Page 1









VOL. 30, NO. 3, F a l l 2 0 2 1



Meet the Toyota Fellows Who Are Shaping Green Energy Technology


Reprocessing of Fuel Takes Center Stage


How to Maximize the Value Recovered from Li-Ion Batteries


The 2021 Class of Fellows of The ECS




240th ECS Meeting DIGITAL MEETING October 10-14, 2021


241st ECS Meeting VANCOUVER, BC May 29-June 2, 2022

Vancouver Convention Center


242nd ECS Meeting ATLANTA, GA October 9-13, 2022 Atlanta Hilton


243rd ECS Meeting with SOFC-XVIII BOSTON, MA May 28-June 1, 2023

Hynes Convention Center and Sheraton Boston

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


The Wonder of Science


ust when we thought it was safe to go back in the water, the Delta variant comes along. Its spread has caused ECS to make the 240th Meeting all digital. I was really looking forward to cashing in on some promises of “I’ll buy you a beer the next time we get together.” My friends should know that compound interest on those continues to accumulate. As we hunker back down, it is appropriate to stop and recognize the almost unimaginable scientific achievement that has led the world away from cataclysm and back toward normality. The speed with which the vaccines have been developed would have been considered science fiction before it actually happened. I note that the foundational science for these vaccines, messenger RNA (mRNA), was first theorized by Crick and Watson (the DNA double-helix guys who somehow forgot until years after they shared the Nobel Prize that it was Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray crystallography data that was the key to their defining the structure) in collaboration with others in the early 1960’s. Although full of promise, synthetic mRNA was needed to serve as the guide for the body to make the proteins that would serve as therapeutics, such as vaccines. So synthetic RNA was synthesized, check. The initial excitement was waylaid by the body’s immune system killing the messenger (as it were). It took years of work by Katalin Karikó, eventually in collaboration with Drew Weissman, to find the key to the kingdom, allowing the mRNA to enter the cells while telling the body’s immune system the equivalent of “these are not the droids you are looking for,ˮ Star Wars reference, check). That work – conducted despite many grant application rejections – has unlocked a new world while saving the current one. Future vaccines (and other therapeutics) will be able to be developed faster using the same technological approach. While critical, the successful deployment of synthetic mRNA occurred on the shoulders of countless other discoveries and developments, such as CRISPR to edit genes and countless others. Far better vaccine distribution and availability are desperately needed throughout the world, and we need to figure out how to help our friends, family members, and neighbors through vaccine hesitancy which undermines so many of the gains. Nobody hates needles more than I do, but my addiction to breathing overcame my own hesitancy. This constant building on previous knowledge is the wonder of science. We share with each other what we have learned, what worked, and what didn’t. Ok, we probably should do more of the last one. In point of fact though, problem sharing is exactly what often happens over adult beverages at conferences. We drop our guards a bit, complain about our bosses (not me, of course), and talk about why we are having so much trouble figuring out some phenomenon. Lots of scribbles on paper napkins later, lots of nodding heads and smiles, a renewed sense of confidence abounds. Of course, that confidence is usually later dashed, but it is the process of spontaneous collaboration that so often is the kickstart to the true solution. We publicly fund science to allow the process to happen. In return for our investment, we expect results of the work to be published (in Journal of the Electrochemical Society or Journal of Solid State Science, of course). This primes the pump for the next cycle. Medical science has been the star of the show for the last 18 months or so, deservedly. Looking forward, I think electrochemical and solid state science is ready for its spotlight. The vast majority of the grand challenges laid out by the US National Academy of Engineering have our field at their heart: economical solar, check; improve urban infrastructure, check; enhance virtual reality, check; clean water, check; manage the nitrogen cycle, check; carbon sequestration, check. The featured technical articles in this issue are great examples of how electrochemistry can be used in recycling and sustainability. Enjoy them, and dream a little about how you could use your talents to make this a better place. Maybe your discovery won’t be the mRNA equivalent, but remember that the blow that breaks the rock is standing on the shoulders of all the others that came before it. Until next time, be safe and happy.

Rob Kelly Editor

Published by: The Electrochemical Society (ECS) 65 South Main Street Pennington, NJ 08534-2839, USA Tel 609.737.1902, Fax 609.737.2743 Editor: Rob Kelly Guest Editors: Zheng Chen, Jean St-Pierre, Xiao Su, Natasa Vasiljevic Contributing Editors: Donald Pile, Alice Suroviec Director of Publications: Adrian Plummer Production Editor: Kara McArthur Print Production Manager: Dinia Agrawala Staff Contributors: Frances Chaves, Genevieve Goldy, Mary Hojlo, Christopher J. Jannuzzi, Bianca Kovalenko, John Lewis, Anna Olsen, Jennifer Ortiz, Adrian Plummer, Shannon Reed, Beth Schademann, Francesca Spagnuolo Advisory Board: Brett Lucht (Battery), Dev Chidambaram (Corrosion), Durga Misra (Dielectric Science and Technology), Philippe Vereecken (Electrodeposition), Jennifer Hite (Electronics and Photonics), Mani Manivannan (Energy Technology), Cortney Kreller (High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes), John Weidner (Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering), Jakoah Brgoch (Luminescence and Display Materials), Hiroshi Imahori (Nanocarbons), Jim Burgess (Organic and Biological Electrochemistry), Andrew Hillier (Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry), Ajit Khosla (Sensor) Publications Subcommittee Chair: Gerardine Botte Society Officers: Eric D. Wachsman, President; Turgut Gür, Senior Vice President; Gerardine Botte, 2nd Vice President; Colm O’Dwyer, 3rd Vice President; Marca Doeff, Secretary; Gessie Brisard, Treasurer; Christopher J. Jannuzzi, Executive Director & CEO Statements and opinions given in The Electrochemical Society Interface are those of the contributors, and ECS assumes no responsibility for them. Authorization to photocopy any article for internal or personal use beyond the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976 is granted by The Electrochemical Society to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). Copying for other than internal or personal use without express permission of ECS is prohibited. The CCC Code for The Electrochemical Society Interface is 1064-8208/92. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to: Pitney Bowes International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2 ISSN : Print: 1064-8208

Online: 1944-8783

The Electrochemical Society Interface is published quarterly by The Electrochemical Society (ECS), at 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ 08534-2839 USA. Subscription to members is part of membership service; subscription to nonmembers is available; see the ECS website. Single copies $10.00 to members; $19.00 to nonmembers. © Copyright 2021 by The Electrochemical Society. *“Save as otherwise expressly stated.” Periodicals postage paid at Pennington, New Jersey, and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Electrochemical Society, 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ 08534-2839. The Electrochemical Society is an educational, nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization with more than 8,500 scientists and engineers in over 75 countries worldwide who hold individual membership. Founded in 1902, the Society has a long tradition in advancing the theory and practice of electrochemical and solid state science by dissemination of information through its publications and international meetings. Cummings Printing uses 100% recyclable low-density polyethylene (#4) film in the production of Interface.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

3 All recycled paper. Printed in USA.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

Vol. 30, No. 3 Fall 2021





Electrochemistry for Recycling by Xiao Su, Zheng Chen, Jean St-Pierre, Natasa Vasiljevic The Future of Nuclear Energy: Electrochemical Reprocessing of Fuel Takes Center Stage by Bethany Kersten, Krista Hawthorne, Mark Williamson, Rohan Akolkar, Christine E. Duval How to Maximize the Value Recovered from Li-Ion Batteries: Hydrometallurgical or Direct Recycling? by Linda Gaines, Yan Wang Circular Economy of Polymers – Electrochemical Recycling and Upcycling by Chockkalingam Karuppaiah, Natasa Vasiljevic, Zheng Chen

the Editor: 3 From The Wonder of Science Corner: A Local 7 Pennington Impact of Global Thinking 100 Years of the 8 Celebrating High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes (H-TEMP) Division

18 Society News Chalkboard: Stretching 26 The Cyclic Voltammetry to its Potential Limit

30 People News 33 Looking at Patent Law 39 Tech Highlights 59 Section News 62 Awards Program 73 New Members 76 Student News for Papers 78 Call 241st ECS Meeting,

Vancouver, BC, Canada

On the Cover: This month’s cover design, an original artwork by Dinia Agrawala, evokes different aspects of recycling (e.g., resources, solar power, other renewable energy, manufacturing, EV, electronics, electrochemical cells, and chemical reactions).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


A Local Impact of Global Thinking


hope this missive finds you and battery, recharged by the solar panels, will power the house. yours faring well and that life This project is an enormous success. We added emergency is beginning to return to some back-up power capabilities to our house; we are saving an sense of normalcy. Thankfully, ECS appreciable amount of money in the short term and a significant continues to successfully endure these trying times, serve our amount in the long-term; and we are renewably generating community, and do our part to advance the critical science and more electricity than we use. That’s a win-win-win situation. technologies we represent. I realize this is not new or newsworthy to this community. One thing that has helped sustain and inspire me through However, I was excited to share it so I could offer you my the shutdown is knowing that through my work with ECS, sincerest thanks and gratitude. The ECS community developed I am part of a community so much of the science and working to find solutions to technology behind the miracle the grand challenges facing of the photovoltaic system humanity today. That is an atop my house. From the The ECS community developed incredible gift, one I certainly materials used to construct so much of the science and do not take for granted, and I the panels, to the devices write to you today to share an that transform sunlight into technology behind the miracle of example of why I am so proud electricity; the interwoven the photovoltaic system atop my and grateful to be a part of this network of intelligent sensors, vital institution. meters, and inverters that house. From the materials used Last March, I received safely manage the power to construct the panels, to the permission to operate a production and routing; and devices that transform sunlight photovoltaic system at my the battery used to store New Jersey home. It was excess generation, the ECS into electricity; the interwoven a lengthy, complicated community’s work is making network of intelligent sensors, installation process, requiring my family home—and the multiple levels of permissions world—a better place. meters, and inverters that safely and licenses, but all the effort In a previous “Pennington manage the power production is proving worthwhile. Since Corner,” I wrote that one and routing; and the battery going live, the 9 kilowatt reason I chose a career in (KW) system on my roof technical societies is because used to store excess generation, has produced 4.7 megawatt they enable seemingly the ECS community’s work is hours (MWh) of electricity. disparate people, located In that time, my family of five all over the world, to join making my family home—and (most of whom are working/ together to advance a common the world—a better place. going to school from home!) good—the kind of good that have consumed 3.4 MWh transcends borders, political and exported 1.3 MWh back ideologies, and walls, physical or otherwise. The kind of good to the power grid. Over 27 percent of the electricity that works in Asia, Africa, we have generated thus far has back-fed the grid, providing Europe, New Jersey, or wherever. The kind of good that helps provide vaccines, sustainable energy, and the technologies that future credits to utilize when our consumption increases or keep the world connected despite a global pandemic. production decreases. From a sustainability perspective, this is wonderful news. And that’s the good that ECS does. Through this system, my family and I generate significantly more electricity than we use, via a clean, renewable source. My thanks to you all! That is a huge win. Beyond the environmental benefits, the decision to go solar also makes financial sense… and not just in the long term. We are saving money immediately because the revenue we receive from the state of New Jersey for generating renewable energy makes the monthly payment on the loan used to purchase the system less than what we would pay to purchase electricity from our local utility company. In Christopher J. Jannuzzi 15 years, when the system is paid off, we will not only save ECS Executive Director/Chief Executive Officer money from the system, we will derive income from it. Lastly, it includes a 3 kW battery backup. If the grid goes down, the

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


Celebrating 100 Years of the High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes (H-TEMP) Division by Gregory S. Jackson, past Chair of the H-TEMP Division (2017-2019)


Fig. 1: An image of the H-TEMP Division logo.

he Electrochemical Society was formed in 1902, three years before Einstein published his Nobel-winning paper on the photoelectric effect, his paper on Brownian motion, and his earth-shaking paper on special relativity. The early years of the society did not include Technical Divisions, and only Technical Committees were established in 1915 to address very specif ic topics associated with electrochemical processes and materials. As the number of committees grew, ECS leaders decided to consolidate several into the Society's first Technical Division, the Electrothermics Division (which is today’s High-Temperature Energy Materials & Processes or H-TEMP Division).

Charter members of the Electrothermics Division included future ECS presidents Arthur Hinckley, Frederick Becket, and Marvin Udy (two of whom are pictured in Fig. 2) and past ECS president and luminary Edward Acheson (Fig. 2) after whom our most prestigious Society award remains named to this day, one century after the founding of the Electrothermics Division. The topics of the eight consolidated committees that formed the Electrothermics Division—Electric Furnaces; Electrodes; Carbon; Carbides, Abrasives, & Refractories; Ferro Alloys; Iron and Steel; Copper Smelting; and Zinc—highlight the strong industrial focus of the Division and the make-up of its membersʼ expertise in its early years. The emphasis on metallurgical processes and its importance in technology development remained a prominent focus of the Division in its early decades. The importance of high-temperature metallurgy and corrosion to the Society is further indicated by the fact that more than half of ECS presidents between 1902 and 1952 were members of the Electrothermics Division or the earlier committees that formed the Division in 1921. In 1954 when the Rare Metals Group changed their affiliation from the Electronics Division to the Electrothermics Division, the Electrothermics Division leadership with ECS Board Approval changed its name to the Electrothermics and Metallurgy Division. As the broad field of Materials Science began to grow through the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in academia and in federal laboratories, a growing interest in material synthesis, structure, and functional applications at high temperatures became a bigger focus of the Division. This evolution was accompanied by a broadening in the membership and activities of the Division and was typified by Division leaders such as chair Joan Berkowitz, who as an expert in synthesis and characterization of materials for space and environmental applications, became the first female president of ECS in 1979. In the early 1980s, the Executive Committee of the Electrothermics and Metallurgy Division in consultation with Division members and with approval of the ECS Board of Directors changed the Division’s name to High Temperature Materials (HTM), which reflected the increased focus on non-metallic materials and their broad applications for coatings and high-temperature processes and devices. Since that name change, the HTM Division continued to diversify from its initial emphasis on high-temperature metallurgy and corrosion with an increased interest in high-temperature applications of ionically conductive oxide and non-metallic materials. Noteworthy members of the Division during that time included J. Bruce Wagner, Jr., an outstanding researcher in high-temperature ionic conductivity, who became President of the Society in 1983. In 1984, Wagner received the Division’s inaugural Outstanding Achievement 8

Award, which recognizes excellence in high-temperature materials research. Wagner’s contributions as a researcher and educator led the HTM Division to later name a new award for outstanding young investigators after him. The first two J. Bruce Wagner Award winners, Suzanne Mohney in 1999 and Sossina Haile in 2001, represented the growing diversity of the Division and the Society as a whole by the end of its first century. Another outstanding member of the HTM Division during that time, Wayne Worrell, pioneered research in high-temperature solid electrolytes including oxide-ion conductors, and Worrell became ECS president in 1992. The advances in high-temperature solid-oxide electrolytes catalyzed a growing interest in high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and electrolysis cells (SOECs) with some industrial companies such as Westinghouse investing in this technology for

Fig. 2: Some of the notable past leaders in the Electrothermics / HTM Division (now H-TEMP Division) who served as ECS President including Edward Acheson (1908-09), Frederick Becket (192526), Marvin Udy (1954-55), Joan Berkowitz (1979-80), J. Bruce Wagner (1983-84), and Wayne Worrell (1992-93).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

and advances in high-temperature materials, devices, and systems. Long-standing symposia at the semi-annual meetings include Ionic and Mixed-Conducting Ceramics, Solid State Ionic Devices, High Temperature Materials Corrosion and Chemistry, and Electrosynthesis of Fuels. The Division has been more and more active at collaborating with other Divisions to address interdisciplinary challenges related to sustainability and climate change. This increased emphasis beyond materials to consider devices and systems inspired Division leaders to propose a name change to the High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes (H-TEMP) Division, which was approved by the ECS Board of Directors in 2018. This name reflects the expanded interests and desired impact that the Division longs to sustain for ECS in its second century by encouraging and supporting its diverse membership in addressing critical issues related to energy, climate, and advances in high-temperature electrochemistry for future generations. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F01213IF.

Acknowledgements Fig. 3: Subhash Singhal (left) receiving the inaugural award in his name from current ECS President Eric Wachsman (right) at the 16th SOFC Symposium held in Kyoto Japan in 2019. .

clean, efficient power generation and hydrogen production. In 1989, a former student of Worrell and HTM Division member, Subhash Singhal (pictured in Fig. 3) started a new biennial International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). This Symposium has continued to grow to this day as the field and technology of high-temperature oxide electrochemical cells has expanded and matured. The Symposium has thrived with joint sponsorship from the SOFC Society of Japan and serves as a critical part of the Division’s engagement with industry and its financial support. To honor Singhal’s three decades of leadership in running this vital symposium, the Division created in 2019 a new award in his name to honor leaders in the field of solid oxide electrochemical cells. The inaugural award was presented to Singhal himself by the current ECS President and Division member Eric Wachsman, who in partnership with Division and SOFC Society of Japan member Teruhisa Horita, has taken on leadership of the SOFC Symposium, which this summer held its 17th edition. In the 21st century, the Division has sustained numerous other successful symposia in the semi-annual Society meetings, and the topics reflect current international concerns regarding sustainability

This article pulled significantly from “The Electrochemical Society 1902-2002: A Centennial History” by F. A. Trumbore and D.R. Turner and the “HTM Division History” written by Subhash Singhal in 2002.

About the Author Gregory S. Jackson, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, U.S. Education: PhD (Cornell University). Work Experience: University of Maryland – Professor, Director of Energy Research Center (now Energy Institute); Precision Combustion, Inc. – led R&D on catalytic reactors for lowNOx combustion and aircraft engine ignition.  Work with Students: Dr. Jackson manages a research group active in thermochemical energy storage and solid oxide electrochemical systems.  Work with ECS: ECS High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes Division Chair (2017-2019)  Website:



it w

Experience Unlimited Access






to the ECS Digital Library on IOPscience The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •



Publications Update 2020 Journals Impact ECS journals had an impressive year in 2020 with new record-setting indicators achieved. The Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES) reached an important milestone by attaining a journal impact factor (JIF) of 4.316, its highest to date, accompanied a jump in ranking to #2 in the Materials Science, Coatings, and Films topical area in the Clarivate Analytics 2021 Journal Citation report.

The Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS) achieved a 48 percent growth in submissions and its highest-ever download count of over 275,000. Combined, both journals had a banner year with over 3.2 million downloads from the digital library.


Journal Impact Factor*

JES 4.316 2020

JSS 2.070 2020


Top Rankings*


Journal of The Electrochemical Society

3.2 million downloads from the ECS Digital Library


in Materials Science, Coatings, and Films *Source: Journal Citation Reports, Clarivate Analytics

ECS Sensors Plus and ECS Advances to join the ECS Journal Family

ECS Publications leadership is hard at work on launching two of ECS’s first fully open access journals: The Electrochemical Society Advances (ECS Advances) and The Electrochemical Society Sensors Plus (ECS Sensors Plus). While ECS Advances will be led by the existing ECS Joint Journal Editorial Board, a new Editor in Chief (EIC) and new Technical Editors and Associate Editors will lead ECS Sensors Plus. The search to fill the new Editor in Chief position launched in May 2021; it is slated to conclude in September 2021.


The EIC will be selected jointly by the ECS Publications subcommittee and Technical Affairs committee and announced at the 240th ECS Meeting in October 2021. Please stay closely connected to the Society and its media channels for hot updates on ECS Advances and ECS Sensors Plus, including the launch of submissions! Stay tuned…

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


Editorial Board Appointments Journal of The Electrochemical Society Editor in Chief

Journal of Solid State Science and Technology Technical Editor

Robert (Bob) Savinell, Distinguished University Professor at Case Western Reserve University, was unanimously approved by the ECS Publications Subcommittee and the ECS Technical Affairs committee for a three-year term reappointment as the Editor in Chief of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society. As EIC, Bob will continue to lead the ECS flagship publication and serve as a member of the Joint Journal Editorial Board and Publications Subcommittee. Savinell’s term ends on July 15, 2024.

Peter Mascher, Vice Provost of International Affairs, Professor in the Department of Engineering Physics, and William Sinclair Chair in Optoelectronics at the McMaster University Department of Engineering Physics, received a one-year reappointment as Technical Editor for the Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. Mascher handles manuscripts related to Dielectric Science and Materials, and his term ends on April 30, 2022.

Journal of Solid State Science and Technology Technical Editor Aniruddh Khanna, Senior Process Engineer at Applied Materials, Inc., received a one-year appointment as Technical Editor for the Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. Khanna handles manuscripts related to Electronic Materials and Processing.

Journal of Solid State Science and Technology Associate Editor Meng Tao, Professor, School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering at Arizona State University’s Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, received a two-year reappointment as Associate Editor for the Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. Tao handles manuscripts related to Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems. His term ends on April 30, 2023.

Board of Directors Update It has now been nearly two years since the ECS Board of Directors (BoD) was able to meet in person. Thankfully, as with the other vital Society operations, the transition to convening the board remotely has gone well, enabling the Society’s highest governing body to meet, discuss, debate, and ultimately lead ECS through these challenging times. The most recent BoD meeting was held on Thursday, June 10. In addition to welcoming incoming officers President Eric Wachsman and Third Vice President Colm O’Dwyer, the Board was pleased to be joined by the following new members whose terms began after the October 2020 ECS PRiME Meeting: Jessica Koehne (Sensor Divisions Chair), Shirley Meng (Battery Division Chair), and James Noël (Corrosion Division Chair). Highlights from the June 10 meeting include: • ECS Treasurer Gessie Brisard provided the Finance Committee report, which detailed the Society’s strong financial performance in 2020. Thanks to better than expected earnings in the publications area, coupled with significant growth in our investment portfolio, ECS added over $529k to its net assets last year, despite not hosting any in-person meetings, a significant source of revenue for the Society. • Outgoing Education Chair James Noël shared the latest recipients of the ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowships, reporting that since its inception in 2015, the program has awarded 24 fellowships totaling over $1.2M in support. Read more about this effort in the Society News section on p. 14.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

• As with most societies and member associations, membership numbers were down in 2020 owing to the pandemic. However, Membership Chair William ‟Billˮ Mustain brought forth approval requests for new chapters at Gebze Technical University (Turkey) and the University of Manitoba (Canada). This brings the total number of ECS chapters to 109 worldwide! The June 10 BoD meeting also marked the end of Stefan De Gendt’s term as President. Stefan’s presidency was unlike any other. Unfortunately, he could not experience many of the traditions (and perks!) that come with the office. But Stefan became president not for the job’s frills, but because of his deep, abiding sense of duty and concern for ECS. Stefan steered this ship through some of the roughest seas it has ever encountered. For that reason, his term will always be exceptional on so many levels, and why the Board, staff, and larger ECS community are forever indebted to him for his vision, leadership, and dedication to ECS. Thank you Stefan, for all you have done. Here’s wishing you all the best in your future endeavors. We look forward to congratulating and thanking you in person at an ECS meeting soon!


ECS Journals Current and Upcoming Focus Issues Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES)



Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell & Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer Durability

Biosensors and Nanoscale Measurements: In Honor of Nongjian Tao and Stuart Lindsay

Technical Editor: Xiao-Dong Zhou Guest Editors: Jean St-Pierre, Deborah Myers, Rodney Borup, Katherine Ayers

Characterization of Corrosion Processes in Honor of Philippe Marcus

Technical Editor: Gerald S. Frankel Guest Editors: Dev Chidambaram, Koji Fushimi, Vincent Maurice, Vincent Vivier

Advanced Electrolysis for Renewable Energy Storage Technical Editor: Xiao-Dong Zhou Guest Editors: Hui Xu, Bryan Pivovar, Grigorii Soloveichik

Technical Editor: Ajit Khosla Guest Editors: Larry Nagahara, Erica Forzani, Huixin He, Jin He, Tianwei Jing, Jessica Koehne, Chenzhong Li, Patrick Oden, Shaopeng Wang, Nick Wu, Bingqian Xu, Peiming Zhang Submissions Open: October 7, 2021 Deadline: January 5, 2022

Electrochemical Separations and Sustainability Technical Editor: John Harb

Guest Editors: Hui Xu, Gerri Botte, Gang Wu, John Staser, Xiao Su Submissions Open: November 5, 2021 Deadline: February 3, 2022

Nucleation and Growth: Measurements, Processes, and Materials

Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids II

Technical Editor: David E. Cliffel Guest Editors: David P. Durkin, Paul C. Trulove, Robert A. Mantz

Technical Editor: Takayuki Homma Guest Editors: Tom Moffat, Yasuhiro Fukunaka, Shirley Meng, Timo Jacob, Toshiyuki Nohira Submissions Open: March 31, 2022 Deadline: June 29, 2022

Recent Advances in Chemical and Biological Sensors & Micro-Nanofabricated Sensors and Systems

Multiscale Modeling, Simulation, and Design: In Honor of Ralph E. White

Technical Editor: Ajit Khosla Guest Editors: Michael Adachi, Netz Arroyo, Thomas Thundat

Future of Intercalation Chemistry for Energy Storage and Conversion in Honor of M. Stanley Whittingham

Technical Editor: John Harb Guest Editors: Venkat Subramanian, Gerardine Botte, Trung Nguyen Submissions Open: November 3, 2022 Deadline: February 1, 2023

Technical Editor: Doron Aurbach Guest Editors: Brett Lucht, Louis Piper, Shirley Meng

NOW IN PRODUCTION 18th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (IMCS) – Volume Two

Technical Editor: Ajit Khosla Guest Editors: Peter Hesketh, Steve Semancik, Udo Weimar, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Joseph Stetter, Gary Hunter, Joseph Wang, Xiangqun Zeng, Sheikh Akbar, Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Rudra Pratap

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and Electrolysis Cells (SOECs) Technical Editor: Xiao-Dong Zhou Guest Editors: Eric D. Wachsman, Subash Singhal

Modern Electroanalytical Research in the Society for Electroanalytical Chemistry (SEAC) Technical Editor: David Cliffel Guest Editors: Lane Baker, Lanqun Mao, Frank Zamborini, Bo Zhang

ACCEPTING SUBMISSIONS Energy Storage Research in China

Technical Editor: Doron Aurbach Guest Editors: Hong Li, Yi-chun Lu, Kai Jiang, Haijun Yu, Kothandaraman Ramanujam, Chunmei Ban, Venkataraman Thangadurai Deadline: October 20, 2021 212

Women in Electrochemistry Technical Editor: Ajit Khosla Deadline: November 3, 2021

The Electrochemical The Electrochemical Society Society Interface Interface • Summer • Fall 2021 •

ECS Journals Current and Upcoming Focus Issues ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS)



4D Materials and Systems + Soft Robotics

Solid State Electronic Devices and Materials

Technical Editor: Ajit Khosla Associate Editors: Michael Adachi, Netz Arroyo, Thomas Thundat Guest Editors: Hidetmisu Furukawa, Koh Hosoda, Sheng-Joue Young, Zhenhuan Zhao, Tsukasa Yoshida, Yoon Hwa, Sathish K. Sukumaran, Masahiro Shimizu, Jessica E. Koehne

Photovoltaics for the 21st Century

Technical Editor: Fan Ren Associate Editor: Meng Tao Guest Editors: Hiroki Hamada, Thad Druffel, Jae-Joon Lee

Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology, and Applications Technical Editor: Jennifer Bardwell Guest Editors: Roy Knechtel, Chuan Seng Tan, Tadatomo Suga, Helmut Baumgart, Frank Fournel, Mark Goorsky, Karl D. Hobart

Technical Editor: Fan Ren Guest Editors: Chao-Sung Lai, Chia-Ming Yang, Yu-Lin Wang

Selected Papers from the International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2021 (ICONN-2021) Technical Editor: Francis D’Souza Guest Editors: Senthil Kumar Eswaran, S. Yuvaraj, M. S. Ramachandra Rao, Masaru Shimomura

Dedicated to the Memory of George Blasse: Recent Developments in Theory, Materials, and Applications of Luminescence Technical Editor: Kailash Mishra Guest Editors: John Collins, Jakoah Brgoch, Ron-Jun Xie, Eugeniusz Zych, Tetsuhiko Isobe, Ramchandra Pode, Andries Meijerink

UPCOMING Selected Papers from the International Electron Devices & Materials Symposium 2021 (IEDMS 2021) Technical Editor: Fan Ren Guest Editors: Wei-Chou Hsu, Yon-Hua Tzeng, Shoou-Jinn Chang, Meng-Hsueh Chiang, Sheng-Po Chang Submissions Open: January 20, 2022 Deadline: April 20, 2022



• JES manuscript submissions • JSS manuscript submissions

• Calls for upcoming JES and JSS focus issue papers • Links to published issues • Future focus issue proposals Fall 20212021 • The Electrochemical Society Interface • Summer •

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2021–2022 ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship Recipients Chibueze Amanchukwu, Christopher Arges, Marm Dixit, Marta Hatzell, and Siddharth Komini Babu received the 2021–2022 ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship for projects in green energy technology. This is the seventh year that the fellowships—a partnership between The Electrochemical Society and the Toyota Research Institute of North America (TRI-NA), a division of Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA)—have been awarded. Through this program, ECS and Toyota promote innovative and unconventional green energy technologies born from electrochemical research—and encourage young professionals and scholars to pursue battery and fuel cell research. The ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship Selection Committee reviewed 40 applications for the 2021–2022 program. Since its inception, the program has awarded a total of $1,245,144 to 24 young investigators (including the 2021–2022 recipients).

2021–2022 ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellows Chibueze Amanchukwu University of Chicago “Synthesis of Novel Perfluoroether Polymer Electrolytes for Energy-Dense Solid State Lithium Metal Batteries” Chibueze Amanchukwu is a Neubauer Family Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago. He received his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2017), with Paula Hammond as his advisor. Amanchukwu pursued postdoctorate study at Stanford University with Zhenan Bao (2017–2019) and at the University of Cambridge with Clare Grey (2019). His research on electrolyte design for next-generation lithium batteries has been recognized by awards that include the 2021 3M Nontenured Faculty Award; 2017–2019 Stanford University TomKat Center Postdoctoral Fellowship in Sustainable Energy and California Alliance Postdoctoral Fellowship; 2014–2017 National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship; 2014 MIT-Imperial College London Global Fellowship; 2012 Texas A&M ChemE Outstanding Graduating Student Award; and 2011 Texas A&M Craig Brown Outstanding Senior Engineer Award. He has published 19 articles with an h-index of 14 and filed one patent. Amanchukwu serves on the Community Board of Materials Horizons. Abstract: Solid state lithium metal batteries can transform electric vehicles by extending driving range and improving safety. Current literature has focused heavily on inorganic solid state electrolytes, but these are plagued by poor mechanical properties, brittleness, and have poor interfaces with both electrodes. Fortunately, polymer electrolytes can address the challenges facing inorganics. The award will be used to design, synthesize, and characterize novel polymer electrolytes for lithium metal batteries; and to study how ions transport in these electrolytes as well as how they affect and enable efficient lithium metal cycling. The goal is to develop affordable electric vehicles that will accelerate worldwide decarbonization efforts. Christopher G. Arges Pennsylvania State University “For Understanding Electrochemical Properties of High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membranes and Thin Film Ionomers” Christopher G. Arges is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Pennsylvania State University and Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Ionomer Solutions, LLC. He completed his PhD in Chemical Engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 2013 with Vijay Ramani (now at Washington University in St. Louis) as his advisor. He pursued postdoctorate research at the Pritzker School of Molecular 14

Engineering/Materials Science Division, University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory (2013–2015) with advisor Paul Nealey. Arges’ research into polymeric materials for electrochemical engineering has garnered numerous awards, including the 2021 Rainmaker Award, Louisiana State University (LSU); 2019 LSU Alumni Rising Faculty Award; 2019 LSU Tiger Athletic Foundation Teaching Award; and 2018 3M Young Investigator Award. He is the author of 50 articles with an h-index of 24 and has filed three patent applications. Arges has served as Guest Editor for ECS Interface and the Journal of Power Sources as well as on the ECS Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering (IE&EE) Division Awards Committee, and as Session Organizer and Chair for the ECS IEEE and Energy Technology Divisions. Abstract: This project investigates the electrochemical properties of ionomer electrode binders for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cells. HT-PEMFCs are important to electrifying heavy duty vehicles like trucks, planes, and marine shipping. These vehicles require larger power plants and fast refueling times; hence fuel cells have advantages over battery technology. By adopting higher temperature operation of the fuel cell, heat is easier to manage in the larger power plants, as large temperature gradients facilitate greater heat rejection. Hence, it is important to develop HT-PEM and ionomer binder materials that are functional and stable at higher fuel cell temperatures. This project will help elucidate the ionomer-electrocatalyst interactions that govern reaction kinetics and gas diffusivity mechanisms in porous electrodes. Marm Dixit Oak Ridge National Laboratory “Li Metal Polymorphism and its Impact on Anode Integration in Solid State Batteries” Marm Dixit is the Weinberg Distinguished Staff Fellow at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). He completed his PhD at Vanderbilt University in 2020 under the supervision of Kelsey Hatzell. Beginning with his undergraduate studies in India, he has worked on emerging and solid state batteries. At Vanderbilt, he investigated failure onset and growth mechanisms for several exemplary solid electrolyte materials, and developed a manufacturing platform for scalable production of hybrid solid electrolytes. At ORNL, Dixit is pursuing further research on SSBs and other emerging energy storage technologies. His research has garnered awards that include being a finalist for the 2020 Director’s Fellowship of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 2018 Vanderbilt University Graduate Student Travel Grant; and 2017 and 2019 ECS Travel Awards. Dixit has published 23 articles with an h-index of 12 and holds five patents. He has had one book chapter accepted and two are under revision. Abstract: The proposed work aims to look at the Li metal structure as it operates in a solid state battery, and to use that fundamental knowledge to engineer high-performing systems. This requires developing a fundamental understanding of Li metal structure for integration into solid state batteries. Current battery technology employs a host material to reversibly store Li ions into its matrix. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

SOCIE T Y NE WS Siddharth Komini Babu Los Alamos National Laboratory “Novel Gas Diffusion Layer Architecture for Improved Performance and Durability”

With solid state batteries, scientists seek to replace the host material with dense Li metal, which is expected to provide three times the driving range compared to conventional batteries. Marta Hatzell Georgia Institute of Technology “A Spectroscopic Investigation on Water Dissociation Mechanisms in Bipolar Membranes for CO2 Electrolysis” Marta Hatzell is Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She completed her PhD in Mechanical Engineering in 2014 with Bruce Logan as her advisor. She performed postdoctorate research with Paul Braun in the Department of Material Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Her research focuses on developing sustainable separations and catalytic technologies to mitigate challenges related to the food, energy, and water nexus. Her research has garnered awards that include the 2021 Woodruff Fellowship; 2020 ONR Young Investigator Award; 2020 Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Award; 2019 NSF CAREER Award; and NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (2011–2014). Hatzell has published some 50 articles with an h-index of 26 and holds four patents. She is the Commissioning Editor at iScience. She has served as a volunteer with ECS, organizing a symposium on electrochemical nitrogen reduction. Abstract: The overall goal of this research project is to unravel energetic losses within bipolar membranes using advanced spectroscopy and to accelerate the development of bipolar membrane reactor architectures for CO2 electrolysis. Bipolar membrane-based electrolysis reactors could long-term enable the generation of energy efficient carbon-based electrofuels (i.e., methanol, ethelyene, CO) using carbon dioxide as the feedstock and renewable energy as the sole power source. Thus, this could aid in advancing the development of negative emissions-based technologies while displacing current practices for acquiring hydrocarbons.

Siddharth Komini Babu is Staff Scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. His research focuses on understanding transport phenomena and the development of electrode architecture for fuel cells and electrolyzers using computational and experimental methods. He completed his PhD in 2016 at Carnegie Mellon University with advisor Shawn Litster. He completed postdoctoral work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2016–2019). Komini Babu is the author of 25 articles (including seven ECS Transactions) with an h-index of 13. He has four patent applications. Abstract: This proposal aims to probe the role of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and microporous layers (MPLs) on the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The goal is also to develop tailored GDLs (and MPLs) for cathodes and anodes with improved durability for long-term operation without compromising performance.

2021–2022 ECS Toyota Young Investigators Fellowships The selected fellows each receive a $50,000 grant to conduct the research outlined in their proposals and a one-year  complimentary ECS membership.  Fellows  submit a midway progress report to ECS and, after one year of funding, a final written report. They are invited semiannually to present their research progress at TRI-NA. Recipients publish their findings open access in a relevant ECS journal, and present at an ECS meeting within 24 months of the end of the research period. Toyota may choose to enter into a research agreement to continue working with the Fellow after the end of the fellowship period.

Special thanks to the 2021–2022 selection subcommittee members: • • • •

Ryuta Sugiura, TRI-NA Hongfei Jia, TRI-NA Timothy (Tim) Arthur, TRI-NA Charles (Chip) Roberts, TRI-NA

• • • •

Shingo Ota, TRI-NA Gang Wu, University of Buffalo John T. Vaughey, Argonne National Laboratory Elizabeth Biddinger, The City College of New York

UPCOMING 2021 ECS SPONSORED MEETINGS In addition to the ECS biannual meetings and ECS satellite conferences, ECS, its divisions, and its sections sponsor meetings and symposia of interest to the technical audience ECS serves. The following is a partial list of upcoming sponsored meetings. Please visit the ECS website ( for a list of all sponsored meetings.

ElecMol 2021 10th International Conference on Molecular Electronics November 29-December 2, 2021 – Lyon, France The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

To learn more about how an ECS sponsorship can enhance your meeting—including information on publishing proceedings volumes for sponsored meetings, or to request an ECS sponsorship of your technical event—please contact



ECS Launches Virtual Short Courses The Society offered its popular Short Courses in a virtual format for the first time in September 2021, with additional online courses being offered during the 240th ECS Meeting in October 2021. Online instruction makes these valuable educational opportunities available around the world. ECS Short Courses deliver in-depth education for students and seasoned professionals on a wide range of electrochemical and solid state science topics. Leading academic and industry experts deliver the virtual short courses live online for three hours a day over two days. This personalized instruction delivered via an intensive online experience makes it possible for novices and experts to advance their technical expertise and knowledge in a convenient format. Courses are not recorded. These virtual short courses are offered on October 10-11 from 0800h-1100h ET, during the 240th ECS Meeting: 

Volunteers Sought to Shape the Future of ECS Continuing Education The ECS Education Committee recently voted to combine the Short Course Subcommittee and Career and the Professional Development Subcommittee into a single committee: the ECS Continuing Education Subcommittee. The new committee is looking for motivated individuals to help shape the future of continuing education opportunities for the ECS community. As the fields of electrochemistry and solid state science and related technologies continue to evolve, so do the educational needs of our community. COVID-19 changed education dramatically, forcing a precipitous shift away from the classroom to online learning. While face-to-face education can never be completely replaced, certain aspects of online learning are here to stay. Be part of the dialog on how the Society maintains its preeminence in continuing education in electrochemistry and solid state science and related technologies— and meets the challenges of an ever-changing education landscape!

ECS Continuing Education Programs • Advanced Impedance Spectroscopy by Dr. Mark Orazem  • Fundamentals of Electrochemistry: Basic Theory and Kinetic Methods by Dr. James Noël. • Lithium-Ion Battery Safety and Failure Modes by Thomas P. Barrera and Joshua Lamb  • Operation and Exploitation of Electrochemical Capacitor Technology by Dr. John R. Miller  Register for the 240th ECS Meeting by October 4 to participate in the Short Courses. It is possible to register only for the courses— without registering for the full meeting. Non-zero-fee-based meeting registrants also receive a discount on associated short course meeting registrations.

In the

Next Issue of

• ECS Professional Development programs help students, young professionals, and mid-career researchers develop and/or enhance skills for their current and future careers. Courses also assist participants build professional networks. • ECS Short Courses are designed to provide students or seasoned professionals with in-depth education on a wide range of topics. Small-sized classes taught by academic and industry experts create excellent opportunities for personalized instruction, helping both novices and experts advance their technical expertise and knowledge. Short Courses were offered online in September for the first time, and will be offered online during the 240th ECS Meeting. • ECS Digital Media—including podcasts, videos, and original news stories—expands constantly to serve as a go-to source for electrochemistry and solid state science content. • The ECS Webinar Series, launched in June 2020, showcases distinguished speakers and members of the ECS community, presenting on a multitude of topics. These popular presentations are hosted by IOP Publishing and Interested in volunteering? For more information, or to apply to join the ECS Continuing Education Subcommittee, contact Mr. Shannon Reed, ECS Director of Community Engagement, at

The theme of the Winter 2021 issue of Interface will be “Hydrogen’s Big Shot,” guest edited by Nemanja Danilovic and Iryna Zenyuk. This special issue will cover key areas relevant to hydrogen production and utilization, with an emphasis on what is new and important to know as hydrogen has its “moment.” Technical feature articles for Winter 2021 Interface will include: 1. “Hydrogen: The Time is Now and Material Needs” 2. European and Global Perspectives on Hydrogen 3. “Hydrogen Technologies: Current Status and Future Directions”

4. Research on Alkaline Hydrogen and PGM-free Catalysts 5. “Hydrogen is Essential for Industry and Transportation Decarbonization”

Of course, Winter 2021 Interface also will include Pennington Corner, column favorites like The Chalkboard and Looking at Patent Law, and the latest news about people, students, and the Society.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


2021 Leadership Circle Awards Since the fall of 2002, ECS has recognized and thanked long-term ECS supporters and partners in electrochemistry and solid state science with Leadership Circle Awards. The awards are granted in the anniversary year that institutional members reach milestone levels. Congratulations to the recipients!

Medallion – 65 years GE Global Research Center GE Research is GE’s innovation powerhouse where research meets reality. We are a world-class team of some 1,000 (including about 500 PhDs) scientific, engineering, and marketing minds, working at the intersection of physics and markets, physical and digital technologies, and across multiple industries to deliver world-changing innovations and capabilities for our customers.

Gold Level – 25 years Scribner Associates, Inc.

Technic, Inc.


Electrosynthesis Company, Inc.

Scribner Associates, Inc. specializes in the development and manufacture of advanced, integrated test systems for electrochemical energy storage processes and devices including batteries, fuel cells, electrolyzers, and redox flow batteries. Our software packages such as ZPlot®, ZView®, and CorrWare®, are recognized worldwide as the gold standard for instrument control and data analysis. Scribner has produced innovative, high-quality products for over 30 years. Our products are backed by factory warranty, excellent worldwide customer service, and extensive technical support.

For 75 years, Technic has been a global supplier of specialty chemicals, custom finishing equipment, engineered powders, and analytical control systems to the semiconductor, electronic component, printed circuit board, industrial finishing, and decorative industries. Technic is also a major supplier of engineered metal powders to the solar industry.

The Electrosynthesis Company is an independent research and development laboratory offering expertise in electrochemistry. We partner with clients worldwide developing technologies in synthesis, energy storage, membrane separation, and salt splitting. Our well-equipped laboratory and pilot facilities together with decades of experience give clients a unique opportunity for electrochemical process development.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •



2021-2022 ECS Committees Executive Committee of the Board of Directors Eric Wachsman, Chair........................................................................................President, Spring 2022 Turgut Gür.......................................................................................Senior Vice President, Spring 2023 Gerardine Botte............................................................................. Second Vice President, Spring 2024 Colm O’Dwyer...................................................................................Third Vice President, Spring 2025 Marca Doeff....................................................................................................... Secretary, Spring 2024 Gessie Brisard ................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2022 Christopher Jannuzzi................................................................................... Term as Executive Director

Audit Committee Stefan De Gendt, Chair..............................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2022 Eric Wachsman..................................................................................................President, Spring 2022 Turgut Gür.......................................................................................Senior Vice President, Spring 2022 Gessie Brisard.................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2022 Robert Micek.................................................................. Nonprofit Financial Professional, Spring 2022

Education Committee

Alice Suroviec, Chair......................................................................................................... Spring 2025 Svitlana Pylypenko............................................................................................................. Spring 2024 Paul Gannon...................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 Stephen Maldonado........................................................................................................... Spring 2025 David Hall.......................................................................................................................... Spring 2025 Vimal Chaitanya................................................................................................................. Spring 2022 Takayuki Homma................................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Walter Van Schalkwijk........................................................................................................ Spring 2023 Tobias Glossman................................................................................................................ Spring 2023 Amin Rabieri...................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Ramsey Blake Nuwayhid.................................................................................................... Spring 2025 Marca Doeff....................................................................................................... Secretary, Spring 2024 William Mustain............................................... Chair, Individual Membership Committee, Spring 2023

Ethical Standards Committee Stefan De Gendt, Chair .............................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2022 Johna Leddy.................................................................................................. Past Officer, Spring 2023 Esther Takeuchi ............................................................................................. Past Officer, Spring 2024 Marca Doeff....................................................................................................... Secretary, Spring 2024 Gessie Brisard.................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2022

Finance Committee Gessie Brisard, Chair ........................................................................................ Treasurer, Spring 2022 E.J. Taylor.......................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Bruce Weisman.................................................................................................................. Spring 2023 Peter Foller........................................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Robert Micek...................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Marca Doeff....................................................................................................... Secretary, Spring 2024 Tim Gamberzky........................................................................... Chief Operating Officer, Term as COO

Honors and Awards Committee Shelley Minteer, Chair ....................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Vimal Chaitanya................................................................................................................. Spring 2024 Mikhail Brik....................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 Diane Smith....................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 Alanah Fitch....................................................................................................................... Spring 2025 Shigeo Maruyama.............................................................................................................. Spring 2025 Jean St-Pierre.................................................................................................................... Spring 2025 Junichi Murota................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Dev Chidambaram............................................................................................................. Spring 2022 Wei Tong............................................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Nianqiang Wu.................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 John Flake......................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Fernando Garzon................................................................................................................ Spring 2023 Eric Wachsman..................................................................................................President, Spring 2022

Individual Membership Committee Neal Golovin, Chair ........................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Alice Suroviec.................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Neal Golovin...................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 John Staser........................................................................................................................ Spring 2024 Shirley Meng..................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 James Burgess................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Luis A. Diaz Aldana............................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Mohammadreza Nazemi..................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Ashwin Ramanujam........................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Marion Jones................................................ Chair, Institutional Engagement Committee, Spring 2022 Marca Doeff....................................................................................................... Secretary, Spring 2024

Institutional Engagement Committee Marion Jones, Chair.......................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Hemanth Jaganathan.......................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Thomas Barrera.................................................................................................................. Spring 2023 David Carey....................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Yuyan Shao........................................................................................................................ Spring 2024 Christopher Beasley........................................................................................................... Spring 2024 Florika Macazo................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 Alex Peroff......................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Alok Srivastava.................................................................................................................. Spring 2022 18

Craig Owen........................................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Neal Golovin.................................................... Chair, Individual Membership Committee, Spring 2023 Gessie Brisard.................................................................................................... Treasurer, Spring 2022

Nominating Committee Stefan De Gendt, Chair..............................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2022 Greg Jackson..................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Boryann Liaw..................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 William Mustain................................................................................................................. Spring 2022 Colm O’Dwyer...................................................................................Third Vice President, Spring 2022

Technical Affairs Committee Turgut Gür, Chair.............................................................................Senior Vice President, Spring 2022 Eric Wachsman..................................................................................................President, Spring 2022 Stefan De Gendt........................................................................Immediate Past President, Spring 2022 Christina Bock............................................................. Second Immediate Past President, Spring 2022 Colm O’Dwyer.................................................................. Chair, Meetings Subcommittee, Spring 2022 Gerardine Botte........................................................... Chair, Publications Subcommittee, Spring 2022 E.J. Taylor............................................................................... Chair, ISTS Subcommittee, Spring 2022 Christopher Jannuzzi............................................................................. Executive Director, Term as ED

Publications Subcommittee of the Technical Affairs Committee Gerardine Botte, Chair................................................................... Second Vice President, Spring 2022 Colm O’Dwyer, Vice Chair.................................................................Third Vice President, Spring 2022 Krishnan Rajeshwar.......................................................................................... JSS Editor, 12/31/2021 Robert Savinell...................................................................................................... JES Editor, 6/3/2024 To be determined.............................................................................................. ECS Transactions Editor Robert Kelly.................................................................................................Interface Editor, 5/31/2022 Kang Xu............................................................................................................................. Spring 2022 Cortney Kreller................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Venkataraman Thangadurai................................................................................................ Spring 2023 Ajit Khosla......................................................................................................................... Spring 2023

Meetings Subcommittee of the Technical Affairs Committee Colm O’Dwyer, Chair.........................................................................Third Vice President, Spring 2022 Gerardine Botte, Vice Chair........................................................... Second Vice President, Spring 2022 Jianlin Li............................................................................................................................ Spring 2023 Francis D‘Souza ................................................................................................................ Spring 2024 Paul Truelove..................................................................................................................... Spring 2022

Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Subcommittee of the Technical Affairs Committee E.J. Taylor, Chair................................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Alice Suroviec ................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Uros Cvelbar...................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Jennifer Hite....................................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Scott Calabrese Barton....................................................................................................... Spring 2023 Alok Srivastava.................................................................................................................. Spring 2024 Diane Smith....................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 Mukund Mukundan............................................................................................................ Spring 2024 James Fenton..................................................................................................................... Spring 2024 John Vaughey.................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Nick Birbilis....................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Sean Bishop....................................................................................................................... Spring 2022 Jeff L. Blackburn................................................................................................................ Spring 2022 Natasa Vasiljek................................................................................................................... Spring 2022

Symposium Planning Advisory Board of the Technical Affairs Committee Colm O’Dwyer, Chair.........................................................................Third Vice President, Spring 2022 Shirley Meng .................................................................................... Chair, Battery Division, Fall 2022 James Noël................................................................................... Chair, Corrosion Division, Fall 2022 Jessica Koehne ................................................................................. Chair, Sensor Division, Fall 2022 Jennifer Hite.................................................... Chair, Electronics and Photonics Division, Spring 2023 William Mustain..........................................................Chair, Energy Technology Division, Spring 2023 Sadagopan Krishnan ................ Chair, Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division, Spring 2023 Andrew Hillier .......................... Chair, Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division, Spring 2023 Philippe Vereecken.............................................................Chair, Electrodeposition Division, Fall 2021 Paul Gannon...................................................... Chair, High Temperature Materials Division, Fall 2021 Jakoah Brgoch.................................... Chair, Luminescence and Display Materials Division, Fall 2021 Peter Mascher.................................... Chair, Dielectric Science and Technology Division, Spring 2022 Hiroshi Imahori .................................................................. Chair, Nanocarbons Division, Spring 2022 Shrisudersan Jayaraman..................................................................... Chair, Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division, Spring 2022 E. J. Taylor..................... Chair, Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Subcommittee, Spring 2022

Other Representatives Society Historian Roque Calvo.................................................................................................................. Spring 2022 American Association for the Advancement of Science Christopher Jannuzzi................................................................................. Term as Executive Director Science History Institute Katya Pomerantseva........................................................................ Heritage Councilor, Spring 2022 National Inventors Hall of Fame Shelley Minteer.................................................... Chair, Honors & Awards Committee, Spring 2023 The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


ECS Division Contacts Battery

Y. Shirley Meng, Chair (University of California San Diego) Brett Lucht, Vice Chair Jie Xiao, Secretary Jagjit Nanda, Treasurer Doron Aurbach, Journals Editorial Board Representative


James Noël, Chair (University of Western Ontario) Dev Chidambaram, Vice Chair Eiji Tada, Secretary/Treasurer Gerald Frankel, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Dielectric Science and Technology

Peter Mascher, Chair (McMaster University) Uros Cvelbar, Vice Chair Sreeran Vaddiraju, Secretary Zhi David Chen, Treasurer Peter Mascher, Journals Editorial Board Representative


Philippe Vereecken, Chair (IMED) Natasa Vasiljevic, Vice Chair Luca Magagnin, Secretary Andreas Bund, Treasurer Takayuki Homma, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Electronics and Photonics

Jennifer Hite, Chair (Naval Research Laboratory) Qiliang Li, Vice Chair Vidhya Chakrapani, 2nd Vice Chair Zia Karim, Secretary Erica Douglas, Treasurer Fan Ren, Journals Editorial Board Representative Jennifer Bardwell, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Energy Technology

William Mustain, Chair (University of South Carolina) Katherine Ayers, Vice Chair Minhua Shao, Secretary Hui Xu, Treasurer Xiao-Dong Zhou, Journals Editorial Board Representative

High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes

Paul Gannon, Chair (Montana State University) Sean Bishop, Sr. Vice Chair Cortney Kreller, Jr. Vice Chair Xingbo Liu, Secretary/Treasurer Raymond Gorte, Journals Editorial Board Representative Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering

Shrisudersan Jayaraman, Chair (Corning Incorporated) Maria Inman, Vice Chair Paul Kenis, Secretary/Treasurer John Harb, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Luminescence and Display Materials

Jakoah Brgoch, Chair (University of Houston) Rong-Jun Xie, Vice Chair Eugeniusz Zych, Secretary/Treasurer Kailash Mishra, Journals Editorial Board Representative


Hiroshi Imahori, Chair (Kyoto University) Jeffrey Blackburn, Vice Chair Ardemis Boghossian, Secretary Slava V. Rotkin, Treasurer Francis D’Souza, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Organic and Biological Electrochemistry

Sadagopan Krishnan, Chair (Oklahoma State University) Song Lin, Vice Chair Jeffrey Halpern, Secretary/Treasurer Janine Mauzeroll, Journals Editorial Board Representative

Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

Andrew Hillier, Chair (Iowa State University) Stephen Paddison, Vice Chair Anne Co, Secretary Svitlana Pylypenko, Treasurer David Cliffel, Journals Editorial Board Representative


Jessica Koehne, Chair (NASA Ames Research Center) Larry Nagahara, Vice Chair Praveen Kumar Sekhar, Secretary Dong-Joo Kim, Treasurer Ajit Khosla, Journals Editorial Board Representative The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •



SOFC-XVII by Eric D. Wachsman Co-symposium Organizer ECS President The Seventeenth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-XVII) was held virtually July 18–23, 2021. SOFC continues to be the preeminent conference on SOFC and solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) technologies. This year’s symposium, sponsored by the ECS High Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes (H-TEMP) Division and the SOFC Society of Japan, brought together the leaders in the field with 263 presentations from ~30 countries around the world. SOFC-XVII included a streaming live session each day with plenary speakers from the major US, EU, and Japanese governmental programs, as well as the Subhash Singhal Award presentation, named for Dr. Subhash C. Singhal, who launched this SOFC symposium series over 30 years ago. Winner Dr. Nguyen Minh’s award presentation, titled “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology – Perspectives on the Future,” both reviewed the history of SOFC development and provided an evaluation of its potential major impact on addressing future societal energy needs. The live session also included moderated Q&A panel discussions of the recorded presentations on industry commercialization efforts and breakthroughs in SOFC/SOEC science and technology.


SOFC-XVII presentations demonstrated that SOFC technology has taken a step toward commercialization, particularly in residential combined heat and power (CHP) applications, on-site systems for commercial applications, and in 200 kW to MW class stationary power generation. Research and development are still important to obtain high performance and performance stability, enable cost reductions, and achieve widespread acceptance of the technology. Due to the virtual conference, this was the first time that manuscript submission was optional. Yet we still received 209 manuscripts (over 70 percent of the presentations) indicating the importance of the SOFC-XVII ECS Transactions to the SOFC/SOEC community. The papers in SOFC-XVII cover all aspects of SOFCs and SOECs, including development and demonstration of systems; materials for different cell components and their processing and performance; cell, stack, and system designs; fabrication and testing; new applications, including electrolysis and reversible cell operations; flexibility to various fuels; performance modeling; and durability and reliability issues. These papers provide up-to-date, comprehensive information on the status of the SOFC/SOEC technology, and represent the go-to summary of international SOFC/SOEC activity.



Big benefits for institutions of any size Access content, discounts, targeted advertising, exhibit, and sponsorship opportunities with ECS Institutional Membership! Packages for all types of organizations start as low as $1,250 per year!

Meet your marketing goals: Contact Anna Olsen at for your custom package!


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


Staff News 5 Years with ECS

New ECS Staff

Shannon Reed celebrated his five-year anniversary with ECS on September 19, 2021. Shannon joined the Society as Director of Membership Services in September 2016, focusing on individual and institutional membership, education, student chapters, and leveraging the Society’s association management software. He was promoted to Director of Community Engagement in January 2019, assuming the additional responsibilities of overseeing marketing communications and the Society’s corporate programs, namely the exhibit and sponsorship program. “Congratulations to Shannon on a remarkable five years with ECS,” said Chris Jannuzzi, ECS Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer. “His role as Director of Community Engagement combines elements of marketing, senior leadership, IT, and of course, membership and education, into one multi-faceted position. Thankfully for us, Shannon possesses a wide and formidable array of talents which enable him to successfully manage the seemingly disparate aspects of this job, and drive them forward in a cohesive, coordinated way, all in service of the ECS community and mission. Most importantly, he does it all with a megawatt smile and infectious spirit that makes the hard work easier and the long days fun. It’s an honor and a pleasure to work with Shannon. I am truly grateful that he is part of the ECS leadership team!” Shannon engages with the association management community as part of his ECS responsibilities. As a member of the Council of Engineering and Scientific Society Executives (CESSE), he serves on the Membership Committee and participated as a panelist speaker on “The Future of Meetings Panel” at the ACCESSE21: A Virtual Connection conference. Shannon is actively involved with the Community Brands Product Advisory Council; and a member of the Project Management Institute (regional Delaware Valley Chapter), and ASAE: The Association for Association Leadership. “ECS is positioned for tremendous growth. The expansion of our student chapter program and community partnerships over the past five years indicate a very bright future. My goal is to continue moving the mission and vision of ECS forward—and grow along with the organization. I look forward to working with the community, stewarding the next generation of scientific leaders, and grooming future Society leaders. Thank you to those who make my successes possible—my team and the leadership of ECS including our many dedicated volunteers,” said Shannon.

Sophie Harper joined ECS in July as the Publications Coordinator for ECS Transactions. Sophie has a background in English, as well as several years of experience working for nonprofit organizations. Most recently, Sophie was an administrative assistant for a mental health and addiction facility, where she worked closely with the CEO and upper management on the facility’s day-to-day operations and provision of excellent patient care. Sophie joins ECS with great enthusiasm. She has a strong passion for writing and editing, as well as working and being a part of nonprofit organizations. Sophie looks forward to diving deeper into her role at ECS and learning more about the world of science along the way. Garrett Shumaker joined ECS as a Junior Staff Accountant in May. Garrett comes to ECS with a BA in Accounting from Rutgers University and a few years of experience working in an accounting role and environment. He works primarily on daily accounting functions, as well as supporting and assisting the Accounting Manager and Chief Financial Officer on several other Finance Department processes. “I am very happy that Garrett has joined ECS,” said Sophia Jorge, ECS Accounting Manager. “He is a pleasure to work with and an asset to the team. Garrett has accounting knowledge and the ability to learn and understand at a fast-pace. Garrett has key qualities that have been, and will continue to be, essential to the growth of the Finance team, as well as to the Society as a whole. He is detail-oriented, analytical, and knowledgeable. I am excited to continue working alongside Garrett and to watch his growth within the Society!” In his free time, Garrett enjoys playing videogames, especially Magic: the Gathering, and Dungeons & Dragons.


Connecting research and researchers

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Websites of Note Suggested for you by Alice Suroviec.

Basics of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Ionic Liquid Database Host: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Site: ILThermo is a free web-based ionic liquids database. Up-to-date information on publications of experimental investigation on ionic liquids can be found here, including numerical values of chemical and physical properties, measurement methods, sample purity, and uncertainty of property values, as well as many other significant measurement details. The database can be searched by the ions constituting the ionic liquids, the ionic liquids themselves, their properties, and by references.

Host: Gamry Instruments Site: This tutorial presents an introduction to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) theory that has been kept as free as possible of mathematics and electrical theory. All the topics needed for a basic understanding of EIS are covered.

nanoHUB Host: Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN) Site: nanoHUB hosts an open-access site containing novel research, education, outreach, and support for the nanotechnology community. The site also hosts a collection of simulation tools for nanoscale phenomena as well as online presentations, nanoHUB-U short courses, animations, teaching materials, and more.

Alice Suroviec is a Professor of Bioanalytical Chemistry and Dean of the School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at Berry College. She earned a BS in Chemistry from Allegheny College in 2000. She received her PhD from Virginia Tech in 2005 under the direction of Dr. Mark R. Anderson. Her research focuses on enzymatically modified electrodes for use as biosensors. She is currently the Chair of the ECS Education Committee and Associate Editor of the Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Technical Division for the Journal of The Electrochemical Society.

© The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149.2/2.F02213IF.


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 • 23


Division News Corrosion Division

The ECS Battery Division congratulates Division Member at Large Bryan McCloskey on winning the 2021 International Society of Electrochemistry (ISE) Tajima Prize. The prize recognizes contributions made by younger electrochemists on the basis of published work. Professor McCloskey is Associate Professor and Vice Chair of Graduate Education in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He holds a joint appointment as Faculty Engineer in the Energy Storage and Distributed Resources Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The co-author of more than 100 articles, Prof. McCloskey holds six patents and has won numerous awards including an NSF CAREER Award, the 2015 VW/BASF Science Award Electrochemistry, and 2020 ECS Charles W. Tobias Young Investigator Award.

The Corrosion Division is pleased to announce the ECS Corrosion Division Rusty Award for Mid-Career Excellence, a new award recognizing a mid-career scientist or engineer’s achievement and contributions to the field of corrosion science and technology. Candidates must have been a member of the Corrosion Division for at least five consecutive years; published in an ECS society journal; and satisfy one of the following: either hold a rank equivalent to Associate Professor/Associate Scientist/Associate Engineer or higher; or have graduated with their final degree a minimum of 10 years and a maximum of 25 years prior to the deadline for award nomination. The award consists of a scroll; US $1,000; complimentary registration for the designated meeting; and up to US $1,000 for travel expenses to attend the meeting.




Battery Division

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Guest Editors: Thomas Moffat

Contributions addressing the following topics are solicited: • Classical and non-classical nucleation in electrochemistry;

Shirley Meng

• Morphological evolution during film growth and dissolution from smooth films to highly anisotropic growth of faceted crystals, nanowires, dendrites, and foams;

Timo Jacob

• Advanced imaging, scattering, spectroscopic, and electroanalytical tools to probe the above processes;

Toshyuki Nohira

• New processes for manipulating nucleation and growth processes, from the use of additives to different electrochemical control modalities, to obtain either smooth dense films or high surface area, ramified electrodeposits;

Yasuhiro Fukunaka

• Discovery science and mechanistic studies related to emerging applications in battery electrodes, micro- and nano-fabrication, and high value-added electrolytic processes for material synthesis; • Multiscale computational studies.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

SOCIE T Y NE WS Energy Technology Division Establishment of the Energy Technology Division Walter van Schalkwijk Award in Sustainable Energy Technology In June of 2021, long-time Energy Technology Division (ETD) member Dr. Walter van Schalkwijk generously donated US $25,000 to seed an endowment for the Energy Technology Division Walter van Schalkwijk Award in Sustainable Energy Technology. Starting in 2022, this award—and a US $2,500 prize—will be given annually to a researcher, academician, technologist, and/or entrepreneur who has made innovative and transformative contributions to sustainable energy technologies (devices, materials, and/or processes). Recognized research will contribute to sustainability goals such as pollution prevention, resource conservation, and waste reduction/minimization by innovations in lean manufacturing, responsible consumption, alternative energy, waste management, and/or reuse/recycling. This award reflects the professional contributions of Dr. van Schalkwijk in industry and academia. Dr. van Schalkwijk has 40 years of experience in the battery and fuel cell industry in research,

product development, manufacturing, and applications engineering. He also developed new formulations for kidney dialysate, which may seem unrelated to energy technology, but concerns the movement of ions through a membrane for the benefit of patients on dialysis. Dr. van Schalkwijk served on many ECS committees over the past 20 years, including four years on the Board of Directors. To make this endowed award sustainable (no pun intended) and a cornerstone of ETD activities, we welcome additional donations. Such contributions not only honor Dr. van Schalkwijk’s legacy, but also support and champion research and developmental activities in the area of sustainable energy technology, and encourage more researchers to pursue careers in energy-related fields. Anyone interested in donating to the award, please contact ETD Chair William (Bill) Mustain ( or ECS Executive Director Chris Jannuzzi (chris.jannuzzi@electrochem. org). The ETD Executive Committee invites everyone reading this article to join us in thanking and honoring the decades-long contributions of Walter van Schalkwijk, including this award.

Vaidyanathan (Ravi) Subramanian Ends Term as ETD Chair and Welcomes Incoming Officers Every two years, the Energy Technology Division holds elections for their four leadership positions: Chair, Vice Chair, Secretary, and Treasurer. For the past two years, Professor Vaidyanathan (Ravi) Subramanian has served as ETD Chair. Prof. Subramanian is Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). He is also the Solar Energy Thrust Area Coordinator at UNR’s Renewable Energy Center. His research focuses on nanostructured materials for solar energy utilization. He has expertise in the synthesis, characterization, and application of photoactive materials in photovoltaics, clean fuel production, and environmental remediation. During his time as ETD Chair, Prof. Subramanian oversaw excellent growth in the division— both in terms of participation as well as an influx of financial support to support student travel grants and major awards. He led the division through many COVID-19-related obstacles. ETD is forever grateful for his service.

Though it is sad to see ETD Chairs end their official service to the division, it also provides opportunities for others to step into their shoes and continue moving this thriving division forward. The new officers will serve two-year terms from summer 2021 to 2023. Winning the election for the ETD Chair was William (Bill) Mustain, Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of South Carolina. The new division Vice Chair is Dr. Kathy Ayers, Vice President of Research and Development at Nel Hydrogen. The incoming Secretary is Prof. Minhua Shao, Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Dr. Hui Xu, Chief Technology Officer at Giner, Inc., is the newly elected ETD Treasurer. We extend our warmest well wishes to the new ETD Executive Committee.

The Energy Technology Division bids the outgoing ETD Chair farewell and welcomes its new officers. From top left to right: Former ETD Chair Vaidyanathan (Ravi) Subramanian, incoming ETD Chair William Mustain,Vice Chair Katherine Ayers, Secretary Minhua Shao, and Treasurer Hui Xu.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


The Chalkboard: Stretching Cyclic Voltammetry to its Potential Limit

d r a o b k e Chal


by Jean St-Pierre

Introduction Electrochemistry’s reach is extensive, from fundamentals, material and commodity synthesis and reactor engineering to energy conversion devices. For most areas of interest, experimental conditions are well controlled. However, in some cases, experimental conditions are significantly more complex because applications are located in the field and exposed to the elements. Sensors and innovations designed to abate corrosion are in contact with the environment. These situations add complexity to design activities and data interpretation. Atmospheric air contains hundreds of species (mostly at trace levels), whereas oceans are effective solvents for ions, inorganic (geological features contact) and organic (biological activity) species. A growing interest in the circular economy1 will also result in similar and uncontrolled experimental conditions for envisaged electrochemical processes. Nuclear reprocessing of fuel rods2,3 to recover uranium involves separating noble, transuranic, lanthanide, and other elements. Battery electrodes recycling by hydrometallurgical processes4 will lead to multi-component solutions. Polymer recycling in bulk using electrochemical processes5 is desirable to minimize costs, which will create an assemblage of organic components (diverse polymers, leftover synthesis reactants, dyes, stabilizers, corrosion inhibitors). For process control of electrochemical recycling, effective methods are needed to assess the composition of multi-component solutions.

Cyclic Voltammetry Among analytical methods, cyclic voltammetry is recognized as one of the most valuable techniques to probe reactions involving an electron transfer.6,7 The electrode potential is scanned, and the current response is measured (Fig. 1a and b). Experimental data yield both qualitative as well as quantitative results. The peak potential Ep is a characteristic that is used to identify specific reactions. The thermodynamic electrode potential given by the Nernst equation is in its simplest form: (1) where E is the electrode potential versus a reference (such as the standard hydrogen electrode or SHE), E0 the standard potential, R the gas constant, T the temperature, n the number of electrons exchanged in the reaction, F the Faraday constant, cox the oxidized species concentration, and cred the reduced species concentration. The average peak potential E1/2 (Fig. 1b) is often assigned to the Nernst potential E. Tabulated values of E0 are available to facilitate reaction identification.8,9 In contrast, the dependence of the peak current on the potential scan rate is a quantitative characteristic. For example, for a reversible reduction reaction, the peak current density ip is given by: (2) where Dox is the diffusion coefficient of the oxidized species and v the potential scan rate. The concentration of the oxidized species is obtained from the slope of the peak current density as a function of the square root of the potential scan rate (Fig. 1c), if

the temperature, number of electrons exchanged in the reaction, and diffusion coefficient of the oxidized species are known. Theoretically, cyclic voltammograms of an unknown multi-component solution, should reveal its composition (chemical identities and concentrations).

Application to Multi-Component Solutions The cyclic voltammogram of a hypothetical aqueous solution containing five oxidizable species is depicted in Fig. 2a and b (dark green curves). It was assumed that the species and reaction products do not interact. Therefore, individual cyclic voltammograms were added to obtain the overall response.6 Individual cyclic voltammograms are dependent on the standard potential, species diffusion coefficient and concentration, and reaction rate constant. Values were determined using reasonable ranges and a random number generator. Other parameters were kept constant for all cases. Individual species data obtained during forward and return scans, respectively, the left and right branches of the electrode potential sweep (Fig. 1a), are also plotted in Fig. 2a and b (red curves). Most peaks are discernible in Fig. 2a and b. However, for one species, the concentration is too low, which leads to negligible current densities. Therefore, this relatively simple case of only five species is not expected to identify all species in solution successfully. For a solution containing five more species for a total of ten (Fig. 2c and d), the overall cyclic voltammogram is marginally more complex because several species show a weak response. Only two additional and major peaks are visible. In the forward scan from -0.1 to 1.3 V vs SHE, an oxidation peak is observed at ~1.28 V vs SHE (Fig. 2c). In the return scan from 1.3 to -0.1 V vs SHE, the same species is responsible for the associated reduction peak at ~0.71 V vs SHE (Fig. 2d). (continued on page 28)


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

Fig. 1. Potential applied during a cyclic voltammetry experiment (a). Typical cyclic voltammogram and characteristic peak potential Ep, average peak potential E1/2, and peak current density ip (b). Dependence of the peak current density ip on the potential scan rate v (c).

Fig. 2. Cyclic voltammograms (dark green curves) for a solution containing 5 (a and b) and 10 (c and d) species with randomly selected parameter values. Individual species responses obtained during forward (a and c) and return (b and d) scans are also displayed (red and blue curves). Standard electrode potentials are represented by black dash lines.

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(continued from page 26)

Figure 2 cyclic voltammograms are simplifications because processes such as water decomposition reactions (hydrogen and oxygen evolution) and homogeneous chemical reactions preceding or succeeding the electrochemical reactions were ignored. Therefore, it is unlikely that the composition of solutions containing many species can be determined by cyclic voltammetry without modifications. For instance, the minimal distance between potential peaks is 58 mV for a reversible reaction (Nernstian),6 which restricts the number of species to less than 10 to minimize peak overlap in an aqueous solution (solvent operational range is generally limited to 1.23 V). A similar argument can be articulated for the current density response if the solution contains species with vastly different concentrations.

Improvements to the Analysis of Multi-Component Solutions The resolution achieved by cyclic voltammetry is enhanced by modifying experimental parameters such as the nature of electrode material and solution composition (Fig. 3) as well as the data analysis approaches used. Organic solvents and molten salts offer wider potential stability windows than water (>3 V),6,7,10 which accommodate a higher number of dissolved species without peak overlap. Electrolyte, pH, and electrode material also influence the solution stability window.7,11 Large discrepancies in concentrations can be addressed using higher surface area porous electrodes12 and selective electrodes targeting more dilute species.13-15 This statement implies the integration of more than one electrode to obtain multiple cyclic voltammograms and assess the composition of a multi-component solution.16 The development of electronic tongues is representative of such an approach.17 In that context, artificial intelligence becomes more relevant to consistently analyze

larger data sets, which was applied to cyclic voltammetry.18 More specifically, principal component analysis was discussed.17,19 As a last resort, if the desired resolution is not achievable, more sensitive voltammetric methods could be used (square wave voltammetry, etc)6 or cyclic voltammetry could be combined with separation steps and other analytical methods.20,21 These cyclic voltammetry approaches focusing on a higher resolution for the analysis of multi-component solutions may not be compatible with nuclear fuel, battery, and polymer recycling processes. For these specific processes, few applications have so far been reported (nuclear fuel reprocessing),22,23 because the electrochemical recycling field is still relatively under-developed.

Conclusion The need to analyze multi-component solutions to control electrochemical recycling processes was emphasized. However, the identification of all species and concentrations for a multi-component solution by cyclic voltammetry is complex. The resolution of individual species cyclic voltammetry peaks can be improved by adapting experimental parameters and data analysis approaches. It is noteworthy that more than two decades ago, a hexanuclear complex, [{(bpy)2-Ru(2,3-dpp)}2Ru(2,3-dpp)Ru{(2,3-dpp)Ru(bpy)2}2]12+, held the record for the highest number of reduction processes (26!) identified by cyclic voltammetry.24 Can this record be broken for multi-component solutions without using in parallel additional characterization methods? © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F03213IF.

Calculations All Fig. 1 and 2 calculations were completed with a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet cyclic voltammetry simulator.25,26 Other cyclic voltammetry simulators are available.27

Fig. 3. Experimental factors affecting the resolution of cyclic voltammetry for the identification of species in multi-component solutions. Electrode (a) and solution (b) options.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

About the Author Jean St-Pierre, University of Hawaii – Manoa, HI, U.S. Education: PhD, MScA, and BIng (Polytechnique in Montréal, Canada) Research Interests: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells including aspects such as water management, freezing, degradation mechanisms, mathematical modeling, diagnosis and measurement methods, electrocatalysis, pure oxygen operation for space and air independent applications, and reactant stream unit operations (gas separation and fuel reforming catalysts). Work Experience: Principal research scientist and research professor positions at, respectively, Ballard Power Systems (19952005) and the University of South Carolina (2006-2010). Pubs + Patents: 115+ papers, book chapters and conference proceedings, 30+ patents. Awards: Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems PROF. x2 fellowship (2009), Ballard Power Systems STAR (Superior Teamwork And Recognition) award (2000), and Ballard Power Systems award of excellence (1996) for outstanding contribution for teamwork. Work with ECS: Guest co-editor for the Journal of the Electrochemical Society focus issue on Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer Durability (2021), Member of the Honors and Awards committee (since 2012), and Chair (2011-2013) of the Energy Technology division.

References 1. J. B. Zimmerman, P. T. Anastas, H. C. Erythropel, and W. Leitner, Science, 367, 397 (2020). 2. A. Merwin, M. A. Williamson, J. L. Willit, and D. Chidambaram, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, H5236 (2017). 3. M. A. Williamson and J. L. Willit, Nucl. Eng. Technol., 43, 329 (2011). 4. K. Kim, R. Candeago, G. Rim, D. Raymond, A.-H. A. Park, and X. Su, iScience, 24, 102374 (2021). 5. H. A. Petersen, T. H. T. Myren, S. J. O’Sullivan, and O. R. Luca, Mater. Adv., 2, 1113 (2021). 6. A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edn., John Wiley and Sons (2001).

7. N. Elgrishi, K. J. Rountree, B. D. McCarthy, E. S. Rountree, T. T. Eisenhart, and J. L. Dempsey, J. Chem. Educ., 95, 197 (2018). 8. Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solution, A. J. Bard, R. Parsons, and J. Jordan, Eds., Marcell Dekker, NY (1985). 9. L. Meites and P. Zuman, CRC handbook series in organic electrochemistry (6 volumes), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1977-1983). 10. T. H. Okabe, A. Horiuchi, K. T. Jacob, and Y. Waseda, J. Electrochem. Soc., 148, E219 (2001). 11. M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, TX (1974). 12. A. A. Farghaly, M. Lam, C. J. Freeman, B. Uppalapati, and M. M. Collinson, J. Electrochem. Soc., 163, H3083 (2016). 13. A. Gomes, G. J. Mattos, B. Coldibeli, R. F. H. Dekker, A. M. B. Dekker, and E. R. Sartori, Bioelectrochemistry, 135, 107543 (2020). 14. M. Ponram, U. Balijapalli, B. Sambath, S. K. Iyer, K. Kakaraparthi, G. Thota, V. Bakthavachalam, R. Cingaram, J. Sung-Ho, and K. N. Sundaramurthy, Dyes Pigments, 163, 176 (2019). 15. L. K. Shpigun, E. Y. Andryukhina, P. M. Kamilova, M. A. Suranova, and A. S. Protasov, Russ. J. Electrochem., 52, 340 (2016). 16. C. Pérez-Ràfols, N. Serrano, C. Ariño, M. Esteban, and J. M. Díaz-Cruz, Sensors, 19, 4261 (2019). 17. S. Holmin, F. Björefors, M. Eriksson, C. Krantz-Rülcker, and F. Winquist, Electroanalysis, 14, 839 (2002). 18. Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Yu, Y. Cai, X. Sha, S. Wang, Z. Zhan, J. Xu, and L. Liu, Biosens. Bioelectron., 186, 113291 (2021). 19. A. V. Sidel’nikov, R. A. Zil’berg, F. K. Kudasheva, V. N. Maistrenko, G. F. Yunusova, and S. V. Sapel’nikova, J. Anal. Chem., 63, 975 (2008). 20. H. H. J. L. Ploegmakers and W. J. van Oort, Instrum. Sci. Technol., 16, 467 (1987). 21. Z. Mofidi, P. Norouzi, S. Seidi, and M. R. Ganjali, Anal. Chim. Acta, 972, 38 (2017). 22. J. B. Coble, S. E. Skutnik, S. N. Gilliam, and M. P. Cooper, Nucl. Technol., 206, 1803 (2020). 23. M. M. Tylka, J. L. Willit, J. Prakash, and M. A. Williamson, J. Electrochem. Soc., 162, H852 (2015). 24. M. Marcaccio, F. Paolucci, C. Paradisi, S. Roffia, C. Fontanesi, L. J. Yellowlees, S. Serroni, S. Campagna, G. Denti, and V. Balzani, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121, 10081 (1999). 25. J. H. Brown, J. Chem. Educ., 93, 1326 (2016). 26. J. H. Brown, J. Chem. Educ., 92, 1490 (2015). 27. S. Wang, J. Wang, and Y. Gao, J. Chem. Educ., 94, 1567 (2017).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •



In Memoriam ... Kathryn Bullock 1945-2021

Norma Kathryn Bullock passed away on May 17, 2021 in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, from Alzheimer’s Disease. Bullock was an active and influential member of the Electrochemical Society throughout her career. She helped to form local chapters in Colorado and Wisconsin, she was elected Vice President in 1992, and she served as ECS President from 1995 to 1996. She also represented ECS on the board of the Chemical Heritage Foundation in the mid-2000’s. Over the course of her career, she worked in battery research for Photo: Rev. K. R. Bullock Gates Rubber Company, Johnson Controls, AT&T, Medtronic, and C & D Technologies, and in 2003 she formed a consulting firm, Coolohm, Inc. She was the recipient of numerous awards for her research, was author of over 60 technical articles, and holds 11 US patents. Bullock was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, on September 24, 1945. She earned a BA in English literature with a minor in chemistry at the University of Colorado, and an MS (1969) and PhD (1972) in physical chemistry at Northwestern University. She is survived by her husband, the Reverend Kenneth R. Bullock.

In Memoriam ... Sergio Trasatti 1937-2021

It is with great sadness that as President of the Division of Electrochemistry of the Italian Chemical Society, I have to inform ECS and the international electrochemical community that Sergio Trasatti Emeritus Professor at the University of Milan, Italy, has passed away after a short illness. Prof. Trasatti was an ECS Fellow (class of the year 2000), and ECS recognized his scientific excellence by awarding him the Olin Palladium Medal in 2007. Prof. Trasatti had a long and outstanding career in electrochemistry since receiving his MS in Industrial Chemistry in 1961, which was awarded by the University of Milan, Italy. In 1967 he became assistant professor in the same university, where he reached the rank of full professor in 1980 as the Chair of Industrial Electrochemistry. In 1989 he was also granted the Chair of Electrochemistry.


The research of Prof. Trasatti covered several fields of electrochemistry. He started his career with studies in the fields of corrosion and anodic protection. Then his interests shifted to the structure of the electrical double layer and to the adsorption phenomena on electrodes, whose study he mastered during his 1967 visit to the laboratory of Prof. Roger Parsons at the School of Chemistry of Bristol (UK). At the end of that decade, he also began research into the surface characterization and the electrocatalysis of oxides. At the same time, he undertook the study of the interplay between the solid-state features of metals (e.g., the electron extraction work) and the properties of the electrochemical surface (e.g., the zero charge potential and electrocatalysis, among many others). Other seminal topics of Prof. Trasatti’s research activities cover the physical meaning of the measured potential (the so-called “absolute potential”), the properties of single ions, and the interplay between the acid-base properties of oxides in solution and their electrocatalytic performance. More recently, he has been involved in studies with Ag and RuO2 single crystals as well as with boron-doped diamond electrodes. The research work of Prof. Trasatti is witnessed by more than 300 papers, including more than 25 book chapters; he received more than 17500 citations and his h-index is 63. During his long career, Prof. Trasatti took a very active stance in chemical societies. He was a member of ECS beginning in 1977; subsequently, he became Chairman of the Electrochemistry Commission from 1985 to 1986 and then a Member of the Committee of the Physical Chemistry Division of the Italian Chemical Society. He served as an ISE Vice President from 1985 to 1987 and as an ISE President from 1989 to 1990. Prof. Trasatti was the Chair of the Organizing Committee of the 50th ISE Annual Meeting in Pavia (1999). Prof. Trasatti also served ISE as an Editor of the journal Electrochimica Acta (2002), taking up the duties of Editor-in-Chief in 2003. In later years he continued serving the journal by covering the role of Editor for Special Issues. He was awarded an ISE honorary membership for services rendered to the Society in 2004. Prof. Trasatti received many other awards, including: the Miolati Prize of the Italian Association of Physical Chemistry (1975); election as an Honorary Member of the Polish Chemical Society (1985); Distinguished Lecturer at Clarkson University of Potsdam, NY, USA (1988); the Pergamon – Electrochimica Acta Gold Medal of the International Society of Electrochemistry (ISE); Correspondent Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Argentina (1994); Medal for the 75th Anniversary of the Polish Chemical Society (1997); Medal of Honor of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences of Warsaw (2000); the Frumkin Memorial Medal of ISE (2003); and the Golden Seal of the Italian Chemical Society (2007). He was an Awarded Life Member of ECS. The community of electrochemists has lost not only an outstanding and top-notch scientist, but also a colleague and, for many of us, a mentor, an inspiring teacher and a good friend. Prof. Trasatti was always present with skilled suggestions and human advice, helping many of us onto the path toward excellence. Our memory will always have a place for his many contributions to the electrochemical science and community over the course of six decades. Farewell, Sergio! This notice was contributed by Prof. Vito Di Noto, University of Padova, Italy.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


In Memoriam ...

In Memoriam ...

Forrest A. Trumbore

Petr Zuman



Forrest A. Trumbore Past Secretary of ECS and Past Vice-Chair of the Electronics Division, of Summit, New Jersey, died on June 21 following a brief illness. He was 93. Dr. Trumbore was born on December 28, 1927 in Denver, Colorado and grew up in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. A brilliant scientist even as a young student, he left high school at age 15 to attend Dickinson College. After graduating at 18, he went on to earn a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Pittsburgh at age 22. There he met his wife of 68 years, Vicki, Photo: B. Trumbore who predeceased him. Dr. Trumbore spent several years with what is now NASA in Ohio before joining the Research Department at Bell Laboratories in 1952. His work focused on semiconductors used in the manufacture of lightemitting diodes, particularly gallium phosphide. His technical publications are still considered key references in semiconductor crystal growth. In 1972 he moved to Bell’s Battery Development Department, where his primary interest was lithium batteries. Co-inventor of the niobium triselenide rechargeable lithium battery, later developed as the AT&T Faraday cell, he holds six patents. After his retirement from Bell in 1989, Dr. Trumbore became an Adjunct Associate Professor in the Bioengineering section of the Department of Surgery at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Dr. Trumbore served as Secretary of the Electrochemical Society and co-wrote The Electrochemical Society 1902-2002: A Centennial History. The first recipient of the Electronics Division Award, he also served as vice-chair of the division. In his retirement he contributed science columns to the website Dr. Trumbore is survived by his sons, Harry Trumbore (wife, Cynthia Kane) of Ocean View, Delaware, and Brian Trumbore of Summit; grandchildren Dale Trumbore (husband, Lucas Hausrath) of Azusa, California, and Douglas Trumbore (wife, Lisa Tordo) of Bridgewater, NJ; and his brother, Dr. Conrad Trumbore of Newark, Delaware. This notice was contributed by Brian Trumbore, Ocean View, Delaware, USA

It is very sad news that Prof. Petr Zuman (born on January 13, 1926, in Prague, Czechoslovakia) passed away early in the morning on June 24, 2021 (at the age of 95). He passed peacefully in his sleep at his home in Potsdam, New York, with his son John Zuman and his home-carer Regina Randall in attendance. Petr Zuman was the personal pupil and collaborator of Prof. Jaroslav Heyrovský, who won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of DC polarography, a new branch of electrochemistry and the first quantitative Photo: Jiří Ludvík electroanalytical methodology developed for solution chemistry. Petr began his career at Charles University in Prague as Heyrovský’s teaching assistant (1948-1950). From 1950 to 1966 Petr worked with Prof. Heyrovský in the newly established Polarographic Institute (later part of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences), where he created the organic polarography research group together with Prof. Jiří Volke. From 1966 to 1970, he spent four years at the University of Birmingham as a Senior Visiting Research Fellow. Due to ongoing political upheaval in his home country, he did not feel it was safe to return there with his family. So, in 1970, he accepted the invitation of Prof. Louis Meites to become Professor of Chemistry at Clarkson University in Potsdam, New York. After thirty years of research, teaching, and lecturing he retired and was declared Distinguished Emeritus Research Professor. He remained active as a scientist and teacher until 2015. Even beyond that time, he periodically gave informal lectures to the Clarkson chemistry department that were widely attended. During his 45 active years at Clarkson, Petr taught 27 different courses in analytical, organic, and general chemistry, supervised 14 PhD, 12 MSc, and 24 BS theses as well as many postdocs and visiting young scientist colleagues. Petr Zuman published over 484 papers and authored or co-authored 15 books in the fields of physical organic electrochemistry and polarography. The most important ones are cited below. His two famous compendia, Handbook Series in Inorganic Electrochemistry (6 volumes) and Handbook Series in Inorganic Electrochemistry (8 volumes, with Louis Meites and others), published between 1977 and 1988 by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, which covered the development of electrochemistry up to the 1980’s, remain as fundamental opuses in electrochemistry. (continued on next page)

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


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Petr’s special field of research was organic electroanalytical chemistry with a focus on elucidation of electrode-initiated reaction mechanisms using polarographic, voltametric, and kinetic techniques. Since his “beloved” electrode material was mercury, his research was oriented mainly toward reduction and hydrolysis processes with applications in pharmacy, medicine, and the environment. Examples include reduction and hydrolysis of oximes and hydrazones; acid-base, hydration-dehydration, and tautomeric equilibria involving 1,3,5- and 1,2,4-triazines; reduction, (de)hydration, and follow-up reactions of aromatic diketones; reactions of bile acids, cholesterol, and other sterols in strongly acidic media; additions of nucleophiles, such as glutathione, to nitrosobenzene, and ring formation of selected 2-amino-1,4-benzoquinones. Most of his studies involved biologically important compounds and his investigations were essential both for development of analytical methods and for better understanding of their biological activity. Specific attention was paid to lignin, not only for his interest in environmental research, but mainly for the future use of lignin, a renewable raw material, as a natural source of aromatics for industrial applications. As for his international scientific contacts, Petr had long-term common research activities with Turkish, Italian, and Serbian electrochemists. His extensive collaboration with University of Bologna resulted not only in a number of publications but also in a doctorate honoris causa in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology. Nevertheless, his dream was to re-establish close collaboration with his colleagues from his homeland, namely with his original laboratory in the J. Heyrovský Institute in Prague. This became possible after 1989, when he could return to Czechoslovakia after more than 20 years in exile. His first visits resulted in thirty years of close cooperation with the team of Molecular Electrochemistry at the J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry. In this time, Petr participated in three CzechUS research grant projects focused on the intramolecular electronic interactions between two (or more) electroactive centers in a molecule. He visited Prague and the J. Heyrovský Institute at least once every year until 2015. After that, scientific as well as personal email contacts continued until his last days. Here, it is not possible to omit the 65 years of married life of Petr and Radmila, their two children and 6 grandchildren. Radmila was a profession teacher, artist, and internationally known lace maker; she taught courses in this art all over the world. She accompanied Petr all of their life together and completed the family environment that was so important to him Besides electrochemistry, Petr’s interests were focused on sports and culture. It is not generally known that he was a very good basketball player as a young man, and later an international basketball referee, aided by his voice that was always so loud. He also loved volleyball and cross-country skiing, and when teaching in the winter often crosscountry skied to Clarkson. He was a fan of literature, theater, and opera. When he visited Prague, he attended a theater performance or a concert every evening of his stay. In addition, his knowledge of history was remarkable, and he spoke five languages fluently. Personally, I have known Petr well for over 30 years; hence I could see that Petr served as an excellent mentor for young electrochemists, both in his own institutions and in the research community at large. As a sportsman and YMCA member he was a fair and kind personality with deep spiritual background. So, for many younger colleagues and students he was something like a “second father.” Now, we can only be grateful for his long and fruitful life, and remember him as an excellent scientist, teacher, mentor, colleague, and friend. Many of us (including me) are especially grateful to have known him for a long time scientifically as well as personally.


This notice was contributed by Prof. Jiří Ludvík, J. Heyrovský Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. From Jim Rusling, University of Connecticut, USA: “This is a very sad day, and we and our profession have lost a Giant of Electrochemistry, a real scientific pioneer, who was also an old school, very friendly man profoundly interested in the welfare of students. He changed the course of my life for the better, as well as that of many others.” From Kevin Moeller, Washington University in St. Louis, USA: “I have very fond memories of Petr at ECS meetings always keeping me on my toes and always helping me learn electrochemistry the ‘right way.’ Just a gem of a scientist and a gem of a man.” From Flavio Maran, University of Padova, Italy: “Petr was a great person and a true ‘electrochemical’ inspiration. Kevin rightfully wrote that he made us learn electrochemistry the ‘right way.’ His old-way scientific rigor is something that nowadays has become way too rare.” From Dan Little, University of California Santa Barbara, USA: “Terrific scientist and a wonderful human being.” From Jim Burgess, former OBE division chair: “I’m sorry to hear of his passing. It’s amazing how close-knit our academic families stay (within and between) in our discipline (maybe more so than some others I think).” From Chris Jannuzzi, ECS Executive Director and CEO: “I am very sorry to hear of Prof. Zuman’s passing. I did not have the pleasure of meeting him, but reading the comments, and knowing the folks who offered them, clearly he was revered as a scientist and, most importantly, as a dear and trusted friend to many.” From Toshio Fuchigami, Professor Emeritus, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan: “Very sad news for me and our society. When I started my own project related with organic electrochemistry long time ago, I used to read his books many times. Polarography was useful to understand the mechanistic aspects of organic electrochemical reactions. I met him many times at ECS Meetings and I learned a lot from him.” From Gopan Krishnan, Oklahoma State University, USA, current OBE division chair: “Petr Zuman is my mentor’s (Prof. Jim Rusling) mentor, and therefore my scientific grandpa. Jim used to tell a lot of stories about his graduate time in the Zuman lab at Clarkson University: the importance of confirming results from various independent techniques for ‘rigor’ (a much-emphasized benchmark presently in all research), Zuman as an extraordinary research mentor and great person, and Zuman’s pioneering early work on polarography and other electroanalytical methods that influenced the field for several decades and many electrochemists like me along the way.” Some of Prof. Zuman’s Most Important Books: • J. Heyrovský and P. Zuman, Introduction to Practical Polarography, Academic Press, London (1968). • M. Brezina and P. Zuman, Polarography in Medicine, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Interscience, New York (1958). • P. Zuman, Organic Polarographic Analysis, Pergamon, London (1964). • P. Zuman, Substituent Effects in Organic Polarography, Plenum Press, New York (1967). • P. Zuman and I. M. Kolthoff (Eds.), Progress in Polarography, Vols. I and II, Interscience, J. Wiley, New York (1962). • P. Zuman, L. Meites, and I. M. Kolthoff (Eds.), Progress in Polarography, Vol. III, J. Wiley, New York (1972). • P. Zuman, The Elucidation of Organic Electrode Processes, Academic Press, New York (1969). • P. Zuman and C.L. Perrin, Organic Polarography, Interscience, J. Wiley, New York (1969). • P. Zuman and R. Patel, Techniques in Organic Reaction Kinetics, J. Wiley, New York (1984), Krieger Publ. Co. (1992). The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

Looking at Patent Law:

Patenting an Electrochemical Invention for Recycling Electronic Waste – A Case Study by E. Jennings Taylor and Maria Inman



In this installment of the ‟Looking at Patent Lawˮ articles, we present a case study of an electrochemical system for recovering metals from electronic waste. We have chosen this invention to align with the focus of this issue of Interface on ‟recycling.ˮ Recall from our previous article,1 the prosecution history (i.e. examination record) of a patent application is publicly available in the file wrapper at the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) Patent Application Information Retrieval (PAIR) system.2 With the USPTO PAIR system as the primary source of information for this case study, we illustrate the prosecution “events” encountered during the examination of U.S. Patent No. 9,777,346; “Methods for Recovering Metals from Electronic Waste, and Related Systems.”3 The ‘346 patent issued on October 3, 2017 with co-inventors Tedd E. Lister, Jacob A. Parkman, Luis A. Diaz Aldana, Eric J. Dufek, and Philip Keller. Inventors Lister and Aldana are members of The Electrochemical Society. The patent is assigned to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC of Idaho Falls, ID. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC oversees more than 27,000 employees at nine national laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Battelle’s oversight activity is conducted as a contract manager under the Government-Owned Contractor-Operated (GOCO) governance

model. The technology was developed at the DOE Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with funding from the DOE’s Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation hub. Two of the inventors are shown in Fig. 1 conducting laboratory scale research at INL on the “Electrochemical Recycling Electronic Constituents of Value” (E-RECOV) invention.4 The ‘346 patent abstract generally describes the invention as follows: “A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.”

Patent Applications

Fig 1. INL inventors Dr. Luis Diaz Aldana and Dr. Tedd Lister conducting R&D related to the E-RECOV process.

In addition to the ‘346 patent, two other continuation patents associated with the invention were issued. The patent applications and patents associated with the subject invention are presented in Table I. U.S. utility Patent Application No. 14/845,101 was filed on Sept. 3, 2015 and issued as U.S. Patent No. 9,777,346 on October 3, 2017. Subsequently, U.S. utility Patent Application No. 15/690,717, a continuation of Patent Application No. 14/845,101 was filed on August 30, 2017 and issued as U.S. Patent No. 10,378,081 on August 13, 2019. Finally, U.S. utility Patent Application No. 16/524,429,

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subject invention. Taylor and Inman

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a continuation of Patent Application No. 15/690,717 was filed on July 29, 2019 and issued as patent No. 11,035,023 on June 15, 2021. This article will focus on the prosecution of Patent Application No. 14/845,101 and the events leading to the allowance and issue of U.S. Patent No. 9,777,346. Note, the continuation patent applications cited above must be filed during the pendency of the utility applications from which it depends. The rationale and use of the continuation applications will be discussed later in the article. A simplified flow diagram of the method of recovering metals from electronic waste from the ‘346 patent is presented in Fig. 2. As described in the specification, the method may include an electronic waste shredding process  100  that includes shredding the electronic waste into smaller portions; a  magnetic separation process  102 that includes separating magnetic portions of the shredded electronic waste from non-magnetic portions thereof; a magnetic component recovery process 104 (shown in broken lines); and a non-magnetic component recovery process 106 (shown in broken lines). The magnetic component recovery process 104 may include an anaerobic leaching process 108 including exposing the magnetic components to a sulfuric acid leachate in a leaching vessel while purging oxygen from the leaching vessel; a rare earth element precipitation process 110 including precipitating dissolved rare earth elements as salts from the leachate; and a rare earth element recovery process 111 including recovering precipitated salts of the rare earth elements and converting the salts to hydroxides of the rare earth elements. The non-magnetic component recovery process 106 may include a  size reduction process  112  (e.g., a milling process) including reducing the size of the non-magnetic components to a powder; a base metal recovery process 114 including recovering at least one of zinc, tin, lead, nickel, copper, and, optionally, silver from the powder and depositing at least one of zinc, tin, lead, nickel, copper, and, optionally, silver on a cathode of an electrochemical cell; an optional silver recovery process  116  including leaching silver from the powder and recovering the silver from the leachate; a gold recovery process 118 including leaching gold from the powder and depositing the gold on a cathode of an  electrochemical  cell; and a  palladium recovery process 120 including leaching palladium from the powder and recovering the palladium from the leachate. Additional details of the various process steps shown in Fig. 2 (i.e., Fig. 1 from the ‘346 patent) are provided subsequently in the specification. A simplified schematic of an electrochemical cell in combination with a plurality of reactors in series from the ‘346 patent is illustrated in Fig. 3. The first electrochemical reaction system 300 includes the first electrochemical cell 210 in fluid communication with at least the first reactor 201 and at least the second reactor 202. The first electrochemical cell 210 may include an electrolyte 214, a cathode 216, and an anode 218. The anode 218 may comprise a carbon material, such as a carbon felt. The cathode 216 may comprise stainless steel (e.g., 304 stainless steel), nickel, or other suitable materials that are not substantially corroded by the chemistry of the electrolyte 214. The anode 218 and the cathode 216 may be connected to a power supply 224 configured for applying a current between the anode 218 and the cathode 216. Although the anode 218 and the cathode 216 are illustrated as being in communication with the electrolyte 214 in the same chamber, in some embodiments, the anode 218 and the cathode 216 may be isolated from each other. For example, in some embodiments, an ionic membrane may isolate the anode 218 and the

Fig 2. Figure 1 from the ‘346 patent illustrating the metal recovery method of the subject invention.

cathode 216 from each other. The electrolyte 214 may include ferrous ions (Fe2+) and ferric ions (Fe3+) dissolved in one of hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid. The pump 212 may be in fluid communication with the first electrochemical cell 210 and may be configured to pump the electrolyte 214 from the first electrochemical cell 210 to the first reactor 201. The first reactor 201 and the second reactor 202 may be connected in series and, therefore, the electrolyte 214 may pass from the first reactor 201 to the second reactor 202, and from the second reactor 202 to the first electrochemical cell 210. In the first reactor  201, ferric ions in the  electrolyte  214  may oxidize and dissolve the base metals located in the  powder  222. Oxidation of the base metals may reduce the ferric ions to ferrous ions. For example, zinc, tin, lead (if present in the electronic waste), nickel, copper, and optionally, silver may be dissolved, according to the following reactions, respectively:


Table I. Patent applications and patents associated with the portable electrochemical cell with temperature control and surface morphology independence invention. APPL. TYPE


PAT. No.




U.S. Utility



Methods for Recovering Metals from Electronic Waste, and Related Systems

Sep. 3, 2015

Oct. 3, 2017

U.S. Utility (continuation)



Methods for Recovering Metals from Electronic Waste, and Related Systems

Aug. 30, 2017

Aug. 13, 2019

U.S. Utility (continuation)



Methods for Recovering Metals from Electronic Waste, and Related Systems

Jul. 29, 2019

Jun. 15, 2021


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igure 3 from the ‘346 patent illustrating an electrochemical cell in communication with two reactors in series. In order to maintain the filing date, the following additional criteria must be met 1) Filing fee in accordance with the current USPTO fee schedule8 2) Inventor oath or declaration asserting9 a. The patent application was authorized by the inventor(s), b. The inventor(s) believe he/she is the original inventor or they are the original joint inventors. The patent application was filed on September 3, 2015. The patent application included a specification, claims and drawings. In addition, the patent application included an oath/declaration from each of the inventors and the required filing fee. Consequently, the patent application met the requirements to both establish and maintain a filing date. The patent application also included a list of prior art references cited in the patent application and copies of nonpatent prior art publications. The specification included a description of the prior art, problems within the prior art, a summary of the invention describing various embodiments of the invention addressing the prior art problems, and a detailed description of the invention regarding the electrochemical cell. As illustrated above in the discussion of Figures 1 and 3 from the ‘346 patent, the patent application also included drawings illustrating the “elements” and various embodiments of the subject invention. The utility patent application contained claims directed towards a method for sequentially recovering metals from electronic waste and a reactor system for recovering metals from electronic waste.10 The oath/declaration included an assertion by each inventor stating,

Fig 3. Figure 3 from the ‘346 patent illustrating an electrochemical cell in communication with two reactors in series.

The silver may be dissolved when the electrolyte 214 includes sulfuric acid and may not be dissolved when the  electrolyte  214  includes hydrochloric acid. In some embodiments, the  electrolyte  214 is formulated such that precious metals in the powder 222 (e.g., silver, gold, and palladium) do not dissolve therein, but rather, remain as solids in the powder 222.  The first electrochemical reaction system 300 may be configured such that the electrolyte 214  passes from the first  reactor  201 to the second reactor 202. Zinc, tin, lead, nickel, copper, and optionally, silver within the  powder  222  of the  second reactor  202 may dissolve in the  electrolyte  214  as described above with reference to the first  reactor  201. After contacting the  powder  222  in the  second reactor  202, the  electrolyte  214  may flow to the first  electrochemical  cell  210  where it is brought into contact with the  cathode  216. The dissolved metals (e.g., Zn2+, Sn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Ag+) may be reduced (e.g., electrowon) at the cathode 216 and deposited in elemental form thereon. The ferrous ions may be oxidized to ferric ions at the anode 218 where the ferric ions are regenerated, as shown in the reaction below:


In order to establish a filing date, a utility patent application must include 1) Specification5 “…a written description of the invention, and the manner and process for making it…to enable any person skilled in the art…to make and use [the invention]…” 2) Minimum of one claim6 “…particularly pointing out… the subject matter…as the invention…” 3) Drawings7 “…where necessary for understanding the subject matter…to be patented…”

“The above-identified application was made or authorized to be made by me. I believe that I am the original inventor or an original joint inventor of the claimed invention in the application.” The oath/declaration also included an acknowledgement that each inventor was aware of the penalties for a false statement,11 “I hereby acknowledge that any willful false statement made in this declaration is punishable under 18 U.S. C. 1001 by fine or imprisonment of not more than five (5) years, or both.” Please note that the “named inventors” must be correctly represented on a U.S. patent application.12 Specifically, inclusion of a colleague as a co-inventor who did not participate in the conception of the invention is known as a misjoinder and may invalidate an otherwise valid patent. Similarly, exclusion of a co-inventor who participated in the conception is known as a nonjoinder and may invalidate an otherwise valid patent. If an inventor is erroneously omitted or erroneously included as an inventor, the misjoinder/nonjoinder may be corrected and the patent remains valid.13 On September 23, 2015 the USPTO issued a filing receipt and the utility patent application was assigned patent application number 14/845,101 with a filing date of September 3, 2015.

Inventor Assignment, Power of Attorney The assignment of the inventor’s rights to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC was recorded at the USPTO on September 11, 2015. On January 14, 2016, Battelle executed a “confirmatory license” with the U.S. Department of Energy granting a nonexclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license “…to practice or have practiced for or on behalf of the United States the subject invention throughout the world…” In addition, Battelle appointed intellectual property firm TraskBritt P.C. as power of attorney

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Taylor and Inman

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“…to prosecute the application identified above and to transact all business in the United States Patent and Trademark office connected therewith…”

Information Disclosure Statement The applicants submitted an “Information Disclosure Statement” (IDS) to the USPTO with the patent application. The IDS included patent and non-patent prior art references as required by the “Duty of Candor”. The “Duty of Candor” requires that the inventor(s) submit an IDS within a reasonable time of submission of the patent application disclosing14 “…to the Office [USPTO] all information known to that individual to be material to patentability…” The “Duty of Candor” is specific to any existing claim and requires that the IDS be continually updated while the claim is pending. The “Duty of Candor” ceases only when the claim is allowed and the patent issue fee is paid. The “Duty of Candor” extends to any individual associated with the filing of the patent application including 1) Inventor(s), 2) Patent Counsel, or 3) Persons who are substantially involved in the preparation or prosecution of the patent application. Substantial involvement in the preparation of the patent application could include technical assistants, collaborators or colleagues. Substantial involvement would generally not extend to clerical workers. Furthermore, the inclusion of a reference in an IDS15 “…is not taken as an admission that the reference is prior art against the claims.” If a finding of a violation of the “Duty of Candor” resulting in “inequitable conduct” regarding any claim in a patent is determined, then all the claims of the subject patent are rendered invalid.16 Finally, in spite of the requirement of the “Duty of Candor”, the applicant is cautioned not to “bury” the examiner with a long list of non-material references in hopes that the examiner will not notice the relevant material references.17 The specific guidance from the USPTO is to18 “…avoid the submission of long lists of documents if it can be avoided…If a long list is submitted, highlight those documents which have been specifically brought to the applicant’s attention and/or are known to be of most significance.”

Notice of Publication The USPTO informed the applicants that the patent application would be published on March 9, 2017. U.S. utility patent applications are published eighteen months after their priority date, which in this case is the filing date of the utility patent application, September 3, 2015. Specifically,19 “…each application for a patent shall be published, in accordance with procedure determined by the Director [USPTO], promptly after the expiration of a period of 18 months from the earliest filing date…” The USPTO publishes patent application on Thursdays, consequently the publication date was promptly after the eighteen months filing date on Thursday March 19, 2017. In addition to the publication of the patent application, the prosecution file also becomes available to the public through the USPTO PAIR system on the publication date. 36

Non-Final Office Action On January 17, 2017, the USPTO issued an office action with a nonfinal obviousness rejection of the claims in the patent application.20 The rejection was based on U.S. Patent No. 5,622,615 (Young et al.) in view of published Patent Application No. 2013/0336857 (Korzenski et al). The basis of the examiner’s rejection of independent Claim 1 is summarized herein. Young et al. teach a method for the leaching of copper from a ground material using an acidic-ferric electrolyte solution in a countercurrent, multi-stage system. The method of Young et al. includes providing two leaching reactors with fresh ground material, providing an electrolyte comprising ferric ions in an electrochemical cell that was in fluid communication with the leaching reactors, contacting the powder within the first and second reactors with the electrolyte comprising ferric ions in order to dissolve at least one base metal from the powder into the electrolyte. During the dissolution, the ferric ions were reduced to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions were oxidized at the anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions which could be used as fresh leachate. Further, since the fresh powder was fed to a third reactor, the powder in the second reactor contained a higher weight percent of the base metal (copper) than the powder in the first reactor. However, Young et al. relate to the leaching of copper ore material and failed to teach that the ground material provided to the reactors was electronic waste. Korzenski et al. teach a method for the recovery of metals from electronic waste comprising providing a powder from electronic waste and conducting digestion/leaching on the powdered waste to selectively recover metals from the waste. Korzenski et al. teach utilizing an aqueous solution of an oxidizing agent to solubilize at least one of the metal components of the electronic waste and suggest ferric nitrate as a potential oxidizing agent. The USPTO basis of the obviousness rejection is that it would have been obvious21 to one of ordinary skill in the art at the time of filing to have utilized the method of Young et al. to treat electronic waste for the recovery of copper metal from the electronic waste as suggested by Korzenski et al. Furthermore, one of ordinary skill in the art at the time of filing of the instant patent application would have had a reasonable expectation of successfully adapting the method of Young et al. for treating the electronic waste of Korzenski et al. because Korzenski et al. teach using known agents for performing the digestion/leaching step. The applicants were given a three-month period to respond without paying additional late response fees.

Applicant Response On April 17, 2017, the applicants responded to the non-final office action dated January 17, 2017. The applicants provided an extensive response regarding the prior art citations and arguments presented by the USPTO. At the simplest level, the applicants noted that the prior art did not disclose a method of “sequentially” recovering metals. In addition to the arguments countering the examiner rejection, the applicants provided amendments to the claims to overcome the examiner arguments. The amended Claim 1 with the inserted text “in brackets“ and the deleted text indicated with a “strike-through” is reproduced herein: 1. A method of [sequentially] recovering metals from electronic waste, the method comprising: a. providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor; b. providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor; c. contacting the powder within the first reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from the powder into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions [while a plurality of precious metals remain in the powder]; The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

d. contacting the powder within the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from the powder into the [electrolyte according to the same reactions in which the powder in the first reactor is dissolved into the] electrolyte, the powder in the second reactor comprising a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor; and [while a plurality of precious metals remain in the powder;] e. oxidizing the ferrous ions at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions[; f. after contacting the powder within the first reactor with the electrolyte, placing the first reactor out of fluid communication with the first electrochemical cell and in fluid communication with a leaching vessel comprising a thiosulfate and, while the powder remains within the first reactor, contacting the powder with the thiosulfate to selectively dissolve silver from the powder; and after contacting the powder within the first reactor with the thiosulfate and dissolving the silver therefrom, placing the first reactor out of fluid communication with the leaching vessel and in fluid communication with another electrochemical cell comprising an iodide electrolyte formulated to dissolve gold from the powder within the first reactor while other precious metals remain in the powder].

Allowance of Patent Application Based on the amendment to Claim 1 and the other claims, the USPTO issued a notice of allowance on June 16, 2017. After payment of the issue fee on August 14, 2017, the 14/845,101 patent application issued as U.S. Patent No. 9,777,346 on October 3, 2017.

Continuation Applications As noted in Table I, two additional continuation applications related to the subject invention were filed. U.S. Patent Application No. 15/690,717 was filed on August 30, 2017 as a continuation of the original Patent Application No. 14/845,101 (now Pat. No. 9,777,346). This patent application subsequently issued as Patent No. 10,378,081 on August 13, 2019. U.S. Patent Application No. 16/524,429 was filed on July 29, 2019 as a continuation of Patent Application No. 15/690,717 (now Pat. No. 10,378,081). This patent application subsequently issued as patent No. 11,035,023 on June 15, 2021. A continuation application is a patent application for the invention disclosed in a previously filed nonprovisional patent application and receives the benefit of the filing date of the prior filed patent application.22 The continuation application must include at least one inventor named in the previously filed patent application and must be filed during the pendency of the previously filed patent application. The disclosure in the continuation application must not include any new subject matter, so the prior filed patent should be carefully written if a continuation application is anticipated. The continuation application allows the applicant to introduce a new set of claims for further examination by the USPTO. Like all patent applications, the claims in the continuation application must be enabled by the specification.23 Based on the prosecution of Patent No. 9,777,346, the applicants filed a continuation application leading to the issuance of patent No. 10,378,081. This continuation application included essentially the same disclosure information, with additional method and system claims focusing on the leaching of at least one precious metal from the electronic waste leachate. Independent Claim 1 from continuation Patent No. 10,378,081 is reproduced herein. 1. A method of recovering metals from electronic waste, the method comprising: a. providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor;

b. providing an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor; c. contacting the powder within the first reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from the powder into the electrolyte while a plurality of precious metals remain in the powder; d. contacting the powder within the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from the powder into the electrolyte; and e. after contacting the powder within the first reactor with the electrolyte, placing the first reactor out of fluid communication with the electrochemical cell and in fluid communication with a leaching vessel containing a leachate formulated to selectively leach at least one precious metal from the powder while the powder remains within the first reactor. Based on the prosecution of Patent No. 10,378,081, the applicants filed a continuation application leading to the issuance of Patent No. 11,035,023. This continuation application included additional claims including both method and system claims that were considerably broader than the original patent application. Independent Claim 1 from continuation Patent No. 11,035,023 is reproduced herein. 1. A system for recovering metals from a material, the system comprising: a. a plurality of reactors having a material comprising a plurality of metals; b. a first electrochemical cell comprising a first electrolyte; and c. a first leaching vessel including a first leachate formulated to dissolve at least one metal from the material; wherein each reactor of the plurality of reactors is configured to be placed in fluid communication with each of the first electrochemical cell and the first leaching vessel while the material remains within each respective reactor of the plurality of reactors. The continuation application is one of three types of continuing applications. A continuation-in-part (C-I-P) application introduces new subject matter into the specification to enable additional claims not supported by the original patent application. These new claims do not receive the benefit of the prior application’s filing date.24 A divisional application is in response to a USPTO-issued restriction requirement indicating that the patent application contains two of more inventions.25 The applicant elects which invention (claims) to prosecute first and the remaining inventions (claims) are prosecuted in one or more divisional patent applications. The divisional patent applications receive the benefit of the filing date of the original patent application.26 The basic attributes of the continuing patent applications are summarized in Table II. The applicants strategically used the continuation applications to obtain two additional patents with additional claims providing both broader and focused coverage of their invention.

Summary In this installment of our “Looking at Patent Law” series, we present a case study of the prosecution of U.S. Patent No. 9,777,346; “Methods for recovering Metals from Electronic Waste, and related Systems”. We have chosen this invention to align with the focus of this issue of Interface on electrochemical recycling. The ‘346 patent issued on October 3, 2017 with co-inventors Tedd E. Lister, Jacob A. Parkman, Luis A. Diaz Aldana, Eric J. Dufek, and Philip Keller. The patent is assigned to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC of Idaho Falls, ID. The case study begins with a brief synopsis of the background of the invention followed by 1) a discussion of the patent applications associated with the invention, 2) inventor assignment and power of

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(continued on next page) 37

Taylor and Inman


(continued from previous page)

attorney designations, 3) submission of an information disclosure statement and duty of candor, 4) summary of office actions, 5) summary of applicant response to non-final rejection, and 6) allowance of the patent application. The applicants made substantial use of continuation applications. The continuation applications resulted in the issuance of two additional patents, U.S. Patent No. 10,378,081 and U.S. Patent No. 11,035,023. These additional patents added both broader and focused claims for the subject invention. With this case study, we hope to de-mystify the patent prosecution process and better prepare electrochemical and solid-state scientists, engineers and technologists to interact with their patent counsel regarding their inventions. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F04213IF.

About the Authors E. Jennings Taylor, Founder of Faraday Technology, Inc. Research Interest: Faraday Technology, Inc. is a small business focused on developing innovative electrochemical processes and technologies based on pulse and pulse reverse electrolytic principles. Patent Background: Taylor leads Faraday’s patent and commercialization strategy and has negotiated numerous patents via field of use licenses as well as patent sales. He is admitted to practice before the United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) in patents cases as a patent agent (Registration No. 53,676). Member of the American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA). Pubs & Patents: Numerous technical pubs and presentations, inventor on 40 patents. Work with ECS: Member for 42 years, ECS Fellow. Website: Maria Inman, Research Director, Faraday Technology, Inc. Patent Background: Inman serves as principal investigator on project development activities and manages the company’s pulse and pulse reverse research project portfolio. Pubs & Patents: In addition to technical pubs and presentations, she is competent in patent drafting and patent drawing preparation. She is an inventor on seven patents. Work with ECS: Member for 25 years. Serves ECS as a member of many committees. Awards: ASTM member Website:

1. E. Jennings Taylor and Maria Inman “Looking at Patent Law: Opportunity Prospecting by Analysis of Analogous Patent Art” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 26(4) 57-61 Winter 2017. 2. USPTO Patent Application Information Retrieval (PAIR) https:// 3. Tedd E. Lister et. al.,”Methods for Recovering Metals from Electronic Waste, and related Systems” U.S. Patent No. 9,777,346 issued October 3, 2017. 4. Luis A. Diaz, Gemma G. Clark, and Tedd E. Lister “Optimization of the Electrochemical Extraction and recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste Using Response Surface Methodology” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56, 2017 7516-7524. 5. 35 U.S.C. §112(a) Specification/In General. 6. 35 U.S.C. §112(b) Specification/Conclusion. 7. 35 U.S.C. §113 Drawings. 8. 9. 35 U.S.C. §115(b)(1)(2) Inventor’s Oath or Declaration/ Required Statements. 10. 35 U.S.C. §101 Inventions Patentable. 11. 18 U.S.C. §1001Statements or Entries Generally. 12. E. Jennings Taylor and Maria Inman “Looking at Patent Law: Why Is the Word ‘Right’ Mentioned Only Once in the Constitution of the United States?” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 26(2) 45-47 Summer 2017. 13. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §1481.02 Correction of Named Inventor. 14. 37 CFR §1.56(a) Duty to Disclose Information Material to Patentability. 15. Riverwood Int’l Corp. v. R.A. Jones & Co., 324 F.3d 1346, 135455, 66 USPQ2d 1331, 1337-38 (Fed Cir. 2003). 16. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §2016 Fraud, Inequitable Conduct, or Violation of Duty of Disclosure Affects All Claims 17. R.B. Taylor “Burying” Mich. Telecomm. & Tech. Law Rev. 99 19 (2012). 18. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §2004.13 Aids to Comply with Duty of Disclosure. 19. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §1120(b)(1) (A)Eighteen Month Publication of Patent Applications. 20. E. Jennings Taylor and Maria Inman “Looking at Patent Law: Patentable Inventions, Conditions for Receiving a Patent, and Claims” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 26(3) 39-43 Fall 2017. 21. 35 U.S.C. §103 Conditions for Patentability/Non-obvious Subject Matter. 22. 35 U.S.C. §120 Benefit of Earlier Filing date in the United States. 23. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §201.07 Continuation Application. 24. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §201.08 Continuation-in-Part Application. 25. 35 U.S.C. §121 Divisional Applications. 26. Manual of Patent Examination Procedure (MPEP) §201.06 Divisional Application.

Table II. Types of continuing patent applications. TYPE







At least one





Continuation in Part

At least one


No: priority date of new subject matter




Yes: claim specific




USPTO: Restriction requirement


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T ECH HIGHLIGH T S Editors’ Choice— Quantifying the Impact of Charge Transport Bottlenecks in Composite Cathodes of All-Solid-State Batteries Among the all-solid-state battery (ASSB) materials under development, the lithium thiophosphates have drawn much attention because bulk Li-ion conductivities above 20mS/cm have been demonstrated. However, the microstructural design of corresponding ASSB cathodes has largely proceeded empirically. As part of the Focus Issue on Future of Intercalation Chemistry for Energy Storage and Conversion in Honor of M. Stanley Whittingham, the Janek research group at Justus-Liebig-University has reported work quantifying the conductivities and tortuosity factors in composite NMC622 cathodes with a Li6PS5Cl (LPSCl) solid electrolyte. They used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and DC polarization, as well as cell cycling. The interrelated electronic and ionic charge transport in these electrodes, when studied as a function of the NMC622 volume fraction, reveals there is a microstructural optimum. This is because at low fraction, NMC622 particles are isolated, and at high fraction ionic pathways are constrained and NMC622 particles begin to cluster. However, microstructural design considerations can be different depending on whether high capacity or good rate performance are desired. The authors demonstrate the effectiveness of size reduction of the solid electrolyte and that conductive additives such as carbon may not be needed in batteries like these. Paths forward for engineering ASSBs are suggested, including porosity reduction, higher conductivity electrolyte materials, and introduction of binders.

From: P. Minnmann, L. Quillman, S. Burkhardt, et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 168, 040537 (2021).

Editors’ Choice—Dealloying-Driven Cerium Precipitation on Intermetallic Particles in Aerospace Aluminium Alloys Cerium-based compounds are considered as one of the most promising non-toxic localized corrosion inhibitors for aluminum alloys (AAs). However, the highly heterogeneous microstructure of AAs challenges a comprehensive understanding of localized corrosion inhibition mechanism by this class of inhibitors. In this study, published as part of the JES Focus Issue on Characterization of Corrosion Processes in Honor of Philippe Marcus, A. Kosari et al. developed a combined electrochemical and TEM approach to elucidate how different intermetallic particles (IMPs) in AA2024-T3 interact with cerium nitrate under distinct mechanisms during a 96-hr solution exposure. The in-situ/ex-situ TEM investigation on different IMPs has confirmed the authors’ previous study, in which dealloying of IMPs (nano-galvanic coupling within each IMP) is the deterministic factor to the local cerium precipitation rate rather than micro-galvanic corrosion between

IMPs and Al matrix. The S-phase (Al2CuMg) is found to be the least stable IMP compared to others, although forming a thick and porous cerium precipitation layer atop which is ruptured eventually. θ- phase (Al2Cu) is more stable than S-phase as the dealloying rate is more sluggish. Al7Cu2Fe(Mn) and Al76Cu6Fe7Mn5Si6 are the most stable IMPs as they are protected by enhanced cerium precipitation from redeposited Cu from the less stable IMPs. These findings were also confirmed by the electrochemical evaluations.

From: A. Kosari, M. Ahmadi, F. Tichelaar, et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 168, 041505 (2021).

Investigation and Optimisation of Operating Conditions for Low Temperature CO2 Reduction to CO in a Forward-Bias Bipolar-Membrane Electrolyser Mitigating overall CO2 emissions to meet the net zero goal by 2050 requires implementation of both CO2-free energy sources and the capture, conversion & storage of CO2. Electrochemical reduction provides an elegant way to convert CO2 into a useful chemical. To enhance the performance without the impact of CO2 solubility-related mass transport issues, gas phase devices are being studied. One of the key factors that needs to be managed in the gas phase reaction scheme is the pH control in the catalyst layer. To address this, the team at Paul Scherrer Institute and ETH Zurich investigated a Bipolar Membrane-based cell architecture. The study focused on the impact of process parameters on the performance. They identified the humidity level and CO2 concentration to maximize the faradaic efficiency of CO2 reduction. With internal reference electrode, the team was able to decouple anode and cathode performance loss over time. Cathode performance loss contributed to the overall loss. Researchers eliminated the bipolar architecture being the root cause through the water electrolysis run. The team, through careful material characterization, attributed the performance drop to the agglomeration of cathode catalyst. From: B. Pribyl-Kranewitter, A. Beard, T. Shuler et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 168, 043506 (2021).

Structure-Property Relationships of Silylamine-Type Reversible Ionic Liquids for Use as a Switchable Electrolyte Reversible ionic liquids (RevILs) are special types of ionic liquids that can be reversed back and forth between their ionic and molecular states under different external stimuli. This switchable feature has attracted increasing research interest in developing new solvents and electrolytes with on-demand solvating and conducting properties. In the recent JES Focus Issue on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids II, researchers from the City College of New York of USA reported their study on silylamine-type RevILs. Previous work by the authors have identified the commercially available (3-aminopropyl)triethylsilane as a switchable electrolyte in high-dielectric-

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

constant solvents. This report expanded the research into a series of structurally related silylamine ionic liquids and their behavior in methanol and DMSO. Detailed structureproperty relationships were evaluated to tune their fundamental properties such as conductivity and switching temperatures. By removing the oxygen from the original compound, the water stability was greatly improved. Addition of salts to the silylaminesolvent systems were also explored to compare the effect on conductivity in both the ionic and molecular states. With more ongoing work, silylamine RevIL systems hold promise for use as a switchable electrolyte in the future. From: S. Jung, S Podder, J. Chen, et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 168, 036516 (2021).

N-Doped Carbon Nanosheets from Biomass for Ultra Long-Cycling and High Energy Density Symmetric Supercapacitors Porous carbon materials continue to attract attention for energy storage applications including supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. Waste products such as plastics and bio waste have been identified as promising low-cost carbonaceous feeds. The possibility of producing sustainable carbon nanostructures from materials that are currently destined for incineration or landfills represents an exciting, promising route for waste reduction. In this study, carbon nanosheets with high specific surface areas and porosity were synthesized from waste peanut hulls by facile pyrolysis followed by KOH activation. KOH activation is an established method to increase the surface area of carbon samples; however, researchers in this study have shed new light on the importance of KOH activation temperature. A significant difference in the surface areas of samples heated in a narrow temperature range is reported. Samples heated to 700, 720 and 750°C have resulting specific surface areas of ~500, 2330 and 1560 m2⋅g-1, respectively. Carbon samples with the highest surface area demonstrated high capacitance of 195 F⋅g−1 at an applied current density of 1 A⋅g−1 with impressive capacitance retention of 98.6% after 15,000 cycles. From: T. Kesavan, A. S. R. Sundhar, S. Dharaneshwar, et al., ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., 10, 051004 (2021).

Tech Highlights was prepared by Joshua Gallaway of Northeastern University, David McNulty of University of Limerick, Chao (Gilbert) Liu of Shell, Zenghe Liu of Abbott Diabetes Care, Chock Karuppaiah of Vetri Labs, and Donald Pile of EnPower, Inc. Each article highlighted here is available free online. Go to the online version of Tech Highlights in each issue of Interface and click on the article summary to take you to the full-text version of the article. 39

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Electrochemistry for Recycling by Xiao Su, Zheng Chen, Jean St-Pierre, Natasa Vasiljevic


ecycling is key for a sustainable future. With the rapid growth of modern technology usage, the associated demand for virgin mined materials has placed a significant strain on worldwide supply chains of critical elements. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has identified dozens of critical elements in need for recycling, with many of these elements currently not being re-used due to a combination of technoeconomic considerations and fundamental scientific challenges to be overcome.1,2 The growth in materials demand has been accompanied with an increase in the generation and disposal of waste electronics in general, critical components such as batteries and magnets, as well as components containing metal catalysts (e.g., catalytic converters). At the same time, plastic waste has been rapidly accumulating worldwide, often disposed into landfills or even into the natural environment.3 At the same time, usage of synthetic fertilizers also keeps rising to feed the growing global population, resulting in excess nutrients ending up in phosphate or nitrate runoffs into the environment.4 In the long-term, a linear framework for miningproduction-use-disposal will be unsustainable, necessitating the creation of a circular economy in which spent materials are reprocessed/up-cycled/revalorized into value-added products for consumers.5,6 Electrochemical technologies can play a key role in addressing these problems by providing more selective and/ or energy-efficient approaches for upcycling waste chemical species. For example, high-temperature electrodeposition or electro-dissolution technologies can provide pathways for selective electrorefining of various metals, while lowtemperature electrosorption technologies may aid in resource recovery and aqueous stream revalorization.6,7 Electrochemical approaches can aid the upscaling and recycling of plastics through depolymerization (synthetic and biopolymers), as well as assist in the synthesis and selective functionalization of deconstructed feedstock into new value-added polymers.8,9 At the same time, many targets for recycling are electrochemicallyrelevant products (e.g., batteries, electronic waste), which brings both a challenge in terms of separation/recycling, as well as an opportunity for new sustainable synthesis and fabrication concepts, such as possibilities for naturally-derived materials for various applications, including next-generation sustainable battery technologies.10,11 In sum, electrochemical recycling and materials sustainability encompasses an interdisciplinary challenge of achieving sustainability through innovation in electrochemical engineering, materials science, separation science, catalysis, and environmental engineering.

Electrochemistry for Recycling Aspects of electrochemical recycling have been highlighted across the decades by ECS Interface. The Spring 2006 ECS Interface issue highlighted the role of industrial electrolysis and electrochemical engineering for metal winning, refining, and resource recovery from dilute solutions.12 The Fall 2020 ECS Interface issue on Electrochemistry for Sustainability, covered a range of electrocatalysis, sustainable electrolytic processes, and electrochemical separation topics of modern relevance.13 This current issue of Interface focuses on the crosscutting topic of “Electrochemistry for Recycling”, to highlight the critical role that electrochemical processes and electrochemical products play in achieving a circular economy. This ECS focus issue closely connects with a new general topic symposium “Z04 - Electrochemical Recovery, Recycling, and Sustainability of Critical and ValueAdded Materials”, hosted for the first time at the 240th ECS Meeting in Orlando (October 10-14, 2021). The topic also closely relates to key symposiums across the various divisions at the ECS, including A03-Ltihium Ion Batteries, F02-Electrochemical Separations and Sustainability 4, E03Electrodeposition of Reactive Metals and Compounds 2, F07-Process Intensification using Electrochemical Routes, and L05-Electrochemical Water Remediation, among other symposiums throughout various ECS meetings. Our featured articles and this new general topic symposium on electrochemical recycling serve to highlight the growing need for electrochemical sciences and engineering to play a key role in this important energy and sustainability challenge.

Featured in Interface With the electrification of our transportation fleet, and the increase in consumer electronics, the usage of lithium-ion batteries has increased tremendously, as well as the generation of associated waste. All the major elements in these batteries (lithium, cobalt, and nickel) can be considered critical and a short- or mid-term supply risk. Thus, Gaines and Wang present the perspective How to Maximize the Value Recovered from Li-Ion Batteries: Hydrometallurgical or Direct Recycling. The feature article discusses the roles of hydrometallurgical and direct recycling approaches for Li-ion battery recovery, and highlights the importance of upcycling spent cathode materials (e.g., conversion of spent battery cathodes to new ones). Implementation of more efficient Li-ion recycling technologies can thus play a key role in securing critical element supply chains, as well as create a lower waste and more sustainable electrically-driven economy. (continued on next page)

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Su et al.

(continued from previous page)

A worldwide challenge in waste control is used nuclear fuel (UNF), which is expected to become a central challenge with the increased use of nuclear power. Kersten, Hawthorne, Williamson, Akolkar and Duval present The Future of Nuclear Energy: Electrochemical Reprocessing of Fuel Takes Center Stage, which provides a unique perspective on the current challenges in the field of UNF recycling, and how electrochemical approaches can assist these challenging actinide separations. The feature article highlights electrochemical separations of actinides in molten salt electrolytes, with a focus on oxide reduction and electrorefining approaches that can lead to low-waste reprocessing methods, and contribute towards a more sustainable paradigm in the nuclear fuel field. Electrochemical processes also can play a key role in degradation of polymers, and more efficient recycling of plastics, arguably the largest and most pressing pollution challenge in modern times. The vast amounts of synthetic or bio-polymers produced have rapidly accumulated in the environment over the past century, providing a seemingly intractable challenge for nature due to its persistence in the environment. Karuppaiah, Chen, and Vasiljevic present Electrochemical Methods for Enabling the Circular Economy of Polymers. This feature article discusses the potential of electrochemical approaches for depolymerization of used polymers, and accelerated recycling of both synthetic and bio-polymers. Finally, we highlight The Chalkboard: Stretching cyclic voltammetry to its potential limit by St-Pierre, which presents cyclic voltammetry as a powerful electroanalytical method for the analysis of multicomponent solutions. Identification, quantification, and analysis of multiple species in complex solutions is a unifying theme across all the recycling processes discussed in the feature articles, ranging from battery recycling and nuclear fuel reprocessing to electrochemical depolymerization. The chalkboard article highlights cyclic voltammetry as a highly versatile analytical tool, and important considerations for its application within electrochemical recycling. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F05213IF.

About the Authors Xiao Su, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, IL, U.S. Education: BASc in Chemical Engineering (University of Waterloo); PhD in Chemical Engineering (MIT). Research Interests: Electrochemical separations, redox-electrochemistry, materials design, process intensification. Work Experience: Research in separation processes and electrochemical sciences and engineering for over 10 years. Joined UIUC as a faculty in 2019. Pubs + Patents: 30+ papers, 30+ presentations, 3 patents. Awards: NSERC doctoral fellowship, the MIT Water Innovation Prize (2016), NSF CAREER Award (2019), the Viktor K. LaMer Award from the American Chemical Society (2020). Zheng Chen, Assistant Professor, the Department of NanoEngineering, the Program of Chemical Engineering, and the Program of Materials and Science Engineering, UC San Diego, CA, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical Engineering (Tianjin University); PhD in Chemical Engineering (University of California, Los Angeles). 42

Research Interests: Nanomaterials and polymers, energy storage and conversion and next-generation battery recycling technology. Work Experience: Dr. Chen has been working on battery materials for >15 years, including battery chemistries for extreme temperatures, high energy cathodes, silicon/Li anodes, solid-state batteries, and battery recycling. Pubs + Patents: 90+ papers, 30+ presentations, and 10+ patents. Awards: NASA’s 2018 Early Career Faculty Award, the LG Chem Global Battery Innovation Contest (BIC) Award in 2018, the 2018 ACF PRF New Investigator Award, Scialog Fellow in Advanced Energy Storage by Research Corporation, 2018 Emerging Investigator of Journal of Materials Chemistry C., Chem. Comm. Emerging Investigator of 2020, and Nanoscale Emerging Investigator of 2021. Website: Jean St-Pierre, University of Hawaii – Manoa, HI, U.S. Education: PhD, MScA, and BIng (Polytechnique in Montréal, Canada) Research Interests: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells including aspects such as water management, freezing, degradation mechanisms, mathematical modeling, diagnosis and measurement methods, electrocatalysis, pure oxygen operation for space and air independent applications, and reactant stream unit operations (gas separation and fuel reforming catalysts). Work Experience: Principal research scientist and research professor positions at, respectively, Ballard Power Systems (19952005) and the University of South Carolina (2006-2010). Pubs + Patents: 115+ papers, book chapters and conference proceedings, 30+ patents. Awards: Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems PROF. x2 fellowship (2009), Ballard Power Systems STAR (Superior Teamwork And Recognition) award (2000), and Ballard Power Systems award of excellence (1996) for outstanding contribution for teamwork. Work with ECS: Guest co-editor for the Journal of the Electrochemical Society focus issue on Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer Durability (2021), Member of the Honors and Awards committee (since 2012), and Chair (2011-2013) of the Energy Technology division. Natasa Vasiljevic, Senior Lecturer, School of Physics, University of Bristol, U.K. Education: BS in Physics (University of Belgrade); PhD in Science and Engineering of Materials (Arizona State University) Research Interests: Electrochemical surface science, electrodeposition of thin films and functional nanomaterials for electrocatalysis, magnetics and optoelectronics. Work Experience: Lecturer at the School of Physics, University of Bristol (since 2011); Research Associate, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S. (2004-2008) Pubs: 40+ papers, 1 book chapter, 50+ presentations Awards: Great Western Research Fellowship, University of Bristol, U.K. (2008-2011)

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Work with ECS: Member of the ECS ISTS Subcommittee (since 2019), ELDP Division executive committee member (since 2011) and current ELDP Division Vice Chair (2020). Website:

References 1. T. E. Graedel, J. Allwood, J. P. Birat, M. Buchert, C. Hagelüken, B. K. Reck, S. F. Sibley, and G. Sonnemann, Recycling Rates of Metals - A Status Report, United Nations Environmental Programme (2011). 2. H. Schandl, M. Fischer-Kowalski, J. West, S. Giljum, M. Dittrich, N. Eisenmenger, A. Geschke, M. Lieber, H. Wieland, A. Schaffartzik, F. Krausmann, S. Gierlinger, K. Hosking, M. Lenzen, H. Tanikawa, A. Miatto, and T. Fishman, Global Material Flows and Resource Productivity - Assessment Report for the UNEP International Resource Panel, United Nations Environmental Programme (2016). 3. J. M. Garcia and M. L. Robertson, Science, 358, 870 (2017).

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4. P. J. A. Withers, Nat. Sustain., 2, 1001 (2019). 5. K. Kim, R. Candeago, G. Rim, D. Raymond, A.-H. A. Park, and X. Su, iScience, 24, 102374 (2021). 6. X. Su, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 29(3), 55 (2020). 7. H. Yoon, J. Lee, S. Kim, and J. Yoon, Sep. Purif. Tech., 215, 190 (2019). 8. P. Britt, J. Byers, E. Chen, G. Coates, B. Coughlin, C. Ellison, J. Garcia, A. Goldman, J. Guzman, J. Hartwig, B. Helms, G. Huber, C. Jenks, