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GLOCAL SHELTER

PARAMETRIC DEPLOYABLE SHELTERS edited by Martin kaftan & jiří pavlíček

spring 2010 MOLAB FA CTU & Echorost 26

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GLOCAL SHELTER PARAMETRIC DEPLOYABLE SHELTERS

SPRING 2010 MOLAB FA CTU & ECHOROST


Czech Technical University in Prague Faculty of Architecture Molab Address: Thákurova 7 Prague 6 - Dejvice 166 34 - Czech Republic

t e i i

+420 224 351 111 architektura@fa.cvut.cz www.fa.cvut.cz www.molab.eu

t t e i

+420 776 049 942 +420 728 084 386 info@echorost.com www.echorost.com

Echorost Address: Jugoslávských partyzánů 1580/3 Prague 6 - Dejvice 160 00 - Czech Republic


Studio Molab 4d Tutors: Martin Kaftan Jiří Pavlíček

Jury: Miloš Kopřiva Henri Achten

Participants: Damien Bechon Rodrigo Diaz George Georgopoulos Tomi Laine Jani Nika Alyssa Parsons George Samargopoulos Matias Saresvuo Mikael Saurén Samantha Smith


Glocal Shelter Report Credits This report was created through the collective effort of studio participants, tutors, and staff of FA CTU in the spring semester of 2010. We would like to thank Dana Matฤ›jovskรก, the head of Molab department at FA CTU for making this report possible. 31 May 2010 Publisher: Czech Technical University - Publishing House 1st. edition - 10/2010 ISBN: 978-80-01-04627-2 Supported by


Contents 7 9 10 11

INTRODUCTION Foreword Hypothesis Research brief

ANALYSIS

13 14 32 56 60

Catastrophic events Existing examples Transport solutions Materials and constructions

63 65 79 91 135 149 163 175

Project I - Drain Pipe Shelter Project II - XX Shelter Project III - Quake Fold Project IV - Honey Shelter Project V - Shell Ter Project VI - Relief Shelter After Earthquake Disaster Project VII - Bamboo Shelters

211 212 214 217

PROJECTS

APPENDIX Conclusion Bibliography Contributors


6


INTRODUCTION

7


Architecture for Humanity: Buildings not only have a physical footprint - they have an ethical footprint. For us sustainability is about more than building green. We think about how a building will affect the environment and how it will improve the lives and livelihoods of its occupants. Where resources and expertise are scarce, innovative, sustainable and collaborative design can make a difference.

8


Foreword

The intention of the project is to investigate the potential of rapidly deployable structures and their fabrication. The project aims to provide flexible and innovative alternative to existing stereo typic modular design.

Haiti - modular system

There are two main applications considered in this research for deployable structures: 1. Shelters for the areas affected by catastrophes. 2. Shelters for slums. There are miscellaneous approaches chosen for the design process. However there are two common denominators for all the projects. First the shelter is not considered as temporary solution to be replaced by other permanent design. It is a temporary solution to be developed into more permanent home. Second it is the quality of living environment that these projects are concerned with. Such requirements call for a different approach of the design and fabrication process. Therefore advanced computational techniques are introduced. Those tools allow for a large number of variations to be produced from the basic components. Individual variations could then fulfil functional requirements of specific scenarios. The research assumes that the fabrication process is an integral part of the design process.

Rapid fabrication

9


Hypothesis Aim Annually, disasters claim the lives of 250 000 people worldwide. More than 95% of these deaths occur in developing countries. When the disaster strikes often major damage is caused not only to the dwellings but also to the infrastructure and public services. It is not uncommon that first days of the disaster people do not have any shelter and sleep wherever they can. It is also very common that even if the aid is provided people still suffer very poor conditions. Furthermore most of the shelters provided by the aid contingents are of temporary character and very modest. It usually takes lot of time to recover the disaster area back to the original condition. Meanwhile people do not have many options than to live in very temporary conditions. The aim of this project was to rethink transportable, modular, and prefabricated architectural solutions and provide effective alternative. Can we make use of advanced computational and fabrication techniques, tools that are commonly used only for very expensive and geometrically demanding buildings? Participants were encouraged to use and test parametric, simulation and rapid fabrication techniques in order to improve living conditions in countries and areas impacted by natural disasters.

Thoughtful, inclusive design creates lasting change in communities by: • Alleviating poverty and providing access to water, sanitation, power and essential services • Bringing safe shelter to communities prone to disaster and displaced populations • Rebuilding community and creating neutral spaces for dialogue in post-conflict areas • Mitigating the effects of rapid urbanization in unplanned settlements • Creating spaces to meet the needs of those with disabilities and other at-risk populations • Reducing the footprint of the built environment and addressing climate change Architecture for Humanity

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Research Brief Goals • Critical thinking about contemporary prefabricated architectural solutions • Performance criteria as main factors for design decisions • Application of parametric modelling and associative thinking • Detailed fabrication solutions • Coherent CAD/CAM process

Project phase 1 - Analyses Database Refugee camp in Africa

• • • •

Existing examples on the topic Catastrophic events Environmental conditions Manufacturing processes, materials, and usage of local sources • Transport solutions • Evaluation criteria

Project phase 2 - Design • • • •

Behavior simulation

Concept creation Problem definition Evaluation criteria Behaviour simulation - Environmental - Social - Structural - Transportation • Rapid prototyping • Assembly testing • Finalization

11


Image

12


ANALYSES

13


Catastrophic events Appearance

Earthquake

Volcano

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Tsunami

Flood

Wildfire

14


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Tornado

Extreme thermal conditions

Lack of water

Extreme poverty

Overlapping disaster areas

15


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture Earthquake Earthquakes strikes without a warning at any time of a year, day or night. Ground shaking, caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface, can collapse buildings and bridges, damage infrastructure - gas, electricity, sewer and phone service. Most of the injuries during earthquakes result from collapsing walls, flying glass and falling objects. Strength of earthquakes are measured by the Richter scale developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935, It measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake. Earthquakes can trigger landslides, avalanches, flash floods, fires and undersea earthquakes sometimes can cause tsunamis.

16


Volcano A volcano is a mountain built up by an accumulation of their own eruptive products - molten rock beneath the Earth’s surface. Eruption of a volcano can be quiet or explosive. There can be lava flows, poisonous gases and flying rock and ash. Flying ash may disturb air space of a large area. Usually lava flows slowly destroying everything on their way causing great fire hazard. Accumulations of Volcanic ash, pulverized rock mixed with water can collapse roofs and damage machinery. Acidic ash and gas can cause lung damage especially for the young, the old and people suffering from respiratory illnesses. Sideways directed volcanic explosions can shoot large pieces of rock at very high speeds for several kilometres. These explosions can kill by impact, burial, or heat. They have been known to knock down entire forests. Eruption can be accompanied by other hazards as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, fire and undersea eruptions can also cause tsunamis.

17


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture Landslide Landslides, in which masses of rock, earth or debris move down a slope slow or rapid can be caused by earthquakes, volcanoes, fires, storms, steepning of a slope by erosion or human modification.

18


Tsunami Tsunamis, large waves that can travel hundreds of kilometres per hour smashing into land with waves over 30 meters are created by underwater disturbance like earthquake, landslide, volcano or meteorite. If the centre of a underwater disturbance is near coastline, the first wave can strike the beach in minutes. Drowning is the most common cause of death during tsunamis. Waves and receding water destroy buildings and infrastructure. When gas and electricity lines are damaged fires are possible. They can cause flooding which causes contamination of drinking water and spread diseases.

Salt water can ruin the fields for years

19


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture Flood Flood effects can be local or have an impact on entire river basins. They can form slowly or be rapid flash floods. Floods can damage buildings and infrastructure. Quickly moving flash floods can sweep away almost everything in their way. Flood can occur during storm, earthquake, tsunami, hurricane, landslide or a dam breakage. It can cause contamination of drinking water and spread diseases. Some areas need the flooding as river delta but salt water can ruin the fields for years.

Salt water can ruin the fields for years, see also river delta

20


Wildfire Wildfire destroys forests and buildings in the wild. Dry periods increase the potential for wildfires. Normally wildfires can be restricted out of the city, but the smoke can be dangerous for the young, the old and the people suffering from respiratory illnesses.

Fire can ruin the crop, see also burn clearing

21


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture Hurricane A hurricane is a tropical cyclone, vast spiralling storm with strong winds and heavy rains. Surge can be as wide as 1,5 kilometres. Hurricane begins at warm sea usually in the tropic. Winds can be as strong as 250 kilometres per hour. It is typically accompanied with thunderstorms. When a hurricane hits land it can cause floods by heavy rains and by large waves. Other natural hazards like floods, landslides and fires can occur because of the heavy rains. Strong winds tear down roofs, windows, doors and complete buildings as well as infrastructure. They can also burst tornadoes and microburst. Hurricanes can be monitored already when they are born at the sea.

Salt water can ruin the fields for years, strong winds can ruin the crop

22


Tornado Tornadoes are considerably smaller in diameter than hurricanes. They are spawned from powerful thunderstorms. With wind speed as strong as 500 kilometres per hour they can devastate a neighbourhood in seconds. They are normally developed so rapidly that little, if any, advance warning can be given. They appear nearly transparent until there is debris, dust or vaporised water forming a funnel. They tear of roofs, windows, doors and complete buildings and damage infrastructure.

Fire can ruin the crop, strong winds can ruin the crop

23


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture War A war conflict brings destruction to the buildings, infrastructure and community. People flee from war zones and become refugees in camps. Nuclear weapons contaminate vast areas with radiation for decades.

Landmines can ruin fields for years

24


Chemical Hazard Dangerous chemical agents can be released into the environment slowly during years or rapidly in seconds by bombs, sprayed from aircrafts, boats and vehicles or by accidents in transportation, handling or processing. Dangerous chemicals are used processing everyday products all over and producing energy. Hazardous agent can cause, death, injury, long-lasting health effects, damage and spoil buildings, soil, infrastructure and food producing areas.

Contamination can ruin the soil for years

25


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture Extreme thermal conditions Extreme coldness Extreme cold and heavy snowfall can immobilize an entire region and cause interruptions in infrastructure service. Even areas with mild winter can overgo periods of time with extreme cold and major snow storm. They can result in flooding, storm surge, blocked roads downed power lines and hypothermia.

