First results indicate that university and school teachers share a similar meaning about the L-L competence, understanding a competent pupil as thoughtful, conscious, motivated, able to make decisions, regulating his/her own learning, using self-assessment, and particularly able to teach this LL competence to his/her own pupils. Nevertheless, in both contexts - school and university - the discourse is not so much shared concerning the teaching and sequencing of this competence and particularly concerning its assessment. Finally, we know that the complexity of teachers’ diverse professional learning needs requires collaborative approaches to teacher education that provide access to professional learning, in this sense, this research aims to provide some data on teachers’ diverse professional learning needs and the implications for teacher educators developing the competence of learning to learn (L-L) in school and university contexts. Project funded by Generalitat of Catalunya, Department of Economy and Knowledge, AGAUR Agency for the Management of University Funds and Research (2014 ARMIF 00013).
002 - Preparing student teachers and teachers for the multicultural school and pre-school through international practicum and collaboration Sissel Tove Olsen, Kari Bratland, Anikke Hagen Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway Norwegian kindergartens and classrooms have become more diverse due to immigration from both European and non-European countries. This implies new challenges for teachers and teacher education (both primary and pre-primary school). However, a majority of teachers and teacher students are ethnic Norwegian with little experience or knowledge of other cultures. They are therefore poorly prepared to work with children and pupils with diverse cultural background. According to Walters et al (2009), the disparity between teachers’ culture and experience and those of their pupils create classrooms where teachers are unable to adequately address the needs of pupils with diverse backgrounds. This research paper presents a study aimed to explore and analyse Norwegian teacher students professional development through exposure to international practicum and to examine how their teaching affect their practice teachers. The study draws on discourses within diversity, intercultural competence, coherence in teacher education and socio-cultural learning issues (Biesta 2014; Cushner 2007; Heggen & Raaen 2012; Quezada 2004; Sãljõ 2006; Wenger 2008 and others). The methodological rationale for the qualitative research approach forms part of a search for meaning (Miles & Hubermann 1994; Morgan 1997; Alvesson & Skjoeldberg 2000) within the cultural diversity of the practice schools situated in poverty-stricken semi-urban and urban communities in South Africa. The investigation was conducted over a period of two years, and the respondents included a total of 37 students and 18 practice teachers at three primary schools in South Africa; Grade R (pre -primary) to Grade 7. Main findings of the study indicate that the students and their practice teachers mutually learn from each other in ways that significantly strengthen their competences. The students demonstrate an improved intercultural competence based on their experiences in South African schools, including improved classroom management skills. The South African practice teachers express that the Norwegian students have inspired them to reduce or close the gap between theory and practice. Having the students teach their classes have reminded the teachers of teaching/learning methods and approaches they acquired while in pre-service training but however, hardly not put into practice. We argue that the model of international practicum presented could be applicable to other countries and contexts. The central issues emerging from the study could feed into teacher education in terms of preparing teachers to more adequately address the needs of the individual child and pupil in a multicultural school and pre-school.
003 - The Experiences of Early Childhood Educators working with Children of Ethiopian Background Esther Firstater1, Laura Sigad2, Tanya Frankel1 1
Gordon College of Education, 2Oranim Academic College of Education, Israel
Context and research question: This study offers an in-depth examination of the experiences of early childhood educators, focusing on their work with Ethiopian immigrant children and their families. The aim of the research was to describe and analyze teachers’ insider view of the challenges faced by these children and their parents in the Israeli pre-school system. Analyzing the kindergarten teachers’ stories enabled an examination of how they perceived the beliefs and social norms of Ethiopian society, how the teachers related to the immigrants’ values, and how they coped with educating immigrant children from a different culture. Methodology: The narrative method guides our methodology, giving us the opportunity to learn about lived experience through the practical and personal knowledge recounted in teachers’ written accounts. An in-depth examination of the experiences of early childhood educators who work with Ethiopian immigrant children and their families used a narrative methodology to analyze twenty stories written by ten early childhood educators. Findings: It reveals that for teachers, the chief struggle is their relationship with the parents of their Ethiopian pupils, one characterized by difficulties, frustrations and burdens. The engagement with parents of Ethiopian children exhibited a range of possibilities: from the expression of patronizing, hierarchical viewpoints, to a search for ad hoc means to cope with a persistent culture gap, to genuine, successful partnerships. Lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding of the unique cultural attributes of the Ethiopian community appears to be the source for the teachers’ view of the parents as lacking faith in them and in the educational system as a whole. Implications for teacher education: Teacher education should be at the forefront of efforts to improve the integration of immigrant children and their families within educational and cultural contexts. Teachers’ own emotions should be emphasized as the pivotal for changing attitudes, relations, and behaviors towards immigrant children. Such an approach should take priority over knowledge-based cultural diversity programs because it is empathy development which will serve as a chief force to connect families to the educational setting and to prevent marginalization. Theme: pre-primary and primary education
004 - Establishing a Learner Perspective on Cross-Institutional Collaboration and Module Delivery in the Context of Irish Initial Teacher Education (ITE) Susan Rogers, Jarlath Lydon Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Ireland The changing landscape of higher education provision in Ireland, in light of the publications in 2011 of the National Strategy for Higher Education (The Hunt Report), and A Review of the Structure of Initial Teacher Education Provision in Ireland in 2012, is characterised by increased partnership. Both reports emphasize rationalisation, shared resources and collaboration in the provision of teacher education (TE) in Ireland. In response to these reports, a partnership collaboration was established between the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT) and the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG) in the field of Teacher Education (TE), known as Teacher Educators Together (TET).This initiative was piloted in the current academic year, 2014-2015. One of its aims was to provide collaborative delivery of two discrete undergraduate teacher education programmes, in the respective institutes: the BSc in Design and Technology Education (GMIT) and the BA in Mathematics and Education (NUIG).The collaboration has resulted in the delivery of a shared module, Curriculum and Assessment, team delivered by academic staff from both institutes. The module is delivered to undergraduate students using a Problem Based Learning (PBL) model (Barrett and Moore, 2011). This research paper aims to establish a GMIT student perspective of the effectiveness of TET, including the cross institutional delivery of the Curriculum and Assessment module. Primary research methods include participant interviews, focus groups and a Moodle forum module evaluation. The research concludes that establishment of TET has provided an opportunity for enhanced TE through collaborative partnership of an Irish Institute of Technology and an Irish University. The outcomes include cooperation in module delivery, an exchange of expertise, shared resources, knowledge exchange among students, and enhanced student collaboration skills (particularly incorporating ICT). Research recommendations include: more effective communication to students, by both Heads of School, of the rationale for the establishment of TET, the need for the module PBL activities to be rationalised and integrated earlier in the academic year, and increased cross-institutional student collaboration in the module’s initial PBL activities.
005 - Cultural dynamics of teacher education programme design and enactment: dilemmas in developing 'good' teaching Paul Conway1, Rosaleen Murphy2 1
University of Limerick, 2University College Cork, Ireland
Context of research In the context of major reforms of teacher education in Ireland and drawing on findings from twomixed methods teacher education programme level studies, we focus on the cultural dynamics of programme level teacher education design and enactment. Findings are discussed in terms of TE design implications given current TE reforms in Ireland and internationally. Research Approach LETS1 was undertaken over three years (2007-10) and LETS2 was undertaken over two years (201113). Drawing on two funded programme-level studies (LETS1 and LETS2) we sought to understand the key cultural dynamics that shape the learning to teach experience, and how these are particularly relevant in the context of major teacher education reforms. Theoretical framework Informed by socio-cultural theory, the studies examined situated and relational dimensions of competence, and the nature of assisted practice (Penuel & Werstch, 1995; Claxton & Wells, 2002; Sawyer, 2006; Korthagen, 2010). As such, both studies focused on in terms of the opportunities to learn to teach encompassing material, social and symbolic resources. Methodology Using mixed methods (artefact, survey and interview data) LETS 1 and 2 focused on curricular competences in mathematics, science and language teaching, and on the cross-curricular of reading and digital literacy and the development of inclusive teaching practices. In both studies student teachers were interviewed on three occasions over the course of an academic year (n=17; n =12). The studies also included analysis of documents and a survey questionnaire (n=133 response rate 63%; n=155 response rate 76%). Findings For the purposes of this paper, we focus on three overarching findings at the programme level: Mentoring without access to observation of others and the ‘invisible learner’ phenomenon: Inherited ‘good teaching’ cultural scripts dominate over reform-oriented images of teaching Ready to teach but not ready to ‘do’ inclusion Implications for teacher education Given the dearth of programme level studies of initial teacher education (Darling-Hammond, 2006), we discuss the findings in terms of deepening engagement with and sharing of pedagogy; ways can teacher education engage with both inherited cultural scripts; and fostering a broader conception of ‘readiness to teach’. Relevance to ATEE theme In terms of ATEE 2015 and the multiple and interconnected contexts for Teacher Education, we draw attention to the potential of programme level studies to inform the domains of policy, research and practice
006 - Contradictions in the Theory of Student Teacher Learning Alaster Douglas University of Roehampton, UK This presentation provides a critical examination of learning opportunities for student teachers in teacher education in England. Using two illustrative data examples of student teacher learning opportunities in secondary school settings, socio-cultural theories of learning are discussed in order to highlight the shortcomings in current English teacher education policy which advocates an apprenticeship learning model within a standards-based approach. Research into learning opportunities for student teachers emphasises the importance of student teachers doing more than attempting to emulate the work of experienced teachers as learning in this way limits the student teacher’s understanding of what underpins the effective practices being observed. Questions arise about where and how new teachers build their understanding of educational values and whether these now play a diminishing role in teacher formation. In trying to overcome the dualistic tendencies of some dominant theoretical paradigms of educational research which place mind and mental processes at their centre, such as structuralist and educational theories, socio-cultural theories have been important in reformulating educational activities. Sociocultural theories do not view learning as a way of understanding ‘what works’ per se, but recognise the need to understand why strategies work in specific settings such as classrooms. In a school-based approach to student teacher learning, an experienced teacher’s aim is to help student teachers understand the local situation and the effect this has on the teaching in the school. The sharing of expertise and local knowledge helps student teachers interpret and respond to events. Two data examples illustrate how appropriation of teacher education tools such as teaching standards documentation leaves little room for student teacher interpretation and highlight the lack of opportunity for those involved in teacher education to present and discuss contested ways of thinking about teaching and learning. Pressures of work intensification tend to encourage cultures of compliance rather than engagement with research activity specifically designed to open up discussion. Promoting a situated learning perspective in teacher education, where an ability to understand something is not grounded in individual accumulation of knowledge but a product of the social context in which the learning takes place illustrates how learning is more complex than transmission and transfer. Socio-cultural theories highlight that learning is about appreciating complexity and acknowledging the dilemmas and contradictions inherent in educational practice. The presentation calls for stronger partnerships to help teachers and student teachers negotiate the contradictions in teacher education through greater interaction and challenge.
007 - Power relations, collaboration and construction of a learning community through participatory research in a teacher education curriculum development project György Mészáros, Attila H. Horváth, Nóra Rapos, Etelka Busi Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Education and Psychology Context of the research Actual teacher education (TE) policies in Hungary represent a clear turn back to the approach of a “traditional” subject-based teacher profession. Several professionals stay by the concept of teachers as professionals in teaching, but they are actually involved in the EU funded initial TE curriculum development saving in this way some values of the previous curriculum in the limited possibilities of the new structure. In the curriculum some totally new courses have been introduced, and it has required the development of new contents, methods and structures. This research project followed the intensive development process of one of these new courses involving teacher educators and teachers trainees in strong collaboration both in research and development. Research approach/question The presentation will describe the story of the research and development process (five months) particularly focusing on: how a learning community was created through the project: the relation between curriculum development and learning community construction; the ways of collaboration; the identities of the actors; how the learning community was situated in the wider context (on different levels: society, TE policies, university, faculty, institute) how power relations between the different actors on different levels influenced the structures, hierarchies, interactions during the process. Theoretical framework The paper will draw upon international literature about learning community, curriculum development in TE, participatory research and identity construction (Trent), and particularly about power structures and relations in education explained by critical theorists (Hill, McLaren, Torres, Darder) Research methodology Teachers and students were involved as co-researchers in a qualitative participatory research and development process (without the separation of these two aspects) that included reflections and comments, online and offline meetings and conversations of the group on a regular basis followed by ulterior reflections, lesson study, observations, focus group interview. Findings From the spiral process of reflections, analysis and conversation, a narrative and analytical text has emerged that unfolds both the interest and motivations of the actors in the collaboration process that led to some concrete outcomes (new teaching methods shared, restructured content of the course) and the tensions that were connected to the different interests, identities, positions and to the context of the project. The paper can contribute to the topic of collaboration among teacher educators and between teachers and students in TE shedding especially light on the power relations between the actors in relation to the specific topic of the Social Justice RDC this year.
008 - Who's in control? Research Collaboration with Teachers and Power Relations Monique Leygraaf, Jeroen van Waveren University of Applied Sciences iPabo, Netherlands Researching educational praxis practically always implies asymmetrical power relationships between teachers and researchers, especially when doing research is not considered to be part of day-to-day activities of teachers. Therefore, redressing this imbalance in educational research should be considered an important topic for researchers conducting (for instance collaborative) research with teachers. The ATEE’s RDC Education for Social Justice, Equity and Diversity has a long tradition of questioning methodological issues related to power relations, looking for ways to actively engage participants like teachers in designing, co-constructing, and carrying out the research. This (discussion-)paper aims to contribute to this tradition, focussing on the central issue of researcher and teacher positionality in the early stages of the research process: how to engage teachers in the topic being researched, without imposing questions they had never asked themselves? How to avoid imposing our own conceptual vision but instead bring teachers to discover and articulate their own needs? How to serve interests in improving the participating teachers’ professional lives? Questions like these – making explicit the implicit notions of power within partnerships and collaborative research projects – will be put up for discussion. Implications of the research for teacher education will be discussed as well.
009 - Negotiating power relations in SOLARbrunn: Initiating citizen science in a Research & Education cooperation for the development of a regional energy concept Ilse Bartosch1, Anna Streissler2, Viktor Schlosser1 1
University of Vienna, 2Umweltdachverband/Forum Umweltbildung, 3University of Vienna
A recent Austrian paper looking at sustainable energy consumption from a national economic perspective (Bohunovsky, 2010) indicates that by innovative technology alone the 2020 energy targets set by the EU cannot be achieved. For mitigating global warming the participation of citizens in the efforts of generating (local) knowledge for an ecological compatible, economically affordable and socially sustainable transformation of society is essential. Thus in the scope of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) the two competing perspectives – “the economic imperative perspective” and “the critical resistance perspective” – described as characteristic for educational efforts in a globalized world by Wang et al. (2011) have to be balanced. The project “SOLARbrunn - Heading for a future powered by the sun” funded by "Sparkling Science" takes up this challenge. In the course of this two-year project a regional energy concept for Hollabrunn (a town with 12.000 inhabitants 60 km from Austria's capital Vienna) is developed, using the public building of the kindergarten as model. For this purpose a dialogue between researchers (from social as well as science research), teacher students majoring in physics, teachers and pupils from the HTL Hollabrunn (a higher vocational college for engineering) and stakeholders of the municipality of Hollabrunn is established. Situating teacher education in a multifaceted learning community where student teachers experience how citizen science can be initiated is the core-idea of the teacher education concept implemented in the project’s agenda. The paper presented focuses on the continuous negotiation of power relations between the stakeholders participating in the project. Due to the fact that engineering is stereotyped male, a special focus on gender is set. Based on document-analyses the following questions are of interest: How does the relationship between pupils and student teachers interfere with the power play of their mentors – the researchers and teachers? How does this affect teacher education? How far is the research team successful in establishing gender sensitive attitudes? As the first results display, cooperation on equal levels is a key-principle for a successful researcheducation-cooperation, in order to achieve this researchers' role and expertise has to be continuously negotiated between researchers and teachers. This ambiguous power play is partly mirrored at the student-pupil level. Although gender equality is a challenging objective, first efforts can be reported in sensitising some of the teachers. Moreover the male picture of engineering is contested as technical data is equally important as the economic, legal and social data for the suggestion of solutions.
010 - Teachers’ use of representations for teaching and learning: Cultural Implications Bruce Waldrip1, Sutopo Sutopo2 1
University of Tasmania, Australia, 2University of Malang, Indonesia
Objective To what extent do teachers’ culture, practices and beliefs influence their use of representations? Theoretical Framework Given the problems in generalizing across cultures, there is a range of culturally related issues impacting the use of representations. The act of constructing a representation provides students with a sense of agency in learning and an active opportunity to publicly display and justify their understandings (Greeno & Hall, 1997). The teachers need to make judgments about the quality of student-developed representations and facilitate the ongoing dialogue between students and with the teacher about the robustness of any claim coming from the representation. Method and data sources In each case, high school teachers were surveyed, observed and interviewed. The sample involved 100 Australian, 66 Melanesian and 50 Indonesian science teachers’ practices in using representations of science concepts plus classroom observations. The authors have worked in each of these countries and each provided their perspective for interpretation of the data. At least one of the researchers observed their teaching. Analysis/Results The survey data was collated and ranked. Thematic analysis was used to examine the interview and observation data. Most teachers (73%) used expert representations as another form of knowledge transmission and rarely address student views. The lack of expert representations caused some Melanesian teachers (42%) to improvise from local materials. In planning to teach a topic, Indonesian teachers (82%) perceived that expert or teacher designed materials was more effective in promoting learning. Similar to the Australian teachers, both Indonesian and Melanesian teachers stated that the representational approach was perceived to benefit teaching and learning in that it improved student knowledge building processes but there was less evidence that this was implemented in practice. Overall, teachers (64%) tend to look for students’ ability to create a representation that reflects the expert view. Almost every teacher referred to students re-constructing an expert version. Implications for Teacher Education Unless appropriately addressed, use of expert developed artifacts has the potential to conflict with constructivist notions of learning in Indonesian and Melanesian classrooms. In these cases, learning starts with acceptance of the expert, not from the perspectives of the student. There are implications for all teacher educators as to how learning science recognizes cultural differences and how these differences can be best utilized to facilitate learning. The resulting adoption of Western teaching approaches can be counter-productive to learning and, in some cases, conflict with local mores and values.
011 - Professional Identities of Portuguese In-service Teacher Educators in Health Promotion and Education Maria Teresa Machado Vilaça University of Minho, Portugal The identities of teacher educators have been the focus of many studies in the field of teacher education in recent years. However, very little research has been carried out on in-service teacher educators in health promotion and education. In-service teacher training emerges in Portugal as a resource for the professional development and carrier progression of teachers (e.g., Lei n. 46/86; Decreto-Lei n.º 22/2014) in order to stimulate and motivate their lifelong professional and personal development and, to provide rapid career ascent, better quality of teaching performance and other functions in the ambit of education and teaching. In-service teacher training in health promotion and education appeared in this context with medical doctors, nurses, psychologists and science teachers or other teachers as teacher educators. The result is that these teacher educators have a very different professional formation and, practice their activities as teacher educators as an extra task to their core profession. The national Portuguese Scientific and Pedagogical Council of In-Service Training have the obligation to certify teacher educators and training modalities which are divided into two groups: training focused on content (courses, modules and seminars) and on school contexts and professional practices (study circles, workshops training, projects and internships). This paper makes a contribution to the understanding of in-service teacher educators in health promotion and education professional identities. Therefore, a purposeful sample of 57 teacher educators in health promotion and education was selected at a national level. Data was collected from a semi-structured interview used to explore the ways in which teacher educators perceive themselves as subject matter, didactical, pedagogical and interpersonal experts. In these teacher educators in health promotion and education, three different professional identity groups could be distinguished. These groups involved different teaching experiences throughout their careers as teacher educators in this specific area for each aspect of their expertise. Therefore, these results can be considered relevant for teacher educators in health promotion and professional education development. Keywords: Professional identity; Expertise; Perceptions.
012 - Health and Values Promotion through Partnerships and Collaborative Learning Communities – cost-effective policy and administrative approach in Teachers’ Education Olena Shyyan1, Iryna Turchyk2, Natalya Sorokolit3, Yuriy Nakonechnyy3, Natalya Zharska1, Yevgeniya Slyvka1, Oleksandra Khudoba4 1
Lviv State University of Physical Culture, 2Drogobych State Pedagogical University, 3Lviv Inservice Teacher Training Institute, 4Lviv Regional Institute of Public Administration, Ukraine
013 - Teacher leadership and learning networks: findings from a 3-year project Maria A. Flores, Cristina Parente University of Minho, Portugal This paper draws upon a broader piece of research aiming at analysing teacher leadership and the potential of learning networks for teacher and school development. It presents data from a broader piece of research, funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (National Foundation for Science and Technology) (PTDC/CPE-CED/112164/2009), which aims to investigate teacher leadership and collaborative learning initiatives in schools. This paper draws upon a broader piece of research aiming at analysing teacher leadership and the potential of learning networks for teacher and school development. The research questions are: What are the key dimensions of teachers’ work that they associate with professional development opportunities? Why do they engage in learning networks and what do they learn from them? A combination of methods was used, including a national survey; interviews to key informants; focus group; and the development and evaluation of strategies for teachers to exercise leadership in their schools Findings from the third phase of data collection are presented. Data pointed to the importance of learning networks in fostering teacher professional development. The participants stress key issues such as the possibility of building professional knowledge together, sharing experiences and ideas and enhancing professional motivation and morale through discussions about the teaching profession and the conditions in which teachers work. However, both structural and cultural aspects also emerged namely the professional and school culture, the school leadership and the personal and professional values as teachers as key mediating influences on teacher learning and professional development.
014 - Getting a Foot in the Door: Helping Education Students "Kick It" During Interviews Robyn Huss, Christie Johnson, Judy Butler University of West Georgia, USA Introduction of the topic: The college of education involved in this study has programs for teacher and educational leadership candidates. Each semester these groups meet to participate in a hiring simulation, or role play in a mock setting, where aspiring leaders interview aspiring teachers in a joint learning opportunity. Aim: This paper reviews the rationale behind the collaborative hiring simulation, preparation for the event, its process, and feedback from participant surveys. Discussion of framework: The planning, preparation, and execution of the Hiring Simulation is a collaborative process involving faculty and students from three university program areas. Secondary and physical education teacher candidates submit application letters and résumés which are matched to teams of aspiring educational leaders. The administrators prepare questions for the candidates and conduct several rounds of interviews; at the conclusion of the simulation, the candidates receive feedback and one is ultimately chosen for “hire.” Concluding remarks: Survey data has been collected and analyzed. Participants in all programs report benefitting from their respective roles in the simulation and feel better prepared for the real event of participating in an interview. Results indicate that this is a profitable activity for both groups. Implications for teacher education: Colleges of education have an obligation to prepare students for future employment as teachers and school administrators. This obligation should be extended to include helping candidates succeed in their quest for a position. This hiring simulation enables teacher candidates to feel confident as they seek employment in regional schools, and it gives leadership candidates experience with the hiring protocols they will encounter as part of their administrative duties. Relevance to the ATEE annual conference theme and RDCs: The collaborative hiring simulation described in this paper depends upon partnerships across three programs in the College of Education: Educational Leadership, Secondary Education, and Physical Education. Thus, this joint effort aligns with this year’s conference theme of “Teacher Education through Partnerships and Collaborative Learning Communities.” The opportunity for pre-service teachers and aspiring administrators to work together in their learning of the interview process spans across the theme and two of ATEE’s Research and Development Communities: Secondary Teacher Education and Educational Leadership and Management.
015 - Partnership and Collaboration in Teacher Education: A Critical Reflection Carol O'Sullivan Mary Immaculate College, Ireland The terms ‘partnership’ and ‘collaboration’ are much used terms in many contexts and with many different definitions. Jones (2011) observes that partnerships achieve synergistic outcomes that amount to more than can be achieved by individuals working on their own. However, the complexities of partnership and collaboration can sometimes be sidelined in the discourse of positivity associated with the terms. We need to bear in mind that partnerships can have a high failure rate (Corbin and Mittlemark, 2008) and they are difficult to evaluate (Butterfoss and Francisco, 2004), possibly because definitions can be varied and sometimes elusive. Bearing these caveats in mind, this paper seeks to provide a reflexive approach to the concept of partnerships in the professional life of a teacher educator. A number of examples will be used to illustrate the extent of partnership required of the teacher educator in fulfilling the demands of “the triangle of effort” (Reynolds et al, 2013) needed to educate pre-service teachers, collaborate with practicing teachers and work with researchers. The author will draw upon her own experiences in delivering health education and related modules to student teachers to illustrate both the benefits and challenges of working in partnership. Facilitators of, and barriers to, effective partnership will be presented. The importance of building and maintaining partnerships with students, with internal and external colleagues and groups in order to achieve positive outcomes will be acknowledged. The role of the wider community in enhancing the student experience will be a particular focus in the presentation. As part of this reflection, partnership as a reciprocal and collaborative process will be explored so that it is understood as an active and balanced concept rather than as a sometimes over-used term with potential for tokenism. A key feature of partnership in teacher education is the extent of reciprocal student-staff partnerships. Such partnership contributes to increased student engagement as it is a relationship in which all participants are actively engaged and thus all stand to benefit from the process (Healey et al, 2014). The qualities which frame the success of student-staff partnerships and other key partnerships in effective teacher education will be included in this critical reflection.
016 - Investigating Irish Prospective Primary Teachers’ Awareness of Applications of the Ratio Concept: Implications for Teacher Education Elizabeth Oldham1, Patsy Stafford2, Valerie O'Dowd3 1
Trinity College Dublin, 2Maynooth University, 3Marino Institute of Education, Dublin
The concept of ratio is important in the development of proportional reasoning, and hence underpins many areas of school mathematics curricula. However, it is problematic; research indicates shortcomings in students’ understanding and skill. This raises questions about teachers’ knowledge for teaching the concept. Of particular importance is their relational understanding, as manifested (according to research literature) in their ability to identify key aspects of its meaning, to represent the concept in diverse ways, and to recognise its applications in everyday life. Members of the Science and Mathematics Education RDC therefore formed a collaborative partnership to investigate the relational understanding of ratio held by different cohorts of prospective teachers. In 2011 they devised a four-item instrument reflecting the framework outlined above. Three items ask respondents to state what they mean by ratio and to provide representations of the concept, symbolic and other (pictorial, diagrammatic or verbal); the remaining item seeks information from the respondents on when they, and other people, use ratio. Data have been collected from institutions in different countries, and results of the so-called “ATEE Ratio Project” reported at annual conferences. In Ireland, analyses of school syllabuses and textbooks point to under-emphasis on ratio as a “golden thread” permeating the curriculum: hence, to teachers needing particularly strong relational understanding so that they can augment the deficiencies. For the ATEE Ratio Project, data have been collected from three Irish cohorts of prospective teachers. Reports so far have dealt only with the meanings and representations of ratio; in this paper, the focus is on uses, chiefly as perceived by prospective primary teachers. The main group considered here were graduates (in a variety of subjects) studying for a Postgraduate Diploma in Primary Teaching (PDPT) in collaborating institutions. The instrument was administered during a lecture period. Data from the 59 respondents were analysed to identify the scope and limitations of the reported uses of ratio; comparisons were made with responses from other cohorts from Ireland and elsewhere. The findings indicate that, typically, respondents in the PDPT group had a poor awareness of applications of ratio. This highlights the importance of expanding work on ratio in the teacher education programmes. For example, the instrument is now being trialled with the equivalent PDPT cohort in one institution (35 students) as a basis for class discussion – “think, pair, share” – rather than for data collection. Findings overall will contributes to the ongoing ATEE Ratio Project.
017 - Ratio Project Continued Elsa Price Faulkner University, USA Aim: The aim is to collect additional information for the multinational "ratio" study. Background: During the Science and Mathematics Research and Development Centre (RDC) meeting at the 2011 ATEE conference, the members selected a research project related to pre-service and in-service teachers' understanding and use of ratio as determined through their responses to a five question survey developed by a member, Dr. Sarah Berenson. The project survey was administered by four RDC members from Ireland, Portugal, and the United States. Pre-service and in-service teacher participants were grouped as Primary Teachers (K-6), Secondary Science Teachers (6-12), and Secondary Mathematics Teachers, (6-12). The volunteer unnamed participants were asked to complete in ten to fifteen minutes a one page form containing the following: 1. What does the term "ratio" mean to you? 2. When do you use ratio? 3. Who else uses ratio? 4. How do you represent ratio using mathematical symbols? 5. Draw several representations of how ratios are used. The results of the responses and the analyzes of these answers were presented in the Science and Mathematics Research and Development Centre (RDC) at the ATEE Conference in Eskisehir, Turkey, August 25-29, 2012. Research Question: What are differences between public and private university students in their responses to the ratio survey? Groups: The groups to be surveyed are students attending public universities near the private university whose students completed the survey. Data: Data collected from the surveys will be analyzed using the same criteria as the previous studies then the results will be compared to the results of the original study. Theoretical framework: The information collected from volunteer pre-service teachers regarding their responses to the five question survey will add to the body of knowledge previously obtained by the Science and Mathematics Research and Development Centre (RDC) now called the Science and Mathematics Educational Community and may be used in a collective study of how ratio is interpreted, used, and explained in several different countries. This can be used by the RDC and ATEE participants to further their knowledge base for teaching ratio with a broader understanding of how different cultures utilize the concept of "ratio," how it can be a tool in teaching mathematics, and how "ratio" can be used in everyday life experiences.
018 - Investigating representations of ratio among high-school mentors & teachers involved in mathematics teacher training in Israel: implications for teacher education Batya Amit Levinsky College for Education, Israel The concept of ratio has been identified as problematic for many students and at least some teachers of mathematics. The need to address this area of teachers’ content knowledge for teaching through appropriate teacher education has been acknowledged. In 2011, in an attempt to address this issue, the Science and Mathematics Education RDC at ATEE initiated a study of prospective teachers’ content knowledge of ratio for teaching mathematics and science. Building on this research, this paper reports on an ongoing study of the concept of ratio. We suggest that the concept of ratio be developed among other concepts into a reflecting factor within mathematics teacher education. The study focuses on two main college programs: the MTEACH program studies towards a Master of Education degree, and the DELTA program for a team of excellent teachers elected to combine studies and practice in the field. Three research questions were studied: 1. What meanings and representations of ratio are offered by teachers, students and mentors involved in high school teacher education programs in Israel? 2. How useful are the data in exploring the students’ relational understanding of ratio? 3. How can the instrument be used to provide for a class activity that will allow students to reflect on and clarify understanding of ratio? A one-page instrument was devised (ATEE 2011), containing four items: 1. 2. 3. 4.
What does the term ‘ratio’ mean to you? a. When do you use ratios? b. Who else uses ratios? How do you represent a ratio using mathematical symbols? Draw several representations of how ratios are used.
The theoretical framework for this study originates with the fine and detailed literature related to ratio and proportion and their representations (Oldham, Stafford & O’Dowd 2014), and provides the theoretical framework for the research. The work is then set in the context of the ATEE Ratio Project. Adjustments to the curricula in high school in Israel were requested. We are now approaching the mid-end of the 1st year and findings suggest that the students, their teachers and mentors reflected surprisingly well during the process. In Glasgow, I plan to share most findings and hope to continue cooperation accordingly. Oldham, E, Stafford, P & O’Dowd, V 2014, Investigating representations of ratio among prospective primary teachers in Ireland: Implications for teacher education. The ATEE Conference 2014 Proceedings
019 - Between smartphones and tablets: improving teacher education programmes through mobile devices Davide Parmigiani, Marta Giusto University of Genoa, Italy This research was carried out at the department of Education, University of Genoa (Italy). The student-teachers attended a course named EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY during the first semester 2014/15. This course was focused on the use of mobile devices at school. The theoretical framework is based on the ideas of cloud and ubiquitous computing and on mLearning as evolution of eLearning. The research question is: Has the use of mobile devices affected the main aspects of a course included in a teacher education programme? We analyzed the following areas: 1. 2. 3. 4.
University activities individual studying organization at home students’ learning strategies interaction/cooperation among students
We involved 162 student-teachers. We administered an online questionnaire composed of 19 closeended questions and 5 open-ended ones. Each close-ended question was divided into two parts: the former referred to smartphones and the latter to tablets in order to point out the differences between the use of the two different kinds of devices. The data analysis showed that the use of mobile devices can improve the interaction/collaboration among the students and the search of information useful for studying. Instead, only the use of tablets appears crucial for the changes in the individual studying organization at home because of difficulties related to the smartphones’ small screens. Likewise, only the tablets improve the quality of the university activities. The smartphones are quick for the exchange of information and materials but they are useless for reading, modifying or creating digital materials. The most critical point is represented by the changes in the students’ learning strategies. The tablets seem to help students in enhancing the information elaboration, critical thinking and metacognition but they do not support the memorization of information. Consequently, the students need to use books in order to study for the exams. After the study, we can state that it is necessary to carry out a project with tablets to allow each students to study with a good device. Smartphones are only useful for interaction and exchanging information. For these reasons, the perspective of BYOD is enough to start and motivate the students in using mobile devices, but it is not a good basis to set up a complete project and sustain a deep change in teacher education programmes. Secondly, it is important to highlight the connection between the usefulness of mobile devices in supporting information, interaction and collaboration and a clear and evident improvement for the learning strategies and studying organization.
020 - Using partnerships in initial teacher education: A model for growing, defining, and guiding university-school partnerships Linda Hobbs1, Mellita Jones2, Coral Campbell1 1
Deakin University, 2Australian Catholic University, Australia
In both Australia and Europe, partnerships between teacher education institutions and schools are being positioned as key to initial teacher education, as well as the ongoing professional development of teachers within schools. The call is for mutually beneficial partnerships that “develop as learning communities” in Europe (Council of the European Union, 2007), and for formalised partnerships between universities and schools to enable “integrated” initial teacher education in Australia (TEMAG, 2015). In order for such partnerships to be designed and negotiated, there needs to be mutual clarity as to what constitutes a partnership, how the various key stakeholders might benefit, as well as what practices might be enabled through such partnerships. This paper documents the outcomes of a project exploring, analysing, collating and generating new ways of thinking about university-school partnerships and the experiences that they enable. The Science Teacher Education Partnerships with Schools (STEPS) Project team consisted of eight science education academics from eight campuses of five universities: Deakin University (lead), The University of Melbourne, RMIT University, University of Tasmania and Australian Catholic University. The project team examined the five independent science education programs of the project team by developing case studies, identifying key pedagogical principles and factors associated with the formation and effectiveness of the partnerships. This examination led to the development of an Interpretive Framework, which is a four-part framework for describing: 1) the processes of growing partnerships involving initiating, maintaining and evaluating a partnership; 2) a typology of partnerships that recognises value in all levels of embeddedness; 3) pedagogies or practices that can emerge because of partnerships in primary science education; and 4) how a partnership can lead to growth and change. These parts inform an Action Planning Tool. Partnerships are only valuable if they have impact. The findings from the STEPS project show that intended impact depends on the need and rationale, and commitment from each partner. The need for mutual benefit cannot be underestimated for partnerships to be sustainable. Developing successful and sustainable university-school partnerships involves attentiveness to ongoing, changing needs and institutional requirements, where the relationships involve a degree of risk taking and trust, reciprocity and mutuality, respect, adaptability and responsiveness. There are a diversity of approaches and types of partnerships, depending on the degree of embeddedness desired; they can be connective, generative, or transformative. The STEPS resources have been designed to be applicable to any partnership that is based on an educative process.
021 - Think, Code, Succeed: The Programming Studio as a games-based collaboration Pamela Cowan1, Elizabeth Oldham2, Ann Fitzgibbon2 1
Queen's University Belfast, 2Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
In both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, concerns exist regarding the shortage of teachers capable of teaching beyond basic digital literacy, and also about the lack of professional development courses for upskilling the present cohort of teachers to facilitate the introduction of coding to young students – hence inspiring them to choose Computing in the senior years of second-level schooling. Teachers and prospective teachers who specialised in computer science or programming in third-level education are probably unfamiliar with suitable programming languages for schools. Other teachers, if they have qualifications in the broad field of educational computing, are more likely to have taken courses in applied ICT or creative multimedia focusing on the use of digital technology in education. The collaborative project ‘The Programming Studio’ – supported by the Standing Conference on Teacher Education North and South (SCoTENS) – is using an innovative approach with direct relevance to the classroom to address these problems. It aims: to document levels of programming expertise and readiness among teachers likely to be interested in teaching programming; to allow a pilot group of teachers to master appropriate programming languages through online games-based learning. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) provides a framework for assessing teacher readiness, while the affordances of games-based learning are intended to engage and support teachers in learning to program successfully. For the first aim, a questionnaire was developed using a version of TAM adapted for programming, hence addressing TAM concepts such as perceived usefulness (for teaching), perceived ease of use, and image associated with teaching programming; it also sought appropriate demographic information. The questionnaire was circulated to a purposive sample (including, for example, teachers of ICT). For the second aim, three games with associated activities were designed, one for each of three programming languages. This paper first uses the lens of TAM to study questionnaire respondents’ backgrounds and expertise, especially for the 97 respondents willing to undertake the games-based learning activity; it then reports on the design and initial implementation of The Programming Studio games. In addressing two aspects of digital technology in education – programming and games-based learning – the findings underline the need for upskilling teachers using creative pedagogies which can be applied directly in the programming classroom. They also highlight some challenges and perceived benefits in setting up and implementing The Programming Studio as a collaborative teacher education partnership in both jurisdictions in the island of Ireland.
022 - Video pedagogy and competence based teacher education: Categorizing the pedagogical use of video - practises in competence based education Janne Länsitie, Juha Pousi Oulu University of Applied Sciences, School of Vocational Teacher Education Pedagogical video has been acknowledged as a viable form of teaching and learning. The School of Vocational Teacher Education in the Oulu University of Applied Sciences (OUAS) alone created more than 600 educational videos in 2014. The number is escalating especially due to the extensive amount of lecture capture videos in higher education. Online learning, instruction and multi-purpose mobile devices have generated increased use and diverse practices of videos. The advantages of the video in supporting meaningful learning seem to be evident (Hakkarainen 2011). Our key question is this: How do the different types of pedagogical videos support the competence based teacher training process? A key element of teacher training in OUAS is competence based approach. Many aspects of competence based teacher education are enriched by the use of video. These include developing the self-assessment and reflecting on the teaching practice (Koster & al. 2008). Video documents and stimulated recall are used in most of the learning activities taking place in the blended classroom setting outside the school. There are several ways of categorizing videos in educational context. We propose a five-fold categorization. Based on the grounded theory tradition the videos are identified based on their intended use in the teacher training program. The researched videos have been created by teachers, students and found from external sources. Categories: 1. Lecture capture (and remote viewing). Lecture capture is the most commonly used way of producing videos in higher education. 2. Project video. Project videos and video reports document a learning task or for example a series of events within a learning process. 3. Demonstration video. These videos can be made by teachers to teach a particular skill or by students to show their competence. 4. Video-stimulated recall where the students - usually with the teacher - reflect on the recorded teaching practise. 5. Trigger video which is used as a starting point of discussion, assessment or a particular learning task. Hakkarainen, P. (2011). Promoting Meaningful Learning through Video Production-Supported PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 5(1). Koster, B., Dengerink, J.J., Korthagen, F. & Lunenberg, M.L. (2008). Teacher educators working on their own professional development; goals, activities and outcomes of a project for the professional development of teacher educators.Teachers and Teaching, Theory and Practice, 14(5-6), 567-587. 80
023 - The dynamics and challenges of collaborative task development John De Cecco1, Ton Koet2, Lindsay Dombrowski1 1
University of the West of Scotland, UK, 2University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
The paper sets out the theoretical context and design characteristics of a multi-beneficiary project funded with support from the European Commission. The main objective of the 'Pan European Task Activities for Language Learning' (PETALL) project is the development of a task-based learning and teaching (TBLT) approach in modern foreign languages which, equally, seeks to enhance the learning potential of technology in the L2 classroom. The authors present an overview of the management of the project and discuss the dynamics and challenges of collaborative task development across a consortium of ten European partner countries, each one comprising an institution involved in teacher education and a secondary school partner. The authors address the complexity of this transnational collaborative work, discussing how examples of best practices were managed so that they could be applied in different national contexts. A critical assessment of the practical implications of the implementation of the activities in the classroom are presented along with evaluations made by students and external evaluators, all of which have helped task designers to improve the effectiveness of the learning and teaching experiences employed in TBLT methodologies. Experiences are shared within the consortium and with the wider teacher education community via dissemination activities and open access to the project website. The collaborative nature of the work of the project is of direct relevance to the main theme of the annual conference.
024 - Creating Collaborative Learning Communities Through Global Partnerships Sirkku Männikkö Barbutiu Stockholm University, Sweden Introduction We recognize the need to explore the challenges of teachers’ continuous professional development in the context of globalization and rapidly changing conditions for societies through technological development. This paper introduces a holistic model for educational development that links together the different stakeholders and institutions within the landscape of compulsory education and the education of teachers. It will discuss the possibilities and challenges of such a model in providing solutions to the current issues in the field of education. Argument The central argument is that teacher education and continuous professional development of teachers need to collaborate in systematic ways in providing a conducive context for overall educational development and to facilitate effective use of open educational resources. Discussion In line with the UNESCO Policy Forum (2014) visions of “Equitable Quality Education and Lifelong Learning for All by 2030”, this paper presents a global initiative called Open Teacher Ed that aims at: providing teachers with quality training holistic view on teacher education promoting interaction between the different actors in educational sector providing access to Open Educational Resources with high quality and to expert knowledge combining theoretical and practice knowledge providing access to peer support / collaboration / knowledge creating a global community of educators Open Teacher Ed is a new model for global partnerships for teacher education, continuous professional development of teachers and school development. The model envisions creating a networked global community of practitioners and learners where professional development can become a natural part of the everyday practice of teachers.The model aims to provide teachers with a supportive frame for examining own practice and students’ learning with the goal of continuous development of the practices as part of the common endeavor to improve education. The building of networks on the local, regional, national, and international levels creates opportunities for effective sharing and use of educational resources. Global networks form collaborative learning communities of professionals where ideas and experiences can be adopted and adapted globally. Concluding remarks Challenges of the model are its sustainability and the continued engagement of governments/teacher education institutions/schools in the process of intimate collaboration and partnerships. Implications Open Teacher Ed initiative clearly creates opportunities for teacher education to engage in school development, which can feed back to teacher education. Relevance The paper engages in the theme of collaborations and through presenting the collaboration and partnership model it provides a concrete case for examination of feasible partnerships.
025 - Expert in Teaching - IRIS Connect Annemette Heine Wullum, Frits Hedegaard Eriksen VIA University College, Denmark Much teacher education research revolves around the key issue of the impact of teacher education on student teachers’ learning outcomes, and substantial evidence suggests that insights from teacher education do not serve as a sufficient corrective to students’ personal history-based beliefs and perceptions of teaching and learning. A matter that is always neglected in connection with teacher education reforms is the crucial impact of the students’ personal history-based experiences and backgrounds on their learning outcomes. Too little attention has been paid to students’ problems with linking that which teacher education offers to who they are, what they have already learned and the complex tasks to be solved in educational practice. The content and structure of teacher education rest on the main assumption that students–through alternate studies at the college of education and periods of teaching placement–will acquire the necessary professional knowledge, skills and attitudes. The assumption is rooted in the belief that knowledge and action are closely related, yet there is no evidence that this is the case. In the research and development project “Expert in Teaching–IRIS Connect”, we address the abovementioned challenge. We seek to create and explore collaborative learning contexts that foster awareness and reflection so as to genuinely challenge students’ beliefs. The study rests on the assumption that students’ personal history-based beliefs can be made visible, and through video-based analyses, feedback, discussions and reflections, their layman conceptions of what constitutes effective teaching can be challenged. The IRIS Connect data collection and data processing tools will support these endeavours. Theoretically, the study is rooted in sociological systems theory and radical hermeneutics. In terms of research methodology, we are inspired by both ideographic and nomothetic methods as well as the concepts of the teacher as researcher and action research. Our research findings confirm our assumptions. Video-based analyses and discussions do challenge the students’ beliefs. When confronted with their own teaching, they are motivated to ‘see themselves as another’, and they respond to it sensitively. They are also capable of changing their teaching strategies. Our findings have important implications for teacher education. If one of the aims of teacher education is to deconstruct the students’ layman conceptions of what constitutes effective teaching and replacing them with professional competences, it makes sense to work with videodocumenting the students’ teaching–particularly to work systematically, analytically and reflectively with data from their teaching.
026 - Student Teachers’ Perception of Teaching Competences and Its Impact on Their Readiness for The Job Zulaikha Mohamed, Martin Valcke, Bram De Wever Ghent University, Belgium Teacher education has been identified as a ‘problem’ for at least thirty years (Cochran-Smith 2005). A major contribution to this ‘problem’ is due to the specific nature of teaching where, unlike the majority of other professions, ‘beginners have as many responsibilities as their experienced colleagues’ (Tait 2008). Some recent studies suggest that the competences that are covered in teachers colleges are only a proportion of what real-life teachers require to perform their job efficiently. This study looks into 1) the nature of teaching competences in the context of government institutions in the UAE and their compatibility with international teaching competences, and 2) to what extent these are dealt with in teacher education programs, as perceived and indicated by student teachers. It is primarily guided by the following question: What is the student teachers’ perception of teaching competences in the UAE? Taking in account previous work in this area, we test the hypothesis that the perception of teaching competences may determine new teachers’ level of readiness for the job (Allen 2013). In the surveys conducted, each participant in the study was asked to fill out a ‘readiness for the job’ Likert scale to reflect the key competences, based on their personal experiences and individual views. Student teachers from different years were included in this study, in consideration of the programs that introduce practical experiences at different points throughout the four years of teachers' preparation. Although the participants in general reflected a high level of self-confidence about teaching, they acknowledged their need to learn more about the content of the subject that they were expected to teach in addition to learning how to teach it. The model of examination of the fundamental competences that underpin the curricula of teacher education although the research work is confined to the UAE can be referenced for similar teaching contexts elsewhere. The model presents the approach within which the teaching competences are introduced, implemented and modelled to student teachers, and how it may indicate student teachers’ readiness for the job. The study addresses the problem with the current curriculum of teacher education in many teachers’ colleges around the world, where the emphasis on the practical component of their teaching programs has resulted in teachers that are competent in the practical divisions of teaching, such as managing the learning environment, and less competent in the knowledge of the subject per se and similar domains.
027 - Multicultural Education Programmes in Initial Teacher Education in England: The Case Studies of SCITT (School-centred Initial Teacher Training) Yoko Morito The University of Tokyo, Japan Context of the research In this globalisation era, multicultural societies have a significant impact on education in many countries as people face issues of race, nationality, and ethnicity. England, which has a long history as a multiethnic and multicultural society, has faced many changes in regards to integrated education, and multicultural education. Recently, education at schools in England has taken a more global perspective that might also be required at other schools around the world. The issue of educating teachers for diverse schools needs to be addressed urgently (OECD, 2010). Therefore, of particular significance is how initial and continuing teacher educations offer trainees or teachers the means to effectively respond to the diverse needs of pupils. This paper attempts to provide new insight into the development of multicultural education programmes in initial teacher education by focusing on the distinctive features of SCITT (School-centred Initial Teacher Training) case studies. Research question Two research questions are addressed: 1) what kinds of programmes are provided in the SCITT curriculum in order to support the multicultural education at English schools; and 2) what kinds of learning outcomes and effects for trainees are intended through offering the programmes in the curriculum? Theoretical framework This paper employs the framework of reflecting on from preactive to postactive curriculum planning and development (Jackson, 1968), and reference rationales for effective teacher education for diversity (OECD, 2010). Research methodology Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the operational managers and trainees of several SCITT courses from October to November, 2014. Findings The case studies show that SCITT providers: 1) organise a variety of multicultural programmes with a structured and cross-curricular approach toward educating trainees throughout an academic year; and 2) arrange practical school experiences through greater use of specific diverse schools. Implications for teacher education Findings indicate the need for setting up programmes based on multicultural perspectives of enhanced knowledge and skills in response to local needs and schools’ practical needs. It is vitally important for teacher education institutions to have cooperation with local partnership schools and institutions to support trainees’ professional learning. Continuous qualitative research will be needed to clarify the true nature of trainees’ learning effectiveness and developments, and to explore the ongoing process of trainings and professional development throughout a comprehensive teacher education for diversity. Relevance to the ATEE themes This paper has relevance to the ATEE sub-theme in terms of diversity, professional learning, and partnerships in teacher education. 028 - The Role of the General Teaching Council for Scotland in encouraging 85
Teacher Education through Collaborative Partnerships Tom Hamilton, Vikki Robertson General Teaching Council for Scotland, UK GTC Scotland is the Professional Statutory Regulatory Body (PSRB) for teaching in Scotland. GTC Scotland was formed in 1965 but since 2012 it has been an independent body which determines school teaching qualifications, sets the standards for teachers and accredits all programmes of initial teacher education. It encourages professional enquiry and career-long professional learning for all teachers. PSRBs are sometimes subject to the criticism that they operate in an autocratic and top-down manner but GTC Scotland actively endeavours to act in partnership with the various actors involved in education in Scotland. The argument of the presentation will be that the approach taken towards developing teacher education through collaborative partnerships in Scotland stems from GTC Scotland's own legal framework, the Council's overt expression of the values of fairness, integrity, trust and respect, professionalism and sustainability, and from the broadly consensual approach taken to education in Scotland. GTC Scotland's approach to teacher education will be placed within a theoretical framework which recognises teachers as change agents (Fullan 1993), activist teachers (Sachs, 2003), adaptive experts (Darling-Hammond and Bransford, 2005) and within the inquiry as stance movement (Cochran-Smith and Lytle, 2009). It will recognise different theories of teacher professionalism such as the effective teacher (Mahony and Hextall, 2000), the reflective teacher (Pollard, 2008), the enquiring teacher (Stenhouse, 1975) and the transformative teacher (Sachs, 2003). It will explore the three paradigms of professionalism suggested by Evetts (2012): occupational professionalism, organisational professionalism and, finally, a contemporary hybrid professionalism. The presentation will conclude with a consideration of how innovation in teacher education in Scotland is encouraged by GTC Scotland through its central role within the education system. The implications for teacher education through collaborative partnerships will be explored, firstly in Scotland, and then considered more widely to see if there are possible messages for the wider European teacher education community. The presentation will relate to the overall conference theme and directly to the sub-theme of teacher education through collaborative partnerships. It will also potentially relate to a number of the ATEE RDCs including the In-Service Learning and the Development of Practice and the Professional Development of Teacher Educators but its closest focus will be on the Professional Development of Teachers.
029 - Conversation patterns in mentoring conversations during internship in initial teacher education (ITE) Sissel Østrem, Nina Helgevold, Gro Næsheim-Bjørkvik University of Stavanger, Norway Conversation patterns in mentoring conversations during internship in initial teacher education (ITE) This paper addresses mentoring during internship in initial teacher education (ITE) in a Norwegian context. Especially conversation activities and patterns during mentoring conversations have been object of research. The material consists of 54 video-recorded mentoring conversations between student teachers and their mentors during internship in the fourth semester of initial teacher education (ITE). Data was collected in two different settings. First, mentoring sessions in a business as usual situation (BAU). Thereafter mentoring sessions after an intervention with a lesson study design (INT). Four subjects, mathematics, physical education, natural science and English as a foreign language, were included in both conditions. The questions we pose are: What differences could be observed when comparing conversation patterns in the two settings? Will Lesson Study contribute to more enquiry-based attitudes among the student teachers and their mentor teachers? Collaborative enquiry is seen as important when learning teaching (Cochran-Smith & Lytle 1993, Edwards & Protheroe 2003) in reform minded ways. Activity theory and mediating tools are applied as a framework for interpretation and discussion of results. Mediational means are of psychological or physical kinds (Vygotsky 1986). Säljö (2001) argues that physical artefacts must be understood as human ideas and thoughts transformed into a material form and integrated into human actions. Course handbooks are both psychological and physical tools (Douglas and Ellis 2011). In our study a handbook was developed by university tutors and mentor teachers in collaboration as preparation for INT. We developed an observation protocol for the main category Conversation activities. Based on the empirical data the following subcategories were used: Describing, Giving reason, Lecturing, Asking questions, Giving advices and Commenting. Our data can be labeled ‘thin descriptions’ (Rivera & Tharp 2004). Such an observation system will make possible comparisons of events across time, institutions, communities, or cultures. Observations were registered every two minutes also marking who was doing the talking and which physical tools that were present. Striking differences became visible between conversation activities in the two conditions. In INT, participation was more evenly distributed and enquiry oriented approaches more apparent. In addition, observable physical tools were more frequently used, and also the duration of the conversations were longer. If enquiry oriented attitudes are to be stimulated in ITE it seems as if the traditional mentoring conversations should be extended with other approaches including development of mediating tools.
030 - Educating the phronetic teacher Cristian Simoni University of Padua, Italy
Theme My research concerns the question of the value of practical knowledge in education and educational relationship contexts through the retrieval of the Aristotelian concept of phronesis and theory of action. Far from abandoning the value of theory, I try to reallocate it in a very important position: for the education of the teacher, and, in order to respond to the uniqueness of educational and collaborative contexts, I propose a view of practical action where a central role is given to such concepts as intention, disposition and judgement of the teacher. Aim Final aim of the discussion is to counterbalance a technical approach to education and to teacher education itself, confident that, in order to pursue the aspiration to create collaborative learning communities we need to educate teacher to a first-person deliberating, flexible and ethical-involved rationality. Theoretical framework The Aristotelian sense of praxis implies distinguishing three kinds of knowledge: theoretical, practical and poietical; this could represent in education the possibility to have a broader frame in order to evaluate if are respected anthropological and ethical implications in our educational theories and actions. The practical (praxis), it is claimed, is the genuine educational and responsible condition where the human in his entirety is considered and the practical is also something very different from the poietical. The masterwork by the famous Greek philosopher, the ‘Nicomachean etichs’, represents the starting-point of my theoretical discussion but I follow too the arguments by Joseph Dunne who, in his work ‘Back to the rough ground’, has operated a great retrieval of the Aristotelian perspective in education. Concluding remarks The final implication of my theoretical research for teacher education is the possibility to justify a three-dimensional teacher education: theoretical, (pure) practical 1: centred on phronetic action, practical 2 or poietical: application of methods, efficient processes. Implication for teacher education and relevance for ATEE conference theme and subtheme The immediate implication of my work is the attempt to rethink the identity of teacher education, especially focusing on a broader concept of professional practice, where an ethical discourse is also involved. Secondly, I think that inside the concept of collaborative learning community isn’t implied, in my opinion, either a pure theoretical speculation or an applicative sense of practice, but a model for action which needs a rational justification in order to distinguish it both from predestined theoryapplication model and from a simple doxastic personal-intuitional model.
031 - Partnerships and Professional Learning: Navigating the Unknown Lorraine Ling1, Lorraine Ling1, Noella Mackenzie2 1
La Trobe University, 2Charles Sturt University, Australia
The authors look afresh at partnerships and the conjunction between partnerships and the professional learning of educators. Three elements are considered: an era of “supercomplexity” (Barnett, 2000); new types of partnerships; and the political impact of decades of New Right politics and policy on education. In the current era of fragility, infinite change, unknown futures, contested knowledges and messiness, partnerships can be unpredictable and perhaps even unknown. Barnett (2000) refers to this context where these characteristics are predominant, as an era of supercomplexity. In this era quality teacher Professional Learning (PL) designed to assist teachers and teacher educators to be able to live and work with confusion, contested interpretations, absence of universal knowledge, messiness and instability is critical. Educators are required to accept that the future is unknowable and that knowledges are infinitely revisable. Partnerships necessary for effective teacher professional learning must also move into unknown territory. Professional learning as we refer to it here is known by many labels such as ‘Continuing Professional Development’ (CPD), ‘Professional Development’ (PD), and ‘In-service Teacher Education’ (ITE). In using the terminology ‘Professional Learning’ (PL) we deliberately place the emphasis on the need for educators themselves to do the learning and to be at the heart of owning and designing this learning along with partners with whom they can strategically and productively work. The authors identify the need for new horizons in terms of partnerships to advance professional learning. However, the supercomplex context in which educators currently work, is a product of several decades of a New Right political regime with its parallel and somewhat perversely contiguous strands of neo-liberalism and neo-conservatism. A third strand joins the previous two and powerfully influences the context of education. This third strand is that of New Public Management (NPM). The alliance between the three strands has been referred to by Apple (2006) as ‘Conservative Modernization’. This movement has brought with it a new assemblage of potential partners in the education context. In considering both partnerships and professional learning of educators as two key themes, new directions are proposed which provide educators with ways to work effectively and creatively with new partners in ways that challenge some of the established paradigms.
032 - An Exploration of the Impact of Teachers' Ontological and Epistemological Beliefs on Approaches to Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Middle Years' Program at the International School of Amsterdam. Mary Kelly International School Amsterdam, Netherlands This research used a case study approach to investigate the impact of teachers’ beliefs on approaches to teaching within the context of the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program at the International School of Amsterdam, a long-established IB World School. Within this teaching environment teachers and students are predominantly multilingual global citizens, English is the language of instruction, learning is concept, process and inquiry-based, and teachers are encouraged to incorporate constructivist teaching methodologies into their personal pedagogies. The study explored the possible impact of teachers’ ontological and epistemological beliefs on their personal pedagogies and considered the relevance of their beliefs to future professional development opportunities. The study was positioned within the constructivist-interpretive research paradigm and, therefore, allowed for the emergence of a holistic and contextualized understanding of teachers’ beliefs and practices. Over the course of the research, comprehensive teacher profiles were generated for each of three respondents, all experienced international school teachers, who teach Science, English Literature, and Spanish to middle year students. Each of the respondents was observed on multiple occasions and these observations were followed by lengthy conversations and semi-structured interviews. Each of the resulting profiles was aligned with contemporary and historical literature that explores possible links between ontological and epistemological beliefs and teaching approaches. The findings indicate that the different blends of constructivism preferred by the respondents corresponded closely to their personal interpretations of the nature of reality and knowledge. In addition, the universal concepts they were drawn to, their impressions on the nature of learners, their approaches to curriculum planning, and their views on emergent learning in groups all seemed to relate to their ontological and epistemological leanings. Given that teachers' beliefs form the base of their personal philosophies of education, the findings indicate that there is a need to take teachers' views on the nature of reality and knowledge into account when considering and designing professional development opportunities. These findings contribute to emerging areas of research that explore the impact of teachers’ beliefs on teaching approaches and they indicate that experienced teachers with sophisticated epistemological and ontological beliefs would benefit from access to more progressive professional development opportunities.
033 - Mentoring beginning teachers: exploring the impact on the mentors’ professional development Kay Livingston University of Glasgow Increasing emphasis is placed on improving the support given to newly qualified teachers (NQTs) during their first year of teaching in a growing number of countries in Europe and beyond (European Commission, 2013, OECD, 2010, Hobson et al, 2009). In Scotland, all NQTs are supported during their first year of teaching through an induction programme that is much admired internationally and praised as ‘world-class' (OECD, 2007). The programme supports NQTs in a number of ways, including support from a mentor. It is recognised that the quality and impact of mentoring is central to the success of the teacher induction programme (Donaldson, 2011). This requires recognition of the knowledge, skills and dispositions mentors need and the provision of training. Gaining a better understanding of the high quality support mentors need to improve NQTs’ development as teachers and of the way mentoring impacts on the mentors’ own professional learning is relevant to teacher educators in every country implementing induction programmes for beginning teachers. The study presented in this paper involved the implementation of a training programme for 26 primary and secondary school mentors in two local authorities in Scotland. The study had several aims concerning the impact of mentoring but the research question relevant to this paper is: what is the impact of the mentor training and the application of the mentoring processes on the mentors’ own professional learning in the context of learning communities of teachers? An interpretativist research approach was taken and the theoretical framework underpinning the study drew from situated learning theory (Lave & Wenger, 1991), critical constructivist perspectives (Norffke, 1997) and adult learning theory (Mezirow, 1997; Taylor, 2008). The method involved the analysis of qualitative data collected during 3 days of training over a 4 month period through mentor interviews and via mentors’ written reflections on the mentoring processes with their NQT(s). The findings presented highlight the complexity of learning and teaching, induction and mentoring processes and the importance of ongoing mentor training in a learning community of teachers. The analysis shows the positive impact on the mentors’ professional development, particularly their ability to deepen their reflection on learning and teaching which had a significant impact on their own practice (Livingston and Shiach, 2013 & 2014). These findings provide teacher educators engaged in supporting teachers’ professional development through learning communities in an international context with evidence of the benefits of peer-mentoring for the NQTs and their mentors.
034 - What Do Participants Learn from Participating in a Research Group? Quinta Kools, Bob Koster, Tine Béneker, Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke Fontys Teacher Education Institute, Netherlands Teacher educators' role in in being an active researcher is more and more acknowledged: teacher educators need to be able to do practioner research themselves and they are expected to support student teachers in doing research as well. This is a rather new role for most teacher educators and therefore there is a need to develop research competencies (Lunenberg et al, 2014). There are several opportunities to develop research competencies (Willemse & Boei, 2013) and one of them is to participate in a research group. As Boei et al (2014) suggest, it is beneficial to start with small research projects with a focus in one's own practice and to collaborate with others. In our institute, several research groups exist. In these groups, 5 to 8 teacher educators participate. They all receive 4 to 6 hours per week to work on their own inquiry and they discuss their work in monthly group meetings. The group is supervised and guided by a senior researcher (professor). The central question in our study is: 'what do participants learn from participating in a research group?. In total, 23 teacher educators of four different research groups participated in the study. Data gathering took place through oral and written interviews. Data were analysed qualitatively by coding the interview texts. After applying the codes, the researchers discussed the coding until agreement was reached. Findings reveal that participation in a research group leads to an increase in knowledge about research and about the subject studied. It also leads to behaviour in which the knowledge is applied, for example in mentoring student teachers in their research or in applying newly acquired subject knowledge in teaching. Interaction within the research group seems to be a powerful learning activity. The results of this study are helpful for (educational) institutions. Being research competent and research active is seen as an important contribution to development of the teaching profession as a whole and for teacher educators as individuals. Participating in research groups seems to be an effective way to build on research capacity and professional growth in broader sense as well. The subject of this study is relevant for the RDC Professional Development of teacher Educators.
035 - Getting to the Crux of a Creative Collaborative Academic Colloquium Gaele Macfarlane1, Hilal Atli2, Sally Hirst3, Bahar Gun4 1
University of Glasgow, UK, 2Bilkent University, 3Istanbul Training Institute, 4 Izmir University of Economics, Turkey
This is a study of the dynamics of a Turkish Professional Learning Community (PLC) ELTER, (English Language Teacher Education Research), a body created by educators from a variety of institutions in Turkey. A PLC has no fixed description but one proposed summary of definitions is, “a group of people sharing and critically interrogating their practice in an ongoing, reflective, collaborative, inclusive, learning-oriented, growth-promoting way”(Mitchell & Sackney, 2000; Toole & Louis, 2002 cited in Stoll et al. 2006, pp.223)”. What is common to these communities is shared values and vision, collective responsibility, reflective professional enquiry, collaboration, group and individual learning (Hord, 2004; Louis et al., 1995 cited in Stoll et al. 2006). ELTER, the focus of our study, was established with the aim of, “providing a forum for English language teacher educators and researchers to discuss and share their practices, experiences and research.” Although not institutionally bound, ELTER meets many of the criteria of a PLC with the added breadth of intention that collaboration at this level through the medium of research should impact on teacher education in Turkey in the longer term. In the light of this perspective we have chosen to call it a Professional Academic Learning Community (PALC). Therefore the focus of the study is to establish what features and characteristics of this PALC, ELTER, aid or hinder the dynamic and in turn the achievement of its goals. The study had two phases; the first phase was a cased based qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews with the members of ELTER, to find out their perceptions of the dynamic, focusing on conflict resolution, collaboration, teambuilding and creativity. The second phase was a comparison of the features and characteristics of ELTER with literature on institutionally bound PLC’s within the community and address the main research question: Do the common characteristics and the differences between ELTER and institutionally based PLC’s affect conflcit resolution, collaboration, teambuilding and creativity, and how do they do so? The concept of an inter-institutional PALC has the potential to create meaningful partnerships within institutions to further the overall goal of student learning. The findings and reflections gleaned by the researchers on the dynamic could be transferable for teacher educators in other contexts. Bibliography http://www.elterturkey.com Stoll, Bolam, McMahon, Wallace and Thomas (2006) Journal of Educational Change (2006) 7:221– 258 Ó Springer 2006 DOI 10.1007/s10833-006-0001-8
036 - Processes in movement: A promising "tango" between the Community of Policy-Makers and the Community of Teacher Educators Michal Golan MOFET Institute, Israel The MOFET Institute, a national organization of teacher education institutes, was established with the aim of creating communities of practitioners for teacher educators as well as strengthening the profession's knowledge base. The first decades of its existence were dedicated to defining areas of action and supporting the building of frameworks for the various communities. In recent years, the Institute, representing the community of teacher educators, has expanded its field in the direction of the community of policy-makers. The aims of this new direction are to establish an ongoing discourse for the benefit of both sides, to increase the influence and mutual involvement regarding the educational system and teacher education issues, and to express an attitude of responsibility for pupils at school and for student teachers in teacher education institutes. This includes working together in joint research, joint think tanks, joint forums and more. The theoretical framework of this endeavour derives mainly from researchers discussing the complex, sometimes frustrating, relations between research and policy-making. Researchers often feel that research does not inform policy, and policymakers, who work under high pressure to give quick solutions to urgent problems, very often fail to base their decisions on research findings or accumulated practical knowledge (Kingdon 2010, Guberman et al. 2015). Models of action aimed at widening professional discourse show great potential benefits for both sides. However, such cooperation requires the building of mutual trust, frames for actions and well-constructed work procedures (ibid. 2015). The cooperation between policy-makers and teacher educators helps the latter gain knowledge about the educational system and reveals the thinking motivating its leaders. It equips policy-makers with a wider base for their decision-making. It also establishes some kind of joint responsibility for teacher education and for the educational system as a whole. We see collaboration between teacher education institutes and policymakers as bearing high potential to bring the voice of teacher educators to the front stage of education, to enhance the recognition of their expertise and to make them significant partners in educational discourse.
037 - From campus to Online Learning -Experience from the first year of online training in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Steinar Karstensen Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway The purpose of this research has been to identify factors that have been important in connection with the construction of an online Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Technological Program(TP). The research builds on the experience gained through the first year. The research is conducted at TVET in TP(TVET_TP) at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HIOA). Where we in autumn 2014 started with three parallel classes: (1) campus, (2) decentralized and (3) Online Class. These will be separate independent classes while they also will get something in common. They should all through the same curriculum. It is the students themselves who applied to the class they would go in. TVET_TP is a generic term for the four programs: Service and Transport(ST), Building and Construction(BC), Electricity and Electronics(EE) and Technical and Industrial Production(TIP). These in turn have many different trades under them, such as the EE has electrician, electronics engineers, telecommunications installer etc., Together represent the four program areas over 100 different trades.(LK,06) The education consists of professional subjects, vocational subjects and practice. The background for the student's is journeyman/trade certificate and a minimum of four years of practice within in the trade. In the education there are added seven basic principles underlie working and organizing. (1) Practice oriented (2) Problem oriented (3) Adventure oriented (4) Experience Learning (5) Exemplary learning (6) Value Oriented (7) Student Influence and management by objectives. These will also be the targets for the online tutorial.(HIOA,2014) The research will take a closer look at the students' experience of being online students, how the fundamental principles are safeguarded, pedagogical and didactic considerations, technical challenges and the opportunities and limitations that have emerged so far. Since there are three classes that will carry out the same curriculum, but in three different settings, we will also look at whether there are any differences. At the same time this while be particularly challenging when they do not relate to the same variables or have the same context. The research method will be largely analyses conducted in AtlasTi based on qualitative data from student responses, learning log, course evaluations and some quantitative data based on course evaluations. The analysis has a phenomenological approach. (Postholm,2010)
038 - Subject content of the study program and the overall competence to teach as technical and vocational teacher Birger Brevik, Kurt Einar Stokke Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway From the autumn of 2014 introduced new curricula based on new state curricula from 2013 for the Norwegian teacher education. In this context we have chosen to study different perspectives on how academic content addressed in the study program, as they are shown in two different educational institutions curricula. Our research question is thus as follows: How is the subject content of the vocational subject (VS) taken care in program for technical and vocational teacher education? As a framework for the study, we use a revised version of Goodlads conceptual framework for the study of practices in the education field (1979). They state curricula for teacher training in Goodlad framework defined as the formal curricula, and the individual education institution curricula as the perceived curriculum. Furthermore the institutions practice to implement curricula (the implemented curriculum) and student experiences and the development of personal and professional competence (the experienced curriculum) are included. In our study discuss and we discuss transactions and interpretations between these different curriculum domains. Furthermore we discuss outcomes of teacher education, and especially the concept of employability as vocational teacher in the high school. The theoretical framework is therefore curricula, national policies and curricula, in the context of Goodlads framework and Wenger four concepts related to learning: community, meaning, identity and practice (Wenger 1998). This set into an education where unity and coherence in education is an important factor. In the part of the study that this paper covers, we have a qualitative document analysis looked at the state curriculum with accompanying guidelines and the individual institution subject and topic plans. We have therefore seen institutions transactions and interpretations of the state curriculum specified in the intuition educations. For this we have used the constant comparative method as described in grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014), through an open, axial and selective coding process. Our preliminary findings show that there is a big difference between institutions interpretation and transformation of the state curricula. The results and the work will form the basis for more research and initially a quantitative study as a follow-up and completion / verification program. The result of the study will also contribute to changes see government guidelines for vocational teacher education.
039 - Indigenous knowledge in the light of a social theory of learning and Vocational Teacher training in Uganda Arne Ronny Sannerud Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway What is Indigenous Knowledge? There is currently great interest and increasing attention to indigenous knowledge. There are numerous of definitions, but I confine myself to the following definition by Warren (1991) and Flavier (1995): “Indigenous knowledge (IK) is the local knowledge – knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society. IK contrasts with the international knowledge system generated by universities, research institutions and private firms. It is the basis for local-level decision making in agriculture, health care, food preparation, education, natural-resource management, and a host of other activities in rural communities”. (Warren 1991) Indigenous knowledge in light of "modern" learning theories My Interest would be to examine and discuss indigenous knowledge in light of "modern" learning theories such as communities of practice (Wenger, 1998). That means, I am not interested in Indigenous knowledge as knowledge phenomenon, but rather as learning experiences / learning phenomenon. I have an assumption that learning situation within indigenous knowledge possibly will have considerable in common with learning in communities practice (Wenger 1998). The other perspective in the paper that could be discussed are Indigenous knowledge and communities of practice may be relevant in Vocational Teacher Education Programme in Uganda. Why this should be given attention? In case, how can it be "introduced"? The paper will be a theoretical discussion and thereby not based on empirical data.
040 - How profitable is it to use pedagogical improvisation in order to enhance diversity in teacher practise? Åse Nedrebø Bruvik, Sidsel Sandtroen Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway Improvisation in teacher practise is important to meet the students/ pupils demands of motivating and interesting teaching methods. In counselling, guidance, supervision and vocational education, the encounter is a significant quality in which the process of supervision develops. To be able to listen to what other people expresses both verbally and non-verbally, is a starting point for any counselling and teaching activity (Tveiten (2006), Skagen (2011), Mc Leod (2007)). Therefore, training that enhance the feeling of safety and relational confidence is essential to enhance the spontaneity of the creative process. “The increasing use of scripted teaching methods ------, is --- disturbing” says Sawyer in his article (Sawyer, R. K, (p. 2, 2011)). This is also a challenge in teaching supervision. There is a risk of using scripted methods that not necessarily is compatible with the situation at hand. In our contexts, improvisation will benefit the process and the outcome of the teaching and counselling situation. By adapting improvisational techniques from the arts field and make them appropriate to the education field, it will enhance the process of teaching and supervising, and the outcome can be more beneficial for the person(s) that are in focus for development and learning. DeZutter talks about how the use of improvisation can enhance the training of professionals and could be applied and transformed to fit the teacher-training field (DeZutter (2011) p. 35). The purpose of this paper is to discuss in what way improvisation can be beneficial in the teaching and counselling processes and how we can use improvisation tools in the education of teachers and supervisors. This is discussed from two on-going research projects about vocational teacher education and the education of counsellors. The theoretical framework of the studies is pragmatic philosophy (Dewey, 1997). Methodological framework will be Hermeneutics (Gadamer, 2004) and Action research (Aagaard Nielsen & Nielsen, 2006). The data for the studies consist of students’ logs, interviews, and strategic literature reviews. Keywords: Teacher practise, Improvisation, encounter, guidance, mentoring, vocational education.
041 - Action research and learning schools with focus on “Early intervention in schools to prevent learning difficulties” Karin Roernes, Vivian Nilsen The University of Tromsoe, Norway Abstract The article connects to longitudinal action research (2014-2017). The Municipal of Tromsoe has political decided to strengthen three schools at risk (living conditions, numbers of special education etc.) by having two teachers instead of one in the first and second grade in primary school. Through a Partnership Contract between school owner (Tromsoe kommune) and the Teacher Education (UiT, The artic university of Norway), more specific, an interdiciplinary research group, we will be able to follow the schools different efforts to improve practice. The Teacher Education will provide schools with competence support and the schools are obliged to make their practice and projects transparent for example by presenting on Dialog Conferences (DC). The Teacher Education are responsible for the organization of the DC with the idea of making this as meeting and collaborating learning arena between practice and theory, "the third space" (Lillejord og Børte 2014). Master students in Teacher Education can do there data collection in these schools as part of the contract. The main question in this longitude research connects to the political task concerning the fact that too many children seems to have individual decision for special education (Jenssen og Roald 2014). Will increasing the number of teachers combined with better quality in adapted education as early intervention in school, help reducing the need for special education? The research approach and research methodology are both Action research and Action learning (Tiller 2006). The idea goes back to the concept "teacher as researcher" presented by Lawrence Stenhouse (1975). Researching teachers and learning schools are key concepts in recent policy documents in Norway – described as a way to reform both schools and teacher education. In the first year (2014-2015) the researchers have been focusing on building relationship with school leaders and teachers involved in the partnership. We have also systematically observed and collected dated both through small surveys and in meetings for example discussions after presenting requested lectures at the schools. The Dialog Conference is also an important field for collecting data. Interviews with the three principals have been consistent. The first article (the aim is three) in this longitudinal research, will focus on how school culture has an impact on the motivation for school development, and how to find ways to overcome challenges within the frame of a partnership between three schools and Teacher Education.
042 - What kind of intercultural competences do the students bring in to the intercultural class? Vibeke Solbue1, Ingrid Helleve2 1
Bergen University College, 2University of Bergen, Norway
The context of the study is a first grade class (age 16) in an upper secondary school in Norway. The study was conducted in a Programme for General Studies. In this class there are 24 students, 6 of them immigrants and 5 Norwegians born to immigrant parents. As researchers we supposed to find problems concerning integration. However, the findings from the study showed that the class could be defined as an intercultural class (Solbue 2014). This presentation is a follow-up study. We want to go deeper into the data-material in order to understand more about the competences the pupils bring with them. What kind of intercultural competences do the students of the intercultural class bring in to the class? Theory Intercultural theory has a strong focus on dialogue and interactions. Intercultural education is based on the ideas of transcultural and multicultural education. However, it also includes interaction between the participants (Portera 2012). Intercultural competences appreciate diversity in a way that enriches the individual as well as the entire society (Portera 2014). That means that in order to understand the concept intercultural education, the interaction between the members of the society should be taken into consideration. Intercultural competences could, according to Portera (2014), be defined as: A set of abilities, knowledge, attitudes and skills, that allow one to appropriately and effectively manage relations with persons of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds (p. 159). Methodology The data-collections that is already collected was triangulated by using various instruments (Hammersly & Atkins 2007) such as field notes, observations of teaching situations, interviews (30minute interviews with 19 youths), and field conversations (conversations with students in the field). We use narrative analyses of the interviews in order to understand more of the interculturural competences the students bring within the intercultural class. Narrative analysis seeks to identify common themes or conceptual manifestations in the story that has been collected (Polkinghorne 1995). The narratives are structured by the interactive aspects of intercultural competences highlighted by Portera (2014). This interactive model of intercultural competences has a focus on the area of the self, including external environment, attitude, personal characteristics, interpersonal relations, knowledge and skills. Findings The intercultural class is a class where diversity was accepted (Solbue 2014). By analyzing the interviews with the students we will try to understand more of the concept of intercultural competences within the intercultural class. Implications Teacher education needs more knowledge about intercultural education.
043 - The writing buddy-scheme at two teacher education institutions – (how) does it work? Geir Luthen1, Solveig Strangstadstuen2, Bente Klevenberg2, Kristin Solli1 1
Østfold University College, 2Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Context of research This study examines the writing buddy-scheme for students in the post-graduate teaching certificate programs at Østfold University College and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences in Norway. The scheme offers support for students for whom Norwegian is a second language and students who think it is challenging to write academic texts. Fellow students volunteer to guide the students who have writing difficulties with writing tasks connected to the study program. We explore the scheme from the point of view of the participating students. Research aim What are the outcomes for students participating in the writing buddy-scheme? Theoretical framework We draw on M.M. Bakthin’s (1981) understanding of polyphony. According to Bakthin there is a learning potential in the polyphonic perspective. We see the concept of polyphony as closely related to the concepts of diversity and pluralism as presented by Biesta (2006). Methodological framework We use a qualitative approach and have interviewed students in focus groups. Findings Our findings suggest that: several students that receive guidance think it is very useful in order to develop their writing competence many of the students who receive guidance establish a close relationship with their writing buddy the students who give guidance learn how to mentor and give formative assessment to writers the students who give guidance get insight in and learn from experiencing how fellow students create their texts our material suggests a dynamic through which the scheme might both challenge and reinforce preconceived and prejudiced perceptions about students with another cultural- and linguistic background. The study shows one way that students in teacher education programs may serve as learning resources for each other and at the same time gain practical competence in handling and responding to diversity. Implication for teacher education The study shows one way that students in teacher education programs may serve as learning resources for each other and at the same time gain practical competence in handling and responding to diversity. Relevance for European educational research Our study is relevant because it deals with a subject that is challenging for teacher education programs also in other countries.
044 - Dialogues about poverty: meeting the diverse needs of student teachers Hanneke Jones Newcastle University, UK Socio-economic disadvantage is, especially in the UK, recognized as a key factor in educational underachievement (Raffo et al., 2009), and increasing numbers of pupils are living in poverty. Although of course many of these problems are structural, evidence that social inequalities are commonly exacerbated by teacher stereotyping (Gorski, 2012; Portelli & Sharma, 2014) makes it, in my view, imperative that issues of social justice and poverty are addressed in Initial Teacher Education. In this paper I will present some findings from my teaching on the Primary PGCE course at Newcastle University which focuses on the links between poverty and education, much of which takes place in the form of dialogue. Students can vary widely in the extent to which they are engaged with these issues, in their political views, and in the extent to which they have experienced socio-economic disadvantage themselves. A wide range in opinions is thus often expressed in these discussions and of course group dynamics and the ideas which are not expressed add further levels of complexity. These factors can both enhance and compromise the dialogic space (Wegerif, 2010) in which transformation can take place. Furthermore, my stance as a teacher educator in these discussions is not that of a neutral facilitator. During the presentation I will thus explore the validity of dialogue (Burbules, 2000) in the teaching of social justice. References Burbules, N. C. (2000) The Limits of Dialogue as a Critical Pedagogy, in: Peter Trifonas (Ed) Revolutionary Pedagogies. New York, Routledge Falmer. Gorski, P. C. (2012) Perceiving the Problem of Poverty and Schooling: Deconstructing the Class Stereotypes that Mis-Shape Education Practice and Policy, Equity and Excellence in Education, 45(2), 302-319. Portelli, J. P. & Sharma, M. (2014) Uprooting and Settling In: The Invisible Strength of Deficit Thinking, Learning Landscapes, 8(1). Raffo, C., Dyson, A., Gunter, H., Hall, D., Jones, L. & Kalambouka, A. (2009) Education and poverty: mapping the terrain and making the links to educational policy, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(4), 341-358.
045 - The Reflections of Teacher Educators Related to Teachers’ Professional Learning Needs Esmahan Agaoglu Anadolu University, Turkey Nowadays, rapid changes observed in all areas effect educational organizations considerably. Although these changes have an important impact on all educational staff, they effect teachers more dramatically than other staff. Hence, it is required to put more emphasis on teachers’ pre-service and in-service education. The education which teachers take during pre-service education is not sufficient to gain teachers professional competencies. So teachers’ continuing professional development is gaining more and more importance. To get desirable results from the activities of pre-service and inservice education, which complement and support each other, teacher educators must be aware of teachers’ educational needs. The support of teacher educators, which is only related with designing inservice activities, is not generally enough to meet teachers’ educational needs. Besides in-service activities, it is expected that teacher educators must update curriculum of teachers’ pre-service education directed to meet teachers’ current educational needs. However when the social functions of educations are considered, it is required mutual interaction and effective cooperation between teacher education institutions and local and national organizations which employ teachers to meet the mentioned expectations having great importance for future of the society. For this reason, it is expected that employer organizations must determine professional development activities which teachers need, and share this findings with teacher education institutions and then teacher educators must examine these needs. From this point of view, a research was designed in order to determine and meet the in-service education needs of teachers and principals, working at schools in Eskisehir, Turkey. In addition, it is aimed to investigate opinions of teacher educators to reflect mentioned predetermined educational needs to curriculum of teachers’ pre-service education. The study is designed by using both qualitative and quantitative approach. The quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire prepared to determine in-service education needs of teachers and principals. At the end of the quantitative analysis, it was found the most needed 7 educational topics of teachers and principals. Then, interviews were conducted with 10 teacher educators to investigate their opinions about meeting educational needs of teachers and school principals and reflecting pre-determined educational needs to curriculum of teachers’ pre-service education. The study is still in the process of analyzing. However, pre-results showed that teacher educators has started to design activities to meet the in-service education needs of teachers and principals. Moreover, it is observed that they are ready to update curriculum directed to meet determined teachers’ current educational needs.
046 - The effect of transformational leadership on educational outcomes: An overview of research Maria Eliophotou Menon University of Cyprus, Department of Education Transformational leadership is a popular conception of leadership, which has been investigated in educational contexts in recent decades. It emphasises the role of leadership in the reform of the organisation and the motivation of followers. In the transformational leadership model proposed by Bass and Avolio (1994), transformational leaders are prepared to take risks in order to challenge the status quo and provide stimulus for change and innovation in the organisation. Contemporary research on transformational leadership has attempted to examine the effect of transformational leadership behaviours and practices on educational outcomes. The outcomes investigated in relevant research range from student achievement to teachers’ job satisfaction and professional commitment. The paper aims to provide an overview of research on the effects of transformational leadership on educational outcomes. Moreover, it provides a critical assessment of the theoretical foundation of transformational leadership and the methodological issues linked to transformational leadership research. The theoretical basis for the transformational leadership model is discussed, mainly in relation to the development of the theory by Bass and Avolio. Moreover, the main instrument used in research on transformational leadership, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), is examined with reference to its use and characteristics. In addition, conceptual and methodological weaknesses of transformational leadership theory are discussed. In an overview of research on transformational leadership, the findings of studies dealing with the effects of transformational leadership on educational outcomes are presented. The overview includes studies conducted in different countries using various methodological approaches. The review of research on the topic provides evidence regarding the possible link between transformational leadership and important educational outcomes such as student achievement and teacher job satisfaction. The paper draws the implications of the findings for the effectiveness of transformational leadership practices at the school level. Reference is made to ways in which teacher education and training programmes can benefit from transformational leadership practices. Moreover, suggestions for further research are made, taking into account the weaknesses and limitations associated with both theoretical and methodological dimensions of the transformational leadership model. Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
047 - Development and Embedding of the Horizontal Learning System into the Hungarian Institutional System of Pedagogical Services László Horváth1, Tünde Simon2, Anikó Kovács3 1
Eötvös Loránd University, 2University of Szeged, Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development, Hungary
The presented research is part of the Hungarian Social Renewal Operation Programme (3.1.1. – 21st century school education (development and coordination) 2nd phase) under the Institute for Educational Research and Development. The aim of the project is to develop and embed the network of reference institutions into the system of pedagogical services. Applying a mixed method approach in an applied action research paradigm the main aim of the project was to develop a diagnostic tool and a practical methodological toolset for public education institutions to help them analyse and develop themselves into professional learning communities (PLC). Our research questions are the following: (1) What are the best practices around the world regarding collaborative learning? (2) What are the main challenges of Hungarian public education institutions becoming PLCs? (3) How can these traits be developed? We based our work on the PLC concept which is characterised by a culture of collaboration, a resultoriented approach and a setting of measurable targets focusing on the child and its learning (DuFour, 2004; DuFour, DuFour, Eaker and Many, 2010). PLC is a continuous process where teachers work together, share their knowledge in oder to develop themselves to be able to serve the needs of the students better (Hord, 1997; Protheroe, 2008; Feger and Arruda, 2008). It based on a socialconstructivist approach (Vigotszkij, 1971) and utilise the results of workplace learning (Beckett and Hager, 2002; Jarvis, Hord and Griffin, 2004; Billet, 2010). There are several studies which links participation in PLCs with positive change in teacher practice and increased student performance (Trimble and Peterson, 2000; Holland, 2002; Hipp and Huffman, 2003; Bolam et al., 2005; Supovitz, 2002; Vescio, Ross and Adams, 2008). The research team organized two to four workshops in six institutions (seeking variance maximalization) where building upon the results of the diagnostic tool several methodological tool were tried out and refined building upon the community feedback. Besides the workshops we analyzed the documents of the chosen institutions and conducted semi-structured interviews. The findings were summarized in case studies. The main result of the research is the validation of the diagnostic tool used to analyze institutions along self-developed PLC dimensions. The results showed that even the most advanced reference institutions there is room for improvement in reflectivity and leadership support which is a signal for teacher education as well.
048 - Instructional leadership of successful school principals and their support for professional development of teachers Beyza Himmetoğlu, Coşkun Bayrak Anadolu University, Turkey Changes in many fields of social life, which are the outcomes of transition to information society and globalization, have led the transformations in educational organizations. Educational organizations have been taken as the source of change and dynamism and schools have been seen as the organizations promoting creativity and collaboration and making students to think, criticize and produce (Numanoglu, 1999). Changing demands of society from schools have resulted with the changes in roles and responsibilities of all the school members, especially school principals. With the increasing focus on students’ learning, school principals’ responsibilities on curriculum development and instruction have been increased. So qualifications of school principals such as being learning oriented, developing themselves and guiding teachers’ professional developments have been emphasized (Alvoid ve Black Jr., 2014). The responsibilities of 21st century school principals to support teachers’ success are as following: 1) helping to formulate a shared vision, 2) creating a strong communication network at school, 3) allocating the resources by taking the vision into consideration, 4) providing necessary information for school members and 5) supporting the professional development of teachers (Murphy, 1994). Empowering leadership behaviors of teachers, supporting teachers to participate in decision-making processes and encouraging a collaboratively learning school are seen as instructional leadership roles of school principals which constitutes a part of changing roles of them (Portin, et al. 2006). Instructional leaders work on curriculum, instruction and assessment with the collaboration of teachers (Marks and Printy, 2003). In this regard, it can be said that instructional leaders have roles and responsibilities such as participating in education process directly, creating a learning school, providing the needed resources for the school success and supporting professional development of teachers. Classroom visits of school principals and their instructional guidance for teachers can also be evaluated as the parts of instructional leadership behaviors. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the instructional leadership behaviors and supports for teachers’ professional development of successful school leaders. As a part of “Successful School Principals Project”, this study has been designed as a descriptive model based on qualitative research method. The participants consist of school principals of 5 schools, which are considered as successful schools. The data of the study are in the process of analyzing. Keywords: successful school principals, instructional leadership, teachers' professional development
049 - Partnerships for Innovation in Teacher Education. From Local Collaborative Learning Communities (the COMconeixer project in Catalonia, Spain) to international networks (the KBIA project in the USA) Mireia Montané1, Joana Salazar2, Sandra Lund3 1
Col·legi de Doctors i Llicenciats de Catalunya, 2University of Balearic Islands, 3 Knowledge Building In Action (KBIA), Spain
A different kind of education is needed to prepare people to respond to needs – of modern societies facing challenges requiring innovative solutions and of industry needing access to a global workforce with different skills than those of previous eras. Methodologies utilized for teaching around topics have supported a more collaborative approach to learning. These methodologies stem from designs for deep understanding, in particular those that have been at the core of knowledge-building pedagogy for over a decade in preparing children with skills needed to tackle tomorrow’s challenges. In interpreting educational issues through local-global comparison and the use of analytic frameworks, the designs for deep understanding relate to implementing changes based on empiricallytested methods. Teaching around topics through collaborative learning has been highly researched during a period of 25+ years in the form of knowledge-building pedagogy. Currently, a multi-nation design research project aims to go beyond 21st century skills to address the needs of a knowledge society, reflecting the work of scientific and research communities utilizing collaborative learning mechanisms and the sharing of ideas toward deep understanding of problems. In this manner, research is used not only to evaluate but also to create innovations, dedicated to the 21st-century principle of knowledge for public good. The practical application of this research in primary and secondary education is computer-supported collaborative learning, most apparent knowledge-building classrooms. The pedagogy was first institutionalized on a system-wide basis in Catalonia, Spain through COMConeixer, translated as a “common building of knowledge.” Here, the teachers’ role is more of a facilitator of learning rather than a transmitter of pre-determined knowledge, with an eye on promoting UNESCO ICT standards for teacher education. With knowledge building, teachers direct student research on issues through the Knowledge Forum (KF), an electronic workspace for the collection of notes and multi-media presentations produced by the students. Common topics are selected for student research, such as climate change, water, sustainability, smart cities, etc. When students are partnered with their peers in other countries, the topics studied from a local perspective become global when research results are shared through the KF and videoconferencing. In knowledge-building classrooms world-wide, pupils work in small groups collaborative learning environments to apply critical thinking skills in researching issues. They engage in problem-solving through the contribution of ideas and theories. In effect, they are achieving deep understanding while mastering 21st Century skills – the 4C’s of future education: critical thinking, collaboration, communication and creativity.
050 - An investigation of student teachers’ professional development following a teaching placement in Southern Africa Gerd Wikan, Jørgen Klein Hedmark University College, Norway An investigation of student teachers’ professional development following a teaching placement in Southern Africa The increased diverse and complex context of the teachers work implies new challenges for teachers and teacher education. Theoretical courses in diversity and cross-cultural understanding are important, but it is questionable how capable these types of courses are of changing the “meaning perspectives “of the students. An international practicum is more effective in transforming students’ perspective and prepare them for work in a diverse classroom than theoretical studies (Cushner 2007; Quezada 2004; Walters et al 2009). This paper presents a case study aimed to explore and analyze teacher students’ professional development through a 3 months international practicum. The study draws on discourses within transformative learning theory, intercultural sensitivity and diversity in an attempt to understand the teacher students experience during an international practicum (Mezirow 1981, 1989; Taylor 1994; Bennett 2004). Experience and experience of otherness is central in Mezirow’s theory of perspective transformation. Students that take part in international practicum will experience both. They will teach in an unknown setting and experience the differences in teaching in another context. This will challenge the teacher role they have developed and help them to develop a critical attitude towards what they have accepted without question. The cultural shock that many will experience may be a catalyst that might lead to a change in frames of reference that might lead to increased cultural sensitivity. To learn to be mindful of other people and open to diversity implies recognition and experience of otherness. The study employs a qualitative design and involve semi-structured and structured interviews of participants in international practicum and teachers that have taken part in international practicum previously. They are invited to reflect upon their experiences during the practicum period. The main finding is that the participants have gained new perspectives of their professional role and of pedagogic practices because of the international practicum. They realize how local context, cultural values will influence classroom practices. Many claim that they feel competent to teach in a diverse classroom due to their experiences gained from international practicum. International exchange programme seems to be effective to enhance the teacher’s skills to teach in a diverse classroom. This type of programme should be an integrated part of teacher education programmes. The findings are relevant to teachers’ diverse professional learning needs and the implications for teacher educators.
051 - Global citizenship and teacher education: transformative learning through international practicum Jørgen Klein, Gerd Wikan Hedmark University College, Norway Many educators has expressed concern that teacher students in the Global North are unprepared to meet the challenges of globalization and increased cultural diversity. The concept of global citizenship has become particularly relevant to teacher education as it might be a framework for addressing global learning. In addition to developing relevant skills and competences for a global economy, global citizenship is characterized by pedagogical approaches that encourage critical thinking and active participation. International study abroad programs are promoted as an efficient way of developing intercultural competence and global perspectives through its abrupt exposure to ‘otherness’. Exposure to international ‘others’ is viewed as one way to lessen nationalistic and ethnocentric attitudes while increasing global citizenship (Lough & McBride 2013). Our focus in this study is to investigate how Norwegian teacher students transform their global perspectives through a three month international practicum in Namibia, with special emphasis on tolerance, ethnocentrism, and understanding of local/global processes. The concept of global citizenship is a generic term that views the citizenship concept as a sociopolitical idea that implies a moderate sense of commitment to a particular country along with a moral sense of solidarity and responsibility to people in other countries. It is closely connected to the concept global awareness, which Merryfield (2008) defines as knowledge, interest, and engagement in global issues, local/global connections, and diverse cultures. Global awareness refers to knowledge and understanding of the interdependence of the world, an attribute that is fundamental for developing global citizenship. In educational terms, global awareness can be seen as the learning processes and skills needed to achieve a perceived goal of global citizenship. This study employs a qualitative design that involve (i) semi-structured and structured interviews of participants, both before and after their international practicum; (ii) focus-group interviews during the practicum; (iii) in-depth interviews with selected key informants; and (iv) interviews with teachers that have taken part in international practicum previously, and now work in schools. Our study find that many students express more tolerance and openness towards otherness after the practicum than before, which corresponds with the idea of global citizenship. However, a more negative attitude to certain aspects of Namibian culture and educational practices is also found. This is discussed in relation to ethnocentric and neo-colonial thinking. The study is relevant to the ATEE conference themes ‘Multiple and interconnected contexts for teacher education’ and ‘Teaching for diversity and creativity’.
052 - Enriching education with Intelligent Physical Arts: CirSchool European project. Moving beyond 21st Century Learning? Mireia Montané1, Ian Smith2, Trea Owens2, Anna Locchi3, Michele Paoletti3, Thanassis Karalis4 1
Col·legi de Doctors i Llicenciats de Catalunya, Spain 2Albert&Friends Circus, London, 3 III Circolo Didactico, Italy, 4University of Patras, Greece
The CirSchool project offers an emergent model aimed at developing physical competence for lifelong participation in physical education that supports children and young people’s development as competent, confident and healthy individuals. The emphasis on high-stakes student testing has left a void in physical education, physical arts education and the health/wellness of all children, which has affected the overall development of the whole child in schools. The CirSchool project aims at developing, testing, systematising and disseminating an innovative cross-level and transnational learning environment based on circus practices and an intelligent physical arts curriculum. The project aims to integrate circus pedagogy, which already relies on a consistent research and intellectual foundation, into formal education settings across pre-primary, primary and secondary schools. CirSchool intends to consolidate a complex pedagogical approach based on an interconnected, knowledge-building creative classroom. Within such contexts, teacher educators and teachers will have the opportunity to acquire a new approach to enhancing their role as innovative facilitators of children’s and young people’s learning. Teacher educators and teachers would teach circus as an intelligent physical arts activity. An intelligent physical arts curriculum can be defined as a process through which students learn and consolidate transversal skills using activities that are kinetic and healthy in nature. These activities are specifically aimed at the acquisition of physical, mental, social and health skills. Focused on enquiry, a common framework has been developed for teacher training seminars using the same approaches, but in different cultural contexts and countries with a focus on observation and evaluation. We have produced guidelines for teacher educators as a result of these workshops. Collaborative international innovation networks ‘are the most productive engines of innovation ever’ according to Swarm Creativity author Peter Gloor. We assume he is correct. CirSchool teams operate in this mode and are demonstrating advances that are newsworthy on several fronts: the re-focusing of education as an integrated package of physical, mental and social capacities; and the development of teacher educator professional networks where the belief in complex educational changes offers a more balanced curriculum. Integrated health and physical arts education takes time to be implemented, so we need to start now. We need to develop school-universitygovernment partnerships, which can demonstrate the power of multilevel engagement (as experienced in snowball seminars), as well as collaborative learning communities that enable self-organisation using the CirSchool project as the generator of improvements in education both in and out of school, and internationally along with technological support. The CirSchool project has been founded with the support from the European Commission (Reference: 539954-LLP-2013-CH-COMENIUS-CMP, Comenius Multilateral Projects/2013-4921)
053 - In-service science teacher education: an analysis of the diversity of courses available in the North of Portugal Laurinda Leite, Luís Dourado, Sofia Morgado University of Minho, Portugal Although teaching-related relevant competences development starts during pre-service teacher education programmes, teachers’ professional knowledge has to be further developed through inservice training. In Portugal, in-service training courses are organized by diverse institutions, being the most common higher education institutions and school networks. Hence, the question is: how does the in-service courses focus relate to the diverse teacher education knowledge components? According to the Portuguese law, initial teacher education programmes must include five components: subject knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, general educational knowledge, teaching practice, educational research knowledge, and cultural, social and ethics knowledge. These requirements are consistent with some authors that argue for the depth of the theoretical knowledge that a teacher needs to hold as well as for a diversity of things that a teacher needs to be able to do. Inservice training should lead teachers to develop and update the knowledge-base acquired during initial teacher education. It should also lead teachers to fulfil their professional needs. However, in-service courses are often organized based on the teacher educators’ own interests as well as on teachers’ perceived needs, instead of being based on teachers’ own felt needs. This raises a question about the consistency between teachers’ needs and the in-service training courses made available to them, and another one about the consistency of the set of in-service courses and the recent science education research agenda. In-service courses organized by a higher education institution or by a school network from the north of Portugal, accredited by the national agency and available from its webpage were analysed. Results indicate that in-service training programmes focus on the diverse teacher education components but they tend to concentrate on general issues. In addition, there are differences in the numbers of courses focusing on the diverse school subjects, being Chemistry the one with a minor amount of courses, as well as on the diverse science education themes, being lab work the issue with more courses. Hence, results indicate that it may be hard for teachers to find in-service training in some subjects and/or issues. Besides, they would be useful as a starting point for a follow up investigation on whether or not those in-service courses fit teachers’ educational needs so that teacher educators can find ways to better make their actions fit teachers’ own training needs. This paper may be relevant for the conference theme on Teachers’ diverse professional learning needs and the implications for teacher educators.
054 - Teacher and student multi-modal reasoning about representations to develop students’ conceptual understandings in science Bruce Waldrip1, Vaughan Prain2 1
University of Tasmania, 2La Trobe University, Australia
Objectives of study We aimed to identify teacher and student reasoning processes as students engage with a sequence of representational challenges in science. Theoretical Framework There is strong recent interest in researching students’ reasoning in the science classroom (Osborne, 2010), focused on strategies to replace traditional transmissive approaches with “more dialogic classroom interactions”. In this study, we utilize an approach to student learning through a teacherguided focus on students’ representational reasoning (Waldrip, Prain & Carolan, 2010), drawing on Roberts’ (1996, p. 423) “trialogue” model that aims to develop three-way reciprocal linkages between teachers’ and students’ representations and domain knowledge. Sample of Study Over 200 lower secondary science students in five regional Australian high schools, taught by 10 science teachers, participated in the study. Research Approach Most classes were video-recorded in a natural classroom setting. In this interpretive study, the recorded talk, images and artefacts were analyzed for common themes and for patterns of reasoning based on Dolan and Grady’s (2010) measures of reasoning. The teachers were asked not to assume that students understood topics until they could represent an understanding consistent with the teacher’s intentions. Although the teachers discussed with the researcher what was observed, the teachers maintained autonomy over content and teaching and learning methods. Findings The teachers adopted various approaches. Teachers who favoured directed instruction tended to display more limited reasoning patterns than those teachers who challenged their students to demonstrate their reasoning through evidence-based claims. The teachers who used directed talk, struggled to make timely judgments and to provide guidance that enabled students to understand representational tasks and to redress misunderstandings or ambiguities. Implications for Teacher Education We suggest that this guided student representational work provides critical learning opportunities for students’ conceptual learning as well as understanding the key role of representational adequacy in claim-making in science. Teacher educators need to develop in pre-service teachers the skill to cultivate school students’ ability to construct and interpret accounts of their observations and reasoning, and become active in the learning process. References Dolan, E., & Grady, J. (2010). Recognizing students’ scientific reasoning: A tool for categorizing complexity of reasoning during teaching by inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21 , 3155. Waldrip, B., Prain, V. & Carolan, J. (2010). Using multi-modal representations to improve learning in junior secondary science. Research in Science Education, 40(1), 65-80.
055 - Current teaching standards and norms for the natural sciences in Serbian primary and secondary schools Milan Stojkovic1, Vanja Manitasevic2, Jelena Andjelkovic2 1
Friedrich Schiller University, Germany, 2The Regional Teaching Training Centre, Serbia
After the disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991 and 1992, Serbia retained the structure of schools and the educational system; many Serbian standards and norms for natural science were also adopted from Yugoslavian school and teaching programmes. The current norms for teaching chemistry in Serbian primary and secondary schools are a clear example of this, as they are directly drawn from these norms for teaching natural science, as well as from Yugoslav vocational curricula from the late 1980s, which were themselves influenced by post-World War II Western and Eastern European school programmes. In addition to these reformed norms, new standards were also adopted in 2001. This article will present the teaching standards and norms for natural science (i.e. physics, chemistry, and biology) in primary and secondary schools in Serbia. It will also discuss current problems concerning the implementation and realisation of these teaching standards and norms. The teaching of chemistry will be discussed in particular detail, including the creation, development, and transformation of teaching standards and norms since 1945. The Serbian and German federal standards for teaching chemistry will also be compared and analysed in terms of standards, structure, concepts, and levels; example tasks will also be given. In addition to a historical overview of Serbian teaching standard development, this article presents current teaching standards and norms, identifies problems in their implementation in the teaching of natural science, and highlights similarities and differences with the teaching standards and norms of other European countries. Although Serbian national scientific teaching standards and norms were originally based on Yugoslavian school standards, there have been a number of changes in the last fifteen years, which are primarily evident in the redefinition and introduction of new standards and norms, as well as in changes in the needs and curricula of modern natural science teaching. A deeper and more comprehensive analysis, as well as a comparison with the school standards and norms of other European countries, is needed to improve these standards further, and to improve both the theory and practice of teaching natural science in Serbian schools. This article is a follow-up to the presentation ‘Vocational and professional training of the teachers of the natural sciences in Serbia between yesterday, today and tomorrow’, which was held at the annual ATEE Conference in Braga in 2014.
056 - “Three Partite Co-operation” Supporting Science Teacher Education Ari Myllyviita Viikki Teacher Training School of University of Helsinki, Finland Context of the research In Helsinki University we have a working model called the ‘Three-Partite Cooperation’ (later TPC), where we discuss division of work between the three partners: the Department of Teacher Education, faculties of different subjects (e.g. chemistry, physics, mathematics) and the Teacher Training Schools. Co-operation between starts from the student selection process. At the University of Helsinki, the Faculty of Behavioral Sciences is responsible for the selection process and its practical arrangements. The selection committee has members from the training schools and faculties of different subjects. The whole study programme is discussed and planned within the ‘Three-partite Cooperation’ mentioned earlier in order to avoid time consuming duplication or overlapping guidance and teaching. Rough division of work lies between pedagogical knowledge, subject knowledge and practical knowledge. Research approach/question This research is a practical case research to analyze the usefulness and meaningfulness of this cooperation. The research questions are: How TPC helps/could help Teacher Educators at their daily work as a mentor/teacher educator? What issues are/should be dealt with during common meetings and seminars? Comparing this work in University of Helsinki and with the other university, where there is no cooperation, might show the quality issues which comes from having a useful and meaningful cooperation. Theoretical framework The theoretical framework is the Communities of Practice of Science Techer Educators. Idea of Communities of Practice (CoP) gives a suitable theoretical framework to work with. CoP is defined so, that you need: the domain, the community and the practice. The domain lays on science teachers training, the community consists of science teacher educators and the practice is teacher education. This is also the target and the area of development of this study. Research methodology Analyzing the practice of this co-operation – meaning documents, minutes of meetings and theses of seminars and so on. Also a questionnaire has been made for student teachers about the practice. Findings Some results are gathered from questionnaires made for student teachers. How they found the cooperation, are there overlapping issues? Results supported the co-operation. This study is also a collection of good practices noticed during the development process. What kind promoting innovations are needed, how to facilitate to process and how we spread the knowledge and experiences within the group. meeting, seminars, common wiki agreed division of duties (and work) Implications for teacher education This is “Teacher Education through collaborative partnerships” –issue. 114
057 - Children's Mathematical Reasoning: Scottish schools and the state of play Andrew Gallacher1, Helen Martin2 1
University of Glasgow, 2University of Aberdeen, UK
This paper will present findings from the Improving Children’s Mathematical Reasoning (ICMR) project, funded by the Carnegie Trust and supported by Prof. Jeremy Hodgen and Education Scotland. The focus is on the evidence gathered of multiplicative reasoning across the transition period between primary and secondary within the Scottish education system. Scottish specific surveys, such as the Scottish Survey of Literacy and Numeracy (SSLN) and previously the Scottish Survey of Achievement (SSA), provide a broad-brush picture of achievement in mathematics within primary and secondary education over time where surveys such as the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) provide an international overview. Overall, where Scotland is maintaining its mean score over time other countries are moving forward. More worryingly, the SSLN continues to indicate a significant decrease in achievement between P7 and S2 (11-14 year olds) where the proportion of students performing well/very well decreases from over 70% in P4 and P7 to 42% in S2. Alongside this, the proportion of students underperforming rises sharply from less than 2% in P4 and P7 to 32% in S2. Similarly, the data from the recent ESRC-funded ICCAMS project, led by Prof. Jeremy Hodgen, indicates that in England the proportion of the very lowest attaining students in year 9 (S2) has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Most of the areas of concern identified by the SSLN, measurement; fractions, decimal fractions and percentages; and chance and uncertainty, have been resilient over time. These are persistent areas of concern that are predominantly built on a need to move from additive to multiplicative reasoning; pivotal hurdles to students participating in mathematics post-16. Therefore a deepening understanding of the nature of these issues requires a stronger evidence base within the Scottish education system. Adaptations of the ICCAMS surveys and interviews for the Scottish context are used to explore the nature of Scottish students’ algebraic and multiplicative reasoning in P7 and S1 and to compare findings between England and Scotland. These instruments were piloted with a group of seventy-four P7 and S1students in December 2014. During March 2015, the revised instruments will be used with approximately 400 students from eight schools and subsequent interviews with groups of students will be used to explore in more depth the students’ reasoning in response to specific survey items.
058 - Math Bubble Project – teachers’ peer tutoring as a basis for changes on teaching elementary school mathematics in Poland Malgorzata Zytko University of Warsaw, Poland The paper presents an innovative project introduced in local community in Poland concerning changes in elementary teachers' thinking and working style in math education. The main aim of this project is to use teachers' peer tutoring as a path to initiate exchange of experience, individual ideas, innovative practice in teachers' self-education. The project stems from the belief that the real progress in education is the result of a change in teachers' working style and the effectiveness of this change depends on teachers' active participation, their involvement in it and collective responsibility for it (Fullan 2001). In the beginning of this project the self-study group of 20 teachers from 8 primary schools was created. They were working together, using peer tutoring and experts' support in math, psychology and pedagogy during one academic year 2012/2013. The concept of this project is related to the strategy of social change implemented by J. Nowak (1996) and called “bubbles of new in a sea of old”. At present, in this project participate more than 120 teachers. The initiative group of teachers – protagonists have published a set of articles which describe the results of the project in their own work at school. During the analysis of teachers’ texts I am trying to answer for the main question: What is the source and scope of individual teachers change in approach to math teaching in elementary education? The research method is a qualitative descriptive -interpretative analysis of the written texts prepared by 20 participants who initiated this project. The main findings of the research are following: - Transformed image of pupil in teachers’ opinion - Significance of intuition in learning process - Offering children room for their own activities, both success and failure - Deeper reflection of teachers concerning their role in education. The project emphasises the significance of teachers peer tutoring as a driving force behind the real change in education. It also stresses the “bottom-up” approach as the most efficient mechanism transforming education. References: Nowak, A.: 1996, Bąble nowego w morzu starego. Podwójna rzeczywistość okresu przemian społecznych, w: Marody M., Gucwa-Leśny E. (ed.), Podstawy życia społecznego w Polsce, Instytut Studiów Społecznych, Warszawa, s. 229-251). Fullan, M.: 2001, Leading in a Culture of Change, Jossey- Bass, San Francisco
059 - Using argumentative activities to assist Taiwanese primary teachers to teach mathematical reasoning Tsu-Nan Lee The University of Melbourne, Australia Students’ academic achievements are influenced by teachers’ domain-specific knowledge and teaching instructions (Mayer & Marland 1997). Taiwanese future primary teachers lack knowledge of reasoning in mathematical content knowledge (Tatto et al. 2012), and they are not able to use effective teaching strategies to clarify students’ misconceptions (Hsieh, Lin & Wang 2012). These problems may originate from the curriculum and teaching instructions. The Taiwanese curriculum is the ‘content-orientation’ type (Laschke 2013), and it adopts the approach of ‘problem solving’ in mathematics (Li & Shimizu 2009). Taiwanese teachers prefer to use direct teaching instruction in the mathematics class setting (Chiang & Stacey 2013). For these reasons, they may show that the teachers’ teaching instructions are not able to encourage students to reason, and students just solve mathematical problems directly. Therefore, this study aims at developing teaching strategies to help primary teachers to improve students’ competence of mathematical reasoning through argumentative activities. The competence of mathematical reasoning could be improved through argumentative activities (Hennessey, Higley & Chesnut 2012), and they are able to cultivate students’ mathematical understanding (Vanderhye & Zmijewski Demers December 2007/January 2008). Argumentative activities are developed from the definition of argumentation. Argumentation refers to the oral or written discourses that students employ with mathematical concepts to link premises and a conclusion (Durand-Guerrier, Boero, Douek, Epp & Tanguay 2012). Students’ discourse can be justified by other students, and teachers are able to detect whether students have any misconception in their discourses. This study combines Toulmin’s model (Toulmin 2003) with Duval’s theory (Duval 1998) as a framework in argumentative activities, and takes the sorting task of geometric shapes for an example to develop teaching strategies. There are four stages in argumentative activities: visualization, manipulation/measurement, example and generalization. These four stages each have a specific purpose to improve students’ geometric reasoning. This study illustrates teaching strategies to help teachers apply them in mathematics classes. Although these teaching strategies are easy to use in mathematics classes, Taiwanese teachers are expected to finish their teaching schedule on time. If Taiwanese teachers use all of the teaching strategies in mathematics classes, they may not match up with the expectations. Therefore, this study adapts teaching strategies in order to fit the Taiwanese mathematics class setting. This study is expected to provide some simple teaching strategies from a theoretical framework and help Taiwanese teachers to improve their teaching abilities in the topic of mathematical reasoning.
