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N° 39 • May/June 2018

MAGAZINE European Defence Review 8x8 armoured vehicles: a market well alive

New generation naval AESA radars and BMD response

Outsourcing Rotary-Wing Flight Training

The Rise of the Heavy-Lift Hybrid Airship

Photo: © FNSS

Countering the small UAS threat


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European Defence Review

MAGAZINE I S S U E N° 39 2018

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8x8 armoured vehicles: a market well alive

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Outsourcing Rotary-Wing Flight Training

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New generation naval AESA radars and BMD response

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The Rise of the Heavy-Lift Hybrid Airship

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Countering the small UAS threat

CONTENTS

By Paolo Valpolini

By David Oliver

By Luca Peruzzi

By David Oliver

By Paolo Valpolini

Publisher: Joseph Roukoz Editor-in-chief: David Olivier European Defence Review (EDR) is published by European Defence Publishing SAS www.edrmagazine.eu

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8x8 armoured vehicles: a market well alive By Paolo Valpolini

Nexter’s VBCI has recently been selected by Qatar, its first export customer, and is proposed among others for the British MIV tender. Š Nexter

The wheels versus tracks discussion are still ongoing and will probably never end. That said, current high-end wheeled vehicles are mostly of the 8x8 category; casualties generated by IEDs are bringing to higher protection requirements, which is also true for ballistic protection, while heavier firepower, in the form of bigger calibre cannons mounted in turrets, is also becoming an issue.

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T

he main weight-reduction driver may be considered the shift from manned to unmanned turrets, although not all the military agree on such choice. The latest proposals tend to be closer to 40 tons rather than to 35. How much eight wheels will still be able to ensure sufficient mobility? Some studies show that a 10x10 solution might become viable around 38-40 tons, if mobility remains a main requirement, and if we do not want to shift on tracks, albeit rubber ones. What will happen in the (near?) future remains to be seen. For the time being the 8x8 market seems well alive. At least three major contracts are still to be assigned, one in the UK, possibly one in Australia and one in the USA, namely the Mechanised Infantry Vehicle (MIV), Land 400 Phase 3, and USMC’s Amphibious Combat Vehicle Phase 1 Increment 1(ACV 1.1).

Tenders running IHow much the UK National Security Capabilities Review (NSCR), initiated in July 2017 and which should be finalised by Spring 2018, and the Modernising Defence Programme (MDO) which started in January 2018 and should last until Summer 2018, will impact the MIV programme remains to be seen, but what is sure is that this third review in less than one decade will move to the right any decision on the programme, which inevitably became part of the NSCR. No firm numbers have been announced, “several hundreds” being the wording, however what is clear is that these should be deployed by the two Striker Brigades that might become operational by 2025 as part of the Joint Force, should the plan be confirmed by the NSCR and MDO reviews; according

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GEDLS Piranha 5 has scored numerous successes and aims also at the British Army bid for the new Mechanised Infantry Vehicle. © P. Valpolini

to previous reviews the 1st Strike Brigade was due to reach its initial operational capability by 2023, however some delays might occur. DSEI 2017 saw all potential contenders lined up for the bid, namely ARTEC Boxer, GDELS Piranha 5, Nexter VCBI and Patria AMV. All those companies are teaming with UK partners in order to increase the British content of the vehicle should it be chosen. Another programme that still awaits a winner is US Marine Corps ACV 1.1. Two teams are bidding for this contract, BAE Systems teamed with Iveco DV and SAIC teamed with Singapore Technology Kinetics, both having provided 16 vehicles to the USMC as part of the Engineering Manufacturing and Development phase. Developmental testing, operational assessment and live fire started in Q2 17 and should end in Q3 18, when the choice should be announced. The programme will then shift to the LRIP phase and then to the full production phase. The estimated acquisition objective is 204 vehicles, the equivalent of four battalions. The ACV 1.1 will be fitted with an RCWS armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun or 40 mm AGL.


thanks to the robust amphibious capability of the new vehicle.

In origin the UK was part of the Boxer team, and Rheinmetall underlined it with this special colour version of its 8x8 in view of the MIV tender. © Rheinmetall

Through the ACV 1.1 programme the USMC aims at increasing its protected mobility on land while extending the manoeuvre space across littoral and inland water obstacles,

While the aforementioned programmes should be finalised in the near future, one, which looks at least at 2020, is that for the Turkish Land Forces. Here the IFV is still at Request for Information status, a jump to the Request for Proposal being awaited not earlier than late 2018-early 2019, so even the 2020 deadline seems optimistic. Of course the two Turkish main vehicle manufacturers, FNSS and Otokar, look with great interest to this bid respectively with their Pars III and Arma. Among the most recent declarations of interest towards 8x8 vehicles comes that from the Tercio de Armada, the Spanish naval infantry. In early 2018 it was announced that the 16 M-60A3 MBTs currently in service

Photo credits: ©ECPAD/France/A.Roine

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BAE Systems and Iveco DV propose the 8x8 developed from the SuperAV for the US Marine Corps ACV 1.1 tender; the vehicle was downselected together with SAIC/STK Terrex 2. © BAE Systems

The latest version of the Patria’s AMV, the XP, was recently selected by Slovakia while the vehicle is being produced under license in various nations. © Patria

might be replaced by an 8x8 vehicle armed with a 120 mm gun.

In development The Italian Army decision to field two Medium Brigades, equipped with 8x8 armoured vehicles, led to the development of a series of new systems, all based on the H-shaped driveline adopted on the Centauro, the armoured car fitted with a 105 mm gun developed in the 1980s, which has seen action in most of the theatres of operation in which Italy was involved in the past decades. The one currently under delivery, and combat proven in Afghanistan, is the Freccia, the 8x8 AIFV fitted with a HITFIST 25 turret, also developed in specialist versions such as antitank, mortar carrier, and command post. The latter is under qualification following some changing of philosophy from the military. At Eurosatory 2016 the CIO, the Iveco-Oto Melara Consortium, unveiled the Centauro II, the new mobile gun system armed with a third generation 120/45 mm smoothbore gun, which can be replaced as option by a 105/52 mm rifled gun. A number of improvements were developed following trials, such as a new

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semi-automatic ammunition loading system and an improved indirect viewing system for the driver; furthermore, the Air to Surface Identification Device (ASID) was integrated in the vehicle while the Hitrole remotely controlled weapon station was moved in order to improve the commander’s periscope visibility. All those improvements will be part of the first four pre-production vehicles that will be built by the CIO with available funds, and will be used for qualification. Production is expected to start in late 2020, early 2021, seven more production vehicles being planned with current funding. Financing for further 371 million euro should be soon approved, allowing building 39 further vehicles, including logistic support. These should feature also a rear winch while their gun will be adapted for shooting airburst munitions, all those features being then retrofitted on the first 11 Centauro II. Coming to wheeled infantry combat vehicles, the one in service is the aforementioned Freccia. The CIO is already working on its successor, the Freccia Evolution, which prototype should be produced with funds allocated in 2016; part of the 324.9 million euro will be used to produce over 30 Freccia in the antitank, mortar carrier and command post configurations, aimed at the second


At IDEF 2017 FNSS unveiled the latest version of its 8x8 vehicle, the PARS III, which features some considerable improvements over its predecessors. © FNSS

Otokar of Turkey obtained considerable export successes with its Arma 8x8 and is awaiting the national tender for such a vehicle. © Otokar

Recently selected

Medium brigade, while part of them will be used for the prototype of the Evolution. This will be a much more protected vehicle, protection levels remaining classified, which will feature the same powerpack of the Centauro II, many other items such as the gunner stabilised sight and the C4I suite also coming from the new MGS. The commanders’ panoramic sight will be an improved digital version of the Janus, employed on the Freccia. The hull design leverages the know how acquired in the latest developments, such as the Centauro II and the ACV 1.1. As for the turret, this will be a further derivative of the one proposed to Spain for its 8x8 programme, and will be armed with a dual feed 30 mm automatic cannon with ABM capability. While the cannon will provide greater range and penetration capability compared to that of the Freccia, the turret structure is being optimised to improve ballistic as well as antimine protection. The Freccia Evolution will have a combat weight of around 36 tonnes.

Just before going to press, on 14 March 2018 Australia announced the selection of Rheinmetall’s Boxer CRV (Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle) for the Land 400 Phase 2. The press release states that “the multi-billion dollar project will see Rheinmetall deliver at least 211 of the latest generation Boxer”, the official requirement being for 225 vehicles. The overall value should be around 4 billion dollars. The Boxer CRV will be fitted with Rheinmetall’s Lance turret armed with the 30 mm Mk30-2/ABM gun. To deliver the project Rheinmetall will establish the MILVEHCOE (Military Vehicle Centre of Excellence) near Brisbane in partnership with the Queensland State Government that will allow the transfer of cutting edge technologies to Australia in the areas of military vehicle design, production, turret systems, sensors, survivability, simulation and through life support. To support its effort Rheinmetall identified over 40 Australian companies that will be part of the team. Two major contracts for 8x8 vehicles have been on stand-by for a while in the Middle East, and both were finalised in 2017, although at least one awaits the final signature. At IDEX the UAE announced its choice for a wheeled IFV: the winner was the Arma 8x8, developed and produced by Otokar of Turkey. The outcome of the bid

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The Italian CIO is finalising the qualification of the Centauro II, the 8x8 armed with a 120 mm smoothbore gun that will soon enter service in the Italian Army. © P. Valpolini

The IFV version carries a three-man crew and 10 dismounts, and provides a Level 4+ ballistic protection.

was not decided only considering vehicles performances, but also the increase in the UAE vehicles manufacturing and supporting capabilities. Otokar set up a JV with Tawazun, the latter controlling 51% of the shares; named Al-Jasoor, it is the main contractor for the programme and aims at acquiring as soon as possible its production capability, based on kits provided from Turkey. Until the completion of the UAE facility, Otokar will provide some vehicles manufactured in Turkey. The contract worth 661 million US dollars includes the production of 400 IFVs, known as Rabdan, fitted with the Russian BMP-3 turret, the vehicle being at a GVW of 28 tons (compared to the 24 of the standard Arma 8x8) with full swimming capability, while keeping a 2 tons growth margin. Powered by a 600 hp engine, propulsion in the water is provided by two rear propellers.

A separate contract is awaited for baseline vehicles variants that might amount to a few hundreds of items. Command and control, medium calibre gun carrier, engineer, reconnaissance and recovery are among the variants being considered, configurations being in the finalising phase. The Arma 8x8 is already in service in the Middle East with Bahrain Land Forces, which field 73 vehicles. The other nation that announced its choice was Qatar; during French President Macron visit in early December 2017 a letter of intent was signed for the potential procurement of the VBCI (Véhicule Blindé de Combat d’Infanterie) wheeled armoured fighting vehicle by the Emirate Army. The signature was done through Barzan Holdings, a company 100% owned by the Qatari Ministry of Defense. A long awaited decision, that signature leaves Nexter’s 8x8 vehicle the only candidate for the contract, which was

An Italian Army Freccia in Afghanistan; the CIO started the development of the Freccia 2 that will be armed with a 30 mm cannon. © P. Valpolini

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finalised in March 2018 with a firm order for 490 vehicles. Qatar is the first export customer of the VBCI, the vehicle having seen action in Afghanistan and Mali with the French Army. Considering the hot climate where the vehicle will operate Qatari vehicles should be derivatives of the latest version, also dubbed VBCI 2. This is powered by a 600 hp diesel engine versus the 550 hp of the original version, and has a 19 tons curb weight and a 13 tons payload, for a GVW of 32 tons, 4 tons more than the vehicle in service with the French Army. At DIMDEX 2018 last March Nexter signed two MoUs, one of them establishing a JV with Barzan Holdings, which once the contract will be finalised will become the local industrial base that will deliver and maintain the vehicles produced under the Al Rayyan programme. The second MoU, with the same company and all other industrial partners, formalizes the industrial cooperation and launches the contractual process. In the meantime Kongsberg of Norway also established a new company with Barzan, known as BK Systems, which will work on tower solutions as well as on digitalisation and communication solutions for the Al Rayyan vehicles. According to industry sources this does not exclude however that some vehicles might be equipped with Nexter’s T40CT unmanned turret, which

The Australian MoD announced in mid March 2018 that the selected vehicle for the Land 400 Phase 2 programme was the Boxer CRV proposed by Rheinmetall. © Rheinmetall

was exhibited on one of the two VBCI at DIMDEX, the other being fitted with Kongsberg’s Medium Caliber Turret with a Protector RCWS installed in a turret-on turret configuration. No information have yet been released on the number and types of versions that will be eventually ordered. As for ARTEC’s Boxer, its very last success was its selection by Slovenia; announced in early 2018, contract finalisation being expected by year end. The acquisition should be made through the OCCAR, thus joining Germany, Lithuania and the Netherlands. Overall two battle groups should be equipped with the new 8x8, each one receiving 48 IFVs, fitted with turrets armed with 30 mm cannons, and eight self-propelled mortar carriers carrying a 120 mm weapon. Considering a possible training element, the order should include a total of around 120 vehicles, that should be ordered in two successive batches, first deliveries being expected in late 2019. In mid-November 2017 Slovakia announced the choice of Patria’s AMV XP chassis for its new of wheeled infantry fighting vehicle. The intention is to acquire 81 IFVs, which will be named BOV 8x8 (Bojove Opancierovane Vozidlo for IFV), fitted with EVPU Turra remotely controlled turret armed with the 30 mm 2A42 cannon; combat weight is estimated at 28 tons. Users trials of the prototype started in midJanuary 2018.

Up and running Following some ups and downs mostly due to financial considerations, in 2015 Spain finally selected the Piranha 5 as the base for the development of

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its Vehículo de Combate sobre Ruedas 8x8 (VCR 8x8). Five demonstrators, in different configurations, are currently being produced, their delivery being awaited for late 2018, testing becoming part of the risk reduction programme that should lead to mass production around 2025. The weight limit has been set at 33 tons, the vehicle being fitted with new generation hydro-pneumatic suspensions and being powered by a Scania D-13 644 hp diesel engine, with growth potential up to 730 hp, fitted to a SAPA SW-624 automatic transmission. Ballistic, IED protection levels and mine remain classified. Capable to operate in a networked environment, and fitted also with SATCOM, the VCR 8x8 features a situation awareness system that allows to bring images provided by all sensors into a 360° picture available to the crew. The five demonstrators will be used to test different technologies and subsystems. The D1 will be in the combat configuration and will feature an Elbit UT-30 Mk2 remotely controlled turret armed with an Orbital ATK MK44-ABM Bushmaster II 30 mm cannon and two Spike LR missiles, the latter being fitted only on antitank serial versions. The D2 will be in the company command post

The Ramdan was selected by the UAE, which announced its choice at IDEX 2017; the vehicle is a derivative of Otokar’s Arma 8x8. © P. Valpolini 12

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configuration, fitted with a Rafael Samson Mk II remotely controlled turret with an armament similar to the D1. The D3 will be fitted with an Escribano Guardian 2.0 12.7 mm RCWS: it will represent the battalion command post and the forward observer versions, the latter thanks to a mast-mounted sensor suite. The cavalry scout version will be the D4, equipped with a Leonardo Sistemi di Difesa HITFIST two-man turret armed with the same 30 mm cannon used in the previous demonstrators. Finally the D5 will be used to test ballistic, anti-IED and antimine protection kits, as well as the forward mounted dozer blade and other specialist equipment for the engineer version. These demonstrators will be provided in late 2018to the Spanish Army Legion brigade for testing. The first batch of VCR 8x8, which production should start in the next decade, will consist of 348 vehicles in 13 different configurations. Another recent customer for the Piranha 5 is Romania, which in January 2018 filed a contract worth over 1 billion US$ to GDELS for 227 vehicles, that will be assembled in country by UMB (Uzina Mecanică București), a ROMARM subsidiary. The launch customer for the Piranha 5 was Denmark, which ordered 309 vehicles in six variants in January 2016, the first vehicles having been delivered in May 2017. Awaiting a decision in its own country on the acquisition of an 8x8 armoured vehicle, FNSS is fully involved in the Malaysian AV-8 programme, the vehicle being a derivative of the PARS 8x8 multi-purpose, multi-mission armored wheeled vehicle. In that programme the prime contractor is DEFTECH (DRBHICOM Defence Technologies) of Malaysia, which engineers redesigned together with those of FNSS the vehicle in order to cope with Malaysian Army requirements. Over 12 sub-contractors are involved in the


Malaysia Deftech is manufacturing the AV-8, which is a derivative of FNSS Pars 8x8. Š FNSS

programme; FNSS, beside being the prime system integrator and responsible for the development of the vehicle platform design along with the integration of mission subsystems, is also the supplier of the 25mm one-man Sharpshooter turret, fitted onto the infantry fighting vehicle variant. When the AV-8 programme will be completed the Malaysian Army will deploy 257 8x8 vehicles in 12 different variants: the aforementioned IFV, the Armoured Fighting Vehicle with 30 mm two-man turret, the Anti-Tank Vehicle, the Armoured Command Vehicle, the Armoured Signal Vehicle, the Armoured Fighting Vehicle – Surveillance, the IFV with 12.7 mm RCWS, the Ambulance Vehicle, the Armoured Mortar Carrier, the Armoured Vehicle Recovery, the Armoured Vehicle Fitter and finally the Armoured Engineer NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle. All vehicles are equipped with a self-recovery winch, command-post vehicles being fitted with an APU as a secondary power source. Serial production and delivery activities are on-going at DEFTECH, the programme completion being planned for late 2020. In addition to the Malaysian AV-8 programme, FNSS has also an ongoing contract with the

Oman Ministry of Defence for the supply of 172 8x8 and 6x6 armoured vehicles, the split remaining unknown. All those vehicles will be at the PARS III standard, unveiled at IDEF 2017. These are fitted with hydropneumatic suspensions installed outside of the hull, thus providing a greater inner space. With a combat weight of over 30 tonnes, a Deutz 550 hp engine coupled to a ZF 7-speed automatic transmission powers the PARS III 8X8. The driveline and steering systems are new and are designed to reduce maintenance to a minimum. Omani PARS III will be delivered in 17 different configurations; 88 of them, mostly 8x8, will be built in the IFV version fitted with the new FNSS Sabre turret. None of them is amphibious, which allows to provide a higher ballistic protection level. Deliveries started in August 2017, and in late 2017 the new vehicles started to operate in Omani Army units. Deliveries should be completed within 2020. As for the aforementioned Turkish programme, FNSS is proposing an 8x8 that will follow the lines of the PARS 6x6 Scout, currently proposed for the 6x6 tender. The main differences compared to the PARS 8x8 will be the amphibious capability, a mandatory require-

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ment in Turkey, the adoption of independent, height-adjustable hydropneumatic suspensions, and the forward cabin fitted with an armoured windscreen, which allows both the commander and driver positioned side by side with over 180° direct view capability. In August 2016 the Israel MoD announced the completion of the prototype of the Eitan, the future Israeli Defence Forces wheeled combat vehicle, the first of its kind to serve in the IDF. This 8x8 will be available in different configurations, the prototype being an armoured personnel carrier fitted with a 12.7 mm RCWS, however an AIFV version with a 30/40 mm cannon is planned as well as an antitank version. In the heavier version the vehicle will have a combat weight of around

For the first time the Israel Defense Forces will have in service a wheeled combat vehicle; the Eitan is currently in the development phase. © Israel MoD

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35 tons, its 750 hp engine ensuring thus a 21.4 hp/t ratio in the heaviest version, maximum speed on road being 90 km/h. In the APC configuration the Eitan carries 12 people, a crew of three including driver, commander and gunner, and nine dismounts, who access the vehicle via the rear ramp. A mix of passive armour and active defence system provides protection. The Eitan is developed by the Merkava Tank Administration at Israel’s Ministry of Defense, and will replace most of the M113 tracked APCs that are still part of the IDF inventory. How much the Eitan will become part of Israel export portfolio remains to be seen in view of the high choice available elsewhere on the international market.


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H145 Jupiter and H135 Juno helicopters are entering service as part of Ascent Flight Training’s UK Military Flying Training System (UKMFTS) contract to deliver rotary-wing training service to the UK MoD. Š RAF Shawbury

Outsourcing Rotary-Wing Flight Training By David Oliver

No less than twelve European armed forces are in the process of taking delivery of new generation combat helicopters including the NH90, Blackhawk, Wildcat and Tiger. This will create an increased demand for rotary-wing pilot and crew training that is able to provide new pilots with a glass cockpit environment from the outset of their training, plus pilot conversion training from previous generation aircraft with analog dials and gauges.

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n order to satisfy these demands, several countries have adopted contracted flight training programmes, one of the largest is the UK Military Flying Training System (UKMFTS) to provide UK armed forces aircrew a complete package of flight training. From initial through elementary, basic, and advanced

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flying training phases, aircrews are prepared for service in operational aircraft units. The programme is operated by Ascent Flight Training, a joint venture between Babcock International and Lockheed Martin, under a 25-year Private Finance Initiative (PFI) contract for the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD).


A growing British trend In May 2016, Ascent Flight Training won a £1.1 billion UKMFTS contract from the UK MoD to the design and deliver a new rotary-wing training service and a contract was placed with Airbus Helicopters UK Limited to deliver 29 H135 Juno HT.1 and 3 H145 Jupiter HT.1 training helicopters. Through life support while contracts awarded to Babcock/ Lockheed to deliver ground-based training equipment and infrastructure to support the programme. These include seven flight training devices (FTD) developed by CAE to Level 4/5 flight simulation training devices (FSTDs) according to International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) standards that can be networked for teaching multi-ship tactical

formations. The CAE-developed Combat & Tactics Trainer will be a suite of four Level 1/2 FTDs that can be networked for teaching and practicing formation flying. All the devices will include the CAE Medallion-6000 image generator and databases built to the Common Database (CDB) standard, which enables distributed, interoperable mission training. Rotary-wing training under the contract began in April 2018 at RAF Shawbury, to deliver 28,000 flying hours per year while supporting the instruction of 121 pilots and 99 rear crew. The contract will run until 2033. The Juno HT.1 and Jupiter HT.2, which are variants of the Airbus Helicopters H135 and H145 modified for UKMFTS training requirements that includes a Helionix

Ascent’s helicopters are replacing AS350 Squirrels and Bell 413 Griffons of the Defence Helicopter Flying School (DHFS) currently operated Cobham Aviation Services Helicopter Services. © Crown Copyright

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Cobham’s recently opened Helicopter Academy offer military and commercial customers search and rescue (SAR) helicopter training with Leonardo AW139 helicopters. © Cobham

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avionics suite, will replace the current Defence Helicopter Flying School (DHFS) fleets of AS350 Squirrel HT.1 and Bell 412 Griffin HT.1 helicopters, contracted from Cobham Aviation Services Helicopter Services, formerly FB Heliservices.

Leonardo AW139 helicopter, supported by synthetic training devices.

Although it lost the UKMFTS contract for which it was a contender, Cobham Helicopter Services is a leading player in the helicopter training sector. It provides helicopter operations, training and support for defence, government and commercial customers. Its services include helicopter aircrew and maintenance training, search and rescue (SAR), firefighting, medical evaluation, troop transport, platform support and engineering. requirements. At its recently opened Helicopter Academy, Cobham Helicopter Services claims to enhance helicopter operations with a unique blend of military capability and commercial expertise.

Inzpire Limited is another UK contractor that covers all aspects of military flying training, from ground instruction, course design, synthetic flying training instruction to live flying, that can deliver equally adaptable instruction for both paramilitary and civilian clients. It provides Qualified Helicopter Flying Instructors teaching all aspects of the UK Joint Helicopter Command (JHC) Apache Attack Helicopter and the Wildcat Battlefield Reconnaissance Helicopter Conversion to Type courses at the Army Aviation Centre at Middle Wallop and RNAS Yeovilton respectively. It also provides synthetic training at the Air Battlespace Training Centre at RAF Waddington.

In February 2018, Cobham announced China Rescue and Salvage (CRS) as the launch customer for its new Helicopter Academy based at Newquay Cornwall Airport. CRS is China’s dedicated national maritime rescue and salvage force and eleven of its students from commenced SAR flying training which will be delivered in Cobham’s SAR equipped

In February 2018 Inzpire was sub-contracted by Lockheed Martin UK to provide aircrew instruction and technical support for a new Chinook Mk.6 simulator training facility at RAF Odiham. The new simulator facility will be the first Support Helicopter synthetic system capable of providing full crew operational training for RAF Chinook Force pilots and

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It will deliver operationally focused aircrew flying training, from basic to advanced skills, and special mission training including SAR.


crewmen in individual or multi-aircraft tactical scenarios. Inzpire has also partnered with Operational Solutions Limited, which will provide technical maintenance support to the facility.

In German style Although the German Armed Forces helicopter pilots and crewmembers, obtain their initial flight training at the German International Helicopter Training Centre at Bückeburg, the German operator Motorflug was awarded a four-year military training contract by the Bundeswehr in December 2016 after successfully bidding with six Bell 206B JetRangers. After the German Army Aviation withdrew the Bö105 from service in 2016, it needed a basic training helicopter, the EC 635 being considered too complex for ab-initio pilots. Motorflug’s contract is for a total of 15,400 flight hours over the full period and requires particular training procedures, including auto rotations. Motorflug maintains the Bell 206B fleet at it base at Achum and operate them at Bückeburg in a unit known as the International Helicopter Training Centre.

The German Navy signed a contract with HeliOperations UK to train German Navy aircrew in SAR operations using two recently retired ex-Royal Navy Sea King HU.Mk5 helicopters in August 2017. The UK MoD leased HeliOperations the two Sea King helicopters previously operated by 771 Naval Air Squadron (NAS) in rescue missions across Cornwall, they will be operated out of HeliOperations Portland base in Dorset, southwest England until September 2018.

Operating larger machines Another UK company providing Sea King training to the military is Cardiff Aviation Training Limited (CATL), part of the Cardiff Aviation Group, which is flight training and simulator services business based at Cardiff International Airport in Wales. The CATL Training Centre operates one of only two Sikorsky S-61N Full Flight Simulators (FFS) in Europe is based at the CATL Training Centre, built originally by Thales Training & Simulation as a JAA Level L2HG simulator with 6-Degress of Freedom (DoF). The FFS is maintained by CATL and operated by British International Helicopters British International Helicopters (BIH) the UK’s

Initial flight training at the German International Helicopter Training Centre at Bückeburg, is contracted to Motorflug Bell 206B JetRangers. © Bundeswehr / IHAZ

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HeliOperations has won a contract from the German Navy to provide SAR training with two former Royal Navy Sea King helicopters. © HeliOperations

largest domestically operator.

owned

helicopter

For more than a decade it has operated the Royal Navy’s Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) helicopter support programme with a single S-61N while a second helicopter is on contract to the UK MoD to provide helicopter services in support of British forces in the Falkland Islands to provide helicopter lift capability for troops and materials around the South Atlantic islands. The company’s third S-61N is based at Newquay in support of FOST in the Plymouth sea training areas and Joint Warrior exercises. Its sixteen S-61N pilots undergo continuation training at CATC twice a year. Cardiff Aviation operates and maintains the simulator while three of BIH’s senior pilots are instructors at CATC to service BIH’s contract with the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). Currently up to 80 RMAF pilots who fly its fleet of 15 upgraded S-16A4 Nuris attend 20 five-day courses a year. The S-61N simulator is not used to train ab initio pilots, but the course syllabus is designed to teach

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experienced Nuri pilots aircraft procedures and management. The simulator’s visual ground representation used for the RMAF training comes from Google Earth so bears a good general resemblance to the topography and shows reasonably correct built up areas, coastal and mountain features that relate to Malaysia.

In French fashion France decided to follow a similar contracted programme for its Armed Forces helicopter flight training as the UKMFTS. In January 2008 the French MoD signed the first PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) with HeliDax, a joint venture between Babcock MCS France and Défense Conseil International (DCI), the operator of the French Ministry of the Armed Forces for the international transfer of French military know-how. The purpose of this outsourcing is to supply the École de l’aviation légère de l’Armée de terre (EALAT) based at Dax in southwest France with the flight hours required for the basic training of pilots from the French


Under a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) contract, HeliDax provides helicopter flight training for the French Armed Forces with 36 EC120B Calliope helicopters based at Dax and Le Luc. © D. Oliver

Armed Forces and Gendarmerie Nationale, and other beneficiaries. The 22-year contract referred to the availability of modern aircraft to provide an average of 20,000 flight hours, and the corresponding maintenance services. The platform selected for the HeliDax contract was the Eurocopter, now Airbus Helicopters, EC120B NHE (New Training Helicopter) single-engine light helicopter. Fitted with a SAGEM glass cockpit with NVG-compatible lighting and PA 85 autopilot, a fleet of 36 EC120Bs, known as “Calliope”, was acquired to EALAT Gazelle training helicopters. For training requirements, DCI provides ab-initio pilot training at Dax that is complemented by tactical training to acquire or maintain the competence necessary for operational employment of helicopters. Training includes specialised know-how, including the use of night-vision goggles (NVG) or conducting special missions such as SAR, Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR), Special Operations and maritime counterterrorism.

Inaugurated in 2015, DCI’s International Helicopter Training Centre (CIF-H) was certified as an Approved Training Organization (ATO) in accordance with European standards by the French civil aviation authority (DGAC) in May 2016. Located along the French military pilot training school at Luc-en-Provence, the CIF-H is DCI’s response to very high demand from friendly countries for helicopter pilot training, from initial training through to the performance of operational missions. Training at the CIF-H is conducted in English or French in partnership with the ALAT and HeliDax. During their training courses and their time in France, all trainees receive personalised support from DCI, which offers a comprehensive service covering accommodation, meals and transportation. In response to the very high demand for the training, which was 3,000 flying hours in 2016, DCI decided to acquire its own fleet of EC120 helicopters to complement the HeliDax fleet. The first of three EC120B in the Calliope configuration, was delivered in July 2015. On the 25th of May 2016, the first

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graduating class from the CIF-H achieved a 100 % pass rate in obtaining their French military helicopter pilot qualification.

Extending the service to Asia In an extension of its role in assisting partner nations that want state-of-theart helicopter training facilities for military and civil customers in the region, DCI has created the Helang Flying Academy at Senai International Airport at Johor in Malaysia in partnership with the Malaysian company Major Flagship. In order to rapidly develop up-to-date capacities, Helang Flying Academy is acquiring seven EC120B helicopters which are being brought up to the latest Calliope standard, the first of which was delivered in August 2017. The local company Rotortrade Services was contracted to select and

acquire the helicopters. An H03 Flight Navigation and Procedures Trainer (FNTP II) has been acquired from the Spanish company Entrol as a key element for complex training that allows training in real conditions in a digital environment with satellite imagery from Malaysia which complements the in-flight training and offers practice sessions at reduced cost. In addition, Helang Flying Academy has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Global Turbine Asia, a jointventure with the Safran Group, for two purposes, the first being engine support for its EC 120B helicopters, and the second covers mechanic training with the ultimate goal of making the academy a Safran helicopter engines-approved centre for overhaul of helicopter engines in the Asian region.

The single-engine EC120 is used for pilot training at HeliDax and DCI’s International Helicopter Training Centre in France and the Helang Flying Academy in Malaysia. Š D. Oliver

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JADARA Equipment & Defence Systems Co PSC JADARA Equipment & Defence Systems Co PSC (Jordan) is the sole manufacturer of the Portable Grenade Launcher System RPG-32 “Nashshab”, equipped with the day & night sighting system with Laser Range Finder, with the ability to defeat modern heavy-armored tanks equipped with Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) and soft-skinned vehicles as well as fortifications and bunkers.

JADARA has designed and now manufactures an up-to-date variant of a Multipurpose Remote-Controlled System “QUAD” based on four grenade launchers RPG-32 “Nashshab”, with a night and day sight with laser range finder. This product is available in two versions: on ground and on vehicle.

A brand-new product of JADARA is the Medium Range Anti-Tank Guided Missile System ATGM “Terminator”intended to defeat modern heavyarmored tanks equipped with Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) and soft-skinned vehicles as well as fortifications and bunkers at a distance up to 2500m. The system uses two kinds of missiles: Anti-Tank missile and High Explosive, Fragmentation missile. The system is equipped with a modern day/night sight with thermal imager.

Address: Arar str,238B Wadi Saqra, P.O. Box 2100, Amman 11181, Jordan info@jadara.jo www.Jadara.jo

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Thales Nederland is proposing applications of the second-generation APAR X-band active phasedarray multifunction radar integrated with the Sea Master 400 four-face S-volume volume search air- and surface-surveillance radar under the I-MAST family concept here depicted to meet the surveillance and missile-guidance needs of frigate- and destroyer-size vessels. Š Thales Nederland

New generation naval AESA radars and BMD response By Luca Peruzzi

A new generation of shipborne medium- and long-range surveillance and fire control radars that fully exploit the capabilities and features of active electronically scanned array techniques and latest technologies in the front-end and processing, including the latest developments in the Gallium Nitride (GaN) modules, is being developed to deal with the latest threats in the naval domain, including new generation cruise (ASCM) and anti-ship ballistic missiles (ASBM), in addition to tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) being used in the littoral warfare contest.

I

Based on the long experience on dual-axis multibeam radars, AESA architecture and GaN technology, Thales Nederland is proposing applications of the second-generation APAR (Active Phased Array Radar) X-band active phased-ar-

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ray multifunction radar integrated with the Sea Master 400 four-face S-volume volume search air- and surface-surveillance radar under the I-MAST family concept to meet the surveillance and missile-guidance needs of frigate- and destroyer-size vessels. Known


as APAR Block 2, the new baseline X-band radar builds on the existing APAR reference platform, but with enhanced performances through selected technology insertions centered on high-power GaN technology-applied transmit receive modules (TRMs) for the antenna ‘front end’ and highly rationalized below-decks cabinets by moving to all COTS based processing.

The road to even better radars Currently in service with Royal Netherlands Navy’s (RNLN) four De Zeven Provinciënclass LCF frigates, German Navy’s three F-124 AAW frigates and Royal Danish’s three Iver Huitfeldt-class frigates, in the first generation APAR model based on GaAs technology, it forms part of the Thalessupplied AAW system installed on board the frigate-classes of the three navies, also including the SMART-L D-band volume search radar and a fire control suite. Based on the same four fixed faces (4 FF) architecture, each with a scalable number of solid-state TRMs, the Block 2 version further enhances the capabilities of current-generation system. Leveraging on the X-band propagation characteristics for early detection of small

incoming low elevation targets in the littoral scenarios, the APAR Block 2 performs against saturation attacks with simultaneous AAW and ASuW engagements, with both active and semi-active guidance using interrupted continuous wave illumination (ICWI). It supports both Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM) and Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) missile families including the ESSM Block 2 and the future Standard family using the JUWL datalink. With true digital beam forming enabling multibeam volume search and track while scan for non-engaged targets, the APAR Block 2 has an instrumented air range of 150 km and provides surface gunfire support up to the radar horizon. With an instrumented range of 250 km, the four-fixed faces dual-axis Sea Master 400 radar offers fast track initiation, higher update rate and improved tracking performance against maneuvering targets.

Facing supersonic anti-ship missiles

The demanding requirements of current and future naval operational scenarios characterized by advanced air-breathing and missile threats including supersonic, high-diving and ballistic missiles in addition to non-conventional air and Building on the existing APAR platform, the new APAR Block 2 X-band radar surface or hybrid threats in both features enhanced performances through selected technology insertions centered the challenging littoral and blue on high-power GaN technology-applied transmit receive modules (TRMs) for the waters operations, pushed the antenna ‘front end’ and highly rationalized and COTS-applied below-decks cabinets. © Royal Netherlands Navy Italian Navy to equip the newest Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura (PPA) multi-role combatant patrol vessel with an highly-integrated radar and electronic warfare suite capable to fuse and fully exploit the passive and active capabilities of both the Leonardo’s Kronos Dual Band (C- and X-band) AESA fixed faces radar system and the Elettronica-provided EW suite.

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generation fully-solid state, four fixed faces (4 FF) each C-band GaN technology-based Kronos Quad and new X-band StarFire AESA GaAs-based radars.

The Leonardo Kronos Dual Band (X- and C-band) radar which will equip the Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura (PPA) in full configuration features the most powerful and capable versions of both new generation fully-solid state, four fixed faces (4 FF) each C-band GaN technology-based Kronos Quad and new X-band StarFire AESA GaAs-based radars. © Italian Navy

Based on the long-experience gained in multifunctional radars (EMPAR and Kronos families) by both Italian Navy and Leonardo, the Kronos Dual Band is capable to conduct local area and self-defence, fire control & missile guidance, anti-ballistic missile defence with the future MBDA Aster 30 Block 1 NT munition under development for both Italian and French MoDs, littoral warfare and electronic attack. To satisfy Italian Navy’s requirements including tactical ballistic missile (TBM) acquisition (either autonomously or under cueing) and tracking in the re-entry phase, missile guidance (Aster uplink) and air-breathing target (ABT) missile search and tracking, in addition to surface and air search and tracking (automatic and multi-target), the Kronos Dual Band radar features the most powerful and capable versions of both new The Kronos Dual Band AESA (C- and X-band) radar suite features a system manager capable to control in real-time both the two different-band radars and the ship’s electronic warfare suite to fully exploit both systems capabilities. © Leonardo

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The Kronos Dual Band AESA (C- and X-band) system with four fixed-arrays for each band-radar suite features a system manager capable to control in real-time both the two different-band radars and the ship’s electronic warfare suite to fully exploit the passive long-range and high-threat alert EWS capabilities and both the radar (X-band) and EW’s electronic attack modes, while ensuring the efficient use (digital blanking) of both systems. The Leonardo’s naval dual-band AESA radar (DBR) complete suite development, testing and production program is progressing according to schedule to be installed on the fourth PPA (in the full-capable configuration) planned to be delivered in 2024. The first of the four-fixed AESA arrays (4FF) belonging to the X-band Kronos StarFire radar system and featuring an undisclosed number of ‘otto (eight) pack’ high power eight-channels TRMs with GaAs-based high-power amplifiers is under advanced testing and evaluation at Leonardo facility. The first complete 4FF X-band Kronos StarFire radar system to be installed on the first-of-class PPA (Light) is expected to be


Enters the SeaFire

Leonardo’s dual-band AESA radar (DBR) complete suite development, testing and production program is progressing according to schedule at its facilities to be installed on the fourth PPA (in the full-capable configuration) planned to be delivered in 2024. © Leonardo

deliver at the beginning of 2019 in order to begin testing and acceptance trails. The firstof-class PPA in the light version with only the Kronos StarFire 4FF X-band radar system will be delivered to Italian Navy by Fincantieri in 2021. The new C-band AESA four fixed panels radar, each embodying ‘quad pack’ high power four-channel transmit receive modules (TRM) with new generation GaNbased high power amplifier is planned to be delivered in the second half of 2020 to be installed on the PPA Light Plus, the third classship to be delivered to Italian Navy in 2023. All new generation Leonardo’s naval and land radar electronic modules are developed and manufactured in the group-owned and managed foundry, offering tailored and costeffective solutions for all the group products and a national independent-from-market capability, Leonardo claims. The Sea Fire is a fully solid-state all-digital multi-function radar with a four-fixed faces AESA antennas suite, which meets the requirements of a broad range of missions, from ship self-defence to extended air defence, surface surveillance and fire control. © Thales

On April 2017, Naval Group and its industrial partners received a contract from French MoD for the development and construction of the five intermediate-size frigates for the French Navy under the FTI (Frégate de Taille Intermédiaire) programme managed by the French Defence procurement agency (DGA). The first frigate will be delivered in 2023 and is schedule to enter in service in 2025. In joint project management with Naval Group, Thales will provide a number of latestgeneration systems including the new Sea Fire AESA multi-function radar, equipping for the first time a French Navy’s ship. Developed with the support of French DGA, the Sea Fire is a fully solid-state all-digital multi-function radar with a four-fixed faces AESA antennas suite, which meets the requirements of a broad range of missions, from ship self-defence to extended air defence, surface surveillance and fire control in support of current and future MBDA Aster 30 active radar homing surface-to-air missiles family in their whole performance envelope, Thales claims. Conceived and developed as a family of modular and scalable radars to be accommodated on board naval platforms from 4,000-t light frigate to 7,000-t destroyers, the Sea Fire is being offered in three versions with common modular architecture with fully digital and software-controlled processing and incremental capabilities, which differ for the number of digital transmit-receive modules (TRM) in each of the four antenna arrays. Thales has introduced the radar latest technologies, with fully-digital solidstate TRMs applying GaN technology arranged in modules each accommodating eight multi-channel TRMs in a modular architecture designed for redundancy, grateful degradation and easy access. EDR | May/June 2018

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Conceived as a family of modular and scalable radars to be accommodated on board naval platforms from 4,000-t light frigate to 7,000-t destroyers, the Sea Fire is being offered in three versions with common modular architecture with fully digital and software-controlled processing. © Thales

In the Sea Fire version for the FTI programme, each radar array incorporates 12 modules for more than 800 independent channels. The new radar allows for simultaneous longrange 3D surveillance, horizon search, surface surveillance, and fire control, with increased performance in littoral environment. With respectively 500+ km and 80+ km in air and surface coverage, the Sea Fire can track 800+ air and surface targets, Thales says. The Sea Fire will also provide autonomous search (no cueing required), high accuracy tracking and fire control in the anti-ballistic missile domain with the Aster 30 missile family including the under-development Block 1NT version, Thales added without indicating the ballistic missile threat. The first series-production radar will be installed in 2019 at Saint Mandrier facilities for test and evaluation activities in a two panels configuration, while the first full operational (four arrays) radar system will be delivered in 2020 to equip the first-of-class FTI frigate.

New frigates for Israel In February 2018, the steel cutting of the first Sa’ar 6 corvette was celebrated in ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems’ Keil shipyard. The new class of Israeli Navy’s combatant vessel is equipped with a comprehensive air defense suite centered on the IAI/ELTA EL/M-2248 Multi-Function Surveillance, Tracking and Missile Guidance (MF-STAR) radar managing the Barak-8 area-defence 28

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missile system as well as the Rafale C-Dome launch and missile system. Installed initially on board the Lahav Sa’ar 5-class corvette, the MF-STAR operates in the S-band and uses a four fixed-array faces based on a modular tile-array architecture to allow for ‘scalability’ in the size of the antenna aperture. The MF-STAR uses pulse Doppler techniques, multiple-beam forming and advanced high-PRF waveforms to extract stressing, low radar cross section threats even in conditions of heavy jamming and dense clutter. Key functionalities include three-dimensional volume search, missilehorizon search, multi-target tracking, surface surveillance, helicopter detection, gunnery control and splash spotting. The MF-STAR has found export success being selected and installed by the Indian Navy on board the Kolkata-class destroyers. Together with the Barak 8, the air defence system has been deployed and made a number of successful live firings by the Indian Navy, providing a new player in the AAW domain in the Indian Ocean.

German and Swedish endeavours The Hensoldt company offers its new TRS4D C-band multifunction air and surface surveillance radar family in non-rotating (NR) and rotating (single face) versions. The TRS-4D/NR with four fixed-panel faces has been fitted to the German Navy’s four new F 125 frigates. Based on solid-state GaN technology, the TRS-4D employs full digital beamforming, with pulse-Doppler processing in all beams. Capable to be installed or one or two masts ship, according to Hensoldt, the TRS-4D has an instrumented range of up to 250 km and a minimum of 250 m, a target detection capability in term of RCS equal to 0.01 m2, a track update rate of less than 1 meter and a tracking 3D capacity of over 1,000 targets.


built) out by South Korean DSME shipbuilder and expected to be also equipped with the Sea Giraffe AMB.

All about the Protgtecs F 110

The TRS-4D/NR with four fixed-panel faces has been fitted to the German Navy’s four new F 125 frigates. Based on solid-state GaN technology, the TRS-4D employs full digital beamforming, with pulse-Doppler processing in all beams. © German Navy

The system is quoted to feature flexible electronical multi-beam scanning, high sophisticated dual mode operation, elevation coverage over 70°, 3D air volume surveillance with fast target alert and high range resolution surface surveillance in addition to fire control support, surface gun fire control with splash detection, helicopter control, cued search with enhanced detection performance for a dedicated sector, cued track with highpriority target tracking for missile guidance and automatic target classification. Saab defence and security company announced in December 2017 to have introduced the Sea Giraffe 4A Fixed Face (FF), the fixed-panel configuration with four antennas of Saab’s existing rotating Sea Giraffe 4A AESA single-face model. The latter is a S-band full stacked-beam 3D multirole radar with an AESA digital beamforming antenna introducing GaN technology with a 350 km instrumented range to meet medium-to long-distance air surveillance and target indication requirements, as detailed in the previous magazine issue. However, no further indications have been provided about the Fixed Face (FF) version performances. The Sea Giraffe 4A in the rotating version is understood to have been contracted and installed on board Thailand Navy’s DW-3000F frigate under fitting (and

Built on the experience of the F100 program to deliver the Álvaro de Bazán-class multirole frigate, the Spanish MoD and Navy is today developing the new generation F 110 multirole frigate to enter in service in 20232024. To equip the platform with a new generation combat system, sensors and system, the Spanish MoD has established the Progtecs F 110 research and development running through to 2020, which is managed jointly by Navantia and Indra through the Protecs F 110 joint venture. The new solid-state S-band is being developed by Indra with Lockheed Martin support, under a contract where the Spanish group is supplying the building block to achieve a fully digital antenna, including digital TRM modules containing the state-ofthe-art solid state GaN high power amplifiers, while Lockheed Martin has responsibility for the array itself and for back-end integration. These activities will culminate in 2020 with the demonstration of a full S-band radar Engineering Development Model (EDM). The new solid-state radar will also be proposed under an agreement signed between the two companies for other AAW opportunities worldwide. Together with the X-band radar under development with the support of the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), both sensor will be installed on a new integrated mast together with other ship sensors and systems’ antennas, developed under the Mastil Integrado concept, a newly integrated topside and the first for a Spanish Navy’s ship. The latter will commission a land-based test site, integrated with industries to derisk, integrate and test all the systems and EDR | May/June 2018

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Saab defence and security company announced in December 2017 to have introduced the Sea Giraffe 4A Fixed Face (FF), the fixed-panel configuration with four antennas of Saab’s existing rotating Sea Giraffe 4A AESA single-face model. © Saab

maturing the whole package to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 8, in order to derisk the Mastil Integrado ship fit prior to the commissioning of the first-of-class F 110 in the 2023-24 timeframe.

Long range multi-mission radars The Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) early warning sensors are scarce resources within the current national and alliance expeditionary and territorial ballistic missile defence concepts. However, these sensors are an essential element for reliable early warning as well as key enabler to enable launch denial as well as to maximize the effectiveness of most the active naval and ground-based defense weapon systems, providing net-centric integrated fire control mechanisms such as ‘cueing’, ‘launch’ and “engage on remote”. During the US-led ‘Formidable Shield 2017’ live fire integrated air and missile defence (IAMD) NATO-conducted exercise with focus on ballistic missile defence (BMD), for the first time a Terrier Oriole mediumrange ballistic missile (MRBM) target was launched from European soil and has been successfully intercepted exo-atmosphere using an SM-3 Block 1B interceptor from a US Navy’s Aegis-equipped Arleigh Burkeclass destroyer. Two other ballistic missiles (representative of TBM with a 500-km max range) targets were also launched and 30

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tracked during the exercise. The key enabler of the MRBM-target live intercept was a Royal Netherlands Navy’s (RNLN) De Zeven Provinciën-class frigate which provided track data to the US destroyer with sufficient “quality of service” to support the successful “launch on remote” engagement. The RNN’s frigate was equipped with an enhanced combat system including a temporarily modified Thales Nederland SMART-L long-range radar, updated CMS and communications suite (JREAP and SATCOM). The latter package is representative of the future same-class combatant ships main capabilities to be implemented in the 2019-2022 timeframe. The Thales Nederland SMART-L modified radar detected and tracked the ballistic missile and made the data real-time available to the US destroyer with a quality of information enough for a “Launch on Remote”. The applied latest BMD technology to the 15-years old early warning radar is the same used on the newest SMART-L Multi Mission radar that Thales is producing for the RNLN’s same class of four frigates and two landThe Sea Giraffe 4A is a S-band full stacked-beam 3D multirole radar with an AESA digital beam-forming antenna introducing GaN technology with a 350 km instrumented range to meet medium-to long-distance air surveillance and target indication requirements. © Saab


The new class of Israeli Navy’s combatant vessels is equipped with a comprehensive air defense suite centered on the IAI/ELTA EL/M-2248 Multi-Function Surveillance, Tracking and Missile Guidance (MF-STAR) radar managing the Barak-8 area-defence missile system as well as the Rafale C-Dome launch and missile system. © DIMDEX 2018

Built on the experience of the F100 program to deliver the Álvaro de Bazán-class multi-role frigate, the Spanish MoD and Navy is developing the new generation F 110 multirole frigate with integrated mast to enter in service in 2023-2024. © Navantia

based version radars for the Netherlands Air Force. One of these SMART-L MM radar successfully detected and tracked one of the ballistic missile targets from Thales’s factory in the Netherlands, at an average range of more than 1,500 km without difficulties, the manufacture claims. Based on the in-service SMART-L L-band 3D volume search radar capable of automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of up to 1,000 air targets at ranges of up to 400 km, and equipping RNLN LCF frigates, the German Navy’s F-124 AAW frigates and the Royal Danish’s Iver Huitfeldt-class frigates, in addition to the Horizon-type of AAW destroyers for both French and Italian navies, and the Royal Navy’s Type 45 destroyers, the SMART-L MM/N has been developed utilizing the GaN TRM modules technology to accomplish both AAW and BMD missions, the latter task thanks to a unique and patented ELR waveform and advanced Doppler processing techniques developed and tested throughout a series of dedicated programs and exercises starting from 2006 to the Formidable Shield 2017.

thanks to the application of GaN technology, while the patented ELR waveform and matching processing enable the detection and tracking of fast-moving objects through space. The fully digitized AESA antenna uses a 2D digital beamformer to enable dual-axis multibeam operations with instantaneous monopulse accuracy in azimuth and elevation as well as agile look forward/look back beam steering for longer dwell time and rapid track initiation and higher track update rate. With an 8-meters long antenna characterized by a fit, form and function with the older SMART-L radar array, the new version features an antenna with a number of individual panels back-mounted by TRX-L GaN TRMs, offering an instrumented range out to 2,000 km, improved elevation coverage, a surface and air targets instrumented range of respectively 60 and 480 km and a tracking capacity of 1000 tracks. Rotating operational modes are available with standard air surveillance (480 km) and a mix between air surveillance and BMD-surveillance (2000km). With ‘staring’ array, several BMDsurveillance only modes are available with instrumented range up to 2,000 km. After test campaigns for detection and tracking of satellites, similarly in behavior to tactical ballistic missile targets, the first radar has been delivered to RNLN while the remaining will follow by 2019, in order to achieve an initial MBMD capability the same year while

With the requested much higher velocity coverage, altitude and elevation for ballistic missile tracking, the SMART-L MM/N embodied a new AESA antenna effectively making the transmitted radio frequency (RF) power significantly higher at the array face

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latest generation TRMs with digital exciters for waveform generation and digital receivers for down conversion, embodying high power GaN technology and tile packages.

The in-service SMART-L L-band 3D volume search radar equips RNLN LCF frigates, German Navy’s F-124 AAW frigates, and the here depicted Royal Danish’s Iver Huitfeldt-class frigates, in addition to the FR/IT Horizon-type of AAW destroyers the Royal Navy’s Type 45 destroyers. © Thales

the four ships will complete the program by 2021-end. Thales has offered the SMART-L MM/N also to the navies of Germany and Denmark as replacement of the SMART-L radars that are now operational on the F124 and Iver Huirfeldt class frigates. Leveraging on the RAT 31 and FADR L-band long-range radar family developments, the participation to the ATBMD NATO activities and the insertion of new technologies, Leonardo has developed the fully-digital Kronos Power Shield early warning radar to satisfy both ABT and tactical ballistic missile defence (TBMD) requirements. Conceived to be used for both naval and land applications and be able to operate in both rotating and staring (fence) modes for ABT and TBMD duties, the Kronos Power Shield is the first Leonardo’s fully-digital radar using state-ofthe-art digital beam forming technology and latest high power GaN technology.

Another tech revolution ahead The revolution comes in the front-end digital antenna architecture with high powerful transmit receive modules offering higher availability, better clutter rejection (adaptive beam forming) and angular resolution (digital beam forming), in addition to the back-end processing and system manager derived from naval Kronos Dual Band (Xand C- band) radar program. According to Leonardo, the Kronos Power Shield uses a digital antenna architecture centered on 32

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With a “not specified” number of digital TRMs but scalable and modular depending on the power generation requirements, the Kronos Power Shield L-band early warning radar has three main operating modes with flexibility in real-time selection of radar waveforms and frequencies optimized against each threat (ABT or TBM). It operates in long range surveillance against both ABT and TBMs at all altitudes and up to 400 km with elevation up to 70 degrees. Capable to operate autonomously or under cueing to provide fire solutions to other dedicated sensors, the Kronos Power Shield features a staring (fence) mode capability to detect medium range ballistic missiles within a predefined 45° azimuth and elevation up to 1,500 km to detect ballistic missile with separating warhead in the ascending phase. The Kronos Power Shield has been selected in the naval version by Italian Navy to equip the LHD amphibious ship with the system’s delivery to Fincantieri in the second-half of 2020 and the Qatar Emiri Naval Forces (QENF) to be installed on board the Fincantieri’s helicopter landing platform dock to be delivered within 2022. The Kronos Power Shield will also be available in a land mobile application, capable to satisfy the NATO BMD 2020 requirement.

Leonardo has developed the fully solid-state all-digital L-band Kronos Power Shield early warning radar which search, detect and track medium-range balistic missiles, here depiched on top of one of the two mast of the new LHD. © Leonardo


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The Rise of the Heavy-Lift Hybrid Airship By David Oliver

The Hybrid Air Vehicles (HAV) Airlander 10 in the hangar at its UK base at Cardington, Bedfordshire. ŠHAV

The military potential for lighter-than-air balloons has been realized for more than 200 years. Together with rigid and semi-rigid airships, they have been used through two World Wars in a variety of roles in warfare including reconnaissance, bombing, anti-submarine warfare (ASW), search and rescue (SAR) and transport. As a result of advance in materials and systems, there has been a revival of interest in their use over the future battlespace.

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A

lthough the US Navy finally called a halt to its airship operations in the 1970s after 60 years of continuous service, innovative new airship designs featuring composite materials for both the envelope and gondola, fly-by-light (FBL) controls systems and vectored thrust propulsion was being developed by the UK company, Airship Industries. A series of 70m (194ft) long Skyship 500/600 non-rigid were produced in the 1980/90s, several of which were evaluated by the military.

Enters the Skyship

Nevertheless, the British Army carried out a series of highly classified trials with a Skyship 600 over a period of five years from 1993, evaluating a wide range of cuttingedge technology surveillance systems. Again there was no follow up contract from the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) for further developments.

Switching to HAV and the LEMV‌ In 2007, the assets of Airship Technologies Services Ltd, the successor of Airship Industries, were acquired by Hybrid Air Vehicles (HAV) based at Cardington Airfield in Bedfordshire. In 2009 in partnership with Northrop Grumman as prime contractor, HAV won a US$517 million US Army contract to develop a Long Endurance Multiintelligence Vehicle (LEMV) to be delivered between 2009 and 2013. HAV designed, developed and manufactured the HAV 304 aircraft for the LEMV project, with Northrop Grumman acting as the prime contractor and sensor system integrator. On 7 August 2012 a successful 90-minute test flight took place in the United States at Lakehurst, New Jersey. However, the US Army cancelled the

In the late 1980s a Skyship 600 became the first airship to wear French Navy colours since the ill-fated Dixmude more than sixty years earlier. Fitted with MEL MARAC II Sea Searcher maritime radar mounted within the envelope, and an Aerospatiale ATOL camera pod and infra-red (IR) sensors, the Skyship was capable of detecting surface vessels at a range of 80km (50 miles) from a height of 620m (2,000ft). Although the trials were successful, cuts in the French defence budget prevented deployment of the system. In 1990, Airship Industries partnered with Westinghouse was awarded a US$169 million Airlander 10 outside the historic 248m (812ft) long wooden airship hangars contract to design and built at Cardington that were built in 1915. Š D. Oliver a new advanced long-range maritime airship for the US Navy, YEZ-2A which would be an operational development of the Sentinel 5000, a 27.5m (425ft) long air vehicle, the largest hybrid non-rigid airship ever built. However, a half-scale prototype was destroyed by fire, the YEZ-2A programme fell victim to US Navy defence cuts.

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successful flight that lasted for over an hour and a half but following a successful landing there was an issue with the mooring mast that required the pilot to take-off a second time and circle the airfield while the mast was repaired. During the second take-off, the nose mooring The first flight of the Airlander 10 took place on 17 August 2016. © HAV line dropped free and this 150ft line trailed beneath the aircraft which, on approach to landing programme in early 2013 due to technical contacted a power line on the approach and performance challenges and the end of causing a heavy landing that resulted in NATO operations in Afghanistan. damage to the cockpit structure but no injury In 2013 HAV bought the airship back from to the pilots. the US without the Northrop Grumman During the next eight months the team at HAV sensor suite and over the next three years repaired the damage and carried out some successfully raised funds to rebuilt and fly modifications that included the installation the aircraft in the UK. of a two airbag landing system, which the pilot can deploy for enhanced protection to On 17 August 2016, the HAV Airlander 10 the cabin and flight deck. The flight trials took to the sky for the first time at Cardington resumed in mid-2017 an by 17 November Airfield in Bedfordshire. The 302ft (92m) long six test flights totalling thirteen hours had hybrid airship weighing in at 20 tons claimed been completed. However, the next day the the title of the world’s largest flying aircraft. airship detached from its moorings in light HAV Chief Test Pilot Dave Burns was the only winds resulting in substantial damage that man in the world who has flown the vehicle caused it to deflate. having piloted it for tests in America before the US Army cancelled the LEMV project. He Despite these setbacks, HAV sees much trained as a commercial pilot and flight test potential for the aircraft, as a low cost engineer before becoming an airship pilot in intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance 1982 with Airship Industries planning and (ISR), maritime reconnaissance, SAR conducting flight tests towards certification platform, and para-dropping high and low of Skyship 600 and 500HL airships. altitude special forces from centre payload bay, and a sensor and communication Days of the Airlander platform. The aircraft can fly for up to five weeks carrying a 1,364kg (3,000lb) payload Powered by four 242kW (325hp), 4-litre and if a NATO customer becomes interested, V8 direct injection, the 92m (302ft) long the company could reinstate a remote hybrid non-rigid airship flew within a 6-mile piloting capability. (5 nautical mile) area around Cardington According to Simon Evans, the company’s Airfield at a height of 500ft and reached a head of business development for defence maximum speed of 35 knots. On 24 August and security, there is also major potential 2016 the Airlander undertook a second

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Lockheed Martin has begun construction of a heavylift hybrid non-rigid airship, the LMH-1, at its Skunk Works in California. © Lockheed Martin

for navies and coast guards. He said the company is talking to a non-US coast guard about potential capability to address issues like refugees and fishery surveillance. In a maritime role it could be used to resupplying vessels at sea. Airlander and its aircrew would also be available to be leased with various sensor systems installed to undertake specific long-range missions. There are also plans to develop the Airlander 50, a larger operational version with a 50 tonne payload.

Of Walruses and Skunks… The Airlander was not the only large hybrid non-rigid airship under development. Lockheed Martin has invested more than 20 years to develop the hybrid airship’s technology, prove its performance and ensure there are compelling economics for various markets that would benefit from using this platform. More than 10 years ago, its team built and flew the technology demonstrator known as the P-791, which successfully demonstrated all the technologies needed to make this real. The P-791 was a subscale

prototype for the DARPA-funded Walrus Hybrid Ultra Large Aircraft (HULA) project to create an airship capable of traveling up to 22,000km in range, while carrying 500-1000 tons of cargo. The Walrus could potentially have expanded and speeded the strategic airlift capability of the United States substantially while simultaneously reducing costs. The project was cancelled in 2010. Since then, Lockheed Martin has completed all required FAA certification planning steps for a new class of aircraft and it has begun construction of the first commercial model, the LMH-1, at its Skunk Works in California. Capable of carrying 47,000 lb. of payload and up to 19 passengers over ranges up to 1,400 nm at a cruise speed of 60 kts the 85m (280ft) long LMH-1 derives 80 percent of its lift from the buoyancy of helium gas and 20 percent from the aerodynamic lift generated by the shape of the tri-lobed vehicle and the thrust of its four propeller engines. The LMH-1 will have the capability to land anywhere, including on water using an air

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The 85m (280ft) long LMH-1 will be capable of carrying a 21 tonne (47,000 lb) of payload and up to 19 passengers. © Lockheed Martin

cushion landing system (ACLS) based on the P791 system. Unlike the four-pad ACLS used on the P791, the LMH-1 airship will incorporate two main pads aft and a smaller, forward-mounted ACLS pad. The vehicle is designed to land aircraft-like on the two main pads first and then on the ‘nose leg’ positioned pad which is located beneath the forward end of the 46m (150ft) long passenger and cargo carrying gondola. Powered by four 228kW or 300 hp V6 diesel engines driving three-bladed propellers, thrust vectoring and motion of control surfaces on the four tails on the LMH-1 are controlled through a vehicle management system using a full axis electronic fly-by-wire (FBW) controls. For take-off and landing the flight control system (FCS) is derived from the algorithm developed for the Lockheed Martin F-35B short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) version of the Joint Strike Fighter. Below 20 kts, inputs from the control inceptor in the two-person flight deck will operate in vertical mode. Above 25 kts, these convert to ‘up-and-away’ flying mode. Between the two airspeeds is a blended zone for the transition to landing from forward flight, or vice versa. A trigger on the pilot’s sidestick controller initiates a braking maneuver which is instigated by deflection

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of the vertical tails followed by reverse pitch on the propellers as speed drops below 15 kts. Lockheed Martin has Letters of Intent (LOI) for 24 airships from customers including the UK-based Straight Line Aviation, PRL Logistics and the French company Hybrid Air Freighters. Straight Line has already announced plans to operate LMH-1s in Canada’s Arctic and PRL Logistics to operate in Alaska.

Current Russian endeavours Russia has a long history of airship development dating back to the 1920s. RosAeroSystems, currently a leading Russian lighter-than-air manufacturer that was founded in 1997. It is the only Russian company able to produce and test envelopes up to 50,000 cubic metre volume and has already built the two-seat Au-12 airship which has been certified by the Interstate Aviation Committee of the CIS and been used to patrol the Moscow Ring highway for the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The multifunctional helium semi-rigid Au-30 is a 10-seat airship is already in production and in 2008 set a new Class BA-05 world distance record for a 626km (389-mile)


Russia’s RosAeroSystems has built a number of semi-rigid airships, including this Au-30 assembled in France and is developing the Atlant to carry a 14,000kg (31,000lb) payload. © RosAeroSystems

Here comes the Stratobus

flight from St Petersburg to Kirzhauch. Powered by two 127kw (170hp) LOM 332N 4-cyliner thrust vectoring cruise engines, the Au-30 is designed to have a typical patrol configuration of four or five operators and relevant workstations. The third Au-30 was assembled in France but in January the gondola was wrecked in a gale at FayenceTourette Airport in Southern France and was not repaired until 2011. RosAeroSystems is also developing the Atlant-series of helium semi-rigid airships designed for bulk cargo transport, the largest of which would be 75m (250ft) long with a hull volume of 30,000m cube, powered by four 466kW (625hp) vectored thrust piston engines. However, the Atlant projects remains on the drawing board until funding is raised.

While these heavylift airship projects have been designed to be manned, Thales Alenia Space is developing Stratobus, an autonomous multi-mission stratospheric airship operating at an altitude of 20 kilometers, above the jet stream and air traffic, designed for a wide range of civil or military regional applications including telecommunications, navigation, and surveillance. The 115m (377ft) long seven tonne Stratobus can carry a 450kg (990lb) payload comprising both radar, including the Thales Searchmaster, and optical imaging payloads, which gives it continuous surveillance capability, day or night and under all weather conditions. For military applications, it can be displaced as theatres of operation move. The prototype will be built at Thales Alenia Space’s facility at Istres in southern France with a first flight projected in late 2020 or 2021 leading to a market entry from 2025.

Thales Alenia Space is developing Stratobus, an autonomous multi-mission stratospheric airship designed for a wide range of civil or military regional applications. © Thales

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The AUDS was developed by three British companies, Blighter, Chess Dynamics and Enterprise Control Systems, which provided respectively the radar, the optronic suite and the EW suite, to create a comprehensive C-UAS system. © Blighter

Countering the small UAS threat By Paolo Valpolini The threat posed by LSS-UAS (Low, Slow and Small-Unmanned Aerial Systems) has become a reality both in homeland security and military scenarios.

T

his very menace has become serious, and within NATO the last study produced by the Industrial Advisory Group is the SG-200, “Study on Low, Slow and Small Threat Effectors” which draft was published in 2017, this following two other studies by the Atlantic Alliance, the SG-170 and the SG-188, published in the previous years. All these

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reports come to a main conclusion, that no sensor type alone can provide sufficient tracking and identification capabilities in order to offer a reliable and effective defence against the LSS-UAS threat. A key element to be considered is that the swarm capability is not far away, which will increase difficulties for defenders.


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A new market on the horizon The number of companies involved in the C-UAS market is constantly increasing; Market Forecast recently published its “Global Counter UAV (C-UAV) Systems Market Forecast to 2026” that foresees two scenarios, one without significant events and one marked by a successful attack by a UAS. In the first case the civil market should grow from 123 to 273 million US$, with a 10.5% CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) while the military market should grow from 379 to 1,223 million US$, with a 15.8% CAGR. In case of a UAS attack a spike in acquisitions would mark the earlier years, followed by a certain decline. In any case the data from both scenarios show a considerable market increase. As said, a single sensor is unable to cope with the LSS-UAS threat, thus different types are used, typically radars, radio wave receivers, acoustic and optical sensors. Neutralising the threat can come in different forms, one being a soft-kill approach, using jammers, spoofers that misdirect the drone acting on GPS signals, or hacking its controls, the other being a hard-kill one, using lasers, high energy microwaves, physical barriers or even solid projectiles in different forms.

Going for COTS Leaving aside systems aimed at the neutralisation of Tactical UAS and bigger systems, which might be considered part of the VSHORAD, we will concentrate on systems that deal with lower-tier UAS, often COTS systems, ensuring their neutralisation at medium and short range. According to industry sources, an average detection range against LSS-UAS targets for current radars is 8 km, with tracking capacities at

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One among the few European high power laser system developers, Rheinmetall has proven its HEL against UAS in various demonstrations. © Rheinmetall

5km, while electro-optical systems have an 8km search range and a 4 km tracking range. As for effectors, RF systems can inhibit a drone at 8 km distance and disrupt the system at 2.5 km, jamming being effective around 2 km, while lasers and EM pulse can be used at 1.5 km. Simplifying things, and considering those systems that can be used in military as well as in homeland security scenarios, we can divide C-UAS solutions into medium and short range ones. The former are usually static or vehicle mounted, and provide a “safety bubble” which ranges are approximately those aforementioned. Short-range systems, usually coming in the form of “RF-rifles”, can be used for point defence, their effectiveness in preventing damages depending on the type of payload carried by the UAS itself. Let’s start from what we defined medium range C-UAS systems. Some major groups tend to provide undefined solutions, due to the amount of systems and subsystems


included in their portfolio. In Europe Thales is definitely one example, providing modular and scalable solutions, exploiting its integration capabilities. In some cases it is therefore difficult to depict a defined solution, as many options are offered.

Talking about AUDS Coming to actual products, one among the first entering the scene was the AUDS (AntiUAV Defence Solution), developed by three British companies that put together their competencies to give birth to a complete solution. The main sensor is the Blighter A400 frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) doppler surveillance radar working in the Ku-band; it ensures a 180° coverage in azimuth, elevation depending on the antenna. With its 8 km range it provides cueing to Chess Dynamics Hawkeye video tracker, fitted with a colour high resolution camera with x30 optical zoom, a 3rd generation cooled thermal camera, an E/O video tracker, and an optional optical disruptor. Developed and produced by Skysec of Switzerland, the Sentinel is a reusable flying system that captures the incoming UAS using a net. © Skysec

The effector is a directional RF inhibitor by Enterprise Control System that features a

high gain quad-band antenna; it covers all GNSS frequencies and being software defined it can adopt optimised disruption profiles. The AUDS detect, track, defeat process typically takes 8 to15 seconds. The AUDS proved to be highly effective against swarm attacks and was tested against more than 60 types of fixed wing and quadcopters threats. The AUDS is available in three configurations, a portable platform for rooftop installation, a rugged field-mast system for forward operating bases or temporary camps, and a fixed system for borders and critical infrastructures. The AUDS can also be vehicle-mounted, the system having been optimised and ruggedised for being deployed on military trucks or commercial surveillance vehicles. The system was deployed downrange by US military units in 2016, and thus achieved TRL-9 status in January 2017. Rheinmetall approaches the C-UAS problem in a slightly different way, as it considers a more evolved threat, in the form of drones modified to avoid detection via RF, which need GBAD derivatives to ensure detection and to mitigate effects; the 175 grammes GPSdome module, built by the homonymous Israeli company, “is a bolt-on module that provides affordable, effective protection against the jamming of GPS receivers” says the brochure. How long will it take for such a technology to fall in the wrong hands? Thus the Rheinmetall decision to close the gap using various systems available in the group portfolio, to cope with non-cooperative targets. The company already won two major orders for protecting prisons, in Switzerland and in Germany, with what is known as Radshield, made up of various modules thus adaptable to customers requirements.

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Among those we find the UMIT (Universal Multispectral Information and Tracking), a surveillance suite fitted with a series of 12 TV and 8 IR sensors covering the 360° and an MSP600 four axis stabilized electrooptical used to track the incoming threat. A FAST infrared search and track 360° cooled IR sensor with a 5 fps refresh rate can be added, as well as Oerlikon MMRs (Multi Mission Radar) AESA radars each covering 90° in azimuth and 80° in elevation. Decision making is done using the SC2PS (Sensor Command & Control Software), that can be made available at different command levels, from personal to national. As for effectors, Rheinmetall proposes a series of solutions, starting from its 35 mm guns, revolver or twin, using the AHEAD ammunition (a 30 mm AHEAD single shot system is under consideration), to its laser HEL (High Energy Laser) systems, currently considered at TRL6. One level lower, at TRL5 comes the Sentinel, a reusable flying interceptor developed by Skysec of Switzerland. It is powered by an electric motor that drives a front propeller allowing to reach 230 km/h, with a range of up to 4 km. The Sentinel, which is 700 mm long with a 300 mm wingspan and weighs 1.8 kg, is fitted with a seeker in its nose; launched knowing the rough 3D position of the UAS, it closes to the target and ejects a net at the back that captures the incoming drone, a parachute bringing it down on earth together with the Sentinel zeroing collateral damages.

More Germanic solutions Other effectors proposed by Rheinmetall are the HPM (High Power Microwave), used also for IED neutralisation, as well as a 9 mm a multibarrel gun with a 1500 rounds

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The Xpeller was developed by Hensoldt of Germany as a modular system, which can be used by military or homeland security services, here the system being deployed to protect an airport from UAS intruders. © Hensoldt

per minute rate. capable to fire a 30 rounds volley, each round generating a burst of plastic projectiles with minimal residual energy while falling on the ground, less than 0.1 J/mm2. Beside its activities in the defence field, together with Frequentis, the Austrian high-tech company active in the communication and information systems, Rheinmetall is proposing its systems for airport defence. Remaining in Germany Hensoldt, the sensor house formed in 2017 from Airbus’ defence electronics activities, developed the Xpeller, made of building blocks all developed and produced in-house. It includes the X-band Spexer 500 radar, with a coverage of 120° in azimuth and 30° in elevation and a typical detection range of 4 km, the NightOwl ZM-ER, with a colour camera and a 3-5μm thermal camera, and a UAV jammer operating in the 20-6000 MHz band with nominal power of 10 to 400 W, fitted with omnidirectional or directional antennas. To further improve detection capabilities in May 2017 the company signed an agreement with Squarehead Technology of Norway to integrate its Discovair acoustic sensor into the Xpeller. This system is based


IDS of Italy thoroughly tested its Black Night C-UAS system and is now involved in the development of a national solution together with Leonardo and Elettronica. © P.Valpolini

of the Guardion is its deployment in July 2017 in Hamburg during the G20 summit, ESG having been tasked by the Bundeskriminalamt to ensure site protection.