Cold can ruin the crop

26


Extreme thermal conditions Extreme heat Extreme heat an high humidity slower evaporation which pushes the human body beyond its limits because it makes the body work really hard to maintain a normal temperature. Most heat disorders occurs among the young, the old, the sick and overweight people. In built areas many surfaces as asphalt and concrete store heat releasing it gradually during night, which can cause “urban heat island effect� when the nighttime temperatures are higher than at daytime.

Heat can ruin the crop

27


Affects on contemporary and vernacular architecture Lack of water Lack of water and therefore use of contaminated water causes a range of often life-threatening diseases. Childhood diarrhoea is associated with insufficient water supply, inadequate sanitation, contaminated water and poor hygiene practices.

Lack of land and resources

28


Extreme poverty Extremely poor people cannot meet basic needs for food, water, sanitation, health care and shelter. Shelter, if person has one, are constructed with any available materials into a not planned grid, ghetto.

Drought can ruin the crop

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Catastrophic events - Conclusion

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Existing examples

Transitional shelters or disaster relief shelters are used to house people who have lost their homes due to a catastrophe or a conflict. Larger shelters are also used as gathering spaces, temporary schools, medical clinics etc. Shelters are alternatives to current solutions for disaster relief projects that usually mean several types of tents and tarps. According to the description, transitional shelters provide a habitable covered living space and a secure, healthy living environment – with privacy and dignity for the disaster victims – during the period between a conflict or natural disaster. Shelters should be durable enough to last the entire transition period, until reconstruction is complete, and should be able to be upgraded or relocated to different sites. It is favourable to use simple techniques and rapid construction methods appropriate to the environment and community with which it is being implemented. Prefabricated shelters should also be easy to transport. The future usage of prefabricated shelters should also be taken into account. Recyclability of materials or possibility to reuse the shelter in a different purpose afterwards makes the design more environmentally friendly. To name a few, bus stops, small storages, garden houses or homes for homeless are examples of later usage.

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Basically, there are several structural types used in disaster relief shelters. The main structural types are flat-pack, scissors, pneumatics and capsules - tensegrity structures are also used sometimes. Flatpack means simply a structure that can be packaged in easily transportable flat form by folding or just piling all the pieces. In scissors the structural frames are also foldable in order to reach more convenient dimensions for transportation. Pneumatic structures are inflatable with low pressure so that the pressure inside the shelter is slightly higher than normal atmospheric pressure - the main disadvantage of pneumatics solutions is a continuous need for a power supply. Capsules stand for prefabricated single units that are ready to use - for example, medical clinic installed in a shipping container is an application of capsule structure. Tensegrity or tensional integrity is a property of structures with an integrity based on a balance between tension and compression components the main disadvantage being that if one joint breaks the whole structure collapses, which makes it challenging to use tensegrity structures in disaster shelters. Quite often it is also reasonable to use local materials for shelter deployment. Shigeru Ban’s paper log house made of cardboard tubes serves as an innovative example of low-cost on-site shelter construction.


Following examples give a picture of the great variety of different solutions and possibilities in shelter design. By analysing existing examples it is possible to create criteria for finding the best solutions.

Intershelter

ShelterBox

Walking House

Global Village Shelter

Concrete Canvas

ReCover Disaster Shelter

Portable Pneumatic Shelter System

Snail Shell System

Q-Shelter

Micro Dwellings

Paper Log House

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Global Village Shelter 6 M / 20 M by Daniel Ferrara and Mia Pelosi

(2004)

This โ€˜โ€™flatpackโ€™โ€™ shelter structure is delivered into the site of disaster in multiple pieces. The roof and the base packages are folded open for assembly. Assembly requires two untrained persons for setting up. The larger alternative of the shelter can be used as a medical clinic or for communal uses. The shelter can be folded again for transportation. The structure consists of 13 mm thick recyclable polypropylene sheets which can last for over 5 years. An additional platform is required. Locally available material can be added on the structure for isolation.

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ReCover Disaster Shelter by Matthew Malone

(2008)

The shelter is quick up, light weight and easily packed. The foldable design allows it to be collapsed into either a flatpack or horseshoe configuration, making it easily transportable in large stacks. ReCover shelter can hold a family of four for up to a month and can be set up in a few minutes by one person. The material is recyclable Coroplast, i.e. corrugated polypropylene sheets. Once the temporary residence is unfolded, the functional ridges can be used to collect drinking water, and local materials or vegetation can be attached to provide better insulation. An additional platform and flooring is required.

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Intershelter 4,2 m dome / 6,0 m dome by Craig Chamberlag

(2004)

The Intershelter housing modules are portable, lightweight and structurally strong due to its dome shape. One dome can be assembled by two people with simple hand-tools and a ladder in four hours. One module can provide a dwelling for up to six people. The dome is a frameless structure consisting of aerospace composite panels. An exterior gel coat covers the panels making the shelter highly durable and fire-resistant. The structure can also withstand strong winds caused by hurricanes. The life span of the shelter is over 30 years. As unassembled, the enclosure can fit into the back of a pickup truck, trailer or an 8โ€™ x 8โ€™ x 4โ€™ container for transportation.

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Concrete Canvas CCS 25 / CCS 54 by Concrete Canvas LTD.

(2009)

Concrete Canvas Shelter is a rapidly deployable hardened shelter based on a 13mm Concrete Cloth that requires only water and air for construction. The structure can be deployed by 2 people in under an hour and is ready to use in 24 hours. There are two different variants of a shelter, 25 m2 shelter providing accommodation for up to 7, and 54 m2 shelter for up to 15 people. Concrete Cloth is a ceramic material and will not burn. Each shelter is lined with a flame retardant fibre reinforced polyethylene inner cloth. The structure withstands high compressive loads, enabling berming by sandbags, snow or local materials. The shelter is nonrecyclable and cannot be re-assembled or moved.

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Portable Pneumatic Shelter System by FSI North America The shelter system is quick and efficient to set up due to a pneumatic structure. It takes 1-5 minutes by using inflator or compressed air. The user can choose between a big a variety of sizes from 9.5 m2 to 172 m2 and then assemble the structure by rolling out, inflating and staking it down. The floorplan can be arranged according to the use with cross and centre dividers. The structure can be easily transported and reassembled. The structure requires always an inflator machine to support. The materials are polyester frames coated with plastomer and a canopy of twill nylon coated with polyurethane. This makes the shelter resistant against water, fire, wind, UV and chemicals.

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ShelterBox by Devstars

(2010)

ShelterBox is designed to fulfil the basic needs after a disaster has occurred. It provides a tent and basic tools needed to deal with everyday necessities. The contents are tailored depending on the nature and location of the disaster, but it usually includes a 10 person tunnel tent, 10 sleeping bags, tools and equipment. One box provides shelter for at least six months and the equipment can be easily packed again and moved to another area. The tent is designed to withstand extreme temperatures, high winds and heavy rainfalls. Partitions are also provided to allow recipients to divide the space as they see fit.

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Snail Shell System by n55

(2002)

The snail shell system is a low cost system that enables one person to move around, change his/her whereabouts and live in various environments. One unit supplies space for one person. It is mobile both on land and water. The unit rests on one flat side and can be anchored in lakes, rivers, harbours or at sea. On land, it can be placed in city spaces, fields, forests etc. The snail shell system is constructed from a cylindrical polyethylene tank. The light-weight tank is made of nontoxic material. Various devices and extensions can be attached to the tank, adding different functions. Caterpillar tracks of rubber are fixed for safer transportation and mooring. Furthermore, multiple devices like dynamos, solar panels, wind mills, etc., can be added so the unit supplies its own energy.

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Micro Dwellings by n55

(2008)

Micro Dwellings is a completely prefabricated modular capsule system for micro-scale housing. One capsule is capable of providing shelter for one person for a short period of time. The system allows for a diversity of materials - the prototype being welded in steel with reinforcing frames. Capsules can be attached together in numerous ways - from top, bottom, side etc. By attaching units together, larger dwellings, or even small communities, can be established. The capsule is entirely waterproof, and can withstand the pressure at 10 meters below the surface of water. Wheels can also be attached to make the shelter more mobile.

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Walking House by n55

(2008)

Walking House is a modular dwelling system capable of housing up to four people. It can move around due to its legs. The energy for moving and other functions is gathered using solar cells and small windmills. The module is totally prefabricated. It can be constructed from numerous materials - based on a framework made of steel, aluminium or wood. The framework can be covered with steel, aluminium, wood or even semipermeable textiles. Windows are made of polycarbonate. Walking House includes a system for collecting rain water and a system for solar heated hot water. A small greenhouse unit can also be added to the basic living module, as well as a composting toilet system. A small wood burning stove could be added to provide CO2 neutral heating.

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Q - Shelter by World Shelter

(1986)

Q-Shelter is a flat pack solution for disaster relief projects. The quonset shaped structure is made from PVC poles and specific ClipKit connectors. The packaged shelter can be carried by two persons. Assembly takes about 40 minutes by two untrained persons be complete. Basic model of the Q-Shelter provides accommodation for family of six to eight people. The structure is adaptable to any kind of climates and it can be removed and reassembled to another place. It can also be assembled with floors, doors and end panels or left open ended. Better insulation can be achieved by adding locally available material in between the optional double-sheeting. The Q-Shelter provides protection from water, fire, wind and UV.

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Paper Log house by Shigeru Ban

(1995)

Paper Tube Structure is the structural system composed of hollow cardboard tubes made of recycled paper. Since it is very light weight, the foundation can be made of a plastic beer crate, carriage pellet and so on. The structure can be built by a few persons in a few hours. The Paper Log House is a basic prototype whose design and scale can vary depending on purpose, situation and budget. The water protection can be done by varnishing, and tubes can be painted with fire-retardant paint if needed. The tubes can also be filled with insulative locally available material. The structure will last at least for a few years.

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Transport solutions

The means of transportation is also a crucial matter for designing transitional shelters. The basis is that the structure should fit in the most common transport methods. Thus dimensions of the air cargo Unit Loading Devices and shipping containers determine also the dimensions of the packaged shelters.

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Unit load device A unit load device, or ULD, is a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on aircrafts. It allows a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. ULD pallets are rugged sheets of aluminium with rims and ULD containers are closed boxes made of aluminium. The most common types of ULD with interior dimensions are shown in the pictures.

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Shipping container An intermodal container or commonly shipping container is a reusable transport and storage unit for moving products and raw materials between locations and countries. Most common types are 20’ and 40’ containers. Highcubes are taller than standard containers. A typical container has doors fitted at one end, and is constructed of corrugated weathering steel. Interior dimensions are shown in the pictures.

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Road transportation Transportation via roads is arranged with vehicles of different scales. Trucks, vans, trailers and also animals are used to transport cargo. In the extreme conditions where there are no roads, usage of animals might be necessary.

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Materials and Constructions: possible manufacturing processes, materials, usage of local resources pantographs: These constructs are scisscor-like forms made from wood or steel. They can be used to form any architectural or structural element (column, truss, wall, roof ). The structure works as a network of triangular or parallelogram components, it is a self-bracing and self-reinforcing structure. Constraints depend on the scale desired and resources available. The construct may need hydraulics to aid in erection. The main advantages are that they are easily deployed and erected. Thus they are ideal for mobility and covertibility. But the disadvantages are that skilled prefabrication is required, as is sheathing.

pantograph

pneumatic structures: These constructs are air-inflated textiles. They can be low pressure or high pressure (cushion) structures. The structure is air supported, and in this sense it is an extremely light construct. Constraints depend on the scale desired, size is limited by material sizes and additional structure may be required for larger sizes. The main advantages are that they are lightweight, quickly and easily deployable. It is also possible to design them using organic, complex shapes. The disadvantages are that they are extremely temporary constructs, they are not durable, nor are they suitable for severe weather conditions: (snow, heavy percip., high winds, cold). There is a large energy requirement for compressors necessary for inflation.

pneumatic

flat pack: These are structures which fold or collapse into compact, easily transportable modules. The materials vary from cardboard, wood, metal or plastic. The structural properties vary with design (generally traditional.) The main structural concerns are the joints and folds. Sizes, constraints on dimensions, are directly effected by transportation means and prefabrication capabilities The main advantages are that they are easily mass produced, thus ready in case of emergency and quickly deployed or replicated. They are generally built on a human scale module due to size constraints, thus are easy for 1-2 people to assemble. The main disadvantage is that they are often very temporary shelters, and the prefabrication and transportation requirements. But this is quickly becoming a more recognized building type

60

flat pack


pods & capsules: These are set units that can be used to construct a whole community or individual structures. They can be built from recycled elements, but they must retain their original structural integrity. Size constraints often determined by mode of transportation or material. The main advantages are the great potential for adaptation to the user’s needs. They are quickly deployed due to recycled elements, and transportable modules. They are also more permanent and durable than many other options. But they offer much less design freedom

pods & capsules

tensegrity: This is a structure built using distributed tension to support islands of compression. They are usually built from metal components and wire, but a few other materials can be used. The structural integrity is wholly based on balance between tension components and compression components. Members exist in pure tension or compression which results in mechanical stability. The main advantages are that these constructs are collapsable into easily transportable sizes. However, the highly skilled labor that is required for prefabrication and on-site assembly presents a major obstacle. Additional sheathing is also required.

tensegrity

membrane structures: These constructs are forms made from a membrane stretched into specific “self-supporting� shapes. They are made from coated high performance textiles. The structural properties are in the stretched plane that acts as the primary load-bearing surface. The constraints are scale and shape: scale determines construction time and required labor, and shape determines structure: only certain shapes work. The advantages to these are that they are good for seismic areas, they are lightweight constructs. However, they are not as effective in severe rain, wind, cold as other types of construction.

membrane

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second phase sleeping living

sleeping storage

sleeping

sleeping

Projects Inhabitants have taken 1 spatial unit as a Unit Unit storage and entrance area by covering it with Unit Shaped surface Shaped surface local materials. 2 units remain in terrace usage. Shaped surface

house with 4 rooms & water storage

shelte

storage

shelter for 3 persons

the shelter sleeping

2 gene a kitch space.

living

kitchen

living

house with 6 rooms & house with 4 rooms & water storage water storage the shelter

cluster

1mm OUTSIDE PVC L UV RESISTANT (FERRARI TEXTILE)

the shelter Folding development Proces of compresion by aplying forces in Folding development multipleforces directions... Folding development Proces of compresion by aplying in The forces make the surface react and it Proces of compresion bymultiple aplying forces in directions... changes its form multiple directions... The forces make the surface react and it adapting. The forces make the surface reactits and it adapting. changes form changes its form adapting.

1mm OUTSIDE PVC LAYER UV RESISTANT (FERRARI TEXTILE)

the shelter Manual

BRACING 10 mm STEEL CABLE

4,1 m 8,2 m x5 4,1 m PVC LAYER 1mm OUTSIDE

Perspective view of a possible arrangement of many cells join andofreacting Perspective view of a possible arrangement many togueter. Perspective view of a possible cells arrangement of many togueter. join and reacting cells join and reacting togueter.

4,4 m

Build the five frames.40

40

sleeping

4,1 m 8,2 m

living

h idt

m)

exploded axonometry

4,0 m

2,0

CROSS BEAM SQUARE SECTION DEPENDING OF THE SHELTER

m)

1mm INSIDE TEXTILE COTTON + NET GROUND : PVC

widt

m

6,4 m x 2

exploded axonometry

INSIDE TEXTILE LAYER First the water tank is 1mm established and surround COTTON + NET GROUND : PVC unfold and add the components, after that the b layer is attached to the structure, and finally the the partition of the shelter.

WATER TANK CAPACITY DEPENDING OF THE SHELTER

CROSS BEAM SQUARE SECTION DEPENDING OF THE SHELTER

4,4

4,0 m

WATER TANK CAPACITY DEPENDING OF THE SHELTER

exploded axonometry (8,0

x5 ck wall structure and infill it h 4 m idtthe load bearing blocks, masonry etc. Attach the,1five frameswto 2,3 m m) x 5 wall. 4,1 m m) x 2

2,0

WATER TANK CAPACITY DEPENDIN SHELTER

m

4,1 m 8,2 m

infill it

(8,0

CROSS BEAM SQUARE SECTION DEPENDING OF THE SHELTER

w

m 4,4

e frames.

BRACING 10 mm STEEL CABLE

x5

4,1 m Build the back wall structure and infill it 2,3 m with adobe blocks, masonry etc. 4,1 m Pillars (2,9 m) x 5 6,4 m x Beams (8,0m) x 2 BRACING 2 10 mm STEEL CABLE

CROSS BEAM SQUARE SECTION DE OF THE SHELTER

2 generations living in the shelter and sharing a kitchen, a storage and a common living space.

1mm OUTSIDE PVC LAYER UV RESISTANT m (FERRARI TEXTILE) 2,0 living

kitchen

BRACING 10 mm STEEL CABLE

,4 m 6 shelter 6for x 2persons

sleeping

sleeping

4,1 m

4,0 m

Water storage for daily usestorage 40

UV RESISTANT (FERRARI TEXTILE)

2,3 m

h (5,2

m)

First the water1mmtank is established and surrounded by the folded INSIDE TEXTILE LAYER COTTON + NET unfold and add the: PVC components, after that the bracing has to be GROUND layer is attached to the structure, and finally the intern textile la the partition of the shelter.

WATER TANK CAPACITY DEPENDING OF THE SHELTER

m

8,0

h(

m)

t exploded axonometry wid Attach the five beams.

First the water tank is established and surrounded by the folded structure. then unfoldCOTTON and+ add the components, after that the bracing has to be fix. Next the ext NET widt : PVC h (5,2 isGROUND layer m) attached to the structure, and finally the intern textile layer is clipped to the partition of the shelter.

ve frames to the load bearing Beams connecting frames (8,0 m) 1mm x 5INSIDE TEXTILE LAYER


Projects

63


64


Project I : DrAIN PIPe sHeLter toMI LAINe MAtIAs sAresVUo

example Haiti Port-au-Prince

65


Hypothesis Glocal shelter rapid deployable and cost-effective shelters are constantly needed around the globe when great amount of people become homeless due to catastrophes and disasters. Problem analysis traditional building methods require electricity, high-tech tools, various prefabricated elements, great amount of know-how, work force and time. tents are extremely light-weight compared to traditional buildings. one person can assemble tent in minutes without any tools. tents are generally completely prefabricated. they are well suited as a shelter for the first days after a hazard. A traditional building is permanent and a tent very temporary solution for living. A tent normally offers only spaces for the basic needs of living. Usually they offer only a small place for sleeping. A shelter should offer building alike spaces and athmosphere for living for the time of reconstruction. It should be light-weight, easy to assemble and disassemble to be taken elsewhere. Many times shelters provide spaces good enough for living even for long periods of time. they are often too much building alike in a sense of disassembling, recycling and reusing. often they become permanent houses for years lowering the quality of life.

66


We wanted to form a construction system for a shelter with existing prefabricated parts. the construction system should be flexible to construct dierent kinds of buildings with really basic tools as a saw. concept Drain pipe structure is extremely lightweight and completely build from prefabricated parts that are already in produce. It can be assembled and dissambled without any tools. two persons can assemble precut parts for one unit in minutes without any previous knowledge of building construction. Drain pipe construction can be reused again as a shelter or parts can be used traditionally as drain pipes in a sewer system. As disassembling parts is easy and there is various possibilities for reuse, drain pipe construction can be considered semi-permanent. concept is based on oering fabric covered space for the basic needs of living and a free space which can be modified for the specific needs of the household. this increases the quality of life in the middle of a hazardous situation.

67


Fabrication component structural components Drain pipe joints are light-weight, easy to assemble and disassemble.

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

structural constraints

2,1002,100 2,100

68

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

2,200

1,200

1,200 2,200

2,232 2,232

2,1002,100 2,100

2,200

2,232 2,232

2,1002,100 2,100

1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,100

2,200

2,232 2,232

1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,100

2,200 2,200

2,200 2,200

2,200

2,200

600 2,200 600 2,200

2,200 2,200

2,200 600 2,200 600 2,200

600 2,200 600 2,200

2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200

2,200 2,200

2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200

2,200 2,200

2,200 2,200 2,200

2,200 2,200

2,200

1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,100

110110110

1,100 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,100

2,1002,100 2,100

1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,1001,100 1,100

110110110

2,200

2,200

1,200

the size and the form of a shelter is created according to the structural constraints and human dimensions structural module being 2200 mm. Housing units are formed two modules wide and the length varies according to the number of inhabitants of a household. Larger structures increase the height of a building.


shelter for 1 person Axonometric blow-up view - joints and pipes needed for the construction of one person unit, Images of the 1:1 prototype - used as an exhibition space for the Glocal shelter -studio 25/05/2010

69


shelter constructions for one and three person units

70

Modular fabric system


Materialization in the first phase the structure is covered with fabric to provide instant shelter for basic needs like sleeping. Modular fabric system is designed according to the structural units. 4 dierent parts for walls and a roof are attached to the drain pipe structure simply by strings. openings serve as a door and a window. Indoor spaces can be later on extended by attaching local materials to the pipes with strings or zip ties. 110 mm structure allows also the insulation to be added which makes the system suitable for dierent kinds of climates.

71


Unit 1 Inhabitant spatial unit Indispensible spatial unit for living is covered with a modular fabric system in the first phase. Free undefined space unit can be used according to the needs of inhabitants.

2 200

2 200

2 200

+

=

+

=

Plan Variations Possible configurations within households. Indispensible spatial units can be separated with continuous free space units.

72


sleeping living

sleeping storage

shelter for 3 persons Inhabitants have taken 1 spatial unit as a storage and entrance area by covering it with local materials. 2 units remain in terrace usage.

shelter for 6 persons

storage sleeping

sleeping

sleeping

kitchen living

living

2 generations living in the shelter and sharing a kitchen, a storage and a common living space.

73


Neighborhood Household yard and clustering Random sized households are situated around a yard with common cooking and sanitary facilities. Depending on required density a second generation of households can be added.





Connectivity and Spatial adjustability Various configurations of household clusters can be achieved by displacement of units around the yard. Clusters can be adjusted to different kinds of physical boundaries.

74


Route patterns Several types of route patterns can be formed by combining clusters in various ways.

Neighbourhood program After a certain amount of clusters a recreational block yard is needed. Larger square is needed after a certain amount of block yards. Hierarchy of the routes follows the scale of the yards and the squares. Program is adjusted to existing routes and physical boundaries.

75


76


7 77


78


PROJECT II : XX SHELTER JANI NIKA

79


Hypothesis Image After a war or an environmental disaster people may lose their homes. Depending on the conditions they need something quick to replace them for a short or longer stay. This project gives a quick and comfortable shelter which can be flexibly adjusted to fulfill different spatial and social requirements.

pakistan earthquake

Image

Tsunami banda aceh Before and after... earthquake in Beichuan region, China

80


Image

Text

Earthquake devastates the Caribbean nation of Haiti

Greensburg Kansas Tornado

Fire Tornado

Tornado in Orchard, Iowa

81


Fabrication Component The prefabricated component is packed and can be opened and closed in a manner to be transported easily from one place to another. It has already attached a fabric for the different shapes that it is able to take.

Image

manufacturing component -The joins

top view

front view

side view

The components can be easily joined together. The joins allow the components to move around each other in order to make different shapes and forms of the unit, in a way to maximize the flexibility of the unit. The component can be covered by the fabric that it already contains, by unrolling it from one side to the other.

82

Fabric


-Flexibility of the joins The connection of the components can be done in two ways, to achieve the maximum angle between them. The angle can be more than 180째, and these give the opportunity to have a very flexible plan of the unit.

-The entrance By using bars that can change their heights can be made an entrance in each room of the cluster.

Variations

-Variations of the fabric included in the component.

83


Unit The project has 3 stages of development

-First phase The first days after the disaster people can make themselves their shelters in a quick and easy way. It will be a triangle form room in different variations of forms. It will have the minimum quality and comfort for 2 or 3 people.

variations of the unit

3 peole room

2 people room

FOXVWHU

-Second phase In the second phase people can increase the quality of the unit by adding new rooms to the sides. The size of each room may differ according to usage. They can adjust the slope of each roof in a way to collect the rain water in the corners for daily use.

Water storage

-Once the house assembly reaches its limit, a cluster is formed and then comes a new population.

84


Variations

first phase

second phase

house with 4 rooms & water storage

house with 6 rooms & water storage

house with 4 rooms & water storage

cluster

Water storage for daily use

85


86


-Third phase As the amount of housing units increases, communal program emerges to meet the local demands. Housing units have different internal organization, resulting in various kinds of courtyards and different numbers of neighbours.

&RPPXQDOVSDFH

)RXUURRPVKRXVLQJXQLW 7KUHHURRPVKRXVLQJXQLW

87


88


89


90

27


PROJECT III : QUAKE - FOLD RODRIGO DIAZ

91


Hypothesis

Earthquake...

(DUW4XDNH ... when not in the sea usually in calid-hot climates

the forces forces when when The earth is shaking, the acting in in decomposed and analyzed are acting more than than one one direction, direction, buildings buildings crashcrashmore ing, infrastructure damaged, roads conexing, ions in heavy conditions. infrastructure damaged, roads connexion in heavy conditions.

Problems... The current situation is very fragile, the families are broken and the state of mental calm is compromised... ...new groups of people are formed, communities ...the repetition of events (little replicas) and the menace of a second disasters disturb the calm

92


Assumptions... In order order to to re-establish re-establishthe the“order” “order”again againaa In strong social and personal calm must be strong social and personal calm must be reached reached ...therefore flexible solutions capable of ...therefore Flexible solutions capables of solving solving more more than than one one problem problem with whitthe the same resources in a versatile way incomcomsame resources in a versatil way in bination bination with whit the the local localinventiveness inventivenessand and resources resources must must be be taken. taken. By using folding methods and techniques By using folding methods and techniques that will allow to shape a surface in a dethat will shape a surface ainstability a sired formallow and to spatial conditions desired form and spatial conditions a stais finally reached. bility is finally reached.

93


Hypothesis

What is fold? What does it represents? What is changing, the space or...? Those are questions that need a strong reply, this is done once the fold is studied. Starting from chaos we drift into some kind of order and rules that can apply on future occasions: For Surfaces.

Image

Chaos in Paper By wrapping a pice of paper we see this...

The folds in surfaces gave strenght, stability, rigidity. The folds in one direction give strenght but on the other hand the flexibility is limited By folding in two directions the surface gain felxibility, becomes compresible to a desired form. Is by those foldings that a surface could resist forces acting in more than one direction.

Image

The Chaos starts to get in to shape

94


Image

In here thereofishow an example of ahow by foldAn example by folding surface it is ing a surface its possible to acquire possible to acquire spatial conditionsspatial that conditions that can be regulated, meascan be regulated, measured and calculated ured, calculated... Planned.

There is no more chaos...

Image

Now a plane surface has 3D qualities that can bear spatial properties. In these case it will have qualities meant for human activities.

Now its possible to achieve a desired form

95


Folding development.... In here there is a selection of folds, research in order to understand the surface behavior and parameters.

96


97


Hypothesis There are 3 main folding techniques that are helpfull at this time...

1. Grid of lines mostly folded in one direction allowing the surface to bend or roll upon itself

By this point we have a modular space that can change, flip, according to the needs.

98


2. Grid of lines made by triangulations the folds are made in 2 directions. The surface superimpose upon itself fold upon fold...

The cells provide interesting opportunities,such as: Modular space in which the conditions and characteristics change according to usage and requirements. The The use useatatdifferent dierentscales: scales: in human shelter or or humanscale scaleasas shelter adaptable toto bebe part of of adaptableininscale scale part membranecomposed composed modules a membrane of of modules

Diagrams of living space inside a folded space-cell.

99


Hypothesis

3. Grid byby triangulations Gridof oflines linesmade made triangulations and the folds areare and arrays, arrays,tessellations, tesellations, the folds made madein in22directions directions By applying in in all all directions applyingforces forces directions the into itself. the surface surfacecollapses collapses into itself The in in opposite directions, The folds foldsare aremade made opposite directions, so the flexibility thesurface surfaceacquires acquires exibility and same time. and rigidity rigidityatatthe the same time. Surfaces in in ways such as: as: Surfacescan canbebeused used ways such membrane, surface, membrane,self-supporting self-supporting surface, shading element space, shadingdevice, device,dividing dividing element space, ceiling,wall, wall,tent. tent. SHELTER... ceiling, SHELTER...

In a hypothetical situation those surfaces can be used not only as a shelter but also as ground reinforcement, covering holes and gaps that preclude the circulations and bring interesting possibilities of playgrounds for childrens.

100


In the handitits alsopossible posibleto touse use On the other other hand is also thosemembranes membranes structural reinforcethese as as structural reinforcement, ment, in aalso specific in which buildand it can cover case gaps and collectthe water. ing is usable it can also cover gaps and colectforwater. Walls water collection, made by those membranes, can be placed on the site for comWalls for water collection, made by those munity. membranes, can be placed on the site for community.

101


Fabrication Component Closing triangle flower...

Single cell 2d top view

Array of component, cells

Creating with thethe described parameters makesmakes possible to achieve strong structural Creatingaasurface surface whit described parameters possible to achieve strong qualities with less material, weight and also to achieve spatial configuration that can change acstructural qualities whit less material, weight and also achieve spatial configuration that cording to theaccording way forcesto arethe applied to the surface... can change way forces are applied to the surface...

102


Compositions of cells

cells from below

cells closed from bellow

Composition of cells

This cellular composition, in a specific array, can take several forces in many directions at the same time adapting itself and the complete shape... reacting That also means that the qualities qualities of af the space, space, as as well well as as the the space, space,can canchange cahngeeasily easily according to external and internal forces; such as people, water, earthquake replicas, accordin to external and internal forces; such as people, water, earthque replicas, comcompression-tension. pression-tension.

103


Unit Shaped surface

Folding development Proces ofofcompresion forces in Process compressionbybyaplying applying forces multiple directions... in multiple directions... react and and it The forces make the surface react changesits itsform formtoadapting. change adapt

Perspective Perspective view view of of aa possible possible arrangement arrangement of of many many cells joined and reacting together. cells join and reacting togueter.

104


Assemble Kit

[ 2m

9.7m Two folded surfaces copressed into triangles

Overlaping component

Water sealed Surface, 2nd

Surface, 1st

Rivet, clinch

Joint detail.

Once unfolded... Join and start building your family shelter, or comunity

8.3m

Water collection. each cell cell can can be be used used to water for for use use in in kitcheach to collect collect water ens, bathrooms and also it can be used for heating kitchens, anddaz it can be used for heatpurposes,bathrooms cooling in the andalso heating during the ing purposes, cooling in the day and heating during night. the night.