060 - Limitations in mathematical and pedagogical content knowledge among first and second-grade in-service and pre-service mathematics teachers Juhaina Awawdeh Shahbari, Amal Sharif-Rasslan, Shaker Rasslan Al-Qasemi Academic College of Education, Israel Little research exists in the literature regarding the mathematical and pedagogical content knowledge required by first- and second-grade teachers—a circumstance that reflects the assumption that teachers understand foundational topics such as addition and subtraction, whole numbers, and other primary subjects (Mewborn, 2001). The current study investigates whether the training given to first- and second-grade mathematics teachers provides them with an adequate level of mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), through addressed the following question: How effective is the training received by pre-service teachers within the Early Childhood Education track and what level of first- and second-grade (MCK) and (MPCK) related to first- and second- grade content do they achieve? The sample of 300 participants consisted of 150 first- and second-grade in-service teachers randomly selected from 37 public elementary schools in Israel and 150 pre-service teachers studying in the Early Childhood Education track in a college of education in Israel, 75 of whom were first-year students and 75 third- and fourth-year students. The data was collected using two tools—an MCK test and an MPCK test, the items on each of these representing the four sub-domains studied in first- and second-grade: numbers, arithmetic operations, geometry/measurements and word problems. The principal findings of the study indicate that all three groups possess limited knowledge of both MCK and MPCK in all sub-domains. The in-service teachers achieved the highest mean in the MCK and MPCK and the differences between the in-service teachers and the two groups of pre-service teachers were statistically significant in general MCK and MPCK and in all the domains. Those between the two groups of pre-service teachers were not significant in most of the domains. The lowest MCK mean was in the geometry/measurements domain and the lowest MPCK mean lay in the word-problems domain. These results indicate the important of revising the curriculum intended for first- and second-grade pre-service teachers in the various mathematics and mathematics-education courses that deal with the mathematical and pedagogical contents aspects of first- and second-grade curricula. Reference Mewborn, D. (2001). Teachers’ content knowledge, teacher education, and their effects on the preparation of elementary teachers in the United States. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 3, 28-36.
061 - DIY philosophy in school practice and in teacher education Miroslava Černochová, Tomas Jerabek, Petra Vankova Charles University in Prague, Czech Rebublic The paper introduces empirical research carried out the Faculty of Education, Charles University in Prague. The authors have drawn inspiration from the EU project “Do It Yourself in Education: Expanding digital competence to foster student agency and collaborative learning (DIYLAB)” (diylab.eu). The concept of DIY is not totally new. “DiY culture can be defined as ‘a youth-centred and -directed cluster of interests and practices around green radicalism, direct action politics, [and] new musical sounds and experiences... a kind of 1990s counterculture’” (McKay, 1998). The idea of DIY activities in the DIYLAB European project is based on findings that “on-line teens enjoy new opportunities to create, remix, and share digital content” (Lenhart, Madden, 2005). The DIYLab project wants to transform deeply what takes place in schools and to create substantial change in learning and teaching practices. “Everyone has a capacity to think and to learn, to make and to act, to sense and to feel; these processes constitute something enduring about being and becoming” (Atkinson, 2011). Within the DIYLab project there are various designed and organised DIY activities for pupils (aged 6-15) and university students which support inquiry-based learning, co-operation and collaboration of all (including teachers) who are involved into DIY activity, the current curriculum, interdisciplinary relationship, self-regulation, and digital literacy improvement. DIY activities connect school learning with activities which pupils/students enjoy doing out of school. The DIY activities lead to the creation of learning/ teaching materials that are published on the DIYLab Hub (hub.diylab.eu). DIY digital outcomes (movies, video tutorial, collections of photos, audio records, podcast, textbooks, manuals, models, objects for IWB, programs, webpages, stream from a camera, data from a GPS, on-line courses, etc.) can document pupil/students’ learning processes, how they manage their activities and what they have learned. Since January 2015 DIY activities have been pursued in primary and secondary schools and universities in Barcelona, Oulu, and Prague. At the Faculties of Education some DIY activities are implemented in collaboration with several other departments. DIY activities are periodically monitored with the aim of finding out, for example, whether the DIY philosophy is applied or not, and what pupils/students have learned. The paper will summarise experiences with implementation of DIY activities in two institutions in Prague in primary and lower secondary school and at the Faculty of Education (with full-time and part-time students) and will open a question about how to integrate a DIY teaching approach into teacher education.
062 - Social Presence in Digital Learning Environments Monica Johannesen, Leikny Øgrim Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway This paper discusses the role of both human and non-human actors (such as digital tools) in educational dialogues. In a socio-material perspective on learning and social action, all phenomena are comprehended as a network of material and social factors, influencing each other (Fenwick, Edwards & Sawchuk, 2011; Sørensen, 2009). Together they constitute a new compound actor that represents something new and different from the original parts. This is a turn away from the traditional notion in the field of pedagogy where actors are recognised as subjects with intentions (Nordahl, 2013). Educational dialogues are important aspects of knowledge building. Gradually, communication takes place independent of time and space and ‘virtual environments’ substitutes the ‘real’ ones. The use of technology has brought about new emergent practices of teaching and learning, and urge us to think about changing conditions for dialogues, such as the role of the physical and social presence of actors, and how these relations are mediated. Several researchers have explored the notion of social presence in on-line learning environments (Short, William & Christie, 1976; Borup, West & Graham, 2012). Tu & McIsaac (2002, 2012) have suggested a framework for investigating social presence in mediated dialogues (on-line learning environments), where the notions of intimacy and immediacy are presented as two important factors. This paper presents data from an empirical study of teaching practice within a blended learning environment in a Master program for ICT in learning. Interviews with lecturers and students in the programme form the basis for the data, supplemented by records of on-line activities in net-based learning environments. The paper will discuss how Facebook and Fronter (a particular learning management system) in different ways arrange for intimacy and immediacy. Finally, the findings will be analysed in a socio-material perspective, aiming at describing the complexity of such human and non-human entanglements.
063 - A Developmental Model for Introducing the Eportfolio Methodology Philip Bonanno University of Malta, Malta The Faculty of Education at the University of Malta is passing through a period of renovation and restructuring involving the formulation of vision for the Faculty in the context of 21st century education. This created discussion and reflection about the different dimensions of the Faculty – the driving epistemology, the strategy to put the identified vision into practice, the organisational structure, the curriculum, the role of school-based teacher education in initial teacher education, the role of digital technologies in the professional development of teachers, the role and identity of teacher educators in this evolving scenario. Key collective decisions were taken after long consultations within the Faculty and with a wide range of stakeholders. These include the upgrading of the initial teacher education programme to a Masters level, the adoption of the ‘Reflective Practitioner’ epistemology, the restructuring of the Faculty into a new set of departments, the restructuring of the curriculum, the embedding of school-based teacher education within professional partnerships between the Faculty and schools, the introduction of a mentoring programme and the embedding of digital technologies within the Faculty processes. It was also decided to adopt the ePortfolio framework to address and organise these various proposals. The Department for Leadership in Learning and Innovation, which includes also the Programme for Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning, has been entrusted with the development and implementation of the ePortfolio framework within the Faculty. This paper discusses a developmental model comprising a theoretical framework and an implementation strategy to guide this project. Building on previous research about readiness of teachers and teacher educators for technologyenhanced learning, the epistemological, psychological, pedagogical, technological and environmental factors that influence the uptake of digital technology in their professional practice will be discussed. JISC’s ePortfolio Implementation model will be used to identify and discuss the critical factors that determine the successful integration of the ePortfolio framework within initial teacher education, referring to the adopted implementation model, the implementation strategy, curricular embedment, infrastructure development and quality assurance. This development and implementation process will be backed through quantitative and qualitative research carried out with academic staff of the Faculty of Education and key stakeholders. On-line surveys, interviews and focus groups will be used during the different phases of the development and implementation process to Engage, Communicate, Support and Disseminate (JISC model) the ePortfolio project with the identified stakeholders. Through this research a detailed strategy grid will be developed to guide the development and implementation process. The individual data obtained from qualitative and quantitative research activities will be used to customise as much as possible this design and development process in an attempt to address individual and institutional professional needs.
064 - Teacher Education Students’ Attitudes Towards the Use of Information and Communication Technology: Some Implications for Teacher Education in Croatia Ivana Batarelo Kokić1, Sandra Car2, Kristina Klišanin1 1
University of Split, 2University of Zagreb, Croatia
In contemporary teacher education, application of new technologies and recognition of collaborative learning in a technology environment have a high relevance. In this paper, we provide both theoretical insights on information and communication technology (ICT) use in higher education and present results of a survey of future teachers’ attitudes towards technology use in teacher education. The aim of the research is to determine how teacher education students perceive the usefulness and ease of use of new technologies, in respect of the study programme and study year. In addition, we present findings of the analysis of teacher education programmes and syllabi in order to provide guidelines for preparing teacher education students for effective use of technology. A literature review provides data indicating the potential of ICT to increase access to learners, facilitate students’ learning, improve quality of teaching and improve the cost-effectiveness of universities (Bates & Sangra, 2011). Recent studies on ICT use in teacher education focus on approaches which are associated with increases in teacher education students' technological knowledge (Polly, Mims, Shepherd, & Inan, 2010) and potential areas of educational technology knowledge that influence students’ beliefs about technology integration (Abbitt, 2011). In this survey, the scale on students’ attitudes towards use of ICT used by Edmunds, Thorpe and Conole (2012) was translated into Croatian and adopted for use. The adaptation was based on the translation/back translation methodology. A written survey was administered to 162 teacher education students at the University of Split, Croatia. A confirmatory factor analysis was done and it confirmed the anticipated scale structure. The results of inferential analysis indicate that there are significant differences in students' attitudes towards use of ICT in relation to study programme and study year. The students surveyed belong to a generation of people who grew up with technology. So the identified difference in students’ attitudes could be attributed to differences among study programmes and teaching approaches at different departments of the same university. Findings on differences in teacher education students' attitudes towards technology served as a guideline for further analysis of teacher education programmes and syllabi. The analysis of teacher education programmes provided additional information on preparing teachers for effective technology use and on curricular barriers to integrating educational technology within programmes.
065 - Lesson Study within Initial Teacher Education – Towards a European Paradeigm? Deborah L S Larssen1, Wasyl Cajkler2 1
University of Stavanger, Norway, 2University of Leicester, UK
The conference theme highlights the value of collaborative approaches to address the complexity of teachers’ learning needs, calling for stronger partnerships to connect teachers in interaction. Freeman and Johnson (1998) argue that ‘language teacher education needs to account for the teacher as a learner of teaching’. How this can be done in initial teacher education (ITE) is the focus of this comparative study. We argue that lesson study has the potential to enable student-teachers to explore the pedagogic black box in structured collaboration with others. Murata and Pothen (2011, 104) claim that Japanese ‘Lesson Study’ supports high-quality teacher learning by offering: opportunities for student-teachers and experienced teachers/mentors to co-design and teach research lessons, a framework in which research-based pedagogic knowledge and subject-content knowledge are an essential part of deliberations that take place in the group. However, questions arise about its feasibility in ITE, often leading to its partial application before or during teaching practice, principally in the USA (e.g. Fernandez 2005) and the Far East (e.g. Tsui and Law 2007), resulting in it being adapted in multiple diverse ways. Europe, by contrast, has seen little use of lesson study in ITE, perhaps the principal obstacle being the challenge of building co-operative partnerships between different parties involved in the process (practice schools, mentors studentteachers and university tutors). Dudley (2012) suggests four possible organisational models: firstly, trainees work together on placement at the same school; secondly, trainees collaborate across different schools; thirdly, trainees work in collaboration with school based mentors (essentially a pair rather than group), and finally, they work in a group of three with their mentor and university-based tutor. Teacher educators at the Universities of Leicester and Stavanger have used lesson study with studentteachers of foreign languages for primary and secondary school. Leicester offers a one-year postgraduate course; the Stavanger undergraduate programme takes four years. Moreover, not only are their contexts different but also the way lesson study is embedded in their programmes. In this presentation, two research projects evaluating the impact of lesson study in ITE are discussed, drawing on analysis of student-teacher assignments and end-of-project interviews to explore how collaboration and learning outcomes compare. In conclusion, we consider implications for ITE programmes more widely and suggest principles for use of lesson study within European ITE contexts.
066 - Research-based teacher education: Learning through, and about, research and inquiry Hilde Afdal, Kari Spernes Østfold University College, Norway ‘Research-based’ as a knowledge requirement, even for bachelor programmes, gathered strength with the Bologna process. General demands from the so-called ‘knowledge society’ put pressure on ‘answerability for performance’. Research-based teacher education (TE) involves educating prospective teachers into specific way of thinking and acting. TE should aim to educate teachers who are able to identify and explain as well as justify former and prospective actions (research-based performance). Inspired by Healey and Jenkins (2009), this paper asks the question, “What should the nature of undergraduate research look like in teacher education?” A design study (Shavelson, Phillips, Towne & Feuer 2003) was developed and initiated from the fall of 2010, aiming at exploring four ways of engaging TE students with research and inquiry suggested by Healey and Jenkins (2009): (1) research-led - learning about current research in the discipline; (2) research-oriented developing research skills and techniques; (3) research-based - undertaking research and inquiry; and (4) research-tutored - engaging in research discussions. Successive activities were initiated throughout the four-year long integrated TE program in Norway. Data were collected from each cohort between 2010 and 2014. These data were composed of interview transcripts with students in different phases of the programme, transcripts of student discussions, qualitative surveys and a selection of student reports and academic texts. The findings show that the research-tutored activities we initiated (e.g., critical academic reading and structured feedback sessions) initiated more boundary crossing (Akkerman & Bakker 2011) than, e.g., more traditional academic writing (research-based). We argue that the implications for teacher education from this study can be threefold at least. Firstly, as a design study, this research provides empirical analysis from one way of operationalising the nature of research-based teacher education. Secondly, it provides a basis for further development of design studies on the same topic. Finally, we find that this specific way of structuring research-based TE is, to some extent, providing the foundation for research-based professional reflections. Literature Akkerman, SF & Bakker, A 2011, ‘Boundary crossing and boundary objects’, Review of educational research, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 132-169. Healey, M & Jenkins, A 2009, Developing undergraduate research and inquiry. Higher Education Academy, York. Shavelson, RJ, Phillips, DC, Towne, L & Feuer, MJ 2003, ‘On the science of education design studies’, Educational researcher, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 25-28.
067 - The role and impact of professional communities on the development of initial teacher education curriculum, concerning particularly the teaching practice Nóra Rapos, György Mészáros Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary Hungarian teacher education has gone through several changes in the past 10 years. New laws in educational policy have forced teacher education institutions to make constant improvements in their training structures and curricula. In our country, these changes have been connected to international, mainstream tendencies in several ways (e.g., the learning outcomes approach, a need for continuous professional development), but at the same time they have showed some specificities (e.g., identifying the role of professional communities in curriculum development). This study has explored this role in an actual TE curriculum development, focusing in particular on the teaching practice. Theoretical framework: We have drawn upon international literature that underscores the expansion of the altered functions of practical training (Darling-Hammond, 2006), and the role of practice-based learning (Engeström 2010, 2013). We define the training program of TE and in particular teaching practice as a meeting point of students, teacher educators and schools in a commonly-constructed learning process. As a consequence, it has become important to identify the role of professional communities regarding the aims and realisations of the training programme of TE. Research approach/questions: How have professional communities been developed around the different factors of the curriculum and practice (ways, challenges, tensions, processes)? What were the consequences of the new ways of working in communities for curriculum development? What kind of new contents and methodological solutions have emerged from the collaboration in professional communities? Research methodology and findings: The methods applied during this research and development study were: 1) analysis of documents; 2) questionnaire for teacher educators (n=35); 3) questionnaire for students (n=130); and 4) focus group interview with senior teachers (n=78) and mentors (n=117). The findings show that although participants judged the collaboration in general as fruitful and the evolution and contribution of professional communities were identifiable, the demand of working in communities caused significant tension in the disciplinary-emphasized training, during which the proportion of teaching practice is increased significantly without rethinking the whole system of teacher education. Further questions may be raised on what kind of opportunities the institutions can create to support democratic, collective decisions under the centrally initiated education policies. The findings outline some concrete outcomes of the development process related to the work of evolving professional communities. The presentation suits the topic of collaboration and partnership in teacher education, and is connected to the work of Curricula in Teacher Education RDC.
068 - Contributing to the achievement of essential skills for the teaching profession in a university teacher pre-service course Maurizio Betti, Laura Tartufoli, Andrea Ciani, Stefania Lovece University of Bologna, Italy The achievement of essential skills for teaching professionals is an important topic for national and international research in education. Within the framework of the Primary Teacher Education degree (University of Bologna), the authors have started a research path focused both on laboratory teaching’s effectiveness, and practicum experiences to promote the planning and evaluation skills of future teachers. The Primary Teacher Education degree involves three main teaching modalities: topic courses, laboratories and practicum. The presented research is an ongoing project exploring the relationship between the experiential formative modalities (laboratories and practicum) and the achievement of planning and evaluation skills in future teachers. In recent years, the scientific debate about teachers’ professional and related skills (Perrenoud 2002; Anderson 2004; Darling-Hammond & Bransford 2007; Koster & Dengerink 2008) and about teacher training (Mumby et al. 2002; Richardson & Placier 2002; Darling-Hammond 2006; DarlingHammond et al. 2007; Coggi 2014) has been very rich. Also, many documents from the European Commission focus attention on the specific skills of teachers. For instance, 13 teachers’ skills were defined at the Barcelona Conference (Eurydice 2002). These latter skills are expanded by the indications for promoting teacher training in the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18.12.2006 (COM / 2007/392). The present research is designed as action research involving both laboratory instructors (second-year laboratory) and practicum tutors (three practicum levels) in order to define the educational approach for each teaching modality and to analyse it considering the students’ skills achievement. At the moment, the research is at the end of the first phase (exploratory and qualitative), which was conducted in a laboratory class of the second year of the course. This phase allowed a better definition of the research’s modalities and tools. At the same time, the research outlined the need to integrate experience-based strategies with the subsequent practicum in a longitudinal perspective. A longitudinal and integrated path between laboratory and practicum experiences, starting from a shared definition of skills on which to ‘build’ and consolidate, can ensure the effective implementation of a formative curriculum able to connect theory and practice, accompanying and progressively monitoring future teachers in the consolidation of fields crucial to the quality of the teaching profession and for innovation in classroom settings. This research is oriented both to defining effective teacher educational modalities and to describing the achievement skill level of future teachers; therefore, it is closely related to the ATEE Conference theme of “Curricula in Teacher Education”.
069 - Powerful partnerships in Australia: university, public institution, primary schools and pre-schools Noella Mackenzie Charles Sturt University, Australia In Australia, children between 4 and 6 years tend to either be in their final year of pre-school or first year of school. It is during this period that most Australian children become writers, although the process of experimenting with writing may begin earlier. The educators working with these children often have similar qualifications, but quite different understandings of how to support young writers. There are mismatches in regard to standards, curricula, assessment, beliefs about literacy development and pedagogy in the two settings. This can create confusion for children and their parents as children move from pre-school to school. This study relates to the theme of in-service learning and development of practice and the sub-theme of teacher education through collaborative practice. The study discussed in this paper was informed by both interpretivist/constructivist and transformative paradigms and applied a qualitative case study approach. Partnerships were created between 19 educators from 4 different contexts: a university (Charles Sturt University - CSU); a public institution (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Association - VCAA); 8 primary schools and 8 pre-schools. The partnerships were developed in order to explore the mismatches identified above. The 16 teacher/participants (8 from schools, 8 from pre-schools) were co-researchers working in collaboration with each other and the chief investigators (1 from CSU, 2 from VCAA). An on-line survey gathered pre- and post-data from teachers relating to beliefs and understandings about how to support young writers. All partners met as a group on four occasions between April and August, 2015. On these occasions the Chief Investigators provided input (presentations, readings, videos, student samples, scenarios) and created discussion, sharing and reflection opportunities. The teachers were also given time to reflect on their learning within their work environments and to gather data from children randomly selected at the start of the study. Data from the children were used for discussions and provided evidence of teachers’ applied learning. Findings suggest that initially the teacher participants from schools and pre-schools had quite different understandings of how to support the learning of young writers. They also had minimal understandings of what happened in each other’s educational environments. This study ‘opened the gate’ between pre-schools and schools, allowing for a free flow of ideas and understandings and creating collaborative learning opportunities. Participants developed shared language and approaches as well as on-going partnerships. The partnerships supported transformative learning in all partners, which may in time impact on their institutions.
070 - Teaching without a specialisation: policy climate framing potential for learning Linda Hobbs, Colleen Vale, Chris Speldewinde, Zahra Zahra Parvanehnezhadshirazian Deakin University, Australia Worldwide, teaching out-of-field, that is, teaching a subject without the necessary disciplinary background or methodological training, has significance for both teacher quality and student achievement. Given the evidence that subject matter knowledge is vital to be able to teach effectively, teacher learning is vital if out-of-field teachers are to regain confidence and competence. The potential for teacher learning depends on many factors, including the policy climate within which they operate. Policies relating to what formalized support structures and time allowances are given for out-of-field teachers, and more generally how the issue of out-of-field teaching is recognised and responded to, are framed by policy makers. Other associations play an important role in representing the views of their members to ensure that governmental policy meets the needs of all. This project involved collating and juxtaposing the perspectives of key stakeholders: Government education departments, teacher unions, and mathematics, science and principal associations. Data included: artefacts collected from stakeholder websites or through email communications, and interviews with key members of the stakeholders. ‘Problem representations’ (Bacchi, 1999) documenting the competing understandings of each state or national stakeholder group were prepared. This paper draws on these problem representations to describe the policies and initiatives that relate to professional learning of out-of-field teachers at the Commonwealth level, and in the three eastern mainland states: Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales. Juxtaposed against these actions and perspectives of the state governments are the perspectives of non-government stakeholders. The analysis has highlighted: in what ways stakeholders have engaged with the issue, and whether the practice of ‘out-of-field teaching’ is signalled as a problem to be addressed. Governments use the language ‘teacher quality’ and ‘supply/demand’ rather than out-of-field teaching per se, although all states do have targeted funding or recommendations for some retraining of out-of-field teachers. While the subject associations highlighted the need for improved subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge through supportive mentoring and retraining, the principal associations recognised the tension caused by the realities of leading schools. This analysis has shown that a funded and targeted multi-dimensional approach is needed focusing on improving school leadership capacity to deal with the issue, improved content and the pedagogical knowledge of out-of-field teachers, and building strong support networks that teachers can draw from. Further research is needed to examine the specifics and the progressive nature of learning of out-of-field teachers; and the responsibility of the stakeholders in shaping this learning.
071 - Teachers’ Professional Learning Activities in Hungarian Schools Erika Kopp, Ágnes Vámos Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary Recent educational reforms in Hungary aim to enhance the role of collaboration among teachers. International (Talis 2009) and national surveys (Lannert 2010, Sági 2011, Balázs, Kocsis, & Vágó, 2011) showed, that Hungarian teachers’ CPD mainly consists of traditional individual development activities. There is need, therefore, to introduce and encourage new forms of collaborative learning activities at school level. This study aimed to identify the forms of collaborative learning and problem-solving activities among teachers in Hungarian schools. School community and school-based learning processes play crucial roles in teachers' professional development (Fullan, 1995; Hearsgrave & Dave 1990; Silins, Zarins, & Mulford, 2002), because the learning methods, strategies and problem-solving patterns that teachers developed during these learning processes facilitate the process of adaptation to change at school-level (Louis, 2006; Silins, Zarins, & Mulford, 2002; Strain, 2000). The collaborative learning processes used by schools are strongly influenced by school culture (Horn & Little 2010; Fullan 2010), which increases the weight of top-down reforms on this field. The paper reports on selected results of research carried out in 2013-2014 at Eötvös Loránd University Institute of Educational Science. The research group set up a series of investigations using a survey, semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews. The survey was carried out in 2013 by OFI (National Institute of Educational Development). The on-line survey (n=4000) focused on general professional development activities of teachers. The most active teachers (38) were chosen on the basis of the database information for interview and focus group discussions. They participated in the research voluntarily. Interviewees were asked to discuss their views on, amongst other things, their engagement in professional learning, enquiry and problem-solving, and the role of the school community and leaders in this process. The focus-group discussion discussed the results of content-analysis and explored the primary elements that had discouraged or fostered the school-based collaboration. The survey-data were analysed by factor-analysis; interviews and focus-group discussions were analysed by content analysis. Findings show that from the teachers’ point of view they are only separated activities at school level; they support their professional learning activities. Analysis showed that strong individualism and low level of trust in the school culture and the absence of a tradition of collaboration were main factors which discouraged the collaborative learning process. The results also show that teaching agency, as a crucial factor of participation, which has been strongly disrupted by recent policy interventions, contributes to teacher’s individualism in professional development, setting up teacher career stages based on individual performance evaluation.
072 - Collegial Learning as a Tool in Teacher Educators’ Professional Development Ruth Serlin, Michal Golan The MOFET Institute, Israel The professional literature relating to the professional development of teachers – and recently of teacher educators as well – deals extensively with the theme of communities of learners and communities of practices (Wenger, 2006). The unique contribution of this method to the professional development of teachers and teacher educators is now recognised. The goal of this paper is sharing knowledge that has accumulated among individuals and institutions with regard to various types of collegial learning and practices in teacher professional development and among teacher educators, based on the literature and a research project that was carried out at The MOFET Institute, in Israel. The research studied the causes of meaningful learning and success of communities of practices in 26 forums at The Mofet Institute. Another goal is attempting to identify principles that are common to successful experiences, and to extract from them conditions for the optimal utilisation of this learning strategy. Throughout the paper we will discuss some questions and themes aiming to find the unique contribution of this strategy to the professional development of educators and teacher educators. We will exemplify meaningful peer learning and common principles characterising it. We also plan to discuss preconditions necessary for turning this quasi-formal strategy into a recognised one and ways of achieving this. At the conclusion of the paper, the frameworks of the activities at The MOFET Institute will be presented, related to the underlying principles; difficulties and benefits of the activities will also be discussed.
073 - Teacher Evaluation and Teaching Standards - a Model from Scotland Tom Hamilton, Jacqueline Morley General Teaching Council for Scotland, UK GTC Scotland is the Professional Statutory Regulatory Body (PSRB) for teaching in Scotland. It was formed in 1965 but since 2012 has been an independent body which determines school teaching qualifications and sets the standards for teachers. The legislation changing the status of GTC Scotland also set new requirements for GTC Scotland to develop a ‘re-accreditation’ scheme for all teachers. GTCS chose to re-title this Professional Update. The aim of the presentation will be to explain the suite of GTC Scotland teacher education Standards and explore how they are intended to be used, including in the area of teacher evaluation. The Standards are: The Standards for Registration (Provisional and Full); The Standard for Career-Long Professional Learning; and The Standards for Leadership and Management (Middle Leadership and Headship). They range over the potential stages of a teacher's career and at their heart have a three part model which sees teachers as having: Professional Values and Personal Commitment; Professional Knowledge and Understanding; and Professional Skills and Abilities. The theoretical framework of the Standards and Professional Update is premised on GTC Scotland's view of professionalism, which recognises teachers as change agents (Fullan 1993), activist teachers (Sachs, 2003), adaptive experts (Darling-Hammond and Bransford, 2005) and within the inquiry as stance movement (Cochran-Smith and Lytle, 2009). A contemporary hybrid form of professionalism (Evetts, 2012) is also of significance, particularly within a public sector field such as teaching, allowing a balance between the professional wish for empowerment, innovation and autonomy and the public interest need for quality assurance and accountability. This links with the OECD's (OECD, 2013) statements on using evaluation to improve teaching and its highlighting of the importance of teacher self-efficacy (OECD, 2015). The presentation will conclude with a consideration of how the Standards and Professional Update are central to the statutory aims of GTC Scotland, which are to contribute to improving the quality of teaching and learning and to maintain and improve teachers’ professional standards. The implications of such an approach for the wider European teacher education community will be explored. The presentation will relate to the overall conference theme and directly to the sub-theme of teacher evaluation and teaching standards. It will also potentially relate to a number of the ATEE RDCs including Education for Social Justice, Equity and Diversity and Educational Leadership and Management, but its closest focus will be on the Professional Development of Teachers.
074 - “I had my briefcase and there was coffee”: how can we realise the Scottish vision of teacher career-long professional learning? Anna Beck University of Glasgow, UK This paper is part of a larger doctoral research project (2011 to 2015) that explored the implementation of a recent teacher education policy in Scotland, ‘Teaching Scotland’s Future’ (TSF; Donaldson, 2011). TSF contained fifty recommendations for the improvement of teacher education in its entirety, and these recommendations have been partly implemented in partnership, by the National Partnership Group (NPG) which was made up of representatives from a range of institutional bodies in Scottish education. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of those recommendations concerning teacher career-long professional learning (CLPL) and the involvement of individual teachers in the NPG instead of teacher unions as representatives of the profession in this messy policy space. TSF depicts a vision of teachers as expert practitioners who are themselves the engines of professional progress. Central to this vision is the idea that teachers should take responsibility for identifying their own CLPL needs and locating the relevant provision required. This undeniably raises a number of issues around engagement, motivation, awareness and accessibility to provision. Research has consistently shown that securing teacher 'buy-in' is essential to the success of educational reform (e.g., Pogodzinski, Umpstead and Witt, 2015), and inviting teachers and their representatives to shape the development and implementation of policy has been identified as a way to promote teacher 'buy-in'. This paper critically analyses the extent to which teachers were seen as equal partners in the development and implementation of TSF, and explores the implications that this has for wider educational reform in Scotland. The research takes a Critical Policy Analysis approach and draws on concepts from theories of democratic network governance (Sorenson & Torfing, 2008) and Actor-Network Theory (Fenwick & Edwards, 2010). A series of interviews were conducted with policy-makers, representatives of institutional bodies and teachers who were invited to engage in the policy-making process. Analysis of interview data revealed a number of tensions around the inclusion of teachers, and the exclusion of teacher unions in the policy process. Given the current global drive to position teachers as ‘agents of change’ in policy discourse, the findings of this paper carry significant implications for teacher education policy on an international level. The ‘realisation’ of the Scottish vision of CLPL is dependent on the successful engagement of teachers in genuine partnership with traditional policy actors in the policy process, and it appears that significant progress has yet to be made.
075 - Teachers and principals’ perceptions about the new policy on teacher evaluation: Findings from research carried out in Portugal Maria A. Flores University of Minho, Portugal This paper reports on findings from research carried out in Portugal aimed at examining the ways in which recent policy on Teacher Performance Appraisal has been put into place as well as its effects on schools and teachers. In many countries, concerns about student achievement in national and international assessments and the need to raise the standards of teaching and to improve the quality of pupil learning have led the governments to a number of reforms. These have focused in many cases on standard-based models and on increased accountability, amongst which is teacher performance management and appraisal. Portugal is no exception. In 2007, a new Teacher Career Statute was issued stipulating a new policy on teacher performance appraisal. Data reported in the Portugal study came from the first two cycles of teacher evaluation implemented in Portugal (2007-2009; 2010-2011), and principal perceptions were drawn from the system in place at that time. The research questions were: How do school leaders and teachers evaluate existing policy on teachers’ performance management and appraisal? How do they rate different aspects of its implementation? Do they perceive that the policy has affected them and their school? If so, how? By and large, the new teacher performance system is considered to be too summative and bureaucratic, which can be seen in the amount of regulations, grids and documents teachers have to comply with and the ways in which the outcomes of the appraisal system are to be achieved and used. Clearly the participants see the new system as a threat to teachers’ professional relationships and working conditions at school, in particular due to the lack of adequate training and recognition of the appraisers, who are teachers as well, and to the quota system. Uncertainty and scepticism emerged from the participants’ accounts, which may be related, to some extent, to issues of power and communication within the appraisal process. However, they also identified some positive features namely in regard to the opportunity to reflect upon key features of the teaching profession from within. They also acknowledge that the effects of both the external summative dimension and the formative dimension remain to be seen.
076 - Teacher education and Teacher Standards – how teacher agency can be developed through collaborative partnerships among employers, universities and government. Misty Adoniou1, Mary Gallagher2 1
University of Canberra, 2Australian Catholic University, Australia
In 2011 Australia launched the National Professional Standards for Teaching, which span a teacher’s career from their pre-service teacher education through to leadership roles. In this paper we describe how these Standards were adopted in one Australian jurisdiction. A collaborative partnership was formed between the jurisdiction’s two teacher education universities, the three education employers – Catholic, Independent and Government sectors - and the jurisdiction’s newly established teacher accreditation agency – the Teacher Quality Institute. The aim of the partnership was to develop collaborative processes through which to introduce and guide the implementation of the new Teacher Standards. These processes, shared across both institutions, and endorsed by the teacher accreditation agency are: A digital portfolio where evidence is collected against the Teacher Standards A common practicum report form built around the Teacher Standards A framework for conducting professional conversations about teaching In this paper we report on research conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these processes specifically, and to consider more broadly the efficacy of teacher standards for the teaching profession through two questions: 1. What is the nature of the role of Standards in the continuing development of teachers - both new teachers and those who work with them in their first year? 2. What impact do the Standards have on the work of teachers and those that lead schools? The study involved 16 first year teachers, 15 supervising teachers and 5 school Principals across 5 different schools. Participants were interviewed 3 times over the course of 12 months. Whilst the literature on teaching standards reports a tension between their potential role as a framework for professional learning and a more regulatory role, this study found the Australian Teacher Standards were being used comfortably as both a tool for quality assurance to determine fitness for the profession and a framework for professional learning. We hypothesise that this may be attributable to the collaborative partnerships between all parties involved in teacher education in the jurisdiction and the bottom-up and collaborative approach which was taken in the implementation of the teacher standards. The partnership also provided tangible links between schools, teacher education institutions and employers – and the model offers the potential to reduce the theory-practice gap well established in the literature on teacher preparation.
077 - Asking the right questions: helping prospective teachers become reflective practitioners Karl Attard University of Malta, Malta It is well documented that reflection-on-action is an important tool for teachers’ ongoing professional development (Attard 2012a, 2012b; Livingston, 2012). Yet, such a disposition for being analytical does not seem to be available to all teachers, as teachers seem to reflect at various levels of depth (Attard, 2006; Marcos et al., 2011). In this study, a teacher educator organised a learning community where collective reflection was promoted. Meetings were held weekly with twelve student teachers (divided into two groups) participating in the study over two teaching practice rounds. The role of the teacher educator was to model questions that encouraged reflection-on-action, acting as a critical friend in the process. The aim was to help these prospective teachers learn to question themselves by asking the right questions that subsequently can aid their analysis of professional practice. Data gathered consisted of observation notes of such meetings gathered by the teacher educator, the teacher educator’s reflective journal, the reflective journals compiled by the twelve participants over the two teaching practice rounds (which combined add to three months of teaching practice), and interviews with the twelve participants after six months of full-time teaching. Findings indicate that participants did improve their reflective awareness during their teaching practice and that this was perceived to have a positive impact upon their professional practice. However, not all student teachers developed in the same way. Additionally, interview data show that participants began to increasingly value reflection-on-action once they engaged in full-time teaching, a point where ironically they could afford little time for such reflective thought.
078 - Teacher education and the school context matter for beginning teachers’ professional learning in DI Debbie De Neve, Geert Devos Ghent University, Belgium An increasing call from policy makers requires teachers to address the needs of academically diverse students via differentiated instruction (DI) in the classroom. This prompts teachers to acquire new knowledge and teaching skills with regard to DI-implementation and this is especially challenging for beginning teachers. Investigators have argued that adequate support from the school environment and teacher education is essential to facilitate beginning teachers’ professional learning in DI. However, insight into the factors that facilitate beginning teachers’ learning in DI is currently limited. This study aimed to examine how factors such as teacher education, diversity in student population, and school policy (i.e. educational type and policy documents) are related to learning in interaction and changes in practice (i.e. DI-learning activities). Learning in interaction refers to efforts of teachers to gain knowledge and feedback from colleagues whereas changes in practice indicate the flexibility of teachers to adapt their classroom behaviour. Furthermore, leadership styles (transformational and instructional leadership) and forms of collaboration between teachers (reflective dialogue, deprivatized practice and collective responsibility) are included as factors that might enhance beginning teachers’ participation in DI-learning activities. We recruited 72 primary schools for this study. The schools’ policy documents describing the view on DI were retrieved and 272 beginning teachers filled out a questionnaire. Multi-level analyses showed that teacher education is negatively related and reflective dialogue, de-privatized practice and educational type are positively associated with learning in interaction. Furthermore, teacher education, reflective dialogue, diversity in student population and educational type positively predict changes in practice. The findings suggest that beginning teachers’ participation in learning activities may depend on a multitude of factors. The observations have three major practical implications for teacher education. First, teacher education can be important to provide the first knowledge on DI-applications. Second, teacher educators should work together with schools to see if the DI-examples that are presented in the lessons are authentic and realistic. Third, collaborative learning communities between teacher education and schools need to be set up and can offer pre-service teachers the opportunity to enter the field earlier and experience how to organise differentiated teaching in a real situation. By examining the influence of teacher education on novices’ participation in DI-learning activities and the role of teacher education in career-long professional learning, the topic of the present study pertains to the conference theme ‘Teacher education through partnerships and collaborative learning communities’.
079 - Interorganisational learning communities: challenges for professional emancipation Isabel Fernandes University of Minho, Portugal This PhD case study analyses the emancipatory potential of a multi-disciplinary and interorganisational learning community created in 1997, at the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, coordinated by Flavia Vieira: the GTPA - Working Group Pedagogy for Autonomy. In order to better uderstand the case, eleven other learning communities in Portugal are characterised by their coordinators. They all involve different partnerships, namely among schools, universities, civil society organisations and city councils. What are the potentialities and shortcomings of interorganisational learning communities in the promotion of teachers’ and teacher educators' professional autonomy and emancipation? International policies and specialised literature on education and T/TE education and organisational development highlight the importance of interpersonal and interorganisational collaboration in development processes. The creation of partnerships is generally advocated and their benefits tend to be naturally assumed in T Ed. However, LC are power structures which need to be problematised in terms of the powers that they do (or do not) legitimise, their potentialities and limitations in the promotion of autonomous and critical T and TE for more global, humanistic, just and emancipatory societies. The case study analyses the content of the Group's publications; an on-line questionnaire; and 17 interviews with its members and with the co-ordinator. It also characterises 11 inter-organisational LCs in Portugal through some of their publications and a questionnaire to their co-ordinators. There is evidence of professional autonomy in the T/TEd narratives. However, representations of the Group's culture contrast with those of professional/organisational cultures and the impact of belonging to the Group is recognised at a personal and local level but not as regards wider organisational contexts. The co-ordinators of 11 other LCs express various challenges the communities face. Democratic LCs may have emancipatory potential in T/TE's continuing development and autonomy but there are several requirements and paradoxes involved related to interpersonal synergies and professional and inter-organisational cultures. The study contributes to the critical inquiry on the challenges of LCs for T/TE’s autonomy and professional and organisational significant development.
080 - Emotions and power to teach Säde-Pirkko Nissilä, Marja Koukkari, Asko Karjalainen, Pirkko Kepanen Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Finland Teachers’ occupational well-being is significant in attaining educational goals and intertwined with the success of their work. Motivated teachers are likely to achieve the best learning outcomes with their students (Hoekstra, Beijaard, Brekelmans & Korthagen, 2007). Empowered and engaged teachers are also likely to implement pedagogical innovations in their work. Teachers’ self-efficacy, emotional commitment, motivation, teamwork, good human relationships and leadership have an effect on good work practices (Nissilä, Karjalainen, Koukkari & Kepanen 2015). No teacher or teacher educator will deny that emotions play an important part in their work. Emotions are not only a matter of personality, but constitute a fundamental aspect of the job. They have to be acknowledged as part of occupational practices reflecting teachers’ experiences of their work situation, commitment and professionalism. (Kelchtermans, 2009; Nias 1996.) This study aims at gaining better understanding of vocational teachers´ pedagogical well-being, especially their experiences of joy, happiness and satisfaction in their job and work communities. These situations are seen as critical incidents. The respondents were experienced, newly qualified or pre-service multi-subject vocational teachers (N=24) in Oulu University of Applied Sciences, in the School of Vocational Teacher Education. The material was collected through recorded open-ended group discussions and analysed through qualitative, thematic content analysis. The research questions were: 1. What critical experiences of joy, happiness and satisfaction in work were identified by the respondents? 2. How could they promote empowerment personally and communally? The preliminary outcomes show a deep ethical aspect. The ethic of care was rooted in receptivity, relatedness and responsiveness and was present in most discourses (nearly 40 %). Another important piece of evidence concerns teachers´ mutual support and sharing of ideas and problems, which blur possible feelings of isolation (16%). To these are connected teamwork and work community atmosphere, including also leadership and subject matter competence (24 %). The rest (20 %) concerned mental and physical health, student activities and opportunity to participate in continuing education. Emotions used for educational purposes with ethical professionalism are a powerful tool. They strengthen interpersonal relationships and good outcomes and enhance opportunities for learning at various levels and in teacher education.
Key words: attitude, caring, critical experiences, relationship, self-understanding, sharing,
081 - The ‘untidy’ world of teacher educator collaboration David Powell University of Huddersfield, UK Drawing on Lather’s (1997, cited by Segall, 2002) notion of the ‘untidy’ world of research, this paper focuses on the second cycle of a critical participatory action research study (Kemmis et al., 2014b) between a team of teacher educators based in a further education (FE) college in England and a teacher educator working in a post 1992 university in England. The university-based teacher educator reflexively discusses how a funded project enabled two of these FE-based teacher educators to collaborate with him to explore Loughran and Berry’s (2005) use of peer teaching to ‘unpack’ the use of modelling with their pre-service trainees and then sought to apply this to a class of one of their own groups of in-service trainee teachers based at the further education college. The research question which this paper seeks to answer is: What happens when teacher educators collaborate to plan a class that uses a peer teaching strategy to ‘unpack’ the use of modelling within it? The author used Kemmis et al’s (2014a) conceptual framework of ecologies of practices and practice architectures to study and analyse the ‘sayings, doings and relatings’ (p.34) of the participants and how they hung together in the second cycle of this piece of action research. The data collected and subsequently analysed included transcriptions from two meetings between the teacher educators prior to the class taking place; the lesson materials prepared by the teacher educators; a film made of the class by one of the in-service trainee teachers; a stimulated recall interview with the two teacher educators from the further education college; and a focus group with their in-service trainees. The three principal findings were, firstly, that teacher collaboration is ‘messy’ (Adamson and Walker, 2011), ‘beset by dilemmas’ (Winter, 1982, p.168) and requires “creative thinking about the use of time and space” (Kluth and Straut, 2003, p.237); secondly, “a person can only imitate that which is within her developmental level” (Vygotsky, 1978, p.34); thirdly, the use of modelling assumes that trainee teachers already possess the required language, what Freire (1996) calls the ‘dominant syntax’, and theoretical knowledge to engage with a teacher educator as they ‘unpack’ their practice (Loughran and Berry, 2005), and this can either ‘sustain or suffocate’ its use as a teaching strategy (Kemmis, 2014a, p.50). One of the implications for teacher education is the availability of sufficient resources to explore peer teaching strategies for FE-based teacher educators.
082 - The professional development of teacher educators in the context of vocational education! Marije Veraa Fontys University of Applied Science, Netherlands Most teacher educators have worked in secondary education and are not familiar with vocational education. So the focus in their lessons concerning didactics and pedagogy is on secondary education. The work experience places for the student teachers are in secondary education and vocational education. And, while they are unfamiliar with vocational education, the students often prefer a place in secondary education. As long as teacher educators are not familiar with vocational education they are not able to prepare the students for traineeship or jobs in vocational education. In order to focus more on vocational education in teacher education a group of teacher educators participate in the programme “MBO in beeld” (vocational education in the picture). They learn more about this kind of education: at first they get general information from the teachers and students and after that they are able to learn by experience. In this way they make their own learning pathways by formulating their own learning objectives and an assignment for the training programme. There are several possibilities for measuring professional growth. Gusky (2000) uses 5 levels of evaluation which can be used to label the processes. Clarke & Hollingsworth (2002) have developed a cyclic model for professional growth with 4 domains; external, personal, practice or consequences. Change in one domain leads to change in another. These changes can be caused by reflecting on or enacting the things participants in professional development programmes have learned. The central question in this study is: ‘what and how do participants learn from the professional development activity “MBO in beeld”?’ In this research the participants are interviewed in small groups. They put their activities and processes on a paper and then each participant describes his or her experiences and professional growth during and after the programme. During this process the cyclic model of Clarke & Hollingsworth (2002) is used by the group to see which changes lead to professional growth for this participant. In August the data will have been analysed and we can share the results of this study. We expect to have a more detailed idea of how teacher educators learn in a professional development programme. We hope the results will help us improve the “MBO in beeld” programme. The subject of this study is relevant for the RDC Professional Development of teacher Educators
083 - Teacher Educators as Curriculum Developers: Exploration of a Professional Role Marina Bouckaert Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands Over the past decades, research and policy accounts have underscored the idea that the teacher educator (TE) fulfils partly different roles from the subject teacher in secondary/vocational education (e.g. Koster et al. (1998), Cochran-Smith (2003), VELON (2012)). In addition to being characterised as a teacher of teachers (Murray, 2002), Lunenberg et al. (2013) argue that TEs fulfil several other professional roles: they are researchers, mentors, gatekeepers to the profession, and brokers or facilitators of learning communities. Curriculum developer is another role Lunenberg et al. envisage for TEs. In their extensive literature review, however, they conclude that little research has focused on this role. The present study addressed this perceived gap. The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative and qualitative exploration of TEs’ perception of their role as curriculum developers. Its objectives are to ask TEs how they would characterise themselves in this role, in what ways they have been prepared for it, in what ways they develop professionally in it, and which responsibilities this role entails for them. In March 2015, an on-line questionnaire comprising multiple-choice and open-ended questions was sent to all 225 educators at a TE department in the Netherlands. 60-75 of them are expected to complete the questionnaire. Data will be analysed quantitatively with the help of SPSS; numerical findings will be supplemented by qualitative content analysis of open-ended answers. Open and selective coding of participants’ answers will be conducted through a constant-comparison approach based on the research questions and the quantitative data. In August, the researcher will present the findings arising from these procedures. They are expected to paint a picture of the participants’ perceptions of the curriculum developer’s role. Their professional context, tasks, functions, years of experience as a TE and the type of courses they teach are expected to affect their perceptions and how they define this role. Perhaps developing curriculum even enables TEs to fulfil other professional roles. Conclusions and recommendations based on the study’s methodology and findings might inform future research on TEs’ professional roles in general and TEs as curriculum developers in particular. Findings will be related to educational practice and policy in other departments; they might inform TEs to consider their role as curriculum developers, and the responsibilities and professional development opportunities it entails, in a different light. This study is relevant to the conference sub-theme ‘Teacher educator identities’ and the RDC ‘Professional development of teacher educators’.
084 - One of life’s most precious gifts: time or scope? Marieke Asten van Fontys Lerarenopleiding Tilburg, Netherlands Professional development of teacher educators is an important topic, because teacher educators need to maintain and enhance their expertise in order to educate our future teachers (Kools & Koster, n.d. ; Dengerink, Lunenberg & Kools, 2015). How do teacher educators fulfil this task, especially within the hectic timeframe of everyday work? I asked four colleges to participate in a group to share their experiences, actions or behaviour in the organisation about their development in their profession of being a teacher educator. My purpose is to bring awareness and movement into that group. My research focuses on teacher educators in a large teacher education department in the Netherlands and the opportunities for action available to them. During this study we are currently creating a learning environment in which mutual cooperation increases the learning potential of all participants. In this group participants take or make time to learn, giving words to their scopes . Researcher and participants discuss and explore on the basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual understanding. By deploying methods borrowed from ‘Appreciative Inquiry’ (Massenlink et al., 2008) the enthusiasm of a study group is raised and the intrinsic motivation of the participants stimulated. Our study group will convene three times. Its goal is to stimulate cooperation among teacher educators through optimisation of existing qualities, a method that could be described as empowerment, or a process of collective reinforcement ‘To learn’ involves experiencing that what one does really matters, as well as developing one’s own persona in the local community. Intervention, action, reflection and study group meetings alternate in the course of our research. In addition to audio and video recordings, data consist of reports drawn up on the basis of member checks. Data are analysed qualitatively by coding the interview texts and reports. After applying the codes, the researcher discusses the coding in a research group and with the participants of the study group (member check). Working collaboratively can offer learning challenges that catalyse growth as a professional: teacher educators become acquainted and approach each other from the perspective of their respective professional and functional responsibilities. This study offers perspectives for other teacher educators to recognise these possibilities in their own situation. Moreover the study offers a description of a way to organise collegial exchange. The research is related to the RDC professional development of teacher educators.
085 - ‘Too hot, too cold or just right’: Modeling teacher supply, retention, and the Goldilock’s principle Paul Conway, Ray Lynch University of Limerick, Ireland Introduction of theme The inter-related issues of teacher quality, supply and teacher retention have been brought to the forefront of teacher education policy for a number of reasons including: the identification of high quality entrants into teaching as critical to students’ overall learning; perceived and actual challenges in meeting and appropriately addressing the supply-demand relationship in many countries (OECD 2005); an emerging significant focus on teacher retention beyond the initial and induction phases (Cochran-Smith 2004); and changing understandings of the complex and more broadly construed framing of the practice of teaching needed for 21st century schooling. Aim Reflective of these international teacher supply and retention issues, recent major reviews of teacher education policy and subsequent system reform have taken place in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, with issues of supply and teacher retention garnering significant attention. Discussion of framework In this context, given the unprecedented international attention on the complex and contested issue of teacher quality, the purpose of this paper is to undertake comparative analysis of a number of key contemporary issues vis-à-vis teacher supply and retention in the two jurisdictions. Drawing upon the now growing comparative literature on teacher education in Ireland (north and south) along with relevant and significant long established international literature on supply and retention (Boe and Gilford 1992, Menter 2002, Hutchings et al. 2000, Darling-Hammond and Sykes 2003, Ingersoll 2001, Ingersoll 2003), we examine how supply and retention are being addressed, including a comparison of the policy contexts and structures, recent policies on initial teacher education and induction, teachers’ pay and conditions, and teachers’ career development. Implications for teacher education The paper’s focus on teacher supply has implications for understanding a number of inter-connected aspects of teacher education policy encompassing teaching standards, diversity of the teaching force, in- and out-of-field teaching …etc. Concluding remarks Key themes have emerged that challenge conventional understandings of teacher supply and retention. Most significant among these, are Ingersoll’s (2001) findings, albeit in the USA context, that teacher shortages are not related only to recruitment into the system (supply-side hypothesis); supplyretention cannot be understood or modelled without reframing the issue as a local organisational challenge. Relevance to ATEE conference - conceptualised at the system level, the paper is relevant to a number of ATEE 2015 themes, including, in particular, multiple and interconnected contexts for teacher education, teaching standards and teaching for diversity.
086 - Hope and Zest: Important Predictors of Teacher Satisfaction Polona Gradišek University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Character strengths represent an important research topic in the area of positive psychology. They are defined as positive individual traits that are morally valued. Research on general population samples has shown numerous beneficial outcomes of individuals’ knowing their character strengths and using them in their everyday lives. As teachers have an important impact on learning and on personal development of their students, teachers’ character strengths were examined in a classroom context. The research sample consisted of 408 primary and secondary school teachers (80.8 % female) and 1151 students (53.3 % female) from 39 schools across Slovenia. Two of 24 character strengths proved especially important for teachers: hope and zest. Teachers with higher endorsement of hope and zest reported higher levels of satisfaction with life and work and were more likely to perceive teaching as a calling. There were positive outcomes on the side of students as well: students were more satisfied with teachers who reported higher endorsement of hope and zest and they assessed classroom management of these teachers as more efficient. Findings suggest important implications for teacher education. Teachers should be stimulated to learn about their character strengths and to learn how to use them in different ways to increase their wellbeing. Moreover, the importance of teachers’ character strengths in the classroom and their contribution to the well-being of students should be stressed. Special emphasis should be given to the introduction of strategies for teachers to develop the strengths of hope and zest. The endorsement of these two strengths decreased with the increasing years of service in the present study; therefore, such strategies would represent an effective way to increase teachers’ satisfaction at work and perception of teaching as a calling through all the stages of professional development.
087 - Recognition and validation of knowledge in collaborative learning communities of educators and training providers Icara Holmesland1, Leif Erik Eriksson2 1
Oslo and Akershus University College, 2NTI-Multilateral Monitoring Management, Norway
The recognition and validation of learning that takes place in all settings, formal or non-formal, is highly considered in all forms of lifelong learning. The high mobility of workers and students today makes the accreditation of any form of prior learning very important for planning further education programs in all kinds of professions, which include those of teachers and teacher educators. One of the difficulties of recognising, validating and accrediting prior knowledge is the need for criteria that make such learning explicit. The “learning outcomes” approach represents a conceptual shift that is becoming common and used in all forms of education and training because it reflects the combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes. National qualification frameworks of European countries are increasingly using learning outcomes and their application as a tool is spreading. The learning outcomes approach was originally developed within vocational education and training and closely associated with European Credit Transfer in Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). More recently, its application is recommended for lifelong learning programmes and for teacher professional development programmes (European Commission, 2013). There is today a growing need for means and measures to register knowledge, skills and competences (KSC) described by Learning Outcomes. Experiences and recommendations from projects and initiatives indicate that a structured aggregation of educational attainments is profitable for the individual, the education and training providers, and for all stakeholders related to the employment market. This paper will first describe the Skillsbank, a web based toolkit targeting career guidance, recognition of prior learning and individual training support. It uses principles based on ECVET, the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training. Next, it will present preliminary results of SkillsTube, which is an extension of the Skillsbank project. The first objective of the SkillsTube project is to collect and store an individual learner’s performance through video clips that are directly related to clearly identified qualifications and learning outcomes. Its second objective is to develop a system where video clips can be stored and can serve as examples of best practices. The paper will discuss the value of these first results to teaching, learning and assessment in vocational education and training and also the applicability of the toolkit to other types of education.
088 - Discourse theory: a methodological approach to VET-teachers´ writing practices Ellen Beate Hellne-Halvorsen Oslo and Akershus Universty College, Norway To study teachers’ literacy practices in general implies use of different methods and theory. A discursive-based approach to literacy includes both method and theory, termed as methodology. James Paul Gee has developed a discursive methodology (Gee, 2001, 2005, 2008) to literacy and he says that “each decision about method implicates the use of particular theories and exclusion of others, and each decision about theory entails related decision about method” (Gee & Green, 1998:121). Use of different theory and method gives different information and knowledge of literacy practices. I want to argue and explain why discourse theory and method are relevant in the study of writing practices of vocational teachers. Vocational teachers (VET) in Upper Secondary school have not per se as their main teaching task to work with and develop students’ writing skills. Still, vocational study programmes of all kinds include a lot of writing. In Norway, the latest school reform, Knowledge Promotion 2006 (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2004), give all teachers the responsibility to develop students’ basic skills, including writing skills, in their teaching subject. Therefore, the aim of my theoretical presentation is to describe and understand how VET-teachers practice writing in their subjects and why they do it in this or that way. To do this, I want to show why discourse methodology is very suitable for this purpose. Discourse methodology includes perspectives on both situated literacy activities and more abstract issues such as culture, traditions, attitudes and values of teachers towards literacy practices, as a trans-contextual approach (Brandt & Clinton, 2002; Reder & Davila, 2005). Gee has developed an analytical tool for these perspectives. As well as studying situated writing in everyday lesson teaching, this also includes abstractions behind this situated work, as realised by classroom observations and teacher interviews. Altogether, this gives a broad and deep description and understanding of VET-teachers’ work with writing in their subject. This again is to be considered as a basis for further work and research by teacher educators on VET-teachers’ literacy practices in teacher education in general. Above all, VET-teachers’ work with writing and literacy in general with students is important in a society and in work places which are highly text-based.
089 - Learning through and for Practice, a radical reform of the concept and practice of student teacher professional experience premised on a 'cognitive apprenticeship' model and deeply embedded in a strong collaborative partnership model Rosa Murray University of Edinburgh, UK Teaching is a complex, demanding and multi-dimensional undertaking. Learning for and Through Practice forms part of the radical approach that Edinburgh University has taken in response to the requirement within Teaching Scotland's Future (TSF 2010) that 'exploration of theory through practice (to) be central to all placement experiences'. Graham Donaldson, the author of TSF, argued that the traditional Scottish BEd be phased out and that Teacher Educators develop new and innovative models of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes which would enable a continuum of support for teacher learning from ITE, through Induction and throughout a teacher's career. At the heart of this teacher education reform was the concept of strong collaborative partnership working with Local Authorities and schools which would begin to address the problem of the perceived disconnect between university teacher educators and schools. This paper will focus on the distinct nature of the University of Edinburgh Teacher Education Partnership and how this has informed and shaped the new MA Primary Education and the radical approach to student placement within the MA programme, based on Zeichner's theory and understanding of a deeper relationship between academic and practitioner knowledge in support of student teacher learning.(Zeichner 2010). Learning Through and for Practice underpins the professional experience and practice programme the students undertake in year 3 of their studies, which has a stronger emphasis on the school rather than the University providing the context for students' professional learning and on academic studies being deeply embedded in practice. The students will be placed in a school for one full year, premised on a 'cognitive apprenticeship' model involving them in the full life of the school and which will facilitate a more in- depth critical reflection on practice as well as a depth of experience and learning. This radical approach has implications for teacher education in terms of continuing this depth of learning as a continuum throughout a teacher's career in line with TSF 2010. There are also challenges to Teacher Educators to engage deeply with partners as co-creators and co-developers of learning programmes which were typically only within the academic domain of the university.
090 - Cluster – the creative technique with activities of pre-school children Adelina Hajrullahu, Minavere Rashiti the University "Kadri Zeka" Gjilan, Rebublic of Kosova
The importance of pre-school education as the first level of education is increasingly being emphasised and affirmed in Kosovo. In Kosovo after 1999, and more widely in 2000, pre-school education has been institutionalised, especially that which is organised in the public domain. Preschool education is organised also in private establishments. Until 2000 pre-school education worked only with traditional methodology, in which the teacher (instructor) was the central focus. After 1999-2000, with the advent of many international organisations, like “Save the children”, “KEDP”, etc., it is working with methodologies of work with children at the centre. In the majority of institutions the methodology is based on “Step by step” methods. Unlike in the past, the work involves group and pair activities. It is understood now that methodology is enriched by use of techniques such as: “Venn diagram”, “twinning diary”, “game with roles”, ”Cluster”, which will talk about in this research study, and many other techniques now in use. The issues that will be treated in this paper include: How does the use of clusters impact on children of pre-school age? What is expected of children?
Key words: Pre-school age, childhood, imagination, tree of ideas, the development, the game.
091 - Teacher Education through Collaborative Partnerships: the Service Component Elsa Price Faulkner University, USA Introduction: Partnerships, arrangements to benefit those involved, have historically been a part of civilisation. According to QuickMBA.com (2009) "a general partnership is an association of two or more people carrying on a business with the goal of earning a profit." Famous partnerships include companies such as Johnson & Johnson [baby products], Proctor and Gamble [cleaning supplies], Mr. Fred Rogers and the Neighborhood [children's program], Laurel and Hardy [silent movie stars], and Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers [dancing movie stars]. In the educational realm partnerships involve teacher educators, university professors, principals, classroom teachers and parents. Colleges of Education within universities have established partnerships involving co-operation between teachers in the local primary and secondary schools and the teacher education departments. According to Emmanuel (2004) "a true partnership is one in which all parties truly benefit and all parties share a common goal." An appropriate guideline for forming partnerships in education is seen in the Council for Corporate and School Partnerships' publication, A How-To Guide for SchoolBusiness Partnerships (2009). Aim: The aim of this paper is to propose that a service component be included when developing collaborative school partnerships. Discussion: The college of education in a small liberal arts university in central Alabama has, in addition the typical collaborative partnership agreement with local schools, a service component to accompany the small monetary stipend given to the co-operating teachers in the local school as they perform their duties. The service component not only involves the interns but the entire College of Education [COE] - dean, professors, instructors, supporting staff, pre-interns and interns. The service component involves the COE assisting the local co-operative teachers and other teachers in the local school in beginning (fall) and ending (spring) school preparations. Other activities include conducting workshops in Reading Readiness (all year) and Reading Across America (spring). Additional service activities conducted by the COE involve providing students, teachers, and interns to help with holiday activities, field day activities, and providing teachers with "goody bags" and "duty-free lunch time." Implication to Teacher Education: The service component could be very useful in developing collaborative partnerships. Relevance to Conference Theme: This topic fits with the theme: "Teacher Education through Collaborative Partnerships." Relevance to ATEE's Research and Development Centres: Primary Education/Secondary Education.
092 - Enlisting support - one hundred years on: learning through place in a collaborative World War One history project between primary students and pre-service teachers. Jenene Burke Federation University, Australia In Australia the centenary of World War One, and in particular the anniversary of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) landing at Gallipoli in Turkey, has sparked myriad commemorative projects in schools and the broader community. This interest has provided new opportunities for school professional placements for Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs) at Federation University Australia (FedUni). In a collaborative partnership between the University and two primary schools, the ‘Discover an ANZAC’ project, has involved History PSTs working with senior primary students (aged approximately 10-12 years) to research soldiers whose names appear on the primary school World War One honour board. Free access to primary historical documents over the internet has enabled this project to be conducted within the confines of the primary school classroom and hence galvanize the concept of embodiment in place. One of the intriguing and unforeseen outcomes of this inquiry learning project, in both schools, is that the collaborative task between the PSTs and primary students ignited enthusiasm across the local community and sparked a series of extension learning projects in the schools. As the lecturer who conceptualised and established the ‘Discover an ANZAC project’ and who has been deeply captivated by the project, my reflection on the absorbing nature of this work has led me to examine my own learning in contributing to historical research as part of this project. In an attempt to probe the deeply engaging nature of the project I have utilised a pedagogy of place by locating my self in place. I employ a personal ‘think-aloud protocol’ to develop a case study that explores why such a project is so intensely engrossing for primary students, teachers, PSTs and the broader community. This presentation will describe the ‘Discover an ANZAC’ professional placement and project, and explore the case study that I have compiled to consider retrospectively how pedagogies of place might permit and facilitate dynamic relational learning between learners, place and community. The question of how learners learn about their places and form community through historical research is interrogated. The implications of this research for teacher education stem from a reconceptualised, unconventional professional placement that contributes to the broader school community and centres on a shared and meaningful, collaborative project between PSTs and their students.
093 - The crucial role of the teacher in improving educational outcomes for Indigenous school students Kerryn McCluskey University of Queensland, Australia The attainment of learning outcomes that provide pathways to further education should be possible for all school students. Yet Indigenous students are less likely to complete Year 12 compared to nonIndigenous students (SCRGSP 2011, p.4.49) and consequently are less likely to gain entrance to universities (DEEWR 2011, Behrendt et al., 2012). National assessments of literacy and numeracy show that there have been no significant improvements in literacy or numeracy outcomes for Indigenous students across the years 2008-2012 (NAP, 2012). Quality teachers are the means for increasing Indigenous studentsâ€™ access and participation in higher and further education. However, teaching in schools with high Indigenous student populations has been reported as a less than desirable option for beginning teachers freshly graduated from university. Capacity building of teachers to work with Indigenous students is therefore an imperative that needs to be urgently addressed. This project aimed to develop, pilot and evaluate a teaching resource that: (1) built the awareness of teacher preparation students of issues faced by Indigenous students in schools; and (2) enables them as tutors, pre-service teachers and graduates to effectively cater for Indigenous school students to improve learning outcomes and access to tertiary education. In this project, voices from the field (Indigenous school students, pre-service teachers, Indigenous Community Elders) describing strategies, approaches, personal stories, were captured on video-tape to become part of a DVD for use in all teacher preparation programmes. The participant group of students was identified by school-based staff. The participant group of teachers consisted of teachers who have worked with Indigenous school students for some years; a graduate teacher working in an Indigenous community school; and pre-service teachers involved in a tutoring program with Indigenous students. Community education officers from a number of schools were approached as participants. Finally, Elders were asked to join as participants. Interviews, which were video-taped, were held to identify best practice strategies for working with Indigenous students. The video-taped interview data was analysed and edited and resulted in the learning resource/DVD for this project.
094 - Student Teachers’ Learning Journal Supported by Peers Orsolya Kálmán University of Eötvös Loránd, Hungary In a reflective initial teacher education programme (ITE) one of the main goals is to prepare for continuous professional development. However, the on-going learning of teachers is not only an individual process but it is embedded in professional learning communities, so ITE should stimulate different ways of learning from peers in order to prepare student teachers to become autonomous and collaborative learners in professional learning communities. The learning journal is a frequent method for developing reflective thinking in teacher education but the role of peers has not been explored in depth. The research studies mainly focus on the learning journal as a tool supporting different levels and topics of reflection (e.g. Bell, 2001; Minnott, 2008; Gillies – Boyle, 2009). Some results show that the orally given help of peers contributes to effective reflection (e.g., Sherin-VanEs, 2005; Harford, 2010). The following research questions were posed in our Hungarian study: 1) What kinds of development of student teachers can be detected based on the reflective journal supported by a peer? 2) On what and how do student teachers reflect? 3) How does the peer help in reflection processes? Data were gathered in six reflective seminars attended by secondary student teachers at the University of Eötvös Loránd, in parallel with teaching practice. In the seminars the student teachers’ task was to write a learning journal about their experiences of teaching and a peer was asked to pose questions in writing about the writer’s experiences and reflections. From approximately 90 student teachers 39 agreed to participate in this research study. In the content analysis of the journals the main aspects were based on the content (Korthagen, 2004), the levels (Bain, 2002; Ryan, 2013), and the focus of reflection (McCollum, 1997; Leijen et al, 2012). The findings show that student teachers reflected strongly on their teacher identity, beliefs and competences, but the mission of teachers remained unexplored. Also reconstruction, the highest level of reflection, varied greatly amongst student teachers. Peers supported reflection by adding a new or missing level to reflection processes or to suggest a new focus for reflection. The results of our study can contribute to understanding more deeply the role of peers in reflection and help to design more effective ways of enabling peer support in reflective ITE programmes.
095 - Lesson Studies in Teacher Education Practicum – a Danish Experience Arne Mogensen, Peter Rostgaard, Ella Joergensen VIA University College, Denmark In collaboration on practicum, teacher students offer theory from teacher training and mentoring teachers their practice experience. The purpose of practicum is the students’ acquisition of "theoretically based practical skills". However, students’ theoretical knowledge does not always relate to the teacher’s experience, or the teacher uncritically accepts the students' ideas without contributing significantly to qualify them. The two sides are not equal of course, as the mentoring teacher formally is the student's supervisor, trainer and assessor. We assume however, that this collaboration may be modified through joint lesson studies. Peer coaching affects participants' teaching practice. In a review, Lu studied peer coaching in teacher training (Lu, 2010) and stated three conditions: (i) a belief in the potential, (ii) a well-organised practicum and (iii) implementation to be continuously assessed. A recent Danish project also linked research, teacher training and school (Andreasen et al, 2012). And there are many research findings on peer-group coaching among trained teachers (Vescio et al, 2008; Heikkinen et al, 2012; Lambson, 2010; Gholami & Husu, 2010; Hattie, 2014; EVA 2009, Tingleff, 2012). It seems to have been demonstrated that teachers' participation in Professional Learning Communities (PLC’s) improves pupils’ performance, if the PLC group constantly focuses on the relationship between a change in teaching practice and pupils’ learning. Research question: How are understanding and implementation of practicum affected by applying lessons study as a framework for co-operation between teacher students and (experienced) teachers? Our data are audio- and video-recordings of meetings on planning and teaching between groups of students and practicum teachers - with or without a framing lesson study. During spring 2015, we collected and analysed more data in order to substantiate and clarify the preliminary results: Students participate more actively in shaping the process and content of mentoring sessions. The practice teacher's role changes from being a manager and adviser to a participant in equal dialogue. Lesson studies promote a shift of focus from what students should do to what students should learn. Lesson Studies promote a common professional reflection on possible choices in planning teaching and thus support more and alternative ideas. This research is based on focused coding (in NVivo) of dialogues from planning conversations. We recommend a possible change in teacher training and relate to the conference sub-theme: Mentor support and challenge for teachers' professional learning.
096 - Closing the gap - a collaborative and equal partnership between teacher education and the practice field linked to student teachers’ pre-service training Olav Erik Kolstad, Geir Luthen Østfold University College, Norway Context of research The target group of this study is the students attending the Practical Pedagogical Education Program (PPU) at the Faculty of Education at Østfold University College. The purpose of our study is to investigate if a close and equal collaboration between a teacher education institution and a number of partner schools can promote an analytic and research-based approach to student learning. Simultaneously we take into consideration the normative and experience-based perceptions characterising the practice field. Thus, teacher educators at PPU invited ten lower- and uppersecondary pre-service schools to a take part in a closer collaboration linked to the pre-service training of teacher students. In September 2014 two upper-secondary schools were selected to participate in a pilot project. Research aim: What characterises a pre-service training programme that contributes to student learning and professional development - according to the students? - according to the mentors? Theoretical framework We are inspired by how Cochran-Smith and Lytle (1999) theorise the relationship between knowledge, practice and learning in and through professional communities and Raaen`s (2013) discussion of similar issues in teacher education. Research methodology Our overall research strategy is one of action research. The main methodical approach is “the letter method” as introduced by G. Berg (2000). Preliminary findings Preliminary findings suggest that -
the students appreciate having the same mentor throughout the pre-service training periods – assuming she has a good relationship with the students the students think it is important to reflect together with the mentors the mentors gain new insight into teaching by being in a professional community with students some mentors consider their work as mentors as a natural and important part of being a professional teacher.
Implication for teacher education This study might help highlight how both teacher education programmes and teachers/schools benefit from a close and equal partnership with each other. Relevance to European educational research This study contributes to the discussion about how teacher education programmes and schools may work together to prepare future teachers and strengthen teachers` professional development.
097 - From Face to Face to Facebook: the contribution of Facebook to Learning in MOOCLEx Rivka Wadmany, Orly Melamed Kibbutzim College of Education, Israel Internet and new media are changing teachers' roles from suppliers of information and knowledge to designers of learning procedures. To deal with those changes, it is very important for our students, in the 21st century, to know how to combine new technologies, networks, digital pedagogies and entrepreneurship principles in the teachers' work. According to constructivist and connectivist theories (Siemens and Downes, 2009), knowledge is no longer created and formed by teachers and passed as is to students. In the digital environment knowledge is spread around the internet, selected, processed, created and shared by students through interactions with friends, search engines and media. Kop (2011) discovered that critical literacy, selfdiscipline, auto-didactic learning skills and contributing communication on networks are necessary conditions for effective learning in digital-networked environments like MOOCs. MOOCLEx (Massive Open On-line Course and Learning Experiences) "New Media in Education", was developed in Teachers Education College, in order to develop students' knowledge and skills towards becoming educational entrepreneurs who can implement new media tools and participatory culture in educational learning projects. The course includes 10 on-line interactive video lessons, feedback questions, 3 face to face meetings for development of the project plans and a discussion group on Facebook. In 2015, 200 students studied in 3 pilot courses. Our Action research will examine the following questions: 1) How do the students grasp the roles of teachers, students and technology in the MOOCLEx learning environment? 2) What are the students’ approaches to the combination of social networks, new media technologies and network participative pedagogy in education? 3) What are the contributions of participation in Facebook towards the video lessons? 4) What are the contributions of Facebook and Face to Face meetings to the project’s development? Research Methodology The answers to these questions were checked through qualitative frame analysis of video lessons, students' feedback to lessons, Facebook “likes” and comments and the protocols of face to face meetings. Findings and Implications Findings show a wide heterogeneity of approaches to the issues studied. The Facebook discussions contribute various points of views, examples, stories and personal experiences and emotions. A need for a computerised grouping mechanism for analysing the data was found. The study contributes towards deep understanding of learning and to the improvement of the MOOCLEx learning environment.
098 - Mixed resources for improving educational quality process: an innovative educational project Gabriel Lazar1, Maria-Ema Faciu1, Iuliana Lazar1, Adriana Malureanu2, Liliana Mata1, Calin Mateian3 1
University “Vasile Alecsandri” of Bacau, 2Ascendia Design SRL, 3Alfa Vega SRL, Romania
The research studied the teaching and learning process using mixed resources for improving educational quality. These mixed resources included ceramic interactive whiteboard with integrated sound (ēno) and a new educational platform (EnoLMS). The interactive whiteboards, which have permanent upgrading facilities, were designed to be useful for both teachers and students. The main purpose of EnoLMS educational platform was to support the teaching process by providing a modern learning management system that is easy to use on ceramic interactive whiteboards. The use of mixed resources aims to provide for the teachers a way to monitor the evolution of the knowledge level of students, and also to test the efficacy of new training methods. The paper highlights how both technologies have enabled interactive learning strategies adapted to student needs. These strategies have been developed and refined based on the needs identified during the project entitled “Teaching and learning science and technology disciplines through the network of ceramic interactive whiteboards with integrated sound (ēno)”, financed by the Romanian Government. This project used interactive whiteboards, tablets, PCs, wireless technology and an educational platform in order to develop new, original and innovative solutions to promote an interactive learning network which enables real-time student’ assessment and assistance in classroom instruction. The present study focused on the benefits of quality education based on new learning strategies packages and analysed the attitude of the teachers related to the acceptance or rejection of these educational innovations. Three hypotheses were investigated: the usefulness of teaching using ceramic interactive whiteboards with integrated sound (ēno), the performance of EnoLMS educational platform, and if teachers needed supplementary skills to perform specific tasks and to adopt the educative innovation. The hypotheses were tested using statistical techniques. The study concluded that the teachers’ perception depends on their ability to incorporate technology effectively into the teaching process. Preliminary results have pointed out that the overall performance of teachers is directly influenced by the adoption of technologies that allow the use of interactive learning strategies. The design and implementation of new interactive strategies of teaching and learning in various educational fields can provide potential benefits for a quality educational process.
099 - ICT in Teacher Education in Israel Olzan Goldstein1, Miri Shonfeld2, Merav Asaf2 1
Kaye Academic College of Education, 2The MOFET Institute, Israel
In the last decade, many countries have begun the reorganisation of their education systems in order to respond to the demands of the Information Era (Hine, 2011). In 2011, the Ministry of Education of Israel began implementing the National Program for improving the education system. As a part of the program, it was decided to re-design the curricula in teacher education colleges, implementing ICT-based innovative teaching methods by faculty members. In addition, funding was allocated for upgrading the technological infrastructure. The aims of this study were to gain insights regarding the program's implementation process: to recognise different training models and to assess their impact on the pedagogical practices of the teaching staff and on the ICT teaching competencies of the pre-service teachers. This paper reports findings relating to ICT integration by faculty members and the state of the pre-service teachers' preparation to teach with ICT. Research Faculty members (N=615) and pre-service teachers (N=802) studying in eight Israeli colleges of education participated in the study. The data were collected using two questionnaires distributed to faculty members and students. Both questionnaires related to ICT integration in teaching; selfreported technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK); attitudes towards the contribution of educational technology to teaching and learning; and access to computers and technological support in the colleges. In addition, the students’ questionnaire included questions regarding their training to teach with ICT, and the faculty’s questionnaire included questions about their experience in ICT-based teaching. The questionnaires were administered anonymously during the second semester of the 2013 academic year. Findings Faculty members incorporated a variety of ICT-based learning assignments. The most frequently incorporated were assignments dealing with presentation, learning management and visualisation. Among 21st century skills, inquiry-based learning and collaboration were the most represented in teaching practices of faculty members while writing tasks were the least popular. Most faculty members and students considered themselves as having adequate TPACK and positive attitudes towards ICT integration in teaching. We found that the college curriculum did not pay enough attention to the practical aspects of training: half of the students had no experience or had very limited experience in ICT-based teaching during their field practice. The presentation will discuss the challenges in ICT integration in Teacher Education.
References Hine, P. (Ed. . (2011). UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf
100 - Partnerships, Supercomplexity and Fragility Lorraine Ling La Trobe University, Australia Higher education in an era of supercomplexity (Barnett, 2000) is characterised by fragility, instability, risk and insecurity. In such a context partnerships within and between sectors also reflect these same characteristics. This is an era in which partnerships are critical to sustainability of organisations and institutions, but also in which partnerships are infinitely tenuous, unstable and risky. Partnerships which are worthy of the title rely upon a certain level of reciprocal trust and mutual advantage and thus imply a level of knowledge and understanding about the conditions and desirable future towards which the partners are jointly striving. In supercomplexity where the future is not knowable and is open to multiple interpretations and is eminently constestable, partners require the attributes of flexibility, reflexivity, adaptability, openness and a readiness to embrace risk, uncertainty and messiness. In this paper the author provides some insights into the implications of supercomplexity for partnerships in teacher education as it impacts on universities, schools, students and teachers and organisations such as ATEE. The future in a supercomplex world is not knowable and there are no universals. Rather there are many potentially incompatible interpretations of all situations and concepts so the partners in any partnership will need to be comfortable with uncertainty and risk. Into this situation enters a whole new array of influential players in the partnerships game. These players change the dynamics of policy making, the basis of power, and the relationship of the State to education itself. These powerful players include philanthropists and philanthropic agencies, global aid bodies such as World Bank, think tanks, usually right wing in ideology, and multinational companies, especially those that can direct curriculum policy and practice through the production of materials and texts from their own value base and interest base. In such a context if the State is to retain some semblance of control and policy power in the education sector, it must partner with these other influential players. This in turn impacts on the direction teacher education policy takes. An era of supercomplexity means that for teacher education we need to think more openly and broadly than we probably have in the past about who our partners might be. ATEE can take a lead in such breadth of thought, and in taking new approaches to partnerships.
Keywords: supercomplexity, philanthropy, risk, new partners.
101 - The portfolio as the indicator of teachers’ continuous professional development Magdolna Chrappán1, Rita Bencze2 1
University of Debrecen Institute of Educational Studies, 2University of Debrecen Teacher Training Practising Secondary School, Hungary
Since the spring of 2014 a new teacher career model has been in force where one central element is making a portfolio which is a condition of getting to a higher career stage. On the one hand, teachers had to face the introduction of compiling such a thorough portfolio without being professionally prepared and were forced to learn the methods of making a portfolio from each other in a couple of months whereas those young teachers still in teacher training could obtain this knowledge within years. On the other hand, this resulted in the formation of collaborative learning communities in different teacher staffs. In our research we examine the attitudes of different groups of teachers and newly qualified teachers, also to what extent they consider making a portfolio relevant in assessing their work and finally whether their professional reflectivity is affected by compiling a portfolio. The tools of the research carried out between the autumn of 2014 and spring of 2015 were surveys (1200 qualified teacher and 200 newly qualified teachers) and focus group interviews (50 teacher major students and newly qualified teachers), the data were worked up with the help of SPSS 22. Our results have verified our previous hypothesis that the portfolio as a part of professional socialisation brings about more positive attitudes in teacher major students. However, in their case the lack of teaching experience causes some difficulty whereas for teachers who have already gained some experience the portfolio as a genre is rather challenging and we can also conclude that there is an age correlation in respect of refusing or accepting the portfolio as the means of assessment. However, younger colleagues are more open to learning communities while elder teachers benefit more from making the portfolio collaboratively. Everybody agrees that teaching how to make a portfolio must be the task of teacher training and the portfolio is generally accepted rather as a tool of continuous professional development and not as the means of assessment. These results have a significant impact on improving teacher training and in-service training programs in Hungary, at the same time they may draw the attention of international professional experts to the importance of peer learning and best practices as well as their role in continuous professional development.
102 - Teachers' perspective on in-service teacher education in Greece Efterpi Bilimpini Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece The aim of this paper is to present the findings of a national survey on teachersâ€™ perspectives on the in-service education they receive as a working term upon entering the profession and throughout their career. At present, the teaching force seems to have no voice as to one of the major issues related to their work - their in-service education. The implications of this situation are multiple affecting their professionalism and consequently the quality of their teaching. A questionnaire, of a qualitative and quantitative nature, was issued to secondary school teachers of all subjects and in all geographical areas in Greece. Their opinions on the content, methodology and aim of their in-service education were explored as well as their viewpoints on its connection to their professional development. Based on theories supporting in-service education as a significant professional term to motivate and support teachers to improve their practice as well as research on policy documentation, this research focuses on methodological issues of in-service education and its professional dimensions. The findings are interesting and verify to a point what has been ascertained in previous research that Greek teachers strongly value their in-service education, as a way of implementing their initial training, renewing their knowledge and coping with everyday practice. As far as the in-service training they receive is concerned, they do not seem to find the institutions that provide it, the methodology or its content satisfactory. They believe that they are not well informed on institutional stipulations and they wish to adopt a more active part in decision making concerning in-service education in the future. Teachers do not relate in-service education to career ladders or promotional incentives, but they value the positive impact it can have on their professional practice. They do not seem to find a strong interrelation between in-service education and their professional identity considering it as an obligation rather than an inherent part of their professionalism, having implications as to how they capitalise the results of their participation. This is very interesting, given the fact that previous research on legal stipulations of the in-service education presents it as being a rightful term of their profession. In that way, a discrepancy between policy aspirations and actual results seems to be created in need of further research and discussion.
103 - The Impact of Written Language in Mentoring Sissel Østrem University of Stavanger, Norway Mentoring is a special kind of professional conversation during internship in ITE and with newly qualified teachers (NQTs) during their first cursory years of employment. Oral language and dialogues between participants are usually the object of research. This paper, however discusses how written language as a tool can enrich the oral dialogues. The study reported took place within a programme meant to qualify mentors for NQTs at the University of Stavanger in Norway. Written texts prior to oral mentoring conversations were imposed on the participants as a course requirement. The question posed relates to evidence for the impact of written language in preparation for oral mentoring dialogues and the function of written tools. I draw on activity theory where mediating tools are a key concept both to get access to the world and to act in it. Especially I rely on Vygotsky’s (1986) theory about the function of inner, oral and written speech as tools contributing to consciousness. As Vygotsky wrote, ‘Written speech is a separate linguistic function, differing from oral speech in both structure and mode of functioning. Even its minimal development requires high level of abstraction’ (op.cit. p. 181). He also argued that the writer must disengage from the sensory aspects of speech and replace words by images of words. The study includes observations of authentic mentoring conversations between mentors in the making and NQTs during the programme, analyses of the written texts that participants had to write as preparation for the conversations, and finally their learning logs at the end of the programme. The study included nine prospective mentors drawn from the list of participants in the programme. Their learning logs were cross examined with 10 random selected logs from other participants. The observations had an ethnographical approach, while for the written texts we used directed content analyses in accordance with Hsiu-Fang, Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The written texts as preparation for the forthcoming conversations produced by the prospective mentors were observed in all mentoring conversations as a physical tool. In all learning logs, this tool is mentioned: as chance to be prepared both practically and theoretically, to keep on the track and to keep the conversations on a professional level. How the use of written language can make a difference both within ITE and in induction of NQTs will be discussed and compared with inner and oral language.
104 - Masters Level Learning through Action Research Dean Robson, Roseanne Fitzpatrick University of Aberdeen, UK Context of the Research This paper connects with a number of recommendations emerging from the ‘Donaldson’ Review of Teacher Education in Scotland, notably those focussed upon partnership, the ITE/Induction Year continuum, Masters Level (M-Level) learning, and shared staffing of teacher education programmes (Scottish Government, 2011). Building on previous pilot Action Research (AR) activities between the School of Education and partner local authorities, funding was secured from the Scottish Government to implement a formalised partnership enabling all induction year teachers (around 200) in two partner local authorities to undertake an M-Level AR learning experience, with an opportunity to submit work for accreditation. The partnership model incorporated a team of 15 University and local authority research ‘tutors’ working in a professional learning community to support the cohort of induction year teachers. University personnel led professional learning and development sessions with induction year teachers and research tutors at key points in the process. All learning materials and activities were accessed via the University’s virtual learning environment. The paper evaluates the initiative through specific lenses, including: professional learning and development; models of shared support; and sustainability. Research Questions How does the M-Level Action Research initiative support the professional learning and development of all participants? How does the model of shared support operate, and is it sustainable? Theoretical Framework The research undertaken ranges over theoretical and conceptual frameworks including models of professional learning and development, learning communities, practitioner research, learning theories, masterliness, mentoring and lifelong learning. Research Methodology A mixed method research methodology has been used to explore the implementation and impact of the initiative. Quantitative and qualitative data has been collected from all participants using a blend of on-line questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Documentary evidence collected on an ongoing basis from various events including coordination meetings and tutor learning community sessions was also analysed. Through analysis and combination of mixed data from the various sources, an evidenced, rich picture emerged, enabling the research questions to be addressed. Findings & Implications for Teacher Education Partnerships and Collaborative Learning Communities Research findings will be used to critically evaluate the initiative in the context of recommendations from Donaldson. Emerging benefits and challenges in relation to aspects such as teacher professional learning and development, sustainability and support models will be highlighted. Implications for future teacher education practice at national, local and individual levels will be outlined.
105 - Fostering student teachers’ research attitude Femke Timmermans, Gerda Geerdink HAN Research Centre Quality of Learning, Netherlands Context Our research was conducted in a Dutch Institute for primary teacher education. Second years’ students were given an assignment which aimed to promote their learning about differences between pupils and develop a research attitude. We focused on the development of student teachers’ research attitude. Research question Does the assignment “Education for all children?” positively influence the development of student teachers’ research attitude? Theoretical framework In the Netherlands, as a result of government policies (De Weert & Leijnse, 2010), the emphasis on practitioner research conducted by teachers in schools has increased. Institutes for Higher Vocational Education prepare student teachers for this new role. Teachers need to have an ongoing systematic critical inquiry as a ‘habit of mind’ (Livingston, McCall & Morgado, 2009). To develop this attitude, in the curriculum of the teacher training college assignments focusing on research skills were included. A research attitude (Bruggink & Harinck, 2012) can be divided into nine characteristics, including a critical attitude towards given information. We investigated whether students, after the assignment, showed a critical attitude more often. Research methodology We carried out a qualitative small scale research using a document, distributed during lectures, with two tasks as a pre- and post-test. Students had to explain how they would handle two specific situations. Sixty students participated. The responses have been categorised on how critical students were towards given information. We distinguished three categories, varying from totally not critical, a bit and a serious critical attitude. Progress on both tasks was taken as an indicator. Findings Only 18.9% of the student teachers made a progress in their research attitude. Implications An assignment assumed to stimulate a research attitude, does not automatically do so. It seems a more explicit focus on this attitude is needed. Relevance The investigation contributes to insights on how to develop teachers' research attitude. Bruggink, M. & Harinck, F. (2012). De onderzoekende houding van leraren: wat wordt daaronder verstaan? Tijdschrift voor lerarenopleiders Velon, 33(3), pp. 46-53. Livingston, K., McCall, J., & Morgado, M. (2009). Teacher Educators as Researchers. In: A. Swennen and M. van der Klink, ed. Becoming a Teacher Educator. Houten: Springer Science and Business Media B.V., pp. 191-203. Weert, E. de, & Leijnse, F. (2010). Practice-Based Research: The Extended Function of Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences. In S. Kyvik, B. Lepori (eds.), The Research Mission of Higher Education Institutions Outside the University Sector. Houten: Springer Science+Business Media, pp. 199-218. 163
106 - Action research as a model of CPD: views of teachers Timothy Murphy1, Cathal de Paor2 1
University of Limerick, 2Mary Immaculate College, Ireland
This paper draws on a needs analysis for CPD provision undertaken to prepare for the development of the new National Institute for Studies in Education (NISE). It follows publication of a report produced by an expert team led by Prof. Sahlberg in 2012, and subsequently adopted by the Minister of Education and Science. This recommended, inter alia that Mary Immaculate College and the University of Limerick should form one integrated centre for teacher education, which would also encompass Art and Design teacher education in Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT). The analysis involved completing a review/needs assessment of current CPD provision and demand across the region and nationally with a view to designing a suite of CPD programmes for teaching/educational professionals that focus on the educational needs of the region and the nation. It is envisaged that such a suite of programmes should offer an innovative set of optional pathways catering to current and future teacher/educator markets. The data which provides the basis for the needs analysis was collected using an online survey of 591 education professionals. The design of the survey involved a number of steps taken during the month of April 2014. Once developed, invitations to participate in the survey were sent by email to the full set of primary (sent by MIC) and postprimary schools (sent by UL) throughout the country. One of the more striking findings related to teachers’ views of teachers on action research as a model of CPD. For many teachers, action research was not a priority. This is all the more significant given the importance of enquiry as recognised in policy and in the literature. Classroom enquiry is a key feature of the Teaching Council policy on the continuum of teacher education, based on the view that, ‘continuing professional development should be based on the enquiry-oriented stance initiated in initial teacher education (TC, 2011, p. 17). Elsewhere, action research has been identified as a transformative model of CPD in enabling teachers to ask critical questions of their practice and having significant capacity for professional autonomy (Kennedy, 2005). Could teachers’ views on action research simply signify that they have had little opportunity to engage in it thus far? The paper examines this and other questions, and identifies implications for future policy and practice in CPD.
107 - Professional Learning Communities: Developing Reflection Abilities by Action-Research Cecilia Assael, Ignacio Figueroa, Paula Guerra Diego Portales University, Chile Teacher professional development is crucial in any attempt to improve students’ learning. Different perspectives have emerged to address this issue, but traditional in-service teacher education typically promotes a conventional setting to deliver a technique by an expert (Cohen & Hill, 2000). Literature about teacher education agrees in the need to foster collaboration among teachers (Borko, 2004, Darling-Hammond, 2006); however, this is hard to achieve in a traditional setting of teacher education. At this respect, new alternatives have emerged to address the social and cultural dimensions of teacher education. One alternative is action-research (AR), a tool that may have positive implications for teacher education. One of its features is that it may constitute a process of education for the teachers’ community involved as it promotes changes in participants’ knowledge, skills, and practices (Rile, 2010). This study shows the results of a process of in-service teacher education based on AR, which was implemented in a teacher development program focused on the improvement of pedagogical interaction from a socio-cultural perspective. This paper focuses on the reflective aspect that was fostered by this program. The sample was composed of 43 pre-school teachers from six cities from Chile that participated in the program. Data were gathered via writing produced by participants at the end of the experience and it was analysed through qualitative content analysis. The results show that the experience contributed in different aspects to teachers. They regarded the self-review and self-criticism processes as relevant. Concerning the link between the role of an educator and a researcher in action, a large majority of teachers considered that the role of the researcher in action enriches the educator. Some participants emphasised that the role of the researcher contributes to the teacher’s systematic work and mentioned the access to multiple sources of information and critical reflection is the meeting point between the two roles. In general, teachers valued positively the constitution of learning communities, highlighting the support that they offer to the teacher learning process. However, some of them also identified this process as challenging, and some considered this a sense of failure. Similarly, several participants reported the need of adjustments to the action originally planned, in order to coincide with the needs of their educational reality. The results of this analysis show the potential of AR as a tool for teacher education and the positive impact on the development of teachers learning communities.
108 - What is at stake? The Impact of Performance Evaluation on Teacher Identity Hatice Celebi1, Gaele Macfarlane2 1
MEF University, Turkey, 2University of Glasgow, UK
With the competitive demands of the corporate world filtering through to education, the focus on the use of teacher evaluations appears to be on hiring, promoting, and firing rather than on improving the quality of teaching. Although there seems to be a consensus that teachers’ evaluations should be formative rather than summative, observations indicate that the current situation is in conflict with this view. Haefele (1993) maintains that many instruments used for teacher evaluation lack validity since they exclude criteria that are representative of teachers’ work, which is a complex, multidimensional matter (Lewis, et al., 1998). In order to be legally accountable and to reflect an objective job description and not the opinion of the person executing the process, teachers’ evaluation instruments must demonstrate that the criteria are derived from a comprehensive job analysis (Levine, 1983). However, there is no consensus as to what constitutes an effective assessment method and for which specific discipline (Brent & Felder, 1997; Bell, 2005; Wood & Harding, 2007). Bell (2005) points out that despite attempts to establish criteria for the comprehensive assessment of teachers, the literature on how teachers in specific content areas should be assessed and by whom is not yet comprehensive. To address the need, this study aimed: 1) to find out what currently constitutes valid criteria for teacher evaluation in two European countries (Scotland and Turkey) and 2) how the process of evaluation impacts teacher identity. The data for the study were collected and analyzed in two phases. Firstly, different types of performance evaluation instruments were collected from a variety of institutions in both countries. Findings were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to form the pool of criteria utilised. Secondly, semi-structured interviews were conducted to find out how the process and the end-result of evaluations with given criteria in a particular institution affected teacher identity. Lastly, the interview results, based on a qualitative approach, were analysed through emotions expressed towards the process and evaluation criteria in order to show how this affected the teachers’ identity. The concept of performance evaluation has enormous potential to give teachers the opportunity for focused development that meets their needs and that, in turn, improve the program as a whole. Teachers advocate objectivity and validity in assessment for their students to ensure fairness, so it is only reasonable that teachers should expect the same standard of transparency in their own assessment.
109 - Team teaching EFL: Perpetuating the “Native Speaker Fallacy”? Peter J. Collins, Gary Scott Fine Tokai University, Japan For over 30 years, English classes in Japan’s secondary schools have included team teaching in their inventory of educational tools. Each team consists of a Japanese teacher of English (JTE) and a nonJapanese assistant language teacher (ALT); this configuration is assumed to ensure improved classroom interaction and teaching quality (MEXT, 2002). Although many shared this optimism in team teaching’s early days (McConnell, 2000), more recently, educators have expressed fundamental doubts about its underlying rationale. Some have argued that requiring “non-native” English speaking teachers (NNESTs) to team teach with “native” English speaking teachers (NESTs) perpetuates the age-old “Native Speaker Fallacy” (Phillipson, 1992) that NESTs are intrinsically better qualified to teach the language (Collins & Fine, 2013; Goto Butler, 2007; Miyazato, 2012). Because JTE and ALT roles in team taught classes remain largely undefined (Gromik, 2004; Mahoney, 2004), in-service teachers may be unaware of whether and how their practices are keeping Phillipson’s fallacy alive. Pre-service programs, then, would seem to be the ideal time for addressing issues surrounding team teaching. Almost 20 years ago, however, Scholefield argued that they did not do so sufficiently (1997). The current study seeks to ascertain whether the above situation is still a reality and, if so, whether it has resulted in fossilized perspectives regarding both team teaching’s benefits and its potential downsides. Teacher educators and students in four pre-service secondary English teacher education programs were surveyed. Their responses centred on 1) whether and how their perceptions of “nativeness” and “non-nativeness” have evolved since their own secondary school English learning, 2) the impact, if any, team teaching had, or is likely to have, on their perceptions of the “ownership of English” (Galloway, 2009; Sung, 2013), and 3) the ways in which the issues raised in 1) and 2) feature in the education programs in which they are currently teaching or learning. As the data emerged, the authors categorized and drew conclusions from it using a Grounded Theory approach (Charmaz, 2006; Cresswell; 2014). Responses suggest that, for both teacher educators and pre-service teachers, personal experiences often have a greater influence on their NNEST teacher identities than pre-service training does. Both groups remain uncertain, however, about the goals of team teaching and practical ways in which JTE-ALT teams can meet them. The authors offer a checklist of discussion topics and practice teaching assignments designed to better equip pre-service teachers for the team teaching that awaits them.
110 - Experience as knowledge in teachers’ professional development Heidi Regine Bergsager Østfold University College, Norway
Introduction of the topic and leading question Teachers work in contexts that are complex, diverse and changing. I see it as highly important that teachers’ and students’ experiences are a part of the professional development of teachers and teacher educators. In this paper, I ask how teachers and teacher educators can transform their experiences into knowledge. Theoretical argument The research question is addressed theoretically. This paper examines theories that challenge the complex and changing contexts in which teachers work and explores how to strengthen their knowledge management (Collision, Cook & Conley 2006, Elkjaer 2004, Hernes & Irgens 2012). The main theoretical basis for the discussion will be Kolb`s (1984) understanding of the learning process as a way of transforming experiences into knowledge. Furthermore Ertsås and Illeris (2014), use Kolb’s perspective to discuss how reflection, social dimensions, emotion and power in organizations can be understood as characteristic of transformation processes. They claim that the practice-oriented perspective can help us to see how knowledge is a process in constant motion. This view of knowledge as process can be a resource for teachers to meet their own and students` needs. It may give teacher educators a foundation through which to develop schools' action theories and use theories (Argyris and Schon 1978) together with the teachers. This collaboration should contribute to their practices as teacher educators and to the students’ understanding of professional development as a continually ongoing process throughout a long working career. Concluding remarks and relevance to European teacher education and conference theme This paper is intended to help develop a theory that can be integrated into practice and used by teacher educators, students, teachers and school administrators in their need to revise, add to and change their knowledge and skills. Although the organisational literature to some extent has dealt with continuity in teachers’ learning, I will argue that it is necessary to focus on how teacher education, through partnership with schools, can open up for collaborative learning communities where all those who participate will achieve good learning outcomes. This will affect how we in teacher education programs challenge our ability to transform experience into knowledge and facilitate organisational learning in daily life.
111 - Thinking together? Teacher autonomy, collaboration and professional development in Turkish lower secondary schools Betul Khalil Open University, UK My study investigates how teacher autonomy is understood in Turkish lower secondary schools, using English Language Teaching as a focus. Whilst autonomy is commonly understood as self-rule, I see autonomy as a collaborative and social concept in which teachers create spaces to take initiatives and responsibility, exercise discretion and participate in the decision making processes. I argue that this collaborative concept can be exercised in a variety of task areas within the working lives of the teachers, for example, curriculum development; teaching and assessment; professional development and school management. My research aims firstly to explore the extent to which teachers of English in lower secondary school contexts exercise autonomy in relation to these task areas. Secondly, it explores the factors that might be influencing their exercise of autonomy in these areas. In this paper, I will focus on professional development as one of these areas. Critical theory is the paradigm that informs this study. I carried out a mixed methods approach to my data collection. I use four data collection methods: document analysis; classroom and school-wide observations; surveys and interviews with English teachers, head teachers, and educational administrators. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that the Turkish Ministry of National Education is responsible for the professional development of teachers in the country and offers a number of training opportunities for the teachers. However, poor communication and collaboration between the Ministry and teachers are reported by the participant teachers in the planning of professional development training which appears to result in training programs that do not closely correspond to the actual needs of the teachers. The participants have reported a strong desire to make their voices heard in this process. Yet, there already exist limited opportunities for the English teachers to come together with their colleagues in their own schools, and in other schools. These opportunities could be maximised and teachers could be encouraged to collaborate more in order to identify their collective learning needs in their local areas. Autonomy in the sense of a collaborative social concept is a construct; I argue can support meaningful professional development.
112 - Developing Teacher Identity in Teacher Education Maria A. Flores University of Minho, Portugal As a teacher, and in particular as a teacher educator, I have always asked myself the following questions: what are my students doing in my classes? What kinds of learning experiences do I provide them? How does my work as a teacher educator help my students grow as teachers? These concerns have led me to reflect upon my own work as a teacher educator and to look more deeply into my research agenda. This paper draws upon the work that I have been carrying out in this context. As stated above, my concern as a teacher educator has focused upon the development of student teachers’ knowledge, skills and abilities in such a way that they are engaged in a dialogic and ongoing process of becoming a teacher. Learning to teach ‘is a process that goes beyond the mere application of a set of acquired techniques and skills. Not only does it imply the mastery of practical and more technical issues, but it also encompasses the construction of knowledge and meaning in an ongoing dialogue with the practice’ (Flores, 2001, p. 146). The project reported in this paper was developed under the new legal framework of pre-service teacher education in Portugal after the implementation of the so-called Bologna process. It implied a two-step model including a first degree (3 years) plus a Master degree in Teaching (2 years). In total, 20 student teachers participated in the study. Data were collected amongst other methods, through written narratives. In this paper I look at the views of student teachers on pedagogies that aim to foster the development of their identity in a much more explicit way. I draw upon a broader research and intervention project which includes a longitudinal study on student teacher identity development in pre-service education which is currently underway. Drawing upon existing research literature the paper also includes a brief overview of teacher education programs in Portugal, the description of the pedagogies used in teacher education and the analysis of their implications on student teachers’ identity development through their own voices. Developing pedagogies that are supportive of professional learning of how to become and being a teacher by giving voice and space to student teachers to challenge and change their beliefs and experiences may contribute to the development of teacher identity in pre-service education in a more explicit way.
113 - What kind of support and supervision do novice teacher educators experience in Norway the first three years in the profession? Ketil Langørgen Bergen University College, Norway Lately focus has been on the quality of Norwegian teacher training and much of this attention has been focused on improvement of student teachers’ learning conditions. Little attention has been directed towards the teacher educator as a professional practitioner. The limited research indicates that new teacher educators entering the profession is a neglected topic and that each new teacher educator is reliant on experienced colleagues’ goodwill, their time and efforts (van Velzen, van der Klink, Swennen, & Yaffe, 2010). For many beginning teacher educators it is a shift to a profession (often from the teaching profession) with more professional and personal autonomy (Martinez, 2008). Yet this newly acquired freedom is often accompanied by anxiety and uncertainty, as freedom from "monitoring" often involves responsibility for their own development. A central feature of the research literature shows that new teacher educators generally have poor confidence in their teaching as a teacher educator (Kitchen, 2005). The main purpose of this paper is therefore to discuss what kind of support new teacher educators in Norway have experienced in the first 3 years in the profession The data in this paper are derived from a cross-sectional study developed to examine different perspective of “becoming a teacher educator in Norway”. It is carried out via a semi-structured online survey to retrieve both qualitative and quantitative data from beginning teacher educators who have been in the profession for up to 3 years. The sample includes both teacher educators in pedagogy and didactics at all teacher education institutions in Norway. This paper has a mixed method approach (Creswell & Clark 2011), with emphasis on the qualitative material in the survey and discusses novice teacher educators’ experiences and support in their work as a teacher educator in the first three years in the profession. Presentation of findings will be connected to the question of novice teacher educators’ experiences, whether they have received formal training, if they have had a mentor or other formal support, and what this training consists of. Furthermore it discusses whom new teacher educators perceive as the main backers and how they will propose to facilitate support for novice teacher educators. The study intends to provide an insight into how Norwegian teacher educators in reality are experiencing support and training in the profession. This knowledge will hopefully contribute to a more comprehensive and targeted induction for new teacher educators in Norway.
114 - Teacher Educators as Emerging Professionals Jennifer Yamin-Ali University of the West Indies, Jamaica This research examines the professional journeys of teacher educators at a well-established school of education in a developing country. It seeks to analyse their journeys to becoming teacher educators, and their understandings of their teacher educator roles and experiences. This research is framed within the theoretical constructs of constructivism, andragogy and professional identity, focusing on career development as situated within a sociocultural context. Selfdirected learning and experiential learning form part of the framework of this research (Knowles, 1984), and the development of a professional identity (Bandura, 1977; Schein, 1978; Zizek, 1989; Bourdieu, 1993; Kogan, 2010) is a fundamental guiding concept. This study falls within the qualitative research paradigm. It is a descriptive intrinsic case study (Stake, 1995) with embedded units. The case is teacher educators' experiences at one teacher education institution in a developing country. Twenty teacher educators of varying years of experience comprise the embedded units. The case itself is of interest to this researcher and the intention is to better understand the current perspectives and experiences of these participants (Stake, 1995) with a view to drawing conclusions about implications for the institution as a provider of teacher education. To better understand their stories (Crabtree & Miller, 1999), all participants were interviewed using an interview protocol which allowed for probing. Interviews were transcribed and participants had the opportunity to confirm and even add to their responses in print. Guided by the research questions, patterns in the data were sought, and emerging categories were further clustered into themes. The data were further analysed to make comparisons and to highlight differences or contrasts. Implications for practice within the institution and beyond were presented. Findings indicate that teacher educators at this institution entered the profession not by design but by circumstances, and that they relied heavily on their own student experiences of teacher education and on ‘learning on-the-go’. Most had considerable experience as teachers, and recruitment to the institution was largely informal. They generally saw their fundamental role to be mentors of classroom teachers, while some eventually saw broader roles. Conducting research was an unexpected expectation as well as a challenge, in terms of time and in some cases, capability, for all of them. Mentoring and communities of practice were seen as valuable resources. The findings indicate a grave need for professional preparation for teacher educators in this context, both in-service and prior to entering the profession.
115 - Let’s make a plan: Educating future teachers for understanding and managing the multicultural classroom Eva Martinsen Dyrnes1, Gudrun Jonsdottir2, Gerd Johansen1 1
Østfold University College, 2Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway
There is an increasing demand for professional teachers who are equipped to handle multicultural classrooms. In a recent study (Dyrnes, Johansen, & Jonsdottir, 2015), we raised the question: Which issues concerning multicultural classrooms are addressed in Practical Pedagogical Education (PPE) and which are not? We scrutinised this by interviewing PPE graduates on their experiences regarding PPE and multicultural classrooms. Our findings indicated that vital concepts are only addressed superficially. The topic is raised and discussed without empirical and theoretical perceptions. Challenges in the multicultural classroom appear to be addressed primarily in an individual perspective, which may cause problems as newly qualified teachers are faced with challenges in multicultural classrooms. (Lowenstein, 2009) We want to follow up these findings in a new project. In this paper, we outline a plan for the project, where the aim is to improve how the multicultural classroom is being addressed in PPE. We discuss concepts that are essential for future teachers in multicultural classrooms and the possible approaches for the application of these concepts in an academic and analytical manner. Finally, we discuss possible approaches to develop the students’ skills to raise questions and make inquiries. We approach these issues with theoretical perspectives from the design and analysis of teachers' professional competence in multicultural education. (Gorski, 2009; 2008; Kvernbekk, 1995) Methodology: The project is set within the overall framework of educational design research (McKenney & Reeves, 2014). We apply a flexible methodology. Our aim is to improve our practices through four main phases: iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation. In this paper we examine: How can PPE prepare future teachers for encountering challenges in the multicultural classroom? Which concepts regarding multicultural classrooms are vital and necessary? How can we support the students’ concept development concerning multicultural classrooms?
References: Dyrnes, E. M., Johansen, G., & Jonsdottir, G. (2015). Hvordan forbereder PPU lærerstudenter på møtet med det flerkulturelle klasserommet? Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, Unpublished. Gorski, P. C. (2009). What we're teaching teachers: An analysis of multicultural teacher education coursework syllabi. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(2), 309-318. Kvernbekk, T. (1995). Om erfaringstyrrani og teorityrrani. Nordisk Pedagogikk, 15(2), 88-96. Lowenstein, K. L. (2009). The work of multicultural teacher education: Reconceptualizing white teacher candidates as learners. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 163-196. McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2014). Educational design research Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 131-140): Springer 173
116 - Learning logs and self-assessment against learning outcomes Steinar Karstensen, John David Holt, John Eivind Storvik Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway This paper discusses how learning logs and self-assessment against learning outcomes can be used as a tool in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA). The intention is for students to build around different learning needs, give insight and understanding of their own learning processes and for them to get a deeper insight to the contents of the study. It is also used for evaluation of the education in relation to the work program and national guidelines. Technological Program (TP) is a generic term for the four programs: Service and Transport (ST), Building and Construction (BC), Electricity and Electronics(EE) and Technical and Industrial Production(TIP). These in turn have many different trades under them, such as the EE has electrician, electronics engineers, telecommunications installer etc., Together represent the four program areas over 100 different trades.(LK,2006) TVET_TP consist of professional subjects, vocational subjects and practice. The background for the student's is journeyman/trade certificate and a minimum of four years of practice within in the trade. Parts of the study on TVET_TP are common to all students and they have to see it against their own trade and educational areas. In other parts it is assumed that students are active and establish networks within working life to gain insight and obtain the necessary expertise. It is therefore important that there is facilitation in relation to each student's individual background. We have therefore introduced the use of learning logs for the awareness of their own learning process. Students will become familiar with the learning concept and follow the student's different learning approaches and needs through the study. Similarly self-assessment against learning outcomes is used so the student become conscious of the contents of study and document competence within the given learning outcomes descriptions. As a starting point for today learning log we use the operationalized concept Responsibility for own learning by Bjørgen (Bjørgen,2010). What experience do we have with the current learning log and does it provides the desired effect? Self-assessment against learning outcomes is recognized by reference to the national framework (KD,2013). What experiences do we with it and does it give the intended effect? The student included in this study is student started at autumn 2014. Research methodology is based on a phenomenological approach(Postholm,2010) of learning logs, Self-assessment against learning outcomes and course evaluations, as well as some quantitative empire in connection with the course evaluations.
117 - A Comparative Study on the Master in Vocational Pedagogy respectively offered at HiOA in Norway and KYU in Uganda and its implication to Vocational Teacher Education Birger Brevik1, Chris Serwaniko2 1
Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway, 2Kyambogo University, Uganda
The context for this study is based on a collaborative initiative project themed under ‘Master of Vocational Pedagogy’ which programme is offered respectively in Oslo and Akershus University College in Norway (HiOA), and Kyambogo University (KyU) in Uganda. Although, the Master of Vocational Education (MAYP) programme has been offered since 1980, in Autumn 2014 a new improved program was adopted at HiOA. Previous experiences from the implementation of same programme highly influenced the new plan. Through which a collaborative project between HiOA and KyU has been developed. Similarly experiences from the 5 year Masters in Vocational Pedagogy (MVP) at KyU have guided a review and development leading to an improved MVP programme similar to that offered at HiOA. Both MAYP and MVP programmes aim at the development of competences among teachers and instructors for vocational high schools, vocational institutes and employees dealing with training in companies and workplaces. Through activity based collaboration, both HiOA and KyU teaching staff have built a common understanding of action research and knowledge related tasks of great benefit to the implementing the MVP in Uganda. Through this paper, a problem is formulated under the following research questions: What similarities and differences exist between the MVP and MAYP programmes and how can this knowledge be used to further develop both research studies in VET? As a theoretical framework for analyzing our empirical data we have chosen to use Goodlads Conceptual Framework (GCF) for the study (1979). In order to answer our research question, we conducted a qualitative study and analysis of literature, primary and secondary in nature that is respectively drawn from the two programmes MAYP and MVP. A survey conducted among students who started in autumn 2014 and programme coordinators own reflection notes are also used. The data are analysed according to the constant comparative method, as described and designed by a Grounded Theory (Charmaz, 2014). From our preliminary findings, we see that there are major differences when it comes to structure for evaluating our two master programs. Whereby, students in Norway must document their research work and are assessed through four projects yet students in Uganda must carry out written exams after each course. Our findings will have direct influence on the further development of the program for MAYP and MVP, and help to ensure the quality of the implementation of the studies respectively Norway and Uganda.
118 - Student Self-Assessment and Teacher Role Change in Competence-Based Special teacher Education Pirkko Kepanen School of Vocational Teacher Education, Finland Competence-based higher education (HE) is based on the Bologna process and the practical conclusions concerning vocational HE (2007). It tends to be an instrument to judge standards and make comparison possible between educational organizations, develop global workers and enhance flexibility. The competence approach is widely adopted. Competence is often conceptualized as the underlying characteristics of an individual (Boyatzis 1982, Spencer & Spencer 1993) or skills knowledge and attitudes of an individual (Tannenbaum 1997). In this study competence is defined as skills, knowledge, experiences and values needed in teaching. In self-assessment people´s perceptions of their competences often show that they are not very good at assessing themselves accurately (Dunning 2005). Students are either over-confident or underestimate some of their weaknesses (Weinstein 1980, Buehler, Griffin & Ross 1994). The first vocational special teacher education program in Oulu School of Vocational Teacher Education (SVTE) proceeds according to the competence-based curriculum. At the beginning the students make self-judgements by comparing their skills and competences. The student has to take the responsibility for self-evaluation and designing a personal study plan. The commitment to the peer group is important in the process. Teacher guidance is also available. The research is a qualitative case study. The aim is to explain vocational special education students` (N=20) experiences of self-assessment in relation to competence criteria. Two teachers were also interviewed of their role change experiences in competence-based education. The material was analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The findings will be used for the development of the curricula. Research questions were: 1. What were the special education students´ experiences of their self-assessment processes? 2. How did the teachers feel about their role changes in competence-based teaching? Self-evaluation and demonstration of competences seemed natural in recognizing the needs of learning. It will lead to learning the criteria first. Peer group support and systematic reflection made them conscious of their skills. Studying was considered meaningful, challenging and serving the needs of adult students. Traditional teacher roles changed radically from the source of knowledge to supervisor. The teacher was freed from earlier constraints to daily guidance and discussions with students on their individual learning paths. Keywords: competence-based curriculum, cooperation, evaluation of competences, learning path, special teacher education
119 - Vocational Pedagogy and the Epistemology of Technical Vocational Practice and Learning Traditions Mustafa Trond Smistad Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway Technical vocational practice is contextual, and its knowledge is a complex intertwined whole of different knowledge forms, several which are challenging to uncover, make explicit and document. Consequently teaching within the technical vocational domain in an educational setting raises issues of relevance, meaning and validity beyond what might be the case in general education. The learning traditions within technical vocational practice are to a significant degree experiential. Vocational pedagogy is about facilitating learning through education, training or work within the technical vocational domain. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the awareness of epistemological issues and learning traditions in a Master’s program in vocational pedagogy from the perspective of: How does documentation of vocational pedagogical knowledge relate to the epistemology of technical vocational practice and technical vocational learning traditions? Theoretically the study draws upon Michael Polanyi’s work on tacit knowledge and Rudolph zur Lippe’s notion of gestic knowledge to complement a synthesis of Richard Sennet’s and Michael Eraut’s works on workplace knowledge. The synthesis leads to a formation of a set of characteristics of the epistemology of technical vocational practice. John Dewey’s work on experience and education together with Stephen Billett’s research on learning at schools, in trainings and the workplace outline a concept of the learning traditions of the technical vocational domain. The theoretical framework forms the perspectives for the discussion. A discourse analysis of the 102 theses submitted during the last five years from a Master’s program in vocational pedagogy and the curricula for the same batches form a body of vocational pedagogical knowledge. The characteristics of the epistemology of technical vocational practice and the technical vocational learning traditions constitute the perspectives for the analyses of the body of vocational pedagogical knowledge. A part of the validation of the findings builds upon semi-structured interviews with eight authors of theses and their supervisors. The selection of the authors took place through purposive sampling of theses representing low, medium and high awareness of technical vocational epistemology and learning traditions based on the discourse analyses and a following survey. Preliminary findings indicate that the documentation of vocational pedagogical knowledge shows limited awareness towards the epistemology of technical vocational practice. Most of the Master’s theses are following a traditional academic report format representing a deductive learning tradition. A discussion illuminates possible implications for technical vocational teacher education, vocational pedagogy, higher education governance and needs for future research.
120 - Norwegian socialisation values: Implications for kindergarten teachers and assistants Odd Helge Lindseth Hedmark University College, Norway Children attending kindergartens are socialised both at home and in kindergartens. In Norway most children attend kindergarten for most of their pre-school childhood (1-5 years old), they attend kindergarten all day (7+ hours a day), and for five days a week (Monday-Friday). When children are socialised in kindergarten as well at home, it might be that values and attitudes learned at these two arenas will be in conflict. On the other hand, it might be that the kindergartens reflect common socialisation values in society. However, as society becomes more diverse and multicultural it is possible that agreeing on a set of common socialisation values becomes harder. This paper is an empirical study which focuses on Norwegian socialisation values. Their implications for kindergarten teachers and assistants will also be investigated. It has three problems of inquiry: 1. 2. 3. 4.
What are the main characteristics of Norwegian socialisation values today? What characterise Norwegian socialisation values in a comparative perspective? Which socialisation values are essential in Norwegian kindergartens? Is there a discrepancy between Norwegian socialisation values and the socialisation values that are essential in Norwegian kindergartens?
The first two problems of inquiry will be investigated by analysing recent quantitative data from the World Values Survey and the European Value Study (WVS/EVS). These studies are cross-national representative samples collected in most Western countries and many non-Western countries. The last two problems of inquiry will be investigated by reviewing official Norwegian kindergarten policy documents. The theoretical framework will be based on socialisation theory, value studies, educational studies and professional research. The ongoing process of decline in authorities and the increase in individualisation will be included in the framework. As "danning", as in the German "Bildung", is essential in Norwegian kindergarten policy documents this will also be included in the theoretical framework. Preliminary findings suggest that Norwegian kindergartens to a large extent reflect common socialisation values in Norwegian society. As teachers are socialisation agents, this study is clearly relevant and has implications for teacher education. The conclusions in this paper may contribute to the discussion on teacher competences. This study is relevant to the following RDCs: (1) Primary and Pre-primary education, (2) Culture, Qualify of Life and Citizenship and (3) Professional Development of Teachers.
121 - The implementation of ICT in the kindergarten environment: implications for teacher education Esther Firstater, Noga Magen-Nagar, Nitza Schwabsky Gordon College of Education, Israel One of the most influential changes the technological revolution has brought, is the introduction of computers into the kindergarten, designed to provide an answer for the changing needs of children and the society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teachers perceive the implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the kindergarten environment. Theoretical background Teacher's beliefs and perceptions along with their attitudes and skills may impact the implementation of a computerized pedagogy and their own performance in digital environments. Positive attitudes are beneficial to successful integration of new technologies and for developing a positive position towards a teaching ability Research questions What is the teachersâ€™ role in using the computer, and how ICT affects their perceptions regarding technologically-oriented children's activities and their own teaching methods? Methodology Thirty six kindergarten teachers who work under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, from regular and special education kindergartens from towns and the kibbutz, were interviewed in semistructured interviews. Findings Three main categories emerged from the content analysis: (a) pedagogical aspect: the computer does not play a central role in the kindergarten, even though the teachers acknowledge its technological value; (b) didactical aspect: the computer is mainly used as a source of information and as an advanced tool for instructional illustration; (c) developmental aspect: the computer mainly contributes to the social interaction among children. In addition, teachers disagree about the ICT contribution to children with special education needs. Concluding remarks The teachers think that ICT has no main role in promoting learning in the kindergarten, and that the kindergarten serves more important goals other than using the computer; They posit conventional kindergarten goals for using the computer, which are neither unique nor necessarily related to it; One may conclude, that kindergarten teachers still do not realize the pedagogical potential of ICT and do not use it to adopt innovative pedagogies Implications for teacher education This research emphasizes the need to train teachers, in teachers' colleges and professional development courses, to work in an ICT environment and to integrate ICT in learning programs. 179
122 - Non-Native, Motivated! Laura Buechel Zurich University of Teacher Education, Switzerland Elementary school English language teachers in Swiss public schools often undergo criticism due to their supposed lack of English language proficiency though this is only one small part of the full set of skills necessary for certification. This study set out to discover if young learner performance in reading, writing and listening after one or two years of instruction with the same teacher is associated with the teacher’s measured language proficiency, with the teacher’s feelings of improvement, with the teacher’s contact with English outside the classroom as well as with teacher profiles of time spent on reading, writing, speaking and listening skills in the classroom. Findings from this study suggest that neither teacher language proficiency nor teacher exposure to English outside of the classroom are determining factors in learner performance in the first two years of English instruction - indeed high levels of teacher proficiency in speaking and grammar here are negatively associated with learner performance. In this study, what positively associates with leaner performance is a teacher’s feeling of continually improving his or her speaking skills and instructional time on certain combinations of language skills. Implications from this research should help improve English language teaching effectiveness by refining priorities in teacher training.
123 - The voice of the teacher: finding a balance in teacher-student interaction during primary EFL reading instruction Rebecca Charboneau Stuvland University of Stavanger, Norway This research is a case study of teacher-student interaction during reading instruction in fourth and fifth grade English as a foreign language (EFL) classes in four schools in Norway. The study addresses the following research question: What differences are there in the reading interaction between teachers and students among schools using different literacy approaches? Factors related to classroom reading interaction are the language used (first language or target language), negotiation for meaning during interaction, and teacher approach to interaction. Teacher approach to interaction is categorized as telling, recitation, modelling, coaching and scaffolding, listening and watching, reading aloud, assessment and discussion. Research has suggested that there are missed opportunities for teachers to support students to learn and discover answers (Barnes, 2008). In contrast, more common interaction in the classroom is teacher telling information and providing answers (Taylor et al., 2002). The study took place over six months, including sixty hours of transcribed audio recordings. The observation framework from the CIERA research was used to observe the reading instruction (Taylor et al., 2000, 2002, 2005). The frequency of different types of interaction was analyzed, as well as an in-depth study of specific examples, their function in the lesson, and how they supported learning. The findings showed that these teachers used a predominance of teacher telling and recitation, which supports previous findings of teacher interaction (Taylor et al., 2002, 2005). Teacher modelling was uncommon among all the teachers. When scaffolding was used, it was often in the form of follow-up questions posed to students to aid them in elaborating answers and teacher elicitation of student responses to reading and answering questions. However, coaching of students to transfer and apply reading skills was limited. Thus, greater use of teacher coaching and scaffolding could better support students’ language learning and reading comprehension. The implications for teacher education include a need for greater awareness of the balance between teacher telling and teacher provided scaffolding and modelling to support students’ learning. Due to the importance of teacher-student interaction for teaching of a diverse body of students, this research is relevant for ATEE in the teaching for diversity and creativity and teacher’s diverse professional learning needs themes.
124 - University-school partnerships for quality initial teacher education: Are pre-service teachersâ€™ mentoring needs met? Rovincer Najjuma1, Elaine Wilson2 1
Makerere University, Uganda, 2University of Cambridge, England
This paper discusses the nature of mentoring support provided to pre-service teachers during school practice, a school-based practical part of teacher training. This mentoring support is empirically described by studying and describing how it is conceived by pre-service and practising teachers. The differences in the nature of mentoring support provided in relation to the mentoring needs of preservice teachers is discussed using conceptions of mentoring (McIntyre & Hagger, 2004). Data was collected from 500 pre-service teachers and 80 secondary school practising teachers before and after school practice. Findings indicate that pre-service teachers received more generic and minimal mentoring support focusing on generic teacher interpersonal skills than developed and extended mentoring that focuses on collaborative, practitioner-based mentoring support that involves pedagogical knowledge, modelling and feedback. Results also reveal that variations exist in the nature of mentoring support resulting in mentoring gaps and a perceived lack of collaboration between university and practice schools. Recommendations are made to inform the development of a logical and comprehensive teacher education mentoring model that is based on a University-school partnership. This article resonates with the theme of the conference by exploring the nature of mentoring support provided to pre-service teachers within a University-schools collaboration for mentoring in initial teacher education.
125 - Quality Improvement of Hungarian Initial Teacher Education Orsolya Kálmán, István Vilmos Kovács, Judit Szivák University of Eötvös Loránd, Hungary Recently the issue of quality and quality assurance of teacher education has strengthened in the European discourse (Harford, Hudson, Niemi, 2012). However, in the Hungarian higher education context quality management is mainly interpreted at the level of higher education institutions rather than programme level. Our research and development project aims at preparing a national proposal on the quality improvement of initial teacher education as a unique professional initiative in Hungary. One of the main goals of our quality improvement approach is to facilitate reflection between the different stakeholders of the ITE programme and to provide evidence based information in a systemic manner. The developer group is committed to set the principles of a holistic and evolutionary quality approach based on cutting edge research on change, development and innovation processes (e. g. Ehlers, 2009). In our design based research framework we firstly reviewed the international ITE literature, best practices and several national guidelines of quality management, secondly we diagnosed the practice of one of the largest ITE programmes, thirdly based on the findings of a regular expert workshop and the different knowledge base of the developers a first version of quality improvement framework was drafted. Based on our framework an indicator list was elaborated and discussed with stakeholders of several ITE programmes (different teacher educators, student teachers, representatives of schools). These consultations and a related questionnaire contributed to refining our proposed ITE quality improvement framework. The elaborated framework based on a series of expert contributions consists of four main elements: quality goals (1), input and context (2), key processes (3), output assessment and feedback loops (4). This approach reflects the logic of the classical PDCA cycle. The main results of the consultations and the questionnaire show that the quality goals regarding teacher’s competences are not specialized to the concrete ITE programme, and the curriculum design, innovation and collaboration processes remain inside the modules of ITE. The expected contribution of our research and development work to the development of the Hungarian ITE system is to decrease the diverging and fragmented approach of the identified key provider groups and to harmonise the design and delivery subprocesses of the Hungarian ITE programmes with the expectations of the employers in the field of education and training.
126 - Developing student teachers’ lesson analysis skills Kaja Oras, Edgar Krull, Sirje Sisask, Annela Liivat University of Tartu, Estonia A large amount of research has dealt with the development of teachers’ skills of the lessons analysis in general terms, but there are less studies that use specific models of instruction for these purposes. In our former study of teachers’ perception and thinking in commenting on videotaped lessons, Gagné’s model of an instructional unit (Gagné 1985) was used. The study revealed that teachers’ comments can be reliably categorized into lesson events as reflected in Gagné’s model and that comments made by expert teachers which were more relevant and numerous than those of student teachers (Krull, Oras & Sisask 2007). The aim of the present study was finding ways to develop student teachers’ lesson analysis skills by using Gagné’s model, and thus improving their perception and understanding of critical lesson events. In our following study, an experimental group of student teachers (12 prospective secondary school teachers) participated in three seminars in which they were taught using Gagné’s model for analyzing lessons whereas the control group (10 prospective teachers) followed a traditional programme. The students’ skills of lesson analysis were tested in the beginning and in the end of their school placement in the experimental as well as in the control group, using the same videotaped sections of a lesson. The comparison of the control and the experimental group revealed that there was a modest increase in quality of lesson analysis in the experimental group (Krull, Oras & Pikksaar 2010). The relatively modest improvement of the lesson analysis skills in the experimental group raises the question about the nature of changes that took place, and timing of these changes during the three training sessions. In order to respond to these questions, this study focuses on studying the lesson analysis reports written by the student teachers participating in the lesson analysis training seminars. A more thorough content analysis of submitted protocols of the lesson analysis revealed that the percentage of comments categorized as classroom management initially started to increase in the first training session and thereafter decreased whereas the percentage of comments directly related to students’ individual learning processes increased. Also, the study revealed that students’ interpretative comments on lesson events became increasingly more relevant along with their participation in training sessions. The study confirmed that the guided lesson analysis training is effective for promoting student teachers' lesson analysis skills.
127 - Models of secondary teacher education in the EU László Galántai University of Pécs, Hungary Education is one of the big sub-systems of the society, which is also a complex system with more subsystems. Its labour supply comes from the historically given teacher education models. The subject of the paper is the system research of the secondary teacher education in the European Union. The goal of the research is the comparative analysis of these teacher education models. The theoretical section describes functioning education models briefly. The empirical section presents a possible way of researching these models with statistical data analysis of curricula; the analysis is based on credit-data. The cross-sectional data tables are filled in deductive way based on the related references (Falus 2006 and 2009, Kozma 2001, Kron 2003, Szabó 1998). The primary sources of the research are the curricula of teacher education programs in the European Union. The research is open for a wider sample. The secondary sources of the research come from theoretical references (see references below). The data tables are analysed with statistical methods, this means firstly cluster-analysis for clustering the observations (education programs). After cluster-analysis we try to show correlations of the course types and paradigms. Clustering the programs, knowing a model-typology and rates of education science paradigms in the curricula are expected results. The paper presents a multi-perspective research of secondary teacher education based on the curricula. References Archer, E. G. – Peck, B. T. (eds.) (1991): The Teaching Profession in Europe. Jordanhill College. Beernaert, Y. – Van Dijk, H. Sander, Th. (eds.) (1995): The European Dimension in Teacher Education. Brussels: ATEE. Bruce, M. (1991): „Internationailizing” Teacher Education. British Journal of Education. 1991/2. Falus, I. (2006): A tanári tevékenység és a pedagógusképzés új útjai. Budapest: Osiris Kiadó. Falus, I. (2009): A hazai tanárképzés változásai európai mérlegen. Educatio, 2009/3. 360-370. Heyman, R. D. (1981): Analyzing the Curriculum. International Review of Education. 1981/4. Holmes, B. – McLean, M. (1979): The Curriculum. A Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge. Judge, H. (1992): Schools of Education and Teacher Education. In: Philips, D. (ed.): Lessons of Cross-National Comparison in Education. Kozma, T. (2001): Paradigmáink. Iskolakultúra. 2001/10. 3-14. Kron, F. W. (2003): Pedagógia. Budapest: Osiris Kiadó. Szabó, L. T. (1998): Tanárképzés Európában. Budapest: Educatio.
128 - Attitudes towards immigrants among student teachers Morten Løtveit, Liv Susanne Bugge Hedmark University College, Norway Context of the Research European schools and kindergartens are characterised by growing diversity. This is a consequence of the rise in migration, forced and voluntary, in many European countries during the last decades. Students and kindergarten children have diverse cultural backgrounds. Teachers and student teachers, however, overwhelmingly belong to the dominant culture. Hence student teachers should be trained in multicultural awareness. Research approach In this paper we will compare the attitudes towards immigrants among student teachers at a regional university college in Norway with the attitudes towards immigrants among the Norwegian population in general. Are the student teachers more or less open-minded towards immigrants than other groups in society? Research methodology Data were gathered in a quantitative study using structured questionnaires among novice student teachers. Some of the questions they were asked are similar to questions which Statistics Norway (The Central Bureau of Statistics) regularly ask a sample of the Norwegian population. The data from the university college, consisting of responses from a sample of 388 student teachers attending their first year of study in different educational programmes, are compared with the data gathered by Statistics Norway. Theoretical framework The research is based on a theoretical understanding of the concept of multicultural awareness as a central aspect of a developmental model of intercultural competence. In developing this understanding, the authors have been influenced by, among others, Darla K. Deardorrf, and by various proponents of the concept of critical multicultural awareness. Findings One might expect novice student teachers to be either clearly or slightly more positive or openminded towards immigrants than the population in general. The findings of this research project, however, may give reasons to question such assumptions. Implications for teacher education Teacher educators should be concerned with the attitudes of student teachers regarding immigrants and people of minority cultural backgrounds. They should seek to identify those attitudes, and they should develop relevant educational resources to promote multicultural learning. Relevance to the ATEE annual conference theme Multiculturality is central to “the complex, diverse and changing contexts in which teachers work,” to quote the conference organisers. Rapidly changing multicultural classrooms and kindergartens call for continuous and blended professional learning among teachers and pre-school teachers.
129 - How to collaborate with whom? : a perspective of a teacher educator of a small size local university in Japan Masahiro Saito Asahikawa University, Japan In Japan, teaching has been a traditionally respected profession, but this perception has been changing. Now teacher education in Japan, especially that of a small-sized local university, is in its most difficult time. Two major types of teacher education currently followed in Japan are teacher education at universities, and ‘open system for teacher license’. There are three types of licenses in Japan: the 2nd degree license after two-year study in higher education, the 1st degree license after fouryear study in higher education and the advanced license after six years of study in higher education. Forty-seven national universities and faculties of education (former normal/higher normal schools) and departments for teacher education of private universities provide the primary school teachers’ license. The primary school teachers’ license is valid for all subjects. For the secondary school teachers’ license, all institutions with a qualified teacher education program provide the license. The secondary school teachers’ license is valid for a specialized subject. These differences among education levels and universities are not so important in regards to the status of individual teachers. Under the Education Personnel Law, all teachers with a license are treated equally. This system was once reasonable. Now, however, many problems have occurred. Many students do their student teaching only for their personal experience, and mentor teachers’ efforts to support student teachers do not get any reward. This situation has been called ‘teaching practice pollution’. Moreover, as the population is shrinking and the number of children has been decreasing, the central and local governments have suffered financial deficits and hired fewer teachers. As a result, the competition ratio of the employment exam is generally very high. For example, in 2006, the average ratio of the employment exam was 9.8 in junior high school, and 14.2 in high school. This meant that most of those candidates certified to be a teacher did not get their teaching position upon their graduation. The author has worked for a small-sized local university that has only two faculties. Every year, only a handful of graduates get a teaching position in a school. Partnerships are crucial; however, the teacher education program of such a university should be also examined. In this paper-presentation, the author will explore partnerships with secondary schools, other small-sized universities and local communities.
130 - Teacher Education and the Segregated School Niclas Månsson, Ali Osman Mälardalens University College, Sweden The context of the study is Swedish teacher education and its relation to segregated schools in social end economical depressed urban areas. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the encounter between pre-service teacher education and schools in segregated areas as a meeting of dispositions rather than meetings of different cultures, ways of knowing and learning. In this paper we adopt Bourdieu’s concepts of field and habitus. We depart from the notion that every field has a certain logic and certain values that affects those who enter a certain field. In our case habitus equips the teacher and the student with a ”sense of the play” in the field. ‘I’ is a product of a way of knowing, language, taste, etc., or disposition, that are rather stable and hard to change and it can widen and limit the structure of opportunity of actors. The result from this study is based on metaanalysis, where we are using conclusions of research and reports to redefine the problem of the segregated school. The corpus of texts analysed in the study is a) national research, statistics, reports from The Swedish National Agency for Education and The Swedish Research Council, and b) reports from OECD and a sample of international and national research on teacher education, and research on ”the multicultural school”. In this study we show that Swedish teacher education programs are not constructed to prepare teachers to meet the challenges the segregated school faces. Our findings indicates that it is socioeconomical factors and parental educational background that are critical in the encounter between teachers and pupils in the segregated school, rather than the diversity of cultures, learning styles and other deficits that has been identified in research about multiculturalism and school performances. Research in educational sociology has underscored that middle class disposition is privileged in the encounter between teachers and pupils. School practice and teacher education seems to reproduce the rules of the game in the field that privileges middle class disposition and disadvantages the ”flawed classes” irrespective of their ethnic or/and national background. Even if the context in this paper is limited to Swedish teacher education the perspectives it offers is a critical contribution to the scientific discussion of teacher education and its relation to ethnical segregated schools in economical deprived areas. Relevance to the ATEE-conference is following sub-themes: Teaching for diversity and creativity and Teacher education identities.
131 - Looking anew at collaborative professional practices: The positioning of team teaching in Irish education system to attend to systemic goals associated with inclusive and professional learning. Finn Ó Murchú University College Cork, Ireland Context of research The research context is two-fold. The initial study attended to enhancing deeper understanding of inclusive education by examining how team teaching, where two teachers teach in the same classroom at the same time, might contribute to the promotion of inclusive learning in Irish post-primary schools. The context also includes a recent national policy shift that seeks to promote greater professional collaboration among teachers as a key driver of school improvement. Research approach/question In light of the paucity and inconclusive nature of the research on team-teaching to date (Hattie, 2009), the orientating question in this study asks ‘To what extent, can the introduction of a formal teamteaching initiative enhance the quality of inclusive student learning and teachers’ learning at postprimary level?’ The research question is also of relevance in light of the increased application of team teaching in formulating learning opportunities across the continuum of teacher professional development. Theoretical framework The success or otherwise of team-teaching will be determined not solely by the collaborative practices undertaken by teachers but by the learning achieved by students. In adopting a socio-cultural perspective, this paper focuses upon the learning that is available to be learned by students and by teachers through the positioning and repositioning of learners in team-teaching arrangements. Positioning Theory offers a theoretical framework in understanding how students and teachers can collaboratively create and avail of learning opportunities. Research methodology The initial research adopted an interpretivist paradigm. Fieldwork involved seven post-primary schools with an in-depth focus on two schools. Research methodologies included semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and an examination of recent policy documents that reference team teaching. Findings Team teaching is not a teaching methodology but offers potential for learning to be increased in real classrooms in real time. It can promote a sense of belonging among a community of learners, which attends to student and teacher learning in a context-sensitive manner. Implications for teacher education The research has implications for the manner in which the teachers are supported and supportive across the continuum of teacher education. (TALIS, 2014) Relevance to the conference The paper is relevant to the conference in that it gives an insight, at micro-, meso- and macro- levels, into the key role team teaching can play in supporting partnerships and collaborative learning communities.
132 - The Role of School-Environment Relations in Successful Schools Damla Ayduğ, Esmahan Agaoglu Anadolu University, Turkey Organizations were evaluated as open systems with the modern management theory (Argyris, 1964). Organizations as open systems are structures which interact with the environment, take inputs from environment, process them and offer them as outputs to environment. In this process the feedback coming from the environment about whether organization attains goals or not, affect operational process of organization and behaviours of organization members (Nelson and Quick, 2005). Moreover, organizations always interact with other organizations in its environment. These interactions are of vital importance for organizations because they not only are affected by other organizations but also affect them. In short, the evaluation of organizations in line with a system approach indicates that the environment plays an essential role in terms of organizational processes. Discussing educational organizations within the frame of system approach made the concepts such as parent involvement and shareholder engagement current issues by underlining the multifaceted relations between school and its environment (Kucukali, 2011). Thus, it was determined that schoolenvironment relations is one of the important variables about schools’ goal attainment. Schoolenvironment relations require cooperation between school, family, other schools, local administrators, media and policymakers to achieve educational goals. Research has revealed that increasing parent involvement in schools affect students’ academic achievement positively (Rosenblatt and Peled, 2002). When the extent and complexity of educational organizations functions are taken into consideration, it is inevitable for a school to seek help from its environment (Calık, 2007). Schools can achieve their educational goals and make educational processes more qualified by taking advantage of cooperation between schools, family and other organizations in school environment (Yigit and Bayrakdar, 2006). Therefore, it is considered that teachers, school principals, families and society must work together to attain schools success. For these reasons, the aim is to investigate principals’ opinions about the role of the relations between school and environment in successful schools. As a part of “Successful School Principals” project, this study has been designed as a qualitative method. The participants of the study consist of principals from 5 different schools which are considered as successful schools according to improvements in their academic achievements. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. In the data analysis, NVivo package program and descriptive analyzing method is used. The data are in the process of being analyzing. Keywords: School principals, successful schools, school environment, school-environment relations
133 - How can we develop teacher identity of pre-service teachers: Teacher Educators’ Perspective Ceyhun Kavrayıcı, Esmahan Agaoglu Anadolu University, Turkey Teacher identity includes the way teachers teach, the way they develop as teachers. Construction of teacher identity has emerged as a distinct research topic that has heavily accumulated literature in teacher education over the past few decades since teacher identity is widely acknowledged to play a significant role in professional development of teachers. Teacher identity starts to be constructed during pre-service education of teacher candidates. So, in order to measure the identity of pre-service teachers in wider samples, the researchers developed an instrument with reference to Day and Kington’s classifications of teacher identity. The instrument was constructed on three sub-dimensions including Professional identity, Situated or socially located identity and Personal identity. When implications of the results are taken in to consideration it is found that perceptions of pre-service teachers of teacher identity is at moderate level (x̄ = 3.29). The aim of this study is questioning how to develop teacher identity among pre-teachers. To do so, a qualitative research has been developed to gather the opinions of teacher educators on developing teacher identity among pre-service teachers. In terms of the aim, the questions below are the focus of the research: Which one is the preliminary among dimensions of teacher identity? Why? What can you do as teacher educator to develop teacher identity of pre-service teachers? What should be developed in curriculum of Faculty of Education? What should policy makers take into consideration to develop teacher identity? In the study qualitative research method was used. The data were gathered through interviews with teacher educators selected from educational sciences department of Anadolu University. The participants of the study are 9 academic staff equally distributed in the fields of Educational Leadership and Management, Psychological Counselling and Curriculum Development. The interview form was conducted after an expert view was taken. The data were analyzed through content analysis technique. After the analysis of the data, a new coding key was created by two experts. A third expert checked the codes to verify the reliability of the study and the reliability was calculated as 87%. Although the data is in the process of analysis the preliminary findings focus on compulsory changes in curriculum and policy making process at State level.
134 - Interconnected Contexts for (student) Teacher Education: An insight from a Study of Mathematical Identity Patricia Eaton1, Christine Horn2, Maurice Oreilly3 1
Stranmillis University College, Belfast 2Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology, 3 St. Patrick’s College, Dublin
This paper reports on a project investigating the mathematical identity of student teachers. The project, Mathematical Identity using Narrative as a Tool (MINT), was funded by the Standing Conference on Teacher Education North and South (SCoTENS) and involved collaboration between participants from five different higher education institutes on the island of Ireland. The chief aim of MINT was to propose an efficient and effective protocol for third level mathematics educators to explore the mathematical identities of their students with a view to improving the teaching and learning of mathematics. Mathematical identity is considered as the multi-faceted relationship that an individual has with mathematics, including knowledge, experiences and perceptions of oneself and others. In this project, identity was accessed through the medium of narrative by asking students to think about and report the experiences that have shaped their current mathematical identity. An online questionnaire was developed, based on earlier work by members of the team; it invited respondents to reflect on (1) their total experience of mathematics, (2) their mathematical journey from childhood to the present, and (3) any insights they had gained about their attitudes to mathematics by responding to the questionnaire. Three of the five cohorts of students surveyed were teacher education students, and it is on the analysis of the responses of these students that this paper reports. Narrative responses were analysed thematically, using themes developed in a previous study, and this paper reports on findings drawn from a small number of the themes, chiefly “ways of working in mathematics” and “nature of mathematics”. Student teachers’ insights into these themes provide valuable understanding of their views of mathematics and learning mathematics and thus on their emerging identities as mathematics teachers. They provide multiple contexts for beginning to explore the transition from student to teacher. Findings can be used to develop teacher education programmes so that they take increased account of students’ need to develop appropriate identities for starting their careers in teaching.
135 - The Meaning of the function in the mathematics textbooks Xhevdet Thaqi, Aferdita Aljimi University of Gjilan "Kadri Zeka" Republic of Kosovo School mathematics textbooks are the major source of mathematics content in schools, and (usually) represent the national mathematics curriculum. Also, they are a major source of instructional methods for math teachers and thinking processes for their students. We intent to argue that although the development of math curriculum and textbooks has taken place for the last decade more work is still needed for the 21st century. Faced with the challenges of globalization of education systems and teacher training in mathematics in Europe, we need to know even more recent origins of the students' previous training. First of all they are the only way to access mathematical objects. In other words, the impossibility of a direct approach with mathematical concepts compels the teacher to furnish representations to present and to explain it. In particular, a concept of the function in mathematics education is introduced starting in primary schools and continued in secondary schools. An analysis of textbooks can make an important contribution to an understanding of curriculum in a particular country (Kunimune, et alt. 2009). It would serve to provide a window into the educational system, which might lead to an indication of student’s past learning (or intended learning). Knowing that current prospective mathematics teachers were formed in the new study programs of 2002 in Kosovo, therefore we decided to analyze textbooks associated with that period. The criteria for the selections of textbooks were based on the selected textbooks being written in a language comprehensible by us, and that the textbooks were used with a relatively high number of school institutions. It is anticipated that such an investigation will be of value to those responsible for the correct level of placement of these students. The textbook meaning of function content was analysed in terms of strand weighting and content details. The results were interpreted in the context of the textbooks and relevant curriculum. This interpretation is descriptive in nature and serves as a means to identifying the nature of exploration in the textbooks in Kosovo in terms of the meaning of function concept image (Thaqi, 2009).
136 - MovingMath Lut De Jaegher University College Artevelde, Belgium Using MovingMath, mathematical knowledge is acquired while dancing and moving. The goal is to give youngsters more self-confidence in their ability to develop abstract and mathematical thinking and to reduce math anxiety. In research done in 2009 by Artevelde University College in Belgium with 779 Flemish pupils between ten and fourteen years of age, it appears that MovingMath actually achieves its objective. The entire project fits within the plan of the Flemish Government on science communication. (http://movingmath.ziva.be/ and in the book "MovingMath", published by Garant (Belgium) and Maklu (Netherlands), ISBN 978-90-441-2598-6, Lut De Jaegher, 147 p. (2010).) Research (such as the PISA research of 2012) shows that a lot of pupils struggle with math anxiety. They’re able to solve a common everyday question, but when you change this question to a mathematical problem they’re no longer able to do so. Feelings of stress, helplessness, mental disorganisation and de-motivation start to arise (Ghent University, 2012). Another conclusion which can be drawn from similar research is that pupils appear to have hardly any self-confidence in their mathematical abilities. The project MovingMath attempts to deal with both of the previously mentioned phenomena, by decreasing math anxiety and increasing self-efficacy. In order to raise the self-efficacy, MovingMath finds its basis in the social-cognitive learning theory of the Canadian psychologist Bandura. While acquiring self-efficacy four psychological processes are activated which have a positive influence on the learning process of the young person. The cognitive process: the higher the self-efficacy of the pupils, the higher their objectives. The motivational process: self-efficacy reshapes performance anxiety into self-motivation. Believing in yourself leads to more self-motivation and more persistence. The affective process: a lack of self-efficacy results in you turning your back on challenges. Using MovingMath, people often lose colour when they notice that the weaker pupils now excel more than some of the stronger pupils. Thanks to the high self-efficacy of the stronger pupils, they can handle this change in ratio. However this gives an enormous boost to the weaker pupils. The selection process: the advantage of self-efficacy is related to your environment. In MovingMath the groups of dancers are as diverse as possible. Dealing with a very varied group is more of a challenge than grouping all the dancers or all the good analytical thinkers together. MovingMath is relevant to the conference theme because it shows a practical concept to make math knowledge possible for every child.
137 - Collaboration between ITE students during practice - A possible future learning community Sandra Jederud, Laila Niklasson Mälardalens Högskola, Sweden Teacher Education programmes in Europe vary their focus on what significant parts that are emphasized – some programmes emphasize a substantial amount of teaching practice – others focus more on the actual subjects that are to be taught. What is learned within teacher education has grounds to be thoroughly studied. Practice in Swedish teacher education is being reorganized in the matter that selected practice schools have been introduced and additionally peer learning is now one of the focus areas. Teacher Education is an apprenticeship just like many other professions. A distinct difference in accordance to regular apprenticeships however, is emphasis of peer learning where fellow teacher students attain the opportunity to discuss and evaluate shared lessons. Learning communities are often defined as cultural practices that are exhibited by practitioners belonging to various communities, such as professionals. But a learning community can also be defined as pre-service students taking courses together or sharing a common experience during higher studies. Our research question concerns learning during practice in Initial Teacher Education. The context is a new organization of practice in Initial Teacher Education in Sweden where the practice has been reorganized. A selection of practice schools the staff should accept a group of teacher students who, in turn, are supposed to learn together. The research question is thereby specified to learning within groups of teacher students. First, a conceptual framework for a field study is outlined. The framework is inspired by general didactical questions like prerequisites for learning, who is learning from whom, where the learning situation is constructed - in real life meetings or via IT, what the object of learning is – planning, etc. Secondly, as a pilot study, mentors in preschool are asked to elaborate concerning three issues. The first concerning pre-requisites for social/peer learning - whether they occurred at the field school and finally, how they could be improved. The results from the pilot study will be used for additional workshops with mentors from other school forms. Student teachers will be interviewed about their experiences about the three pre-requisites. The emphasis on social learning and peer learning during Initial Teacher Education can also be a part of, and lead to, future team teaching. This in turn, can be a part of lifelong professional development, which is already emphasised during Initial Teacher Education and its practice.
138 - The Digital Literacy of Young Children: Educational Challenge Linda Daniela, Zanda Rubene, Irēna Žogla University of Latvia, Latvia The topicality and the context of this research is denoted by a vast social and technological phenomenon which impacts education at all ages: during the last years in Europe and in Latvia there is a growth in the number of children under 8 who regularly use the internet. Pre-school teachers, parents and learners therefore face problems related to meaningful usage of media. Teachers’ knowledge and pedagogical responses remain insufficient; the problem covers the scope from informal usage of media to random pedagogical assistance and resistance of pre-school teachers towards the usage of these media. The object of this research is digital literacy of children with the aim to analyse their activities on the web, as well as trace the main challenges initiated by the children’ digital skills, and improvements in teacher education towards creating an outcomes oriented pedagogical process of the development of the digital competence at early age. The theoretical framework is designed by the assumptions and conclusions published by the researchers: A.McCormack, A.Martin & S.Ashworth, B.Jones-Kavalier & S.Flannigan, M.Thorpe, A.Loureiro, T.Bettencourt & A.Santos, K. Bindley, J.J.Heckman, S.H.Moon, R.Pinto, P.Savelyev & A.Yavitz, S. N. Elliott, J.Furlong. To obtain an insight into this problem the following methods of investigation have been used: mixed quantitative and qualitative methods of data collecting, mainly questionnaires, semi-structured interviews of parents and teachers, observations of children’s activities to complete analysis of the educational potentials of media, parents’ views on the consequences of the problem, educational tools used in families and also views on the digital competences of the children. The investigation has involved more than 200 respondents. The findings lead to discrepancies in the views of teachers and parents, evaluations of digital media of teachers and children, children’s motivation and teachers’ will to control the children’s activities on the web and the children’s and teachers’ digital skills. The children’s activities with the media revealed some details of the problem, as well as regularities in the development of the children’s digital competence, cognitive and emotional development, challenges for teachers’ professional activities and teacher education at universities which currently experience national and global changes that also shape teacher education. Influence on children’s and teachers’ digital competence penetrates through the influence on the university’s autonomy where the government’s intervention is being practiced through the use of financial tools. Key words: digital literacy, teachers’ competence, teacher education.
139 - The Perceptions of Candidate Teachers' Self-efficacy Related to Using Instructional Technologies Gulriz Imer Mersin University, Turkey Teachers constitute the most important part of the educational systems, which form future of the society. For this reason, teacher training is accepted as an important field of study in almost all societies. However, rapid changes, observed in all areas, are required to educate teachers not only in pre-service education but also in in-service education. Especially rapid technological developments mean these technologies are used for educational purposes more. The continuous development of new technologies means teachers need to acquire knowledge about the use of instructional technology. To gain this knowledge, teachers’ continuing in-service education activities are conducted in the use of instructional technology. The expected benefit from these activities is closely related with teachers’ accumulation of knowledge as well as their self-confidence and competence level about the use of instructional technology. For this reason, increasing teachers’ technological competencies requires more emphasis in pre-service education. From this point of view, a research project was designed in order to determine the self-confidence perceptions of pre-service teachers about the use of instructional technology. The sample group of the study consists of 350 pre-service teachers who study in the Faculty of Education in Mersin University. The data of the study were collected through the “Self Confidence in Technological Content Knowledge Survey” which was originally developed by Graham, Burgoyne, Cantrell, Smith, St. Clair and Harris (2009) and was adapted to Turkish by Timur and Tasar (2011). The preliminary results show that, there are some differences according to gender and subject areas of participants.
140 - An Analysis of Special Education Teachers' and Student Teachers' Problematic Internet Usage and Their Self-Efficacy Hakan Sari1, Mustafa Safran2 1
Selcuk University, 2Higher Education Council, Turkey
The aim of this study was to investigate what the self-efficacy and Problematic Internet Usage of preschool teachers and student teachers were and to elucidate the relationship between self-efficacy and problematic Internet Usage. Therefore, the present study investigated the self-efficacy perceptions and the Problematic Internet Usage, who participated in the computer course in the Department of Preschool Education at Faculty of Ahmet Kelesoglu Education in Necmettin Erbakan University and pre-school education teachers who work in nursery classes and nursery schools affiliated to Konya Local Education Authority. The sample group of this study comprised of 360, pre-school teachers (n=200) and student teachers (n=160). Two scales were used in the study. These were: (1) the Problematic Internet Usage Scale and (2) the Teacher Self-efficacy Perception Scale. The study results concluded that there was a significant relationship between Problematic Internet Usage of pre-school teachers and student teachers, and their self-efficacy. Another conclusion obtained from this study was that problematic internet usage of pre-school teachers and student teachers had a predictor effect on their self-efficacy. The results showed that problematic internet usage of pre-school teachers and student teachers affected their self efficacy.
141 - An Analysis of Pre-School Teachers' and Student Teachers' Problematic Internet Usage and Their Burnout Level Semseddin Gunduz, Zarife Secer Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Information and communication technologies have affected all area in a society. People can learn quickly and accurately from the internet. The aim of this study was to investigate what the burnout and problematic internet usage of pre-school teachers and student teachers were and to elucidate the relationship between burnout and problematic internet usage. Therefore, the present study investigated the burnout and problematic internet usage, of those who participated in the computer course in the Department of Preschool Education at Faculty of Ahmet Kelesoglu Education in Necmettin Erbakan University and pre-school education teachers who work in nursery classes and nursery schools affiliated to Konya Local Education Authority. The data collection tools of the study are “Personal Information Form” designed by the researchers, Problematic Internet Usage Scale and “Maslach Burnout Inventory”. The data were analyzed according to the variables of gender, age, etc. Percentage, frequency, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) 21 packages programme was used in all statistical analysis of the research and 0.05 was adopted as the significance level. The sample group of this study comprised of 310, pre-school teachers (n=120) and student teachers (n=190). At the end of the research, it was found that pre-school teachers use the internet to do research and prepare their lessons. The study results concluded that there was a significant relationship between problematic internet usage of pre-school teachers and student teachers and their burnout level. Student teachers’ problematic internet usage was found to be higher than that of pre-school teachers. It was found that there was a significant correlation between working hours of pre-school teachers and burnout levels. The research findings were discussed along with the literature reviewed and suggestions have been made.
142 - Changing approaches to initial teacher education through collaborative partnerships Yvonne Bain, Douglas Weir University of Aberdeen, UK Responding to the recommendations of the Donaldson (2010) review of teacher education in Scotland, the Scottish Government (2012:12) identified actions in relation to widening access to initial teacher education through the use of part-time provision. Additionally, the implementation strategy of the National Partnership Group (NPG) in Scotland, tasked universities and local authorities to have formal partnership arrangements, including “agreements on resource allocation and staffing, with the opportunity to discuss local needs and adapt delivery accordingly” (NPG, 2012: 9). The DLITE (Distance Learning Initial Teacher Education) initiative exemplifies an innovative partnership approach to widening access to teaching through a part-time blended learning Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE). Further, the DLITE initiative seeks to offer sustainable access to teacher education in the partnership local authority areas which have been struggling to attract and retain new teachers. This paper outlines the development of the DLITE model and explores the impact of the partnership development on the professional learning of those tutors involved in supporting the students’ learning experiences. The DLITE initiative enables participants to study, undertake practicum placement experience, and to have the opportunity of a guaranteed Induction Year placement within their local authority. However, as the first cohort is due to complete the DLITE PGDE in June 2015, it remains to be seen how successful this has been in providing a home-grown sustainable teaching workforce for the partnership local authorities. One of the aims of the empirical study associated with the DLITE developments is to explore the impact on the professional learning of those involved in supporting early phase career development by distance learning, including the initial teacher education stage. This study will examine the impact (affordances and challenges) on the professional learning of those supporting the DLITE students. The study takes a qualitative, grounded approach to uncover insights gained about the professional learning of the tutors. Data is drawn from regular team meetings with lead co-tutors within the local authorities and School of Education tutors, questionnaire and interview responses gained from tutors and co-tutors involved in different aspects of tutoring within the DLITE PGDE programme. Evidence is emerging of creating authentic opportunities for the co-construction of the learning experiences with an equality of university and local authority staff. Implications for teacher education are highlighted around the value of ‘third spaces’ (Martin, 2011; Zeichner, 2010) for professional learning and development.
143 - Learning in collaboration: Exploring processes and outcomes through a longitudinal multiple case study design Benedicte Vanblaere, Geert Devos Ghent University, Belgium Research context Continuous professional development is crucial to provide high quality education (Darling-Hammond et al., 2009). Teacher learning is no longer seen as a purely individual activity, but progressively also as a social process where teachers can learn from and with each other (Lieberman & Pointer Mace, 2008). Theoretical framework The potential of professional learning communities (PLCs) for teacher learning is often recognized. In PLCs, teachers systematically collaborate and engage in supportive interactions (Hord, 1997). However, some collaborative activities are of a higher order than others and are more likely to result in learning (Little, 1982). Learning outcomes are defined as changes in cognition and/or behaviour (Bakkenes, Vermunt,& Wubbels, 2010). Research question The main research question in this study is twofold: “What kind of collaborative activities do experienced teachers engage in?” and “What do they learn from these activities?” Methodology Based on a previous quantitative research about PLCs, five Flemish primary schools were selected. On average eight experienced teachers per school completed four digital log files over the period of one school year about an ongoing innovation in their school. The collaborative activities and resulting learning outcomes were coded using within- and cross-case analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Findings Preliminary results indicate that substantial differences exist between the five schools regarding the collaborative activities in which teachers engage (e.g. the genre and frequency of collaborative activity, the proportion of organised and spontaneous interactions, the degree of involvement of the entire team, and the evolution throughout the school year). Some teachers find it difficult to concisely report about learning outcomes. However, in general teachers mostly get new ideas and insights from the collaborative activities. In schools with high level collaboration, new practices, alignment of practices and awareness are also frequent. Implications for teacher education This study is highly relevant for the practice of teachers’ continuous professional development. It informs both practice and policy on which collaborative activities are meaningful and successful for supporting specific learning outcomes. Relevance to the ATEE annual conference theme Our study is in the heart of the theme of the conference as it relates to professional learning within schools and investigates the potential of collaborative processes for experienced teachers’ learning.
144 - Study of teachers’ perceptions of collaborative culture and its effect on teachers’ practices in NIS, Pavlodar Nazym Ospanova Nazarbayev Intellectual School, Kazakhstan With the establishment of Nazarbayev Intellectual schools (NIS) in Kazakhstan, the senior managers of NIS set up new requirements not only for the level of teaching but also for the organizational culture of teachers’ communities. NIS teachers are expected to work in close collaboration with shared values in social cohesion. Though collaboration is a watchword in the new educational policy and at the level of teachers’ professional development, the phenomenon of collaboration is not defined clearly. NIS teachers face challenges in cooperating with each other and they run headlong into conflicts due to the lack of a collaborative culture. What a teacher’s role in the school community is, and how teachers are prepared to face disagreements in school community life are not explored in Kazakhstan. This research draws on the issues of organizational theory to examine teacher communities and teacher collaboration. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the NIS teachers’ perception of collaborative culture in schools and its effect on teachers’ practice. Drawing on empirical evidence and relevant literature, this research aims to study how the teachers of NIS Pavlodar perceive collaborative culture; what factors enhance and inhibit teachers’ collaboration; to explore their own attitudes, feelings and opinions related to the collaborative culture and its influence on their practice. Maximal variation purposeful sampling was used to select seven teachers and one administrator as participants of this study. To address the central research question, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the teachers and the school administrator. Observations were also conducted to collect relevant data. Data analysis involved such steps as a preliminary review of the data, coding and development of clusters and categories. Finally, a discussion of outcomes, together with the limitations, recommendations for future research and the educational implications of the study are given. Findings from the research might fill the existing gap in the literature in Kazakhstan and the world. The expected benefit for teachers is that they will contribute to the research about collaboration culture at school and this could reflect on their professional practice. The results of this research can be useful for secondary and higher educational institutions, and will contribute to a better understanding of teachers’ collaborative culture within the Kazakhstani and international framework.
145 - Primary teacher training Reflection-Oriented Process: conceptions and practice in Science Teaching Aparecida de Fátima Andrade da Silva1, Maria Eunice Ribeiro Marcondes2 1
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 2Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
This research aimed to identify primary teachers’ conceptions and practices concerning science teaching and promote reflection on such teaching. The work was based on the Reflection-Oriented Process (ROP), a strategy for teacher professional development based on teaching practice. The study developed through a research methodology based on a qualitative approach to evidence meanings in individual actions and social interactions of two primary teachers. The main research questions were: How primary teachers conceive, reflect, plan, and carry out science teaching? How they reflect and plan science classes taking into account the ReflectionOriented Process (ROP)? Furthermore, how these teachers evaluate their own professional development? Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, and class plans. Also teachers meetings and classes were video recorded. Data analysis was made by content analysis. Teachers’ ideas about science education were classified into ranging from cognitive and socio-cultural approach. Their teaching models revealed inconsistent conceptions about the process of teaching and learning, and with the constructivist orientation models. Teachers` lesson plans contemplated most pedagogical elements to carry out an investigative approach of science teaching. These plans were analyzed according to an investigative level. Each teacher proposed a didactic sequence aiming to reach more complex levels. The didactic sequences were discussed, modified, and applied to their pupils. Livia and Roberta (fictitious names) promoted students’ engagement in class, proposing a problem and considering students` previous ideas. These teachers still has some difficulty in guiding discussions which could promote the development of students’ understanding and argumentation in class and also applying the investigative approach, possibly because they have difficulties in asking questions, exploring the students' ideas, systematize knowledge and scientific explanations. Therefore, Reflection-Oriented Process (ROP) was an important strategy for the professional development of these teachers, enabling significant reflections on their own practice as well as the awareness of possibilities of teaching actions, in order to promote an investigative approach in science classes. The main relevance of this study is its consequent contribution to the organization of in-service teacher education. Sharing research on this theme promotes Europe’s openness to uncovering the benefits for teaching and learning science.
146 - Promoting collaborative work and reflective practices in pre-service and in-service teachers education Paula Guerra Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile Teacher education should promote high-quality learning experiences that highlight reflective practice, active participation and interaction in pre-service education and in-service professional development. When teachers and student-teachers engage in reflective processes, they are more likely to become aware of their beliefs. This involvement provides opportunities to share their own interpretations (Leavy, Mcsorley & Bote 2007). Given the importance of reflection and the social nature of teacher learning, it is important to evaluate alternative forms of teacher education. This study proposes to address reflective practices from a collaborative and playful approach. Correspondingly, this study examines the teaching-learning experiences of teachers and studentteachers based on the use of games that were adapted to foster reflection and critical analysis among peers. This is a multiple case study carried out in Santiago, Chile. Participants were fourteen student-teachers of a public university divided into three teams, and nine teachers of a primary school divided into two teams. They engaged in three sessions of collaborative activities. The teams met once a week at the university (student-teachers) and at school (teachers), accompanied by the researchers. Three games were used, which included the analyses of classroom situations to promote debate, sociocognitive conflict and reflection. After the sessions ended, four student teachers and three teachers were interviewed, and the information was transcribed verbatim and analysed through qualitative content analysis. The preliminary results focus on the evaluation of the experience. Most of the participants evaluated it in positive terms, especially student teachers, who mentioned that it was a didactic way of teaching that goes beyond just delivery of information. However, one teacher felt that the purpose of some activities was not clear at certain times. According to the student-teachers, the activities contributed to a better understanding of different theories and concepts. For teachers, the experience promoted reflection and critical analysis among peers. Teachers and student-teachers alike highlighted that the sessions generated active participations that fostered discussion and exchange of ideas. Both groups reported changes in their ideas about teaching and learning. One teacher highlighted changes about the importance of collaboration among teachers to improve students’ learning, while a student-teacher recognized the importance of prior knowledge during learning. The results show positive evaluations despite the briefness of the intervention. This suggests that a medium-term experience may build a professional learning community that supports teachers’ change during pre-service and in-service education.
147 - An Experienced Teacher’s Professional Learning Needs: Possible Implications for Teacher Education Sukran Saygi Middle East Technical University, Turkey Reflection, the process in which the teacher “analyzes his own practice and underlying basis and then considers alternative means of achieving his ends” (Pennington, 1992) is essential for teachers. Using journals for reflection is believed to enhance critical thinking skills and they act as a starting point for future learning. They also promote creativity in reflection (O’Connell & Dyment, 2010). Believing in the benefits of journal keeping as a reflection tool, the researcher aims to share her four-month reflection process and analyze previously written journal entries and reflection papers to determine key areas to reflect on AGAIN and to scrutinize how much development, hopefully, is observable. First, adopting a retrospective approach, the content of ten reflection papers and thirty journal entries, which were previously written by the researcher, has been analyzed by using Attride-Stirling’s (2001) thematic networks. The global themes of interaction patterns & learner autonomy; motivation; the use of technology; meta-language; instructions and error correction were identified to reflect on AGAIN. For the ongoing second stage, the researcher has been reflecting on her teaching focusing on the previously identified areas by keeping a journal. The journal entries are, for now, one or two pages long. The researcher reflects on what she has found interesting during the day; new ideas or techniques (sometimes materials) she has come up with or learned about to use with her learners, or the things that bothered her during the day etc. There are minimum four journal entries each week. The researcher is also video/audio-recording her lessons to triangulate her data. The video/audiorecorded learners are adult EFL learners with mixed nationalities, ages and learning needs. At the end of the semester (in June), all of the journal entries will be analyzed thematically and the claims in the journal will be dis/proved with the help of video/audio recordings. The discussion of the findings could serve helpful novice teachers or teacher-trainers as guidelines to initiate reflection processes. During the presentation, the audience will have the chance to see how the global themes were determined and excerpts from the journal or recordings that show areas that have been developed or still need attention. They will also see sample tasks or activities designed to improve weak areas. The researcher will also share some ideas for future research and possible implementation for teacher educators.
148 - Action Research on Students Action Learning: An Alternative Collaborative Supervision Practice between University-Based Teacher and School-Based Teacher for Development of Mutual Understanding of Research & Development Annfrid Steele University of Tromsø, Norway In the fall of 2010, new teacher education programs were started at a university in Norway. The programs where changed from 4-year bachelor’s programs to 5-year master’s programs for students becoming teachers at levels 1-7 and 5-10 in primary and secondary schools. The new teacher education programs seek to integrate theory and praxis more strongly and research and development (R & D). R&D is thought to be the collaborative tool for this to happen. Teacher students are required to participate in their own initiated research projects throughout the program and for the bachelor projects action learning is the required strategy. This paper focuses on how joint supervision between school-based teachers and university-based teachers with regard to two student teachers’ action learning projects has been done, and how this process has initiated a mutual learning and understanding of R&D. The following research question will be answered: How can closer cooperation between university-based teachers and school-based teachers concerning joint tutoring on student teachers’ bachelor projects inspire the development of a mutual language for research and development? The theoretical framework for this project will focus on research on partnership concerning collaboration between university-based teachers and school-based teachers for the purpose of strengthening the professional learning of student teachers (Allen, 2013; Darling-Hammond, 2006; Bier et al, 2012). Moreover, it will include research on collaboration where the student teacher is involved in a partnership with teacher educators (Smith & Sela, 2005; Mtika, Robson, & Fitzpatric, 2014; Andreassen, 2014). This research contribution builds on an action research project where the goal is to explore the collaborative relationship between partner-schools and university. Focus lay on the tripartite relationship between student teacher, school-based teacher and university-based teacher. This study is manly based on data collected in dialog seminars and interviews with a time span of two years (20132015) with two different groups of bachelor students and school-based teachers. Joint supervision of the student teachers’ bachelor projects were successful where a mutual focus was initiated. However, the projects had two different outcomes with regard to collaboration. In one of the projects, the university-based teacher had a consultant role and in the other project, the universitybased teacher and the school-based teacher developed a supervision partnership and mutual understanding of R&D. This qualitative study provides insight to new areas of teacher education. If this could be a solution for integration of R&D, joint supervision could be a tool for connecting theory and praxis in the new teacher education programs.
149 - Master Teacher and Teacher Researcher Career Stages in Hungary Erika Kopp, Judit Szivák Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary Teachers’ continuous professional development is one of the main focuses of the European Educational policy. (OECD 2005, 2009) In order to achieve this aim from 2012 new career stages were introduced in Hungary. This presentation concerns research that serves as the basis for the development of Master Teacher and Teacher Researcher stages as a part of the Hungarian Teacher Career System. Development is led by a research group at Eötvös Lorand University. CPD is constantly discussed in professional debates and the theoretical approaches are very diverse. (Kennedy 2005; 2014) The original career system that was introduced in 2012 was based on a deficit model. The model that was constructed in the second phase of development tries to improve CPD towards the community of practice model. The new career system uses competences and standards as representations of best practice instead of measuring tools. (Caena 2011) Research aiming to establish and monitor the development process focused on following questions: What are the main activities of excellent teachers at schools? What are teachers’ view of excellent teachers’ recent and future role in schools? What are the main characteristics of excellent teachers? The research group conducted several analyses using methods of desk-research, survey and focus group discussion: Desk-research analyzed teacher career stages and teacher performance evaluation in England, Wales, Germany and Romania. First online survey (n=5000) aimed to explore the main activities of excellent teachers. Investigating 100 teachers who participate in the research voluntarily by an on-line survey about the activities and competencies of the master and research teacher as well as the planned evaluation method. Discussion with 100 participant teachers in focus groups about the evaluation method, the activities related to the stages as well as about the competencies. Main results of the research: the planned career stages contain several elements which do not or to a limited extent appear in the current public education system. These are mainly the research activity of the teachers and special forms of knowledge sharing. Current role perception of teachers prefers excellence of private classroom practice more than cooperation activities in knowledge communities and networks. Elements of the master teacher process strongly related to the current regulations among the teachers who are divided how to assess the role and location of research teacher’s stage. According to the research, it is obvious that the goals of introduction of the career stages can be implemented only with a complex support mechanism.
150 - Teaching about architecture; built environment and space in Slovenian primary schools Kristina Desman University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Architecture, built environment and space are inevitable part of our daily lives. We can't escape living and working in them neither can we avoid taking decisions about appearance and occurrence of building throughout our lives. I will present a comprehensive review of teaching about architecture, built environment and space in the first five classes of primary school, with an emphasis on teacher education. I will investigate the current situation of teaching about architecture, built environment and space. The results of the first phase of experimental research will be presented, namely the current practices of teaching. The practices will be examined through a survey and through testing the knowledge of students on selected topics that touch architecture, built environment and space, already present in the curriculum. This is the first Slovenian study that includes all subjects of the curriculum not only the fine arts into teaching about architecture, built environment and space captures all items in the curriculum. The research will contribute guidelines for proposing a teacher training model on teaching methods for architecture, built environment and space. The proposed model will provide a cross-curricular teaching about architecture, built environment and space with contemporary learning approaches.
151 - Linking personal resources to burnout and work engagement in high school teachers: Does emotional intelligence exhibit differential relationships? Natalio Extremera, Lourdes Rey, Maria Angeles Pelaez-Fernandez University of MĂĄlaga, Spain This study examined the role of emotional intelligence on burnout and engagement at work in teachers. On the basis of the job demands-resources model, the authors predicted that emotional intelligence will be higher related to engagement dimensions (vigour and dedication) rather than burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation). This study hypothesis was tested with Spanish high school teachers from different educational school centres from the province of Malaga (Spain). In line with this hypothesis, correlation and linear regression analysis exhibit preliminary support of these differential relationships. In particular, emotional intelligence showed higher associations and accounted for more explained variance for vigour and dedication compared to emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. The fact that teacher burnout and engagement exhibit different patterns with this job resource suggests that an emotional intelligence intervention program might be more beneficial in enhancing work engagement than reducing teacher burnout. Implications for burnout and engagement research and teacher management practices are discussed.
152 - Emotional intelligence over happiness and satisfaction with life among secondary teachers: The moderating role of gender María Angeles Peláez-Fernández, Lourdes Rey, Natalio Extremera University of Málaga, Spain Objective: This research aimed to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Happiness, and between EI and Satisfaction with Life, among secondary teachers. Method: The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS; Wong & Law, 2002), the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985) were administered to secondary teachers from a Spanish community including both genders. Results: No gender differences in EI, SHS and SWLS were found. Interaction analyses revealed that gender moderated the relationship between EI and happiness, and EI and satisfaction with life. High levels of IE were related to higher levels of happiness and satisfaction with life in women (but no men). Conclusions: We suggest explanations for these differences between the genders, and discuss the importance of incorporating gender differences in theoretical and empirical studies investigating EI among secondary teachers.
153 - The Notion of Learning in Students in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia Marija Javornik Krečič, Milena Ivanuš Grmek, Branka Čagran University of Maribor, Slovenia The paper presents results of an empirical study carried out on a sample of students in the Class Teaching, Preschool Education and Pedagogy study programs (n = 487) from the following three countries: Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The study aimed to shed light on their notions of learning from the viewpoint of the following five dimensions: internal regulation of learning; knowledge as an active construct; group (cooperative) learning; dynamic perspective of the abilities; and tolerance towards uncertainty. We were also interested in their self-reflection of changes in the learning process. We found that the students were relatively homogenous in their belief that all dimensions of process-oriented notion of learning were important. In examining the role of the state and the study program, we found a few statistically significant differences; however, their impact was relatively low. Students from Croatia thus outscored students from other countries, in particular from Slovenia, in terms of the following dimensions: knowledge as an active construct; group learning; and dynamic perspective of the abilities. Preschool education students outscored students of pedagogy and class teaching in terms of the internal regulation of learning dimension. Pedagogy students outscored other students from the point of view of the knowledge as an active construct dimension and the dynamic perspective of the abilities. Furthermore, we found that half of the students detected a change in the learning since enrolling in the pedagogy study programs. The change regards a move from a quantitative concept of learning to a qualitative one. No statistically significant differences exist between countries; however, they exist with respect to the program. Pedagogy students prevail among those who detect changes in learning. Key words: professional development, notion of learning, students
154 - Science can be fun - Humour and Murphy’s Law in the teaching of the natural sciences Milan Stojkovic Friedrich Schiller University, Germany Humour is a universal way of communicating, regardless of gender, age, culture or background. Humour can be found in every aspect of life, and can be a driving force in solving different problems—not only in day-to-day life, but in scientific research and teaching. The use of humour in teaching increases students’ interest, motivation and focus, and helps to create a positive and creative working atmosphere. However, despite the well-known benefits of incorporating humour, most textbooks and other teaching materials contain little to no information on using humour in this way. Consequently, there is need for an intensive and comprehensive investigation of the use of humour in the teaching of natural sciences. The natural sciences undoubtedly offer a wide range of ways to teach these contents with the help of humour. The poster focuses on using humour in the teaching of natural sciences, offering examples from films, TV shows, educational programming, cartoons, school magazines, journals, comics, the Internet and books that contain elements of humour that could be applied in teaching. Moreover, certain scientific principles and research on Murphy’s Law will be presented, and the possibilities and limits for understanding, applying, adopting and understanding these scientific laws and theories will be analysed and discussed. The main aim of this article is to highlight the importance of humour and Murphy’s Law, as well as the possibilities of using them in teaching the natural sciences. This article is also based on several years of theoretical and practical work in the teaching of chemistry. All over the world, students’ interest in the natural sciences has been decreasing. The main aim of using humour is to popularise the natural sciences among students and young people. Elements of humour from written media such magazines and journals, as well as electronic media such as TV and the Internet can strongly motivate students to learn about the natural sciences. Regardless of the unscientific foundation of Murphy’s Law, its principles could increase interest in science, as well as increase understanding regarding the complexity of scientific and scholarly research. There is not only need to apply elements of humour to the teaching process, but also to prepare and create teaching and didactic materials on this topic. Therefore, the poster content considers a selection of teaching materials, discussing how to present and process them by incorporating humour and Murphy’s Law.
155 - Verme – a Finnish innovation to support teachers´ professional development with Peer Group Mentoring (VERtaisMEntorointi, ‘Peer Group Mentoring’) Sirkka Hokkanen Karstula Evangelical Folk High School, Finland My poster will present Peer Group Mentoring: its backgrounds, practices and benefits. The poster also presents information about Finnish folk high schools and the planned Peer Group Mentoring. Behind Peer Group Mentoring is constructivist view of learning, the idea of shared expertise and integration of different forms of expert knowledge in professional development The first groups started in 2003. Now there are hundreds of groups with teachers from different levels of education. Osaava Verme – network between the Finnish vocational teacher education institutions and teacher education departments of universities organizes the peer mentor education. A peer group with 4-10 participants meets 4-6 times a year 1.5 - 3 hours with an experienced teacher, a peer group mentor. The group discusses informally and with activating ways about different aspects of teachers´ everyday work. Sharing of experiences and expertise, dialogue, collaboration and reflection are important. People learn together in a supportive environment. Informal learning is connected to formal, abstract and systematic learning. According to various research VERME-groups: help new teachers to join in the culture of her/his school, contribute to familiarization to the work prevent stress and burn out help to change the work of teacher towards collegial working culture help new teachers to find her/his professional identity and self-confidence, strengthen these among older teachers etc. Next autumn peer group mentoring will start in folk high schools. Folk high schools provide adult education and liberal adult education. They offer mainly general or non-formal courses but also initial and further vocational training. As an educational institution a folk high school offers a broad range of education for adults. As residential schools, folk high schools foster a sense of community, which forms part of the all-round learning experience and functions as a cornerstone of the education process. Folk high schools are mostly quite small and the distances between schools are long. Therefore peer group mentoring -meetings will partly be organized as e-meetings via various tools on the internet. Verme – Peer Group Mentoring is a good, innovative example of collaborative partnership in teacher education, mentor support and challenges for teachers´ professional learning which both are themes of the ATEE annual conference 2015.
156 - Developing an Effective Teacher Evaluation System for Teachers’ Professional Development Hui Lu University of Glasgow, UK This study focusing on teacher evaluation systems aims to understand how they can be utilised for future teacher professional development and to look at areas that could be improved. Globally, the student voice has been increasing and student feedback has been proposed as one source of input to guide teacher professional development (Blair and Valdez Noel, 2014). Therefore, many higher education institutions use a system wherein students evaluate teachers as one way of identifying their courses strengths and areas for improvement. Currently in Chinese higher education institutions, there are student evaluation systems which rate teachers’ performance and constitute one of the primary means of evaluating teachers alongside evaluation by peers or administrators. Its importance has been widely acknowledged. However, problems or limitations still exist with the validity and reliability of the often generic student evaluation systems which can be weak in providing teachers with direction on how to improve their teaching or on why students respond as they do (O'Hanlon and Mortensen, 1980). This is still the case and there is a need to develop valid and reliable evaluation models that support teachers’ professional growth and development, which will in turn, impact positively on the program and student learning. This poster presentation attempts to present an overview of research on students’ evaluation of teachers as feedback for professional development, applying it to three Sino-foreign partnership universities and detailing implications for practices that could strengthen current systems. This study focuses on three main issues: (1) a review on the current feedback forms used to solicit information from students and identify questions that could inform teachers’ future professional development; (2) an examination of the problems inherent in question types in student evaluation forms; (3) a proposal for improving the validity and reliability of student evaluation in relation to teachers’ professional development. By adopting a qualitative research methodology, the research aims to provide a deep theoretical understanding of the interplay between student evaluation and teachers’ professional development, which will provide some insights for higher education institutions on student evaluation of teacher practices. References BLAIR, E. & VALDEZ NOEL, K. 2014. Improving higher education practice through student evaluation systems: is the student voice being heard? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39, 879-894. O'HANLON, J. & MORTENSEN, L. 1980. Making Teacher Evaluation Work. The Journal of Higher Education, 51, 664-672.
157 – The Role of Team Work Experience, Reflection and Team Supervision in the Professional Development of 1st and 2nd Cycle Students of Teacher Education Alenka Polak University of Ljubljana, Slovenia From the content, organisational and human resources’ point of view, school life is very complex and based on the interdependency of competences of different persons: school administration, teachers, special education teachers, psychologists, social workers etc. In current educational practice the quality and interdisciplinary oriented teaching as well as working with students cannot be assured without a team approach. The teamwork of pedagogical workers involves team planning, team implementation of school-based activities (team teaching) and team evaluation. Effective teamwork leads to the creation of a collaborative culture in the working environment, which at the same time encourages further teamwork. To assure teamwork-oriented skills of future educators, required in the area of education, we need to involve all future pre-school, primary education, lower-secondary and special education teachers in systematic team work education. They have to develop skills needed later in professional life during their current study time. At the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, – specialising in teamwork education – Bologna study subjects and curricula were designed to allow vertical upgrading of students’ skills and competences in the area of teamwork by systematically setting up a team approach to undergraduate and postgraduate studies. In the presentation, some content and didactic components of these study subjects will be presented, substantiated by empirical research data and written personal reflections and evaluations. To gather the empirical data, an open questionnaire was designed and quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The main purpose of the study was to research the role of the personal experiences of teamwork in the professional development of 1st and 2nd cycle students at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana. Strategies of systematically promoting reflection and professional development in the context of the team approach will also be presented in the poster presentation. On the basis of the results, some conclusions and recommendations about the team work skills will be made in the context of higher education. Key words: team work, reflection, team work skills, students, professional development
158 - How do teacher educators manage to maintain their subject knowledge? Ellie Coumans Fontys Lerarenopleidingen, Netherlands As we know teacher educators have several roles to perform in their profession (Melief, van Rijswijk and Tigchelaar 2012).Today the pedagogical and didactic tasks receive more and more attention, resulting in enhanced professional opportunities in those two roles. There are several opportunities to develop knowledge and competencies (Dengerink, Lunenberg and Kools 2013) and we wonder what strategy teacher educators choose, aimed at the maintenance of subject expertise. Do they plan activities to maintain their expertise or do they prefer learning on the job? Additionally, do they focus on their own practice or are they collaborating with colleagues in the same subject? The central question in our study is: do teacher educators keep their expertise in the subject they have studied up to date and how do they maintain this expertise? The basis for addressing the research question will be a questionnaire, in which several topics will be explored; supplemented with interviews. We wonder whether the involvement in their own subject, for example, language or biology, determines how professional development is shaped. The focus of being a teacher educator can be a specialist in education and learning on the one hand, a specialist in a subject on the other hand. In addition, we are curious to find out if the phases of one’s career influence learning preferences. Based on several studies (Huberman 1995; Day and Gu 2007), it seems to be important for the study reported here to take into account different career phases of teacher educators. We are interested in the experiences of the interviewees in getting space to maintain the subjects they are teaching. What is the role of the management in this matter? Do they evaluate systematically the level of knowledge of their employees? A questionnaire was distributed in March 2015 via email to all 250 teacher educators of our institute. In order to obtain more detailed information, interviews will also be conducted. The first findings of the study will be presented. The results of this study are expected to be helpful for (educational) institutions. The need for professionally equipped teacher educators related to their different roles is evident, but is the focus on professional development in balance? The subject is relevant for the RDC Professional Development of Teacher Educators.
RDC Professional Development of Teachers Abstracts
Monday 24 August 16.15 – 17.30 Presentation 1: Educators’ perceptions of their professional roles in the Turkish context John O’Dwyer and Hilal Handan Atlı An understanding of teacher educators’ professional roles appears fundamental to providing for a teaching profession capable of facing regular and rapid change. The grounded analysis presented here is based on the data from interviews carried out in Turkey with twelve teacher educators, seven Turkish nationals and five non-Turkish nationals. Those interviewed operate in universities in the medium of English, with half working as wholly school based in-service educators, and the remainder working in Schools of Education in both pre-service and in-service teacher education. Respondents were asked to reply to six questions on their roles, professional identity, role challenges, and professional learning. The data reassert the multi-faceted complexity of educator roles, and the analysis enlarges on a conceptual model of the in-service educator’s role previously developed and published by the presenters. Presentation 2: The Professional Development of Teachers: Irish Perspectives in an International Context Carol O’Sullivan Interest in, and commitment to, the professional development of teachers transcends national and cultural boundaries. This became very evident in discussions at an RDC meeting at the ATEE conference in the University of Minho, Braga, in 2014. It was decided to build on the richness of the discussion and develop a collaborative, international research project on this theme. This presentation explores the data obtained from teacher educators in Ireland. The research will be situated within a theoretical framework, the methodology will be outlined and the findings presented under a number of thematic headings. The fact that this research is a work in progress will be acknowledged and the researcher will present some reflections on the process and the implications for her as a contributor to this rich data base.
Tuesday 25 August 12.00 – 13.15 Presentation 1 Preparing student teachers for career-long professional development: can teacher education institutions be acting as invisible cages? Karl Attard Career-long professional development is something that teachers should engage in, and pre-service teacher education should aid student teachers develop the tools necessary for them to be able to engage in teacher-led continuous professional development. The teacher educators that were involved in this study have argued how they try to achieve such aims with their students by moving away from traditional lecturing and towards discussions, group reflections, analysis of teaching, and the use of practical knowledge and experiential learning in order to explain theoretical knowledge while making it contextually relevant. Yet, all participating teacher educators argued that they feel constrained by the system at University, and cannot really develop and engage in developmental processes that they deem most relevant for their students. As a result, participants feel that the gap between present and future teachers’ needs and teacher education is continuously widening.
Presentation 2 “Collaborative Learning” A study about teacher educators’ role and challenges Kristina Mårtenson In my presentation I will talk about collaborative learning as a situation where two or more people learn or try to learn something together. This can be real by making teachers and student teachers aware of their life story. Teaching is basically a question of encounters between people. A prerequisite for these meetings to be successful is that teachers and students can empathize with each other's thoughts, feelings and intentions and that we can take each other's roles, understand what the other knows and does not know. Many prospective teachers have a natural aptitude for creating positive and warm relationships, a kind of relationship capital which is the basis for the chosen program. Other student teachers may need more time to mature and become clear about themselves and how they work together with others. Such a mature self-awareness can be developed in an education that also allows for good conversation and relationship issues under the expert guidance (SOU 2001:13).
The full programme and abstracts for the 2015 Association of Teacher Education in Europe conference