Marching Towards Modernisation Even though cctns is not a panacea for all policing related issues, it is expected to transform the existing state of policing and police and citizen interface By Pragya Gupta, eGov Bureau
nstalling surveillance cameras, installing computers and other information and communication technology (ICT) resources are not enough to make the policing efficient and effective. The current state of policing is marred with lack of objectivity, accountability, transparency, integrated approach, information and intelligence sharing mechanism, inter alia. In immediate past, India has witnessed a spate of terror attacks in different parts of the country. Despite the urgency of information and intelligence sharing between states and respective security agencies, there was no mechanism in place through which a seamless information sharing could be made an integral part of the agencies operations. To deal with these challenges and reform the working of Police forces across states and UTs, Ministry of Home Affairs has come up with Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS). It has been made a state mission mode project under National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) to modernise the police force giving top priority to enhancing outcomes in the area of crime investigations and criminal detec-
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Loknath Behera IGP, National Investigation Agency (NIA)
“CCTNS will increase the efficiency of the police through better data management, time management and knowledge and skill management” tion, in information gathering, sharing among various police organisations across the country and in enhancing police and citizen interface. If implemented completely, CCTNS can emerge as an overhaul of the way policing is being done in India. Commenting on the need for integrated sharing between police departments across the country, Prakash Kumar, Director Internet, Cisco Systems India, “In an event of terrorist attacks, the most essential thing is to disseminate the real-time
information about the event and channel it to the authorities and to have a reliable G2G communication network.”
Project history CCTNS intends to provide an integrated application software platform and creation of a nation-wide networked Police infrastructure connecting more than 14,000 police stations and nearly 6000 higher offices in 28 States and 7 UTs of the country and enabling seamless
project guidelines MHA has issued guideline for the appointment of System Integrators (SI) for the migration of CIPA and CCIS police stations and higher offices to CCTNS. SIs would execute the migration of the police stations and higher offices currently operational on CIPA and CCIS to CCTNS. NCRB is the nodal agency looking after the project implementation and monitoring.
information sharing. The need of IT in Police was never ignored earlier, it started with NCRB’s projects like Crime and Criminals Information System (CCIS) and Common Integrated Police Application (CIPA). However, the importance and need of real time information sharing has been realised in recent years. All these initial projects focused primarily on collection of data and automation of Police Stations. While CCIS was launched in 1990, it focused exclusively on creating a national level database of crime and criminals. However, duplication of efforts, lack of motivated staff and network connectivity for information sharing emerged as major hurdles in execution of the project. Conceptualised by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in 2004, CIPA had a core focus on automation of police stations. Later, it was felt that a standalone application cannot provide the enhanced outcomes in the areas of crime investigation and criminal detection. Eventually, to provide an upward integration of the Police station databases – to the District and state headquarters and a better public delivery system, MHA came up with `2000Crore
project, CCTNS. Loknath Behera, IGP, National Investigation Agency (NIA), “CCTNS will increase the efficiency of the police through better data management, better time management and better knowledge and skill management. So, police will be more efficient, which is the first requirement in security.” It will enable security agencies to keep track of the progress of the crime and criminal investigation and prosecution cases, including progress of cases in the courts and will also help in reduction of manual and redundant record keeping.
Implementation The CCTNS project includes vertical connectivity- linking police units at various levels within the states - and as well as horizontal connectivity which involves linking state headquarters and the central headquarters to external entities. To provide this link, Wipro Technologies has been selected as the agency which would develop the core application software (CAS) to be used by the states and another core application to be used by the Centre for digitisation of crime and criminal records. The solution is being developed on multiple
technology platforms to address different levels of functionality required at the centre and state. Once implemented, the application will link the State Crime Record Bureau (SCRB) with the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). It would facilitate real-time information sharing between states and the Centre. MHA has issued guideline for the appointment of System Integrators (SI) for the migration of CIPA and CCIS police stations and higher offices to CCTNS. SIs would execute the migration of the police stations and higher offices currently operational on CIPA and CCIS to CCTNS. NCRB is the nodal agency looking after the project implementation and monitoring.
State updates ASSAM: Assam has received `26 lakhs for the financial year 2010-11, towards funding for strengthening infrastructure at RTS/PTC. An agreement has been made for State Project Management Consultant (SPMC) between Assam police and IL&FS. State’s Nodal agency, AMTRON, started IT Basic Training Course to the police personnel. Assam Police has signed an April 2011 / www.egovonline.net / egov
“Adopting SOA Approach for Policing” to data standardisation, Generation of reports, redundancy in data entry, mapping of major and minor crime heads, etc.
What is the current status of the project? It has been estimated that CAS would be ready for roll out by 30th September 2011 and shared with states for customization and integration with specific requirements. Based on the progress of the project till date and support from all states it is envisaged that project would be implemented and made functional across all the states by 2012. B Bhamathi, B Bhamathi, Additional Secretary (Centre State), Ministry of Home Affairs
How are the challenges of CIPA being addressed with CCTNS? CCTNS-CAS is being developed on a Service oriented Architecture which shall enable the seamless sharing of information on crimes and criminals within police departments and across various other external agencies like Courts, Jails, Transport departments, Passport authorities, etc. It will have advanced search functions when compared to CIPA. CCTNS addresses several functional and technical challenges with respect
How will CCTNS address the issue of security of information? The security architecture proposed for the CAS application shall ensure complete authenticity and integrity of data and transactions. Access control procedures shall cover all stages in the life-cycle of user access, from the initial registration of new users to the final de-registration of users, who no longer require access to information systems and services. Special attention shall be given, where appropriate, to the needs to control the allocation of privileged access rights.
Karnataka Karnataka Government is leading ahead with its own ICT project ‘Police IT’. Unlike many other states, Karnataka Police is working on an end-to-end solution covering 12 modules. Police IT can be called as a comprehensive enterprise resource planning (ERP) system providing seamless integration to the day to day operations of the police. Police IT in its conceptualisation, creation and roll out would have a pioneering impact in the way the police in India would go digital in the days to come. The basic features of Police IT software are that, it is based
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on a centralised architecture, is bilingual (both in English and Kannada), has a workflow design and a role based access. Being developed by Wipro Technologies, the Police IT software application has been divided into 12 modules. These modules take care of the workflow within the concerned module and across modules. The core functions of police have three modules namely, crime, law and order and traffic. On the administration side, the software has another three modules namely Finance, Administration and Stores.
Armed, Motor Transport and Training provide the ancillary support and the technical modules are the Wireless and the FSL. All seven end-user tasks are finally divided into 64 roles. The software could be viewed in 519 screens and can generate 406 reports. “We have deployed four modules and three are in pilot. There are possibilities to conclude things in three months. SI will take care of completion of bundle of services but are yet to be appointed,” shared Sanjay Sahay, IGP and Head of State Crime Records Bureau, Karnataka.
agreement with HCL Infosystems for supplying of hardware and peripherals. MANIPUR: Manipur government has selected Leasing and Financial Limited (IL&FS) as SPMC for the implementation of CCTNS. RAJASTHAN: Capacity building module is under execution under the state CCTNS project. In April 2010, training centres across 41 districts in state were set up to educate the cops about computers and imparting basic IT literacy. Updating on the progress of work under CCTNS, A Paunnuchami, IGP, Nodal Officer, SCRB, Rajasthan informs, “Seven days training is being given out to the cops. Till now, 16,000 police personnel have under gone training. We have deputed 250 cops as trainers to these district centres, five cops at each district centre. These cops belonged to the in-house pool of 2000 IT literate cops, who were shortlisted for the same. These 250 cops, too, were trained before they get on their job.”
Challenges Not every police station has a broadband connectivity. Connectivity is a major challenge in difficult regions like dense forest, hills etc. In India power deficiency also poses difficulties for long term connectivity. One of the major challenges is resistance for change among the people or attitudinal change in the policeman. From last five years, police training includes computer literacy but those who have passed out before this face challenge to get them fitted into a new era of ICT. Fund flow is also a major concern. Centre will support this project for three years after which states will be responsible for its operation and maintenance. Effective data integration at all the levels is one of the most important challenges. At the state level, envisioning by state to integrate an ongoing evaluation system that monitors the effectiveness of daily operations and allows responding to problems and making midcourse corrections in a timely fashion for this project, is of utmost importance and achieving it is a big challenge. Since, the project deals with a great amount of information related to the authorised Police personnel, hackers may be able to compromise the system, leading to anything from data breach to loss of data. The system has to be designed with confidentiality, integrity and accountability as the highest priorities.