Italian, Israeli and Turkish providers on an acoustical microphone array with 128 individual microphone elements, the sensor unit containing also the signal processor. Another solution coming from Germany is the Guardion, which put together elements from three different companies. The command and control element is ESG’s Taranis, which fuses and analyses all incoming sensor data, visualizes the incoming drone, and monitors the situation. Rhode & Schwarz provides the RF detection system, known as Ardronis, which focuses on remote control radio links of commercial drones. Radar, optronic and acoustic sensors can be added. The Ardronis doubles as an effector, as it can disrupt drone’s remote control radio links as well as the GNSS signal, while R&S WIFI Disconnect enables to detect and disrupt the exact WIFI signal used to operate the drone. The hard kill element comes from Diehl Defence in the form of the HPEM counter UAS, a scalable system capable to destroy electronics inside drones thanks to electromagnetic pulses, with ranges of several hundred meters and the capability to deal with swarm attacks. The only known use

In Italy Leonardo developed the Falcon Shield, which integrates radar, such as the Lyra 10, an optronic suite, for example the Nerio-ULR, and EW modules, in order to cope with the entire neutralisation process. On its side IDS (Ingegneria Dei Sistemi) developed the Black Knight, an integrated system based on a doppler radar, a midrange electro-optic system with TV and IR sensors, and a multiband jammer-disruptor. It can be fitted with additional sensors such as direction finders, in the three bands of interest. Elettronica developed the Adrian, a

Rafael of Israel developed the Drone Dome that includes Controp optronics and Netline COMINT systems. © Rafael

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system capable to detect uplink and downlink signals of aerial vehicles and ground operators, to classify, identify and geolocalise them, thanks to an extensive library that can be constantly updated by the user, and soft-kill the threat using smart jamming techniques. Both systems were field tested in 2017. Currently the two aforementioned companies, together with Leonardo, are developing an integrated system aimed at answering an Italian Air Force requirement which details remain classifgied for the time being. Aselsan of Turkey developed two systems, the vehicle-mounted Gergedan-UAV and the fixed installation Ihtar. The firmer is a software defined jamming system fully programmable, over 100 different jamming profiles being available. The RF spectrum coverage is provided according to customers requirements, the standard antenna being omnidirectional, directional ones being used as option. With a weight of 65 kg, it has an RF output power of less than 650 W, its endurance on batteries being of one hour. The Ihtar uses the Gergedan as its effector, to which a Ku-band Acar radar is added, providing a 5 km mini-UAS detection range over 360°, sector scanning being also available. An electro-optic sensor can be added, usually mounted on an HSY stabilised platform, which can also host the Acar. Both systems have been sold to several countries in near Asia, the Ihtar having been installed at an Indonesian facility in late 2017. As for the domestic market, the Gergedan-UAV has been installed on numerous vehicles for VIP protection, while the Ihtar is being considered for military base protection. In late 2017 the Israeli government unveiled a national task force, led by the Air Force, that will deal with domestic drone safety and

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security issues. That said, national industries already developed numerous solutions in that field. Rafael developed the Drone Dome, a tripod-mounted system that brings together sensors from various companies with Rafael effectors and command and control suite. Detection is provided by the RPS-42 multimission hemispheric radar provided by Rada 1, which picks up a 0.002 m2 RCS target at 3.5 km, together with a Netline NetSense COMINT system operating in the 20 MHz to 6 GHz range, which detects signals even before take-off providing azimuth indication thanks to 60° sector antennas. Identification is ensured by a Controp MEOS optronic suite that includes a daylight CCD camera with a x50 zoom, a thermal camera and a 3rd generation camera. Rafael C4I suite integrates sensors and its algorithms provide all information needed by the operator, that can neutralise the incoming drone using Netline C-Guard jamming g system, that operates on five channels between 433 MHz and 5.6 GHz. In this configuration first deliveries are expected in Q2 2018. Last year however Rafael announced the The ReDrone by Elbit Systems is provided in two different configurations, sensor only and sensor and effector, depending on customers’ needs. © Elbit Systems


At IDEF 2017 Aselsan of Turkey unveiled various C-UAS systems among which the Ihasavar man portable rifle-like system. © P. Valpolini

addition of a hard kill solution, in the form of a laser capable to neutralise a drone at 2.5 km distance, output power being between 2 and 10 kW, depending on customer choice. At maximum distance the required time on target is of around 10 seconds, the shorter the distance, the lesser the ToT needed. This effector should be available in late 2018. In late 2016 Elbit Systems unveiled its ReDrone, which Level 1 configuration is based on a purely passive electromagnetic detection, identification and location system, available in different configurations, portable, vehicular and man-pack. The system, which offers a 360° coverage, emits only when required to defeat the drone. A Level 2 option, integrated with radar and optronic sensors increases its range to 3-4 km. IMI Systems Red Sky 2 includes an IR tracker operating in the 3-5 µm with continuous zoom camera, horizontal FoV ranging from 2.2° to 27°, covering the 360° through continuous rotation, with a 15 km maximum range, and an X-band portable radar, its weight being 30 kg, with TWS capability up to 100 targets, and a detection range of 6 km against small

UAVs. Two jammers, a wide-band high power omnidirectional system with 400 W output, and a stand-alone multi-directional jammer capable of detection and jamming up to 600 meters, complete the system, together with a con troll unit. IMI Systems announced the selling of “several” Red Sky 2 to Thailand in December 2017. One month earlier IAIElta announced a 39 million US$ contract for its DroneGuard unveiled in February 2016 and based on Elta’s 3D radars with different detection ranges, 10, 15 and 20 km respectively for the ELM-2026D, ELM-2026B and ELM-2026BF. These are complemented by optronic devices, dedicated electronic attack jamming systems ensuring disruption of the drone flight.

Short range countermeasures Coming to short range systems, ITHPP Alcen of France developed the Drone Sniper, a 1.9 kg module that is attached under an assault rifle as a grenade launcher. It is able to jam GNSS(L1), Wi-Fi 2.4 and 5.8 GHz signals, total emitting power being 5W. The directional antenna ensures an effective hamming distance between 500 and 1,000 meters, the Li-Ion battery providing an operating time of 1.5 hour. Steel Rock of the UK proposes its NightFighter solutions. The NightFighter Digital employs white noise technology against its targets and features a custom-made, multi-band helix and flat panel antenna array. Battery and jammer are housed in a back-packable case while the directional antenna is mounted on an AR-15 platform equipped with a rail system where the customer can fit its sight of choice. The NightFighter Pro works on up to five frequency bands covering the most common UAV operating frequencies. The

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output power and gain for each frequency band can be adjusted separately, the physical layout being similar to that of the junior model. At IDEF 2017 Aselsan of Turkey introduced its the Ihasavar, an RF jamming system operating on two frequency bands, 400-3000 MHz and 5700-5900 MHz, with an RF output power of 50 W. Fitted with a high gain directional antenna, it works on Li-Ion batteries that provide 1.5 hour operation time. Around 25 systems were delivered in Turkey, mostly at military customers, five more systems having been provided to Turkish Airlines for the protection of Istanbul Atatürk and Sabiha Gökçen airports against drone-related traffic disruptions. Aselsan expects order in the order of 200-500 systems in the coming months from the Turkish military, following the promising reports from the field. As for the export market, in late 2017 Aselsan delivered approximately 50 Ihasavar to a nearAsia customer who deployed them with its land forces, the company expecting several contracts, each for around 10-20 systems, in Q1-Q2 2018. At IDEF 2017 Aselsan launched its Meerkat pocket RF receiver operating in the 20-6000 MHz frequency range, originally intended as an EW warning item for Special Forces. The Ankara-based company is

MyDefence of Denmark developed numerous RF sensors among which the Wolfpack, a 5 kg system working in the 70 MHz to 6 GHz range of frequencies. © MyDefence

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developing an algorithm able to detect and classify Drone/UAV RF communications, giving the operator a rough direction (hands of the clock) of the target drone. This will considerably enhance the effectiveness of the Ihasavar, while maintaining it a manportable system. Technical demonstrations were carried out successfully, Aselsan being now in the final product development and certification phase, the company expecting the new system to be available in Q4 2018.

Sensors and effectors Numerous European companies provide sensors or effectors. Cerbair of France provides mobile and stationary sensor suites, the former being mounted on an extendable mast while the latter is installed on the infrastructure itself. Both are built on the same modules, the DW-OP-01 optical sensor with a 92° field of view and detection ranges of 100 meters at night and 150 meters in daylight, the DW-RF-01 radiofrequency sensor operating in the 2.42.5 and 5.725-6.875 GHz with a 90° azimuth coverage, directional dual-or single-band antennas being also available. Sensors are linked to a computer using the Dronewatch software that allows detecting, tracking and identification of all types of civilian drones. Still in France Inpixal developed the DroneAlarm, a detection server that exploits optronic sensors to provide an alarm on existing security systems. Aaronia of Germany proposes its Aartos RF detection system the company Iso-LOG 3D antenna, a portable or stationary real-time spectrum analyser and a special software plugin for the RTSA suite software. Depending on the antenna and the analyser the range varies between 500 meters and 7 km.


MyDefence of Denmark proposes a complete catalogue of systems, ranging from sensors to effectors. Two wearable personal drone alarm systems are proposed, Wingman 100, for police officers, and a ruggedized Wingman 101, designed for Special Forces. Both are capable of detection from 70MHz6GHz with a semi-directional antenna, (an external omnidirectional antenna is also available with 360° coverage), and weigh less than 500 grams. The major differences between the Wingman 100 and 101 is the power supply and operating temperatures of the units. Through continuous scanning the Wingman can detect drone communications providing sound, vibration or visual warnings. Still in the RF sensors domain the Watchdog is suited for fixed installations; capable of detection from 70 MHz-6 GHz, it has a detection range in excess of 2 km on a 60° azimuth angle, and a number of sensors can be networked to increase range and accuracy. Small and light, 515 grams, it can be easily integrated into vehicles. A bigger sensor is the Wolfpack, working on the same frequencies but covering a 360°, with similar detection range but a weight of 5 kg. The Danish company also develops the Eagle oneman deployable X-band radar with a 1.5 km detection range; the system weighs only 23 kg and is a 360° rotating radar. To integrate and support its sensors MyDefence developed the Iris command and control (C2) alarm system, which also accepts third party sensors through the company software development kit. DroneDefence in the UK installed its SkyFence in 2017 to protect the Guernsey prison; typically the system is made of six RF receivers, each covering 60°, operating in the 2.4 and 5.8 GHz bands, connected to control boxes that are linked via Ethernet to the command centre. These allow detecting the incoming drone

and then shift into barrage jamming mode to counter the threat. It also proposes the Dynopis E1000MP directional jammer, a 10 kg backpackable system working on the same frequencies of the SkyFence, capable to disrupt the drone video feed and GNSS up to one kilometre. The same company also developed a last ditch defence system, the Net Gun X1, mostly aimed at law enforcement; it launches a 3x3 meters net up to 5-10 meters distance or a 1.5 meter radius spider at 15 meters distance, generating a protective barrier in the first case or allowing to capture the drone in the second one.

The SkyFence, developed by DroneDefence of the UK, has been deployed to avoid UAS incursions into the perimeter of Guernsey prison. © SkyFence

On the UK Openworks developed the Skywall, based on pneumatically launched projectiles which are available in different payloads, net (SP10), net with parachute (SP40) and net with ECM (SP80). Two launchers are available, the manportable Skywall 100, weighing 12 kg, capable to engage approaching targets flying at 15 m/s and crossing targets at 12.5 m/s at a minimum range of 10 meters and a maximum range of 120 meters horizontally and 100 meters vertically, and the Skywall 300, to be installed in an RCWS mount, which maximum ranges increase to 250 meters and threat speed at 50 m/s.

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Different net payloads can be fired from Openworks Skywall 300 to capture drones; the UK company also developed a man portable system known as Skywall 100. © Openworks

Still in the UK, Rinicom proposes its SkyPatriot, an optic-based UAS detector with a detection range of over 1 km. The 520 mm diameter, 5 kg system includes a 7.513.5 µm thermal sensor with a 150 mm lens and a colour optic sensor with a x30 zoom; according to Rinicom detection range varies between 1 and 8 km, the system allowing simultaneous detection of more than 10 drones flying up to 25 m/s with minimum size of 5 cm. Robin Radar Systems of the Netherlands, specialised in bird radars (its name derives from the TNO project name: Radar Observation of Bird INtensity - ROBIN, the company being a spin-off of TNO) developed a sensor dedicated to drone detection. Known as Elvira, the company aim was to produce an affordable system, with a much lower price than derivatives of military radars. An FMCW X-band radar with a weight of 82 kg, it has a detection range of 3 km and a classification range of 1.1 km against drones, coverage being 360° in azimuth and 10° in

Delft Dynamics answered the Dutch requirement with its DroneCatcher, a VTOL UAS that releases a net over the incoming UAS capturing it and forcing it into ground. © Delft Dynamics

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elevation, with azimuth resolution of 1° and range resolution of 3.2 meters. Controp of Israel proposes its Twister lightweight passive IR scanning system, which covers a 360° sector with a scan frequency of 1 Hz. It can be backpacked by two people or mounted on fixed installations.

DroneCatcher, the Dutch solution In the Netherlands Delft Dynamics developed the DroneCatcher under the auspices of the Ministry of Security and Justice, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee and the National Police. The system is based on a multicopter “armed” with a compact mechanically shooting net system. Once the target is identified by a ground sensor, the DroneCatcher flies towards it, maximum speed being 20 m/s, multiple onboard sensors allowing to lock the net gun on


In January 2018 Orbital ATK announced the successful testing of its airburst munitions against drones firing them from a XM914 30mm Bushmaster Chain Gun mounted to the Stryker combat vehicle. © Orbital ATK

the target. The drone is then captured and carried under tether or dropped with a parachute, if too heavy to be carried by the DroneCatcher. The system weighs 6 kg and has a 30 minutes endurance, the netgun range being 20 metres.