105


Unit Ground connection By puttin puttinga apole poletrhough throughthe thealluminium aluminium profile which is connected connected to to the the borders bordersof the surface wewe attach it to the ground. of the surface atach it to the ground. By these meaning meanningthat thatthe thearrangement arrangementof the base to the ground cancan vary duedue to local of the base to the ground vary to conditions of theofground and also local conditions the ground andresponds also to the amount people living insideliving or the responds to theofammount of people use... inside or the use...

106 42


Furniture. The hanging way... In each cell hammock, hammock hammock chairs, chairs, stripes... can be attached in order to cover the spatial needs, modulating the space at user user’state. taste. Hammocks Hammocks besides besides providing providing aa comfortable comfortable solution solution bring bring aa structural structural meaning, meaning, they they help help and and improve improve to to keep structure togueter in the secificshape shapeby by keep thethe structure together in the specific compressing compressing.

Corocel Expanded PVC sheet Glass fiber, double layer Plastic fiber, pvc, poliestiren Finishing layer Local Material(fabric)

Material Basicallz Basically made aa sandwich. In adition additiontotothis thisa athin thinlazer layerofofshaped shapedmemory memoryalloy alloyis isplaced placedononeach eachtriangle edge allowing by that the surface in areact simple triangle edge allowing by that thereact surface in away. simple way. By makes it easier toto build between By using using this this kind kind of of material material we we save save aa considerable considerable amount amount of of weight, weight, that which makes it easier build less people. It has more structural properties that anythen material at this thickness. among less people. It has more structural properties any material at this thickness.

107


Unit Shelter

Now its time for present the diferent shelDifferent shelter possibilities according to: the numbers ofaccording people living ter posibilities to; in it, spatial desired, theconditions numbers of peopleamount living inofit,water spaneeded for collection, social groupings, tial conditions dessired, amount of water other uses from living..... needed fordifferent collection, social groupings, other uses diferent from living.....

Top view

Plan view

108


Transversal section

Longitudinal section

109


Unit

Top view

110


Transversal section

Longitudinal section

Back view

Inclined section

111


Unit

Top view

112


Right view

Transversal section

Front view

Inclined section

113


Unit

Top view

Connection and ground improving

114


Back view

Right view

Longitudinal section

Front view

Transversal section

Inclined section

115


Unit

Top view

116


Right view

Longitudinal section

Transversal section

2nd variation

117


Unit 2x... By joining 2 surfaces, models, sheets,modit is Now this time by joning 2 surfaces, possible to its make largerto models a different els, sheets, possible make in larger scale. models in a diferent scale it can work for many people or for the comunity needed services

Top view

118


Right view

Transversal section

Front view

Longitudinal section

119


Unit 2X Modules The arrangement for more than one families. By this tipe of arrangement more than one They have more collecting familyes can livepossibility toguether,ofhave more water. When used as living space it used can be possiblity of collectin water, when as divided in 2 levels; the upper one provides living space it can be divided in 2 levels, the space the for sleeping, the oneprivate level beeing upper oneand providing ground floor for circulation and use for the the space and needs for sleeping leaving rest of the activities. the ground floor as circulation adn use for the ret of the activityes.

Modules Modulesattached attachedtogether togueter...

Configuration for social development and community services

120


Top view

121


Neighborhood Shower - Community center Shower-Comunity center

Perspective view

Joining 4 modules This time by joining 4 modules a shower and bathroom center is inserted in to the comuA shower center is inserted intocenter, the community, it can also be used nity, it canand alsobathroom be used as hospital, comunity meeting center... as hospital, community center, meeting center...

122


123


Neighborhood Shower-Comunity center Shower - Community center

Top view

124


Front view

Right view

125


126 1 12 26


127 1 12 27


128 1 12 28


129 1 12 29


130 13 1 30 30


131 13 1 31 31


132 1 13 32


133 13 133


134


PROJECT IV : HONEY SHELTER EFILENA BASETA

135


Hypothesis

The war nowadays is a crucial problem of the society. Many people die, some other lose their relatives and other become homeless. The aim of the Honey Shelter to provide the homeless people during the war with at least a roof to sleep underneath.

This shelter has been constructed in order to be carried on people’s back, so the owners can move from one place to another and settle down for a short or a long period, as the shelter can be transformed from a temporary to a permanent, using local materials for the walls. It is light-weight, waterproof, cheap and it can be packaged in a backpack. These characteristics make this shelter suitable for use during war that the people have to move constantly for unknown period of time. It can be quickly and easily erected by one or two persons without special tools. All the necessary things for the construction are included in one plastic dispenser that afterwords is used for storing water. 136

The dispenser includes: 1 hexagonal elastic fabric 7 metallic poles

12 plastic sticks

30 m of rope

1 string

1 hand saw

1 scissor

1 hammer

1 waterproof tape


2m

The tankage of the plastic dispenser with the tap is about 10 liters

dimensions of folded fabric (0.5mx0.67m)

Storage water process:

carry the dispenser

fill it with water from a local resource

hang it on the wall

The advantage that this shelter has, comparing with the normal tents, is that the hexagonal component can be attached with its identical components and create clusters. Each person caries one component so every family can create its own roof.

137


Fabrication Component

P

WDSH

ropes

female buttons

male buttons

IDEULF

connection of 2 components

PDOHEXWWRQ

PHWDOOLFGHWDLO

SROH

IHPDOHEXWWRQ IDEULF

WDSH

The component is a hexagonal (side=2m) piece of elastic and waterproof fabric. In every corner as well as in its center are metallic details, where the poles are adjusted. In addition, on every 1 m along the perimeter of the hexagon there is one detail, where the ropes are adjusted. Along all sides there are metallic buttons, male and female, so every hexagon can be connected to the other. Above the connection should be attached a waterproof tape, in order to protect the shelter from the rain. The poles are telescopic metallic cylinders (d=4cm and 5cm) which allow to obtain different heights.

138


1 component 2 components 3 components 4 components 5 components

6 components

All possible configurations of the components 1 pole 2 poles 3 poles 4 poles 5 poles 6 poles 7 poles

all possible positions for the poles

INSTRUCTIONS (how to erect the shelter)

single temporary shelter

single permanent shelter

139


Unit

1 pole

2 poles

3 poles

4 poles

5 poles

plan

facade

3d

The final shape of every unit depends on the number of the poles and the ropes adjusted to the component. Another possibility is to attach some corners of the component directly to the ground. The picture above shows the differences of five temporary structures that change the number of the poles. 140


wc

church

medical center

pub

school

Besides the house-units, in the permanent structure, the village needs some public space-units like wc, church, medical center, pud, school. The matrix above describes how these units grow up comparably to the number of the inhabitants of the village.

141


Neighborhood days

1 day

persons

7 days

15 days

30 days

1

2

3

4

5

6

Suggested structures -from the temporary units to the permanent units-

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Suggested public spaces for the village

142

wc

church

sports field

pub

school

medical center


The unit of the village is the house. The shape of the house depends on the number of the members of the family (left matrix). The village is created from erecting one house next to the other, so that every house has a common wall with its next house. That way are created less and more private spaces for every house. The position of the public spaces in the village depends on the population. The aim is to create a functional configuration for the inhabitants. The suggested configuration is one central square with the church. Every neighborhood consists of about 80 persons and has a pub in the center, where the people can meet. The toilets are around the houses in order to be easily accessible, but not among the housingspace. The school, the medical center and the sports field are always outside the village.

neighborhood

80 persons

160 persons

320 persons

private space

toillete school yard school

church pub

big square

143


144


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145


146


SHUPDQHQWYLOODJH

147


148


PROJECT V : SHELL-TER DAMIEN BECHON

149


Hypothesis

WHAT? Most of the conflicts in the world are located in Africa, and the number of refugees in this continent is growing up every day. Moreover the lack of water, food, and health in this part of the world can not be forgotten. Conflicts and lack of drinking water are located more or less in the same areas. PROJECT ROOTS. The architectural answer needs to be a multiple response to different needs. Therefore, the shelter is designed to provide answers to different needs such as the lack of privacy, the need of water, and the community life in the refugee camps. The Shelter recreates in a small scale the traditional African village organization. This refuge has to be considerate as a village part in the refugee camps, a private part. African families are organized by clan, a family consists of many people and several generation that are set in several houses surrounded by a wall. The shape of this shelter has been thought as this village, which can provide a central part where the utilities are, a living space cut from out-side by a translucent skin.

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Furthermore, the shelter contains a water tank to collect, store and treat the rainwater to prevent the lack of water. Each Shelter has his own water tank.

150


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PREFABRICATED SYSTEM SETUP & DISTRIBUTION FLOW. To allow a rapid answer to the need of shelter during a conflict, the refuge has to be design with standard manufactured components, stock in some strategical points as military airports, important sea ports. This organisation can improve the time between the beginning of conflicts and the refugees movement. JUST A SHELTER? This shelter can be considerate as a temporary and transitory refuge, because it cannot be easily carry and erected like a light tent. But the refugees are staying for several months / years during the conflicts in the camps. Therefore, this shelter has some evolutive components and it can be transformed and upgraded by local materials. The people can carry some crossbeam and rebuild their house / village by using the basic framework.

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SUSTAINABLE SHELTER. The shelter is supplied by a rainwater that is treated through a filter inside the water tank. This water can be used to cook, but also to regulate the temperature inside the shelter. During the day the water absorbs the heat, and refreshes the space, conversely, during the night the water releases the heat to warm the shelter.

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151


Fabrication Component The cross-beam

deployement of the structure

assembly step

The shelter structure is folded to save space during the transport. When the shelter has to be build, the first step is to deploy the first two beams, then just add two more components. The connections are made by metal clips. All the components of one cross-beam have the same length. L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 One people is needed for each cross-beam.

152


The shelter

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Exploded axonometry

First the water tank is established and surrounded by the folded structure. Then people unfold and add the components, after that the bracing has to be fix. Next the extern PVC layer is attached to the structure, and finally the intern textile layer is clipped to provide the partition of the shelter.

153


Unit

SOCIAL ORGANISATION. The different types of shelter allow different types of social organisation. In the circular one all the private life is organised around the water tank whereas in the “shell” shelter, the privacy is more respected. The social organisation follow the reduction of the space to be more and more private. TYPES OF SHELTERS. The circular shelter is more suitable to provide some common place like a clinic, a school, a warehouse, a meeting place... Whereas the “shell” shelter is more appropriate to procure more privacy for the families.

GRADATION OF THE PRIVATE SPACE

5

1

2

3 4

154

Clinic.

School.

1_Bedroom women / men 2_Consultation women & children/men 3_Education women / men 4_Pharmacy / Local contact 5_Surgery

Class-rooms can be modified following the needs.


