techbologyjournal ( AD 272) fortheproject: breakdanceworkspopi n jew street ( coloni se) course:archi tecturelevel2 name: Ei ri niKrasaki studentnumber:06829215 uni versi tyofbri ghton 2007 -2008 emai l:e. krasaki @bri ghton. ac. uk
a. environmental B.physical a. in relation to the site scale 1.100 B. proposal in isolation scale 1.50
3. basic characteristics of the proposal 4. ventilation strategy 5. daylight strategy 6. strategy for choosing the materials 7. foundations
a. testing B. process C. outcome
a. testing b. process c. outcome
9. Research on the exterior skin of the proposal
10. case study
11. realisation a. stages of the construction b. detail drawings scale 1.20 c. detail cad model 12. independent technology research 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Strategy Research on temporary sensitive materials Research on mechanism for moving elements Research on mechanism on hydraulic cylinder Research on wood plastic composite materials Relation to the proposal
In order to define the mechanism that will be used to move the platform of my construction, I focused on researching similar applications, Applications with moving elements, The first application with moving elements that I came across to, is the Convertible swimming pools: swimming pools that have the possibility to be divided with movable walls and/or floors, in order to provide steeples depth of the water (for babies, kids, seniors and handicapped person). Especially With a concrete moving floor construction events can be provided. (Position of plate on top of the surface). The drive mechanism that raises the floor depends on the construction of the floor. a.Concrete floor b.Light weight floor ď‚ˇ ď‚ˇ ď‚ˇ
beam with cover stainless steel beams fibre glass with cover fibre glass (GRP) combined fibre glass and stainless steel by following drive mechanism: spindle, hydraulic scissor or chain drive
Application areas Of convertible swimming Pools
Typically uses of elevating floors and moving walls Typically uses of elevating floors and moving walls
Concrete elevating floor
Concrete elevating floor with trailing apron Elevation 1,25 m
Longitude section across the pool The mechanism underneath, inclines the floor other example applications Multi-purpose pool with 25/50 m racing lanes convertible into a pool for non-swimmers, swimmers, diving, water polo, therapeutic use or for gymnastic applications with a dry surface.
Concrete elevating floor with trailing apron Elevation to top of pool edge
Concrete elevating floor supports And mechanism
The foundations displayed on the first Picture are used to support the concrete floor One or more hydraulic cylinders are used to Raise the floors. Their movement is controlled Through a digital system which is usually Hidden in the control cabinet.
Image 1: foundations and hydraulic Cylinders Image 2: hydraulic unit: the motor Of the system Image 3: hydraulic cylinder Image 4: control cabinet Image 5: digital control panel
Steel elevating floor
Examples of Mechanism used in steel elevating floors Construction movable floor with hydraulic scissor drive mechanism for small pools, approx. 3 x 6 meter
Construction movable floor with movable steps, spindle drive, cover: stainless steel or GRP.
As the images on the left show the spindle drive and the hydraulic scissors require a big space underneath the floor to allocate them. In my project the space underneath the moving platform is designed as a car parking, so those two types of mechanisms can not be used to move the platform. The next step was to define the construction and materials that will be used in the elevating platform and to define the type of mechanism that will be used to raise it.
The construction that Is used to the elevating platform is similar to the construction that I used for the other parts of the proposal: steel skeleton To decide on the materials, firstly, I took consideration of the fact that the platform is outdoor, so the material needs to be waterproof and suitable for use in bad weather conditions and secondly, the material has to aesthetically deal with the thermopanels that I have decided to use to the other parts of the construction and the surrounding materials. An outdoor floor construction that I have seen in Greece informed the construction and materials used in that platform. That platform is made of plastic wood composite materials. On that materials I did a brief research. Moreover, I researched further on the hydraulic Cylinder as I consider it the most suitable mechanism That I can use to lift up and down that platform.
A Hydraulic cylinder (also called a linear hydraulic motor) is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a linear force through a linear stroke. It has many applications, notably in engineering vehicles.
Operation Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is typically oil. The cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a piston rod is moving. The barrel is closed by the cylinder bottom and by the cylinder head where the piston rod comes out of the cylinder. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The piston divides the inside of the cylinder in two chambers, the bottom chamber and the piston rod side chamber. The hydraulic pressure acts on the piston to do linear work. A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or "motor" side of this system. The "generator" side of the hydraulic system is the hydraulic pump, that brings a fixed or regulated flow of oil into the system. Mounting brackets or clevisses are mounted to the cylinder bottom as well as the piston rod. By pumping hydraulic oil to the bottom side of the hydraulic cylinder, the piston rod starts moving upward. The piston pushes the oil in the other chamber back to the reservoir. If we assume that the oil pressure in the piston rod chamber is zero, the force on the piston rod equals
the pressure in the cylinder times the piston area. If the oil is pumped into the piston rod side chamber and the oil from the piston area flows back to the reservoir without pressure, the pressure in the piston rod area chamber is Pull Force/(piston area - piston rod area). In this way the hydraulic cylinder can both push and pull.
a. Telescopic cylinder
The length of a hydraulic cylinder is the total of the stroke, the thickness of the piston, the thickness of bottom and head and the length of the connections. Often this length does not fit in the machine. In that case the piston rod is also used as a piston barrel and a second piston rod is used. These kinds of cylinders are called "telescopic cylinders". If we call a normal cylinder "one stroke", telescopic cylinders can be two, three, four, five and even six stroke. In general telescopic cylinders are much more expensive that normal cylinders. Most telescopic cylinders are single acting (push). Double acting telescopic cylinders must be specially designed and manufactured.
b. Plunger cylinder A hydraulic cylinder without a piston or with a piston without seals is called a plunger cylinder. A plunger cylinder can only be used as a pushing cylinder; the maximum force is piston rod area multiplied by pressure. This means that a piston cylinder in general has a relatively thick piston rod.
c. Differential cylinder A differential cylinder acts like a normal cylinder when pulling. If the cylinder however has to push, the oil from the piston rod side of the cylinder is not returned to the reservoir, but goes to the bottom side of the cylinder. In such a way, the cylinder goes much faster, but the maximum force the cylinder can give is like a plunger cylinder. A differential cylinder can be manufactured like a normal cylinder, and only a special control is added.
I realised that the plunger cylinder was the most suitable And simple type of cylinder to use in my Design proposal.
Wood plastic composite Definition Wood-plastic composite (commonly abbreviated as WPC) is a nonrecyclable composite material, lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes. Uses Itsâ€™ most widespread use is in outdoor deck floors, but it is also used for railings, fences, landscaping timbers, cladding and siding, park benches, melding and trim, window and door frames, and indoor furniture. Comparison to solid wood Manufacturers claim that wood-plastic composite is more environmentally friendly and requires less maintenance than the alternatives of solid wood treated with preservatives or solid wood of rot-resistant species. Characteristics Resistant to cracking and splitting, these materials can be moulded with or without simulated wood grain details. Even with the wood grain design these materials are still visually easy to distinguish from natural timber as the grains are the same uniform colour as the rest of the material. Advantages Wood-plastic composite is still a very new material relative to the long history of natural lumber as a building material but can be substituted in most instances. Besides being highly resistant to rot, the major advantage of this category of building materials is its ability to add
another stage of upstream use to materials previously considered waste lumber. Although these materials continue the lifespan of used and discarded materials, and have their own considerable half life; the polymers and adhesives added make wood-plastic composite difficult to recycle again after use due to the many impurities in such a compound. It can be recycled easily in a new wood-plastic composite. Composition Wood-plastic composite lumber is composed of wood from recovered saw dust (and other cellulose-based fibber fillers such as pulp fibbers, peanut hulls, bamboo, straw, dig estate, etc.) and virgin or waste plastics including high-density polyethylene, PVC, PP, ABS, PS and PLA. The powder or fibbers are mixed to a dough-like consistency and then extruded or moulded to the desired shape. Additives such as colorants, coupling agents, stabilizers, blowing agents, reinforcing agents, foaming agents, lubricants help tailor the end product to the target area of application. The material is formed into both solid and hollow profiles or into injection moulded parts and products. With the diversity of organic components used in wood/plastic composite processing, there is no single answer to reliably handling these potentially difficult materials. In some applications standard thermoplastic injection moulding machines and tools can be utilized. Wood, resin, regrind, and most of the additives are combined and processed in a palletizing extruder. The new material pellets are formed in meld and dried. Pre-distribution testing can help determine the optimal combination of chemical agents, design, agitation and other flow aid strategies for the specific material in use. Modern testing facilities are available to evaluate materials and determine the optimal combination of equipment components to assure the highest level of accuracy and reliability. Computerized performance test reports document equipment performance.
Advantages over wood A major advantage over wood is the ability of the material to be melded to meet almost any desired spatial conditions. It can also be bent and fixed to form strong arching curves. With up to 70 percent cellulose content (although 50/50 is more common), wood-plastic composites behave like wood and can be shaped using conventional woodworking tools. At the same time, they are moisture-resistant and resistant to rot, although they are not as rigid as wood and may slightly deform in extremely hot weather. The material is also sensitive to staining from a variety of agents by virtue of its porosity. A major selling point of these materials is their lack of need for paint as they are manufactured in a variety of colons, but are widely available in greys and earth tones.
That material I decided to use to the outdoor moving Platform as I consider it a suitable choice for exterior Spaces and moreover it is dealing aesthetically with the Other materials of the construction. The disadvantage Is that the material is non recyclable although at that Time I could not avoid to use it. Therefore, the construction of the floor is lightweight, similarly To the other parts of the proposal. In order to raise that Outdoor platform I choose to use the plunger cylinder.
Reflective statement Material and construction of the design: a. concept: the concept was to use lightweight and modern Materials that will anticipate to the existing concrete And Victorian buildings. b. realisation: I chose to use stainless steel frame and cover it with thermo panels (for the exterior skin) c. suitability : I consider the choice of the construction of the proposal suitable for the type of the project, as the proposal can be dismantled very easily, following the short life span that the brief required. As for the materials, I consider them good choice, as the Proposal will give a more modern sense to the typical and Old fashioned neighbourhood. Contextual issues of the design:
Environmental and atmospheric Performance of the proposal
in response to the site context the designing intentions Were the following: 1. modern design which anticipates to the existing Ordinary neighbourhood. 2. south eastwards orientation of the openings to gain The maximum daylight in the proposal, and to achieve Passive heating. 3. Openings at specific heights to have the required views. 4. Windows designed at specific points to achieve crossed Ventilation. I think that my design has completely solve all the Aspects above. thermal performance: the heating of the proposal is based On the passive solar gain from the south facing windows And the skylight on the roof of the breakdance workshop.
The skylight provides the space with heating during all day And all the year. The lower windows on the south Eastwards faรงade allow sun insulation Daylight performance: gaining the maximum daylight in the Break dance workshop was a basic intention. Therefore, the Skylight is providing daylight during all day, the lower Windows of the south eastwards faรงade are providing Daylight during the winter, while the sun is at the lower Positions, and the higher windows of the faรงade provide Daylight during the summer. There are shutters at the windows to provide amenity from Sunlight. Ventilation performance : the windows are designed side by Side or opposite to provide crossed ventilation. Response to the weather conditions: Rain: a gutter in the roof is collecting the rainwater, and The drainage is leading it to the ground. The roof is Slightly inclined (10 %) towards the gutter. In that way Whenever it is raining the inclination of the roof is Leading the water to the ground through the gutter. Sun: shutters at the sliding windows are providing amenity From the sunlight. Cold: double glazing windows, and the thermopanels which Are insulated are preventing the cold to come into the Proposal.
Snow: Wind: Corrosion: stainless steel is used in order to avoid the Corrosion. Materials
Realisation of the proposal:
foundations: concrete and stainless steel Frame: stainless steel Skin: thermopanels : ( aluminium and insulation) â€“exterior Plasterboard interior Floor- roof: trapezoidal sheet covered with lightweight concrete most of the materials that I am using are recycled. The only material that stays unsustainable is the concrete, Which is used for the foundation of the breakdance Workshop. Theoretically, the concrete columns could be replaced With stainless steel columns. Although, the designing Intentions, cid not allow me to use steel columns, as they Are less rigid than the concrete and more columns were Required to support the proposal, in that way there was Not enough space for parking at level 1. Therefore, I Decided to use concrete foundations for the workshop.
Bibliography 1.Ktirio, technical magazine â€“ steel structures, 2006 2. technical prospectus of the companies corus- innovation center, konti steel hellas, sadef â€“ elements de construction pour la charpente et le batiment 2.www.elcomsystem.it ( information and pictures for the thermopanels) 3. http://www.onlineaccount.de/afb-han/gb/public/show.php?page_index=20 ( information on the elevating floors) 4. Peter trebilcock and mark Lawson, architectural design in steel, the steel construction institute, spon press, 2004 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_foam 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_plastic_composite