Around the world Many C-UAS solutions have been developed around the world. In the US DARPA launched an RfI for a “novel, flexible, mobile layered defense systems... [that] could be fielded within the next three to four years, and are structured to rapidly evolve with threat and tactic advancements2.” Numerous solutions have already been developed. SRC Inc’s Silent Archer is made of company elements such as a radar (AM/TPQ-50, AN/TPQ-49, R1400 or SkyChaser), an EW system (Sabre Fury, SRC5986A or other), a direction finding unit and an optronic system. When fitted with the SkyChaser the system can be used on the move. Among short range

systems we find Radio Hill Dronebuster, a 2.25 kg jammer, IXI Technology Dronekiller, another rifle-like portable jammer, and Battelle’s DroneDefender, among others. Looking at hard kill, Orbital ATK demonstrated the effectiveness of its programmable airburst munitions against hostile drones in tactical scenarios. As for sensors, Northrop Grumman developed the MAUI (Mobile Application for UAS Identification), a mobile acoustic sensor operating on Android cell phones that uses the phone’s microphone to detect drones, defined weighing less than 9 kg, flying lower than 400 meters and flying slower than 185 km/h.  Among sensors, Dedrone developed the RF-100, a passive, network-attached sensor for the detection of radio frequencies (RF) and Wi-Fi signals weighing only 3.1 kg. It ensures omnidirectional passive detection and classification up to 1 km. Vector Artemis is another RF system that controls frequencies using an automated spectrum analyser and proprietary Hunter algorithm, identifying potential targets. With a weight of 4.5 kg ot has a detection range of 1 km and an

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intercept range of 800 meters, and is capable to intercept up to five drones simultaneously. CACI’s SkyTracker is another RF passive system, designed to protect geographically compact locations. Based on optronics, AscentVision CM202U includes a MWIR sensor with a x20 optical zoom and a video sensor with a x60 optical zoom, ensuring detection of a drone at nearly 5km in daytime and 2 km at night, identification ranges being respectively 1 km and 380 metres. The system weighs less than 6 kg and the operator can track up to 200 static or moving target. In Australia DroneShield offers medium range detect and defeat solutions as well as short range ones. DroneSentry has a multiple sensor suite based on a primary sensor in the form of a radar, RadarZero (the size of a paperback book, launched in February 2018) or RadarOne, and/or an RF system, RfOne, secondary sensors, acoustic WideAlert, thermal DroneHeat or optical DroneOpt; the DroneCannon is the primary countermeasure, defeating both RF links and GNSS signals. If effectors are not installed the system is known as DroneSentinel. As for manportable systems, the DroneGun Tactical, the latest product unveiled in February 2018, all self-contained in a rifle-type mount weighing 6.8 kg, jams RF

and GNSS signals in the 433 MHz, 915 M Hz, 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz bands at a range of up to 1 km. The Mk II version, made of the gun and a backpack, jams only the higher frequency bands, but its range being of 2 km. DroneShield systems are already in use in the Middle East as well as in a G7 NATO country where the MkII is employed by Special Forces, the company being involved in pursuing other contracts in many countries among which the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, South Korea and Spain. In February 2018 the Queensland Police announced that the DroneGun will be used to protect the sites during the XXI Commonwealth Games. In the Far East, China is becoming a major player in the C-UAS field: at Milipol 2017 Beijing SZMID exhibited its Drone Zoro short and medium range system, the Defender-SZ01 Pro and DZ-DG01 Pro, while Novasky proposed its SC-J1000M portable and SC-J1000 fixed jammers, as well as its passive radar, an RF detection and location system.

DroneShield of Australia offers different systems, among which its DroneGun which is being actively marketed in numerous countries, some of them European. Š DroneShield

1- In August 2017 Rada announced a further order worth 1 million US$ for its multi-mission radars to be used in Counter-UAV role by the US military. 2-Request for Information (RFI) DARPA-SN-16-58 - Mobile Force Protection Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Tactical Technology Office (TTO) 52

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EDITORIAL Brahmos can be launched from multiple platforms against multiple targets. © Brahmos

BRAHMOS: The Ultimate Weapon of Choice The swiftly changing geostrategic developments across the globe and in the AsiaPacific region in particular have led to an unprecedented arms race with several countries trying to ramp up their defence capability and military preparedness by acquiring the best platforms and weapon systems. In such a crucial time, the emergence of BRAHMOS supersonic cruise missile as one of the finest weapon systems for modern military platforms has given a major fillip to the Indian defence industry and promises to change the dynamics of worldwide cruise missile market. The universal BRAHMOS Weapon System, jointly designed, developed and produced by India’s DRDO and Russia’s NPOM, has established itself as the most formidable tactical weapon with impeccable anti-ship and land-attack capability.

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The supersonic speed, high precision and lethal firepower of BRAHMOS, which can be launched from multiple platforms against multiple targets, has made it an “ultimate force multiplier” in modern-day conflict situations. Flying at a top speed of Mach 2.8, the 290-km BRAHMOS carries a warhead of up to 300-kg. The terrain-hugging, fire-&forget, quick-reaction missile having stealth features uses a high-low trajectory throughout its supersonic flight, thus evading enemy air defence systems. Today, all three wings of the Indian Armed Forces have successfully deployed the powerful missile as their “weapon of choice”. The BRAHMOS land-attack cruise missile (LACM), deployed by the Indian Army, has been developed to carry out land strike missions in “steep dive”, “top attack”, “target discrimination”, “deep penetration”


and “precision attack” modes. The unique missile, thus, has significantly changed the dynamics of modern land warfare missions. In its ship-launched variant, BRAHMOS has armed Indian Navy warships as the “prime strike weapon”. Over ten Indian Naval warships, including frigates and destroyers, have deployed the precision guided missile in both anti-ship and land-attack configurations for maritime warfare roles. The versatile BRAHMOS has also proved its capability to be launched from underwater platform, thus promising to galvanize the offensive firepower of submarines. The most coveted feat for the world-class weapon was achieved on 22 November, 2017 when the BRAHMOS air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) system created a world record after it was successfully test fired from the Indian Air Force’s frontline Su-30MKI heavy strike fighter against a sea-based target in the Bay of Bengal off India’s eastern coast. With that highly successful mission, India became the only country in the world to possess the capability of launching a supersonic cruise

missile from land, sea, sub-sea & air. With its unmatched speed, precision and firepower, the BRAHMOS-A missile has emerged as an unparalleled precision strike weapon among all other conventional airborne weapons. The missile has significantly bolstered the IAF’s air combat operations capability from stand-off ranges. Today, BRAHMOS has established itself as the world’s most potent and versatile supersonic cruise missile system. And in order to continue its leading trajectory, BrahMos Aerospace, the designer, developer and producer of the missile, is now focused on developing even more powerful, futuristic variants of the formidable weapon, including the miniature BRAHMOSNG (next-gen) and the hypersonic BRAHMOSII (K), which are set to carry forward the excellent lineage of the existing world-class BRAHMOS well into the distant future.The weapon system is now eying defence market with propospective sale to few friendly countries approved by the Governments of India & Russia. BrahMos is one of the most attractive system showcasing its various options in DSA-2018 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Brahmos was successfully test fired from the Indian Air Force’s frontline Su-30MKI heavy strike fighter against a sea-based target in the Bay of Bengal off India’s eastern coast. © Brahmos

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Kh-31P anti-radiation missile have been integrated with the Sukhoi fighter jets. © N. Novichkov

KTRV Raises Efficiency of Anti-Radiation Missiles By Dmitry Fedushko Russia`s Tactical Missiles Corporation (KTRV) is improving the combat performance of its missiles, Director General of the company Boris Obnosov told the European Defence Review (EDR) magazine.

T

urning to the main approaches to the development of missile weaponry, the head of the corporation stressed that the primary task is to increase range, accuracy, speed and jamming resistance of missiles. “The drive for the enhancing of these specifications and developing of something innovative will always take place,” Obnosov said.

Kh-31 (NATO reporting name: AS-17 Krypton) family of missiles, to potential customers.

These missiles are intended exclusively for foreign operators, a representative of KTRV said. “They [the Kh-31 missiles] have been integrated with the Sukhoi fighter jets,” he added. For instance, the Su-30MK-family multirole combat aircraft, including Su-30MKI (Flanker-H), Su-30MKK (Flanker-G) and other planes, can carry this weapon. At the same time, the Kh-31 Kh-31, the ultimate Anti is not available for the integration with foreignRadiation Missile originated air platforms. “Interfacing works The anti-radiation missiles (ARM) being are required to this end. Even our potential developed by KTRV fully embody the above- customers, which acquire foreign aircraft, mentioned approach. The corporation now cannot do it without our involvement,” the offers a wide range of ARM, including the representative of KTRV said.

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The Kh-31 family of missiles includes the baseline Kh-31P ARM and its variants, namely the Kh-31PK and the extended-range Kh-31PD. The Kh-31P can be fitted with various passive radar seekers. The weapon is designed to engage both ground- and sea-based radar stations. The missile carries an 87 kg warhead. The Kh-31P has a launch range of 15-110 km and a maximum speed of 1,000 m/s. The launch range of Kh-31PD missile, has been doubled

The Kh-31PK features a proximity sensor and compared to that of the baseline Kh-31P .© N. Novichkov an improved warhead. The missile`s basic specifications are equal to those of the Kh-31P. According to him, China was trying to copy the missile; however, these efforts failed. “China could not copy the missile. At the same time, Increasing the range they continue their endeavour to develop an The increase of missiles` launch range is analogue missile. The fact that China uses the among the primary targets set before KTRV. Kh-31P missiles reveals the failure of its efforts The accomplishing of this goal has resulted to create such a missile,” the representative in the development of the Kh-31PD, the of KTRV said. The Chinese copy of the Khlaunch range of which has been almost 31 produced by Hongdu AIC is designated doubled compared to that of the baseline YJ-91 (Ying Ji 91). The Hongdu Aviation Kh-31P. The Kh-31PD can engage a radar Industry Group is reported to be developing station at a range of up to 180-250 km. The the anti-radiation and anti-ship variants of missile features a combined guidance, which the YJ-91 missile. includes an inertial navigation system and a passive radar seeker, and a 110 kg universal KTRV is successfully implementing a programme or cluster warhead. The preemptive attack to replace imported components. It has resulted capability of the air-launched weapon has in the replacement of all the Kh-31`s foreignbeen drastically improved, owing to extended originated parts by Russian-made fully similar range. In a case, when the Kh-31PD and an copies. “In late 2017, we have replaced all the enemy`s surface-to-air missile are launched imported components, namely, Ukrainian-made simultaneously, an aircraft is at advantage as connectors and radio parts,” the representative a result of high average speed of the Russian of the corporation concluded. missile. The Kh-31P is the first air-launched tactical The Kh-31 is attached to the external hard missile powered by a combined powerplant points of a fighter jet. “The length of the that incorporates a ramjet engine and a missile`s fins makes its integration with an solid-fuel booster. The implementation of internal weapon bay impossible. Hence, the this solution has resulted in high supersonic AKU-58 catapult ejector drops it [the Kh-31]. average flight speed of the weapon. The Owing to a ramjet engine, the speed of the missile`s radar seeker searches for targets, missile can be maintained during all stages of using information provided by the carrier its flight. It is important in a duel situation,” the or gathered autonomously, tracks them and representative of KTRV said. shapes signals for the guidance system. EDR | May/June 2018

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MAGAZINE European Defence Review European Defence Review (EDR) is the first magazine in English focusing on defence issues with a European perspective and one which is fully managed by well-known journalists specialised in defence and security. EDR addresses every topic of the defence sector: equipment and industrial issues, armed forces and operations, but also strategic and political news concerning defence and security issues. Although the articles will be mainly focused on European topics, the review also discusses the main countrie’s partners of Europe and emerging markets: Russia, the Middle East, Brazil, India… EDR distributes during the major international defence trade fairs. The readers include military decision-makers, both political and industrial, from European countries as well as traditional or potential partners of the European defence community. Finally, EDR covers all of the major defence exhibitions worldwide; privileged accasions where policy makers, military and trade-related, are attending. N° 38 • March/April 2018

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