4 Cross - beams

6 Cross - beams

9 Cross - beams

Element Length 1,21m High 1,45m Section 0,08m Span 2,98m

Element length 1,82m High 2,18m Section 0,12m Span 4,47m

Element length 2,42m High 2,90m Section 0,16m Span 5,96m

5

32

Elements length 3,03m High 3,63m Section 0,20m Span 7,45m

40

6 Cross - beams

9 Cross - beams

12 Cross - beams

Element length 1,82 to 0,81m High 2,18 to 0,97m Section 0,12 to 0,05m Span 4,47 to 1,99m

Element length 2,42 to 1,35m High 2,90 to 1,61m Section 0,16 to 0,09m Span 5,96 to 3,31m

Element length 3,03 to 1,92m High 3,63 to 2,30m Section 0,20 to 0,13m Span 7,45 to 4,72m

2 3

1

24

12 Cross - beams

5

6

9 Cross - beams

12 Cross - beams

Element length 2,42 to 1,36m High 2,90 to 0,81m Section 0,16 to 0,05m Span 5,96 to 1,99m

Element length 3,03 to 1,36m High 3,63 to 1,63m Section 0,20 to 0,09m Span 7,45 to 3,35m

4

13

10

4

Shelter. 1_Bedroom 2_Bathroom 3_Cooking place 4_Living place

12 Cross - beams Element length 3,03 to 0,81m High 3,63 to 0,97m Section 0,20 to 0,05m Span 7,45 to 1,99m

8

155


Neighborhood

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STAGE 1 : INFRASTRUCTURE INSTALLATION. First the camp needs some health infrastructure, water and food. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why the first shelters to be built are the biggest to allow the storage, the health care, â&#x20AC;Ś In the same time other shelters can be build by the refugees. The people are living next to the goods storage and start to reform some communities.

156


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STAGE 2 : COMMUNITIES. As the number of people who joined the camp grows, the little shelters are replaced by bigger one. The people are forming the old communities like before in their villages. In the same time schools and meeting places are organized around the clinics already built. The old shelter can be moved to another place and can be reused.

157


158


159


160


161


Image

162


PROJECT VI : RELIEF SHELTER AFTER EARTHQUAKE DISASTER GEORGE GEORGOPOULOS GEORGE SAMARGOPOULOS

163


The construction is designed to be used as a relief shelter after earthquake disasters, specially in Mediterranean climates. It can also be used in cooler climates with the addition of extra thermal insulation parts. The event of an earthquake disaster has an immediate effect on the physical and social life of the society. The main problems that occurs is the destruction of power and transportation networks in the built environment. The construction solution offers a very quick way of setting up the unit in a few minutes by two people, only by opening the packet. No special tools are required. The equipment for colder climates and longer lifespan of the unit consists of plywood walls enriched with cellated paper in between. The weight of the construction is approximately 85 kg and 175 kg with the extra insulating equipment. It can be transferred inside containers with airplanes and ships, or with trucks. It can also be lifted from some animal, such as camels.

164

Image

transformation

No tools


different climates

The specific shelter is a self energyefficient unit according to the sealant overlay cloth of the roof which is enriched with quartz sand in order to collect solar energy and convert it to electric power for the needs of the house. The unit is also designed for an adequate recycling of the air inside it, especially important in hot weather conditions. Furthermore, the quality of space produced is adequate for developing social interaction, when many units are combined together in an local settlement. The units provide a variety of spaces, from the private to the mainly public space. How the shelter is constructed reminds a folded book which creates a 3 dimensional space when you open it.

idea

165


Fabrication Component Text

Image

Baseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s detail in solution with fabric. The component is placed in wooden pallets to avoid flooding

Baseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s detail in solution with plywood

166


Image Plywood walls enriched with cellated paper in between

Section of the paket

The connection detail between the metal frame and the plywoods

The snap fit connection in the side plywood

Folded plywoods and metal frames



4. 8.

 



 





 

 







3.





 

 







9.







7.





5.





1.





6.

Preabricated parts of the unit.

The parts from 1 to 6 are prefabrications connected with conjunctions as the one on the picture. The parts 7, 8 and 9 consist separate parts of the paket which fit vertically on the sides of the component.

167


Unit

The unit can be used for the accommodation either of two or three persons. Also more units can be connected to create shelters for more users and other uses. The unites can be connected with different combinations. The unitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roof has a slope of 10% in order to remove the rain water. This can be achieved with the difference between the dimensions of the triangles which are created of the metal frames and the plywood pallets. The entrance to the shelter is in the vertical side of the bigger removing triangle. A outside water tank collects rain water for basic needs of the unit and the neighborhood.

Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Unit Text for two persons Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text

Unit for three persons

Section of the unit with outside water system that collects rain water. The roof has slope 10 % to remove the rain water.

168


Combination of two units for three people with living room

Combination of three units for five people with living room

Combination of three units for four people with living room

Combination of three unites for five people with living room

169


Neighborhood 



In order to ensure the main characteristics of a neighborhood we define a free space with minimum limits of dimensions 4,6 m x 6 m in Neighborhoodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s free which it is not allowed to be scace placed any unit. The units can surround this free place to create a neighborhood. That space is a semi-public space which can be used by the users for their daily outdoor needs. In order to keep the main urban characteristics we define some traffic spaces and also squares to encourage the social activities.

Residential complex

170

Neighborhood


Residential complex in which is depicted the drainage and water system

Residential complex in which are depicted squares, neighborhoods and traffic

171


172


173


174


PROJECT VII : BAMBOO SHELTERS MIKAEL SAURÉN

175


Background The problem of the current situation After a disaster occurs help is needed immediately and many communities cannot afford building temporary shelters - let alone rebuilding their previous homes. In addition, the funds for disaster relief are extremely limited. When the help is provided, it should be directed straight to the people in need. Also, the intervention should be as small as possible in order to save funds, respond quickly and make sure that the communities are being helped sustainably according to their specific needs while respecting their culture.

bamboo

Distribution of all bamboos worldwide

Moreover, the community should not be left in a state of aid dependency meaning the locals should understand the structure of the shelters, so that they can renovate, extend, maintain or modify in the future. They should also be culturally accepted. Favourably, the temporary shelters are built locally using locally available material - below the extent that the natural resource base suffers from it. All of this goals benefit from minimizing the amount of transported material and using local resources and labour.

Solution The solution is to present a range of examples of temporary shelters that can be built quickly and locally,

176

earthquakes

hurricanes

tornados

landslides

A selection of disasters worldwide


minimizing the use of material. Locally available material (esp. bamboo) is used in addition to water-proof fabric and rope transported by disaster relief foundations (eg. tarps by IBAS). The shelters reflect different structural ideas and vary in their use of material, tools and construction skills.

Concept 0-20 % / no data

20-30 % 30-40 % 40-50 % 50-60 %

Countries in the world by percentage of population living in poverty

> 60 %

The concept is to provide simple guides for building each shelters with basic information and illustrations of possible transformations.

Area of applicability The area of applicability is highlighted in the overlapping parts of the maps. It consists mainly of tropics and subtropics ranging from north of Australia, South East and Southern Asia, Tropical Africa to Southern and Central America. Because of the latitude of these regions, the basic needs for help after a disaster includes shelter from sun and rain - in the mountains also from cold.

All maps together

The applicable regions have bamboo as a natural resource, they suffer from natural disasters and there are people living in poverty.

177


Building tips Using bamboos of different thicknesses

Thicker bamboo canes are used used for heavier structures.

Larger bamboo canes can be split and used in light-weight bending structures.

In extremely light-weight bending structures and as secondary a structure, thinner bamboo canes can be attached together to form longer arch. Attaching can be done eg. with a string, zip ties or tape.

178


Attaching a fabric to a rope with a stone

Place a stone under the fabric and wrap it inside.

Put a rope around the wrapped stone so that the stone cannot fall - and tie.

Tighten the rope.

179


bend-a-bamboo

Extremely economical shelter from rain and sun needing only a living bamboo, fabric and a few meters of rope at minimum.

max. number of users 8 - 10 users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 1 - 2 hours by 2 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection against rain and sun rain

sun wind cold

eq

usage as a market or a communal place

180

sleeping communal market place field hospital


height

Dimensions

length

height min example max

2,5 m 3,5 m 4,5 m

width

width x length min example max

3,5 m x 5,0 m 6,5 m x 8,5 m 8,0 m x 11,0 m

Material requirements

rope fabric 6,0 m (7/10 length) 6,0 m (7/10 length)

th

ng le

6,0 m (7/10 length)

6,0 m (7/10 length)

5 - 15 m

additional structure bamboo 3,5

m

x2 80 - 100 mm

181


leaf cover

A shelter from rain and sun taking use of the flexibility of bamboo. Rain water is collected into a barrel. The shelter can be lifted and carried to a new location.

max. number of users 4 - 6 users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 4 - 6 hours by 2 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection against rain and sun rain

sun wind cold

eq

usage as a market or a communal place

182

sleeping communal market place field hospital


Dimensions

height height

min example max

2,0 m 2,5 m 3,0 m

radius min example max

radi d us

rotation angle min example max

rotation

2,5 m 3,5 m 4,0 m

60 o 120 o 360 o

Material requirements

m

x6 40 - 50 mm

secondary tructure bamboo 9,0

m

5,5 m

5,5

9,0 m

fabric

3,0

m

30 - 40 mm

ch) p ar (to

primary structure bamboo

5,5 m (width) 90 0 (3/4 rotation angle)

rope

barrel

30 - 40 m

183


Manual

Attach the ends of the primary bamboos equally to the longer secondary bamboo.

Attach ropes of at least 3,0 meters to the junctions of the primary and secondary bamboos.

Attach the fabric from its longest edge to the junctions.

0,5 m

Sink the water collecting barrel into the ground.

ra di us

rota ti

on

height

Attach the structure to the barrel with rope. Bamboos can also be sunk into the ground with the barrel. a le ng

184

radius


Bend the structure by dragging the ropes. Attach the ropes to the ground.

Attach the last supporting bamboo through the center points of the archs.

185


communal arcs

An earthquake resistant shelter for communal uses taking use of the flexibility of bamboo. The structure can take various forms, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s extendable, and it can join to other units.

max. number of users 10 or more users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 1,5 day by 4 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection against rain and sun rain

sun wind cold

eq

usage as a market or a communal place

186

sleeping communal market place field hospital


height

Dimensions

length

height min example max

2,5 m 3,2 m 4,0 m

width

width x length min example max

4,0 m x 4,0 m 6,0 m x 9,0 m 8,0 m x 15,0 m

Material requirements

primary structure bamboo 12

m

x7

8m

8,0 m (2nd curve)

secondary structure bamboo

10,0 m (1st arch - 2,0 m)

8,0 m (1st curve)

50 - 60 mm

fabric

10,0 m (last arch - 2,0 m) x7 30 - 40 mm

187


Manual

length

Draw two curves on the ground.

wid

th

1,5 m -

Divide the curves into equal segments of 1,5 m - 2,0 m.

Sink a bamboo into the ground through the marked spot at the start of first curve. 1,0 m

Bend the bamboo and sink it to the ground through a marked spot on the same end of the second curve.

188

2,0 m


secondary structure

1,5 - 2

,0 m

Form the rest of the primary structure by doing the same for all the marked spots respectively.

Add secondary structure under the primary archs with 1,5 - 2,0 m spacing.

primary structure

height

Cover the framework with a fabric and attach it to the structure.

wid

th

length

189


Transforming shape

Joining units

Joinable pair of units

Joined units

A chain of joined units

190


Clustering Joining of three units (Y - joint)

120 120 120

Notes

191


x-bamboo

Very light-weight and economical shelter using only split or thin canes of bamboo and fabric. ric. The structure is extendable along itss length.

max. number of users 4 - 6 users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 4 - 6 hours by 2 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection from rain, sun, wind, and cold with extra insulation

rain

sun wind cold

eq

usage for sleeping, as a market and a communal place, as a field hospital

192

sleeping communal market place field hospital


height

Dimensions

length

height min example max

2,0 m 2,3 m 3,0 m

width

width x length min example max

3,0 m x 4,0 m x 5,0 m

5,0 m 9,0 m

Material requirements

1,5 m (3/8 width)

m

x8 25 -30 mm

3,2 m (4/5 width)

8,5

fabric 7,2 m (8/5 width)

framework bamboo

x2

4,0 m (width)

8,0 m (length)

193


Manual

gth

len

wid

th

Divide the curves into equal segments of 1,0 m - 1,5 m.

Bend the bamboo and sink the free end through the third spot of the second curve.

194

0,2 m

Sink the bamboo into the ground through the marked spot at the start of the first curve.


Sink the next bamboo through the second spot, bend it and sink it through the fourth spot of the other curve.

height

Do this for the whole structure and attach the bamboos together with rope at their crossings.

wid

th

gth

len

Cover the framework with a fabric and attach it to the structure.

195


Transforming shape The width and height of the shelter can vary along a curvy line.

Joining units The structure can be extended as long as desired.

Clustering Joining to other units is easily possible in L, T and X -shapes. Longer archs are marked with red. width one segment

196


Clustering Y -shaped joint is possible following the diagram below. New symmetrical connections are marked with yellow and red.

120 120 1 120

Notes Clustering is most easily achieved with T, L and X -shaped joints. The width of one unit should be equal to the length of two segments along the curve of the other unit to be joined (see clustering diagrams).

197


tensegrity tepee

A teepee like shelter using based on tensegrity. Tensegrity structures are very economical in use of material and delivering forces along thee structural members. The shelter is foldable able and portable by two persons.

max. number of users 3 - 5 users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 8 - 12 hours by 2 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection from rain, sun, wind, earthquakes, and cold with extra insulation

rain

sun wind cold

eq

usage for sleeping sleeping communal market place field hospital

198


Dimensions

height height

min example max

3,0 m 3,3 m 5,0 m

diameter

diameter

min example max

3,5 m 4,0 m 6,0 m

Material requirements

poles bamboo

fabric 4,0

2,0 m (neck)

m

2,5 m (3/4 radius)

x2 80 - 100 mm

rope & metal plate

60 - 70 m

1,0 m (1/4 x diameter)

120 o

12,5 m (bottom circumference)

199


Manual 0,4 m

b

Tie the ends of the poles together to form two circular shapes. Leave 1,7 meters of rope between the poles at the bottom (a) and 0,4 meters at the top (b).

a

c

1,7 m

Do this for all the poles to complete the structure.

Attach the raincover.

Sew or attach with rope the upper half of the fabric. Leave the lower half unattached to make an entrance opening.

200

8m ,8 3,8 3

Tie together the end of one pole and the end of the next pole - leaving 3,8 meters of rope between the ends (c).


Scaling the structure Simplified relations of the geometry for scaling the structure. top circumference = 1/4 x bottom circumference or 3/4 diameter bottom circumference = 3 x diameter

c top

interior height

c pol e

a = bottom circumference / number of poles b = top circumference / number of poles

diam

c = length of pole - 20 cm diameter = length of pole 7,0 cm < diameter of pole < 13,0 cm

eter a

b

ot tom c

leng

th of

height of the shelter

neck = 1/6 bottom circumference

ircumferenc e

ircum ference

pole

7 â&#x2030;¤ number of poles â&#x2030;¤ 10 interior height = 3/4 height of shelter

201


twining yurt

An earthquake resistant shelter taking use of the strength of twined structure and round shape. The shelter can be lifted and carried by four persons.

max. number of users 5 - 8 users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 2 days by 3 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection from rain, sun, wind, earthquakes, and cold with extra insulation

rain

sun wind cold

eq

usage for sleeping, as a communal place and field hospital

202

sleeping communal market place field hospital


height

Dimensions

height

diameter

min example max

2,0 m 2,3 m 3,0 m

diameter min example max

3,5 m 5,0 m 7,0 m

Material requirements

structural elements bamboo 2,3

2,2

0,7

m

m

x 42 25 - 35 mm

x8 25 - 35 mm

m

fabric 2,2 m (roof beam) 1,0

m

x2 15 - 20 mm

,0 m

12

1,5

x1 20 - 30 mm

m

105 o 15,5 m (circumference / 2)

x2

14,5 m (interior diameter)

1,5 m (twining height)

rope x2 10 mm x 5 mm

x2 10 mm x 5 mm

22 m

203


Manual

m )

twining direction

le n

gt

h

of

st ick (

2,

3

base height (1,5 m)

Twine the sticks perpendicularly to each other in 45 o to the twining direction. Twine them so that one stick crosses five other sticks (one 5,0 cm away from each end).

45 o 2/3 length of stick

Build the roof supporting structure. (2,2 m x 25 - 35 mm) x 8 (12,0 m x 25 - 35 mm) x 1 15 - 25 mm) x 2 (2,2 m x (3,0 m x 15 - 25 mm) x 1

m) 0,7 ce ( ran t n fe th o wid

base height

Attach the twined structure to the door from both ends. Tighten the structure with a rope (22 m).

base height (1,5 m)

Build the entrance frame. (70 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm) x 2 (150 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm) x 2

ius rad

leng th of twining

204


Attach the roof supporting structure.

Attach the fabrics.

205


simple frame house

A simple earth-quake resistant house which provides sleeping platform on the second â&#x20AC;&#x2122;floorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The first floor can be used as a market place, for house animals, cooking etc. Walls can be filled illed with locally available material

max. number of users 8 - 10 users users

0

2

4

6

8

10

time of construction 3 days by 4 persons days

0

1

2

3

protection from rain, sun, wind, earthquakes, and cold with extra insulation

rain

uv wind cold

eq

usage for sleeping, as a market and a communal place, as a field hospital

206

sleeping communal market place field hospital


height

height

Dimensions

width length

dimensions height (front) height (back) width length

4,4 m 3,0 m 5,6 m 8,0 m

Material requirements

timber or bamboo

coverings frames

beams 2,9 m x 5 8,0 m x 7 150 mm x 50 mm 50 - 70 mm

bracings 3,0 m x 8 4,5 m x 8

7 m2 75

8, 7

5 5 10 5

m

8,5 m x x x x

roof - eg. metal plate 8,0 m 18 8 m2

m

4,0 m 4,4 m 6,4 m 8,2 m

3

200 mm x 75 mm 80 - 100 mm

2,

structural elements

floor - eg. bamboo

207


Manual

4,1 m 8,2 m 4,1 m

4,4

2,3 m

4,0 m

2,0

Build the back wall structure and infill it with adobe blocks, masonry etc. Pillars (2,9 m) x 5 Beams (8,0m) x 2

Attach the five frames to the load bearing wall.

m

8,0 h(

m)

t

wid

widt

h (5,2

Attach the five beams. Beams connecting frames (8,0 m) x 5

208

4,1 m

m

Build the five frames.

m)

6,4 m x 2

x5


Attach cross-bracings for the front frame and roof. Roof bracings (4,5 m) x 8 Wall bracings (3,0 m) x 8

Build the floor for the sleeping zone and attach the roof. Build framework for wall elements ant attach them. Roof size : 75 m2 (8,5 m x 8,7 m) Floor size : 18 m2 (2,3 m x 8,0 m)

209


210


APPENDIX

211


The projects revealed the potential of parametric design techniques for â&#x20AC;&#x153;low budgetâ&#x20AC;? architecture. It has become very clear that basic human needs differ not only with the climatic condition, site accessibility, character of the disaster and the size of the community but also with individual preferences. Human needs even in such terrible circumstances are not constant. They evolve in time and proportionally react to the surrounding conditions.

212


This is when parametric design and rapid fabrication tools play promising role in achieving highest possible standard. As soon as all the factors mentioned above are considered, design decision process becomes very complex. Answer to this issue is a set of very precise and specific rules and constraints. These rules and constraints are than incorporated into parametric models whose parameters can be easily modified. Such models than allow for infinitive number of variations where each variation is suitable for specific scenario.

213


Bibliography [1] Eda Schaur, Frei Otto. IL 39Ungeplante Siedlungen/Non-Planned settlements. Kramer. 1991. 303. ISBN 978-3-7828-2039-4. [2] Branko Kolarevic: Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture. Routledge. 2008. ISBN 978-0415775755. [3] Robert Kronenburg: Flexible: Architecture that Responds to Change. Laurence King Publishing Ltd. 2007. ISBN 978-1-85669-461-2. [4] Jennifer Siegal: Mobile: The Art of Portable Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press. 2002. ISBN 978-1568983349.

Existing examples: [1] Cameron Sinclair, Kate Stohr, Architecture for Humanity. Design Like You Give a Damn. Metropolis Books, U.S. 2006. ISBN 1-933045-25-6 [2] Global Village Shelter: http://www.gvshelters.com/ [11.6.2010] [3] ReCover Disaster Shelter: http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/09/03/matthew-malone-recovery-shelter/ [11.6.2010] http://greenupgrader.com/3434/recover- disaster-shelter-by-mathew-malone/ [11.6.2010] [4] InterShelter: http://www.intershelter.com/ [11.62010] [5] Concrete Canvas: http://www.concretecanvas.co.uk/ [11.6.2010] [6] Portable Pneumatic Shelter System: http://www.fsinorth.com/ [11.6.2010] [7] ShelterBox: http://www.shelterbox.org/ [11.6.2010] [8] Snail Shell System: http://www.n55.dk/manuals/snail_shell_system/sss.html [11.6.2010] [9] Micro Dwellings: http://www.n55.dk/manuals/micro_dwellings/micro_dwellings.html [11.6.2010] [10] Walking House: http://www.n55.dk/MANUALS/WALKINGHOUSE/walkinghouse.html [11.6.2010] [11] Q - Shelter: http://worldshelters.org/shelters/q-shelter [11.6.2010] [12] Paper Log House: http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/SBA_WORKS/SBA_PAPER/SBA_PAPER_6/SBA_ paper_6.html [11.6.2010]

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Catastrophic events: [1] Catasthropical events text: http://www.fema.gov/ [2] Earthquake image: http://heatherfaulkner.net/wp-content/uploads/portfolio/ big.jpg [3] Volcano image: http://cache.boston.com/universal/site_graphics/blogs/bigpicture/chaiten_06_04/chaiten10.jpg [4] Landslide image: http://www.google.fi/imgres?imgurl=http://listverse.files. wordpress.com/2007/10/image-15.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.naturaldisasters.ewebsite.com/&usg=__IPvmccfwtlTDYkMN4jGysZT5GyM=&h=379&w=550&sz=67&hl=fi&start =3&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=lQaLrBarVXpceM:&tbnh=92&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq% 3Dlandslide%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dfi%26sa%3DG%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1,isz :m [5] Tsunami image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aegweb.org/ images/Geologic%2520Hazards/tsunami%282%29.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.aegweb. org/i4a/pages/index.cfm%3Fpageid%3D4038&usg=__OJbal_HsV8fVIjUaKn3nbR3jevU= &h=357&w=500&sz=72&hl=cs&start=8&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=I0lsftuR6JZ9MM:&tbnh=9 3&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtsunamis%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26sa%3DG %26tbs%3Disch:1 [6] Flood image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://www.realestatesizzle. com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/bayshore_flood_small.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. realestatesizzle.com/category/insurance/&usg=__uEIqxfI0mHggBwsQiTgMlz_1LO4=&h= 470&w=345&sz=65&hl=cs&start=13&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=oEc7gPzdTzMpKM:&tbnh=12 9&tbnw=95&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dflood%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26sa%3DG%26tb s%3Disch:1 [7] Wildfire image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://assets.nydailynews.com/img/2008/11/16/alg_wildfire.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nydailynews.com/ news/national/2008/11/15/2008-11-15_thousands_flee_as_wildfires_blaze_across. html&usg=__HaIQVjP9iFZVmh03PtR-VVi7MDo=&h=274&w=450&sz=58&hl=cs&start=85 &um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=RkoHCz2ATcMwAM:&tbnh=77&tbnw=127&prev=/images%3Fq% 3Dwildfire%26start%3D72%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D18%26tb s%3Disch:1 [8] Hurricane image: http://www.google.fi/imgres?imgurl=http://www.strangedangers.com/images/content/143877.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.strangedangers.com/content/item/143877.html&usg=__T1CaE8N8ezmTFVvvg63zky9lDQM=&h=787&w=750&sz =196&hl=fi&start=5&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=TrOjRjcoeDej6M:&tbnh=143&tbnw=136&pr ev=/images%3Fq%3Dafter%2Bhurricane%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dfi%26tbs%3Disch:1,isz :m

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[9] Tornado image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://blogs.pioneerlocal.com/entertainment/greensburg.jpg&imgrefurl=http://blogs.pioneerlocal.com/entertainment/2008/06/greensburg_rebuilds_green.html&usg=__Q-Z_ DiKsfKP3nTxPmNCNAFt6Rwo=&h=300&w=416&sz=43&hl=cs&start=3&um=1&itbs=1&tb nid=jx-VWsvmNSflhM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dafter%2Btornado %26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26tbs%3Disch:1 [10] Extreme coldness: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://www.csc.cs.colorado. edu/~matthew/content/2001-12-blizzard/blizzard-02-l.jpg&imgrefurl=http://chicagoweekendfun.com/2007/11/05/how-to-dress-to-survive-a-freezing-ice-cold-snowy-chicago-winteror-blizzard/&usg=__8eQGlju7fK1F2NVh53885HOr6kQ=&h=768&w=1152&sz=86&hl=cs&sta rt=8&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=8DYHT5Yzmbb5_M:&tbnh=100&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq% 3Dextreme%2Bcold%2Bcar%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26sa%3DG%26tbs%3Disch:1 [11] Extreme heatness image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://photography24seven.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/extreme_heat.jpg&imgrefurl=http://photography24seven.com/17-tips-for-photographing-in-extreme-weather-conditions/&usg=__X-fM 5Ww4MEYjdNHeHWbX4mC0bdI=&h=350&w=525&sz=34&hl=cs&start=57&um=1&itbs=1&tb nid=5gIU_MHJ48_R-M:&tbnh=88&tbnw=132&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dextreme%2Bheat%26s tart%3D54%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1 [12] Lack of water image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://blog.lib.umn.edu/ parkx632/architecture/GatheringWater.jpg&imgrefurl=http://blog.lib.umn.edu/parkx632/ architecture/&usg=__QyXqhkAfe3dmK_DduIZ8TQz-7lA=&h=240&w=320&sz=9&hl=cs&start= 16&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=fD6UXUGatf8dBM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dg athering%2Bwater%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dcs%26sa%3DX%26tbs%3Disch:1 [13] Extreme poverty image: http://www.google.cz/imgres?imgurl=http://www.electricscotland.com/thomson/images/11.3%2520Manila_slums.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. electricscotland.com/thomson/reflections11.htm&usg=__t46TZFVCRmRDSZ0hOsQy0s K4ltQ=&h=768&w=1024&sz=985&hl=cs&start=2&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=xbLqJHY3J9x_ fM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dslums%2Bmanila%26um%3D1%26hl%3D cs%26tbs%3Disch:1

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Contributors Tutor

Tutor

Martin Kaftan is an architect, programmer and visual artist. He lived and studied architecture in United States between 1998 and 2006. Later, he moved to London where he got his master’s degree in science in Adaptive Architecture and Computation at the Bartlett School of Architecture. Martin’s experience ranges from interior design and retail spaces, at company A-Squared Architects in New York (US) or at Lea Katz Architecture in London (UK), to challenging sculptures with Anthony Gormley and cutting-edge structures of residential villas, museums or skyscrapers at design company Foster + Partners in London (UK) where he worked as a computational designer in Specialist Modelling Group. He was also previously educated in electromechanics(CZ). Martin’s passion lies in between architecture, art and computation. He is interested in smart technologies. Martin is founding member of Echorost.

Jiří Pavlíček is an architect with a strong focus on sustainable building through associative and simulation computational techniques. He studied in Prague (CZ), Delft (NL) and at Berlage Institute in Rotterdam (NL). He worked as a researcher with design office MVRDV and with UN Studio, both based in Rotterdam (NL). Jirí learnt his practical experience at design companies Foster + Partners and Youmeheshe in London (UK). Amongst projects he worked on are a spa complex in France, a light rail station in London or a private house in Czech Republic. Jirí’s work is influenced by an intense ecological awareness. In his projects, Jirí combines technology and intelligent, associative or parametric design models to always achieve an optimal, streamlined solution. Jiri is founding member of Echorost.

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Participants ( Greece ) Damien Bechon ( France ) Rodrigo Diaz ( Mexico ) George Georgopoulos ( Greece ) Tomi Laine ( Finland) Jani Nika ( Greece ) Alyssa Parsons ( USA ) George Samargopoulos ( Greece ) Matias Saresvuo ( Finland ) Mikael SaurĂŠn

( Finland )

Samantha Smith ( USA )

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Jury

Jury

Miloš Kopřiva is an architect with expertise on sport buildings. He is an authorised architect in Czech Republic. During his 35 years of practice he worked in project teams of Sportprojet, Sportovni stavby and Sportovni projekty s.r.o., where he focused on sport oriented urban concepts ( for example Praha, Brno, Hradec Kralove or Pardubice), as well as on sport facilities ( for example Winter Stadions in Strakonice and Praha, swimming pool in Prague, football station in Opava or children playgrounds. He is a professor at the Czech Technical University in Prague at the Faculty of Architecture and collaborates with other Czech universities.

Henri Achten graduated at the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven in 1992 at the Faculty of Architecture on the design of a museum of history located in Venlo. At the time, he was the first student to use Virtual Reality for presentation of a MSc. graduation project. He continued with a PhD research project under supervision of prof. Bax and prof. Oxman, which was successfully defended in 1997. He obtained a post-doc position in the VR-DIS research programme in the newly formed Design Systems group. In 2000 he became assistant professor in design theory and computer aided architectural design in the same group until 2010. Since 2005 Henri Achten is assistant professor at the Czech Technical University in Prague at the Faculty of Architecture, where he started a new CAAD group. In 2007 he obtained habilitation for the title of docent (associate professor) at CTU in Prague. Henri Achten has written over 60 research papers and books that have been published in reviewed scientific journals and conference proceedings. He has been in numerous scientific and review committees of various conferences. Since 1995 he is member of eCAADe – the international association for education and research in computer aided architectural design in Europe. From 2001 to 2005 he was vice-president and from 2005-2009 president of eCAADe.

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Glocal shelter_ Parametric Deployable shelters  

Edited by martin Kaftan & Jiri Pavlicek, MOLAB FA CTU & ECHOROST, Spring 2010 Participants: Efilena Baseta, Damien Bechon, Rodrigo Diaz, Geo...

Glocal shelter_ Parametric Deployable shelters  

Edited by martin Kaftan & Jiri Pavlicek, MOLAB FA CTU & ECHOROST, Spring 2010 Participants: Efilena Baseta, Damien Bechon, Rodrigo Diaz, Geo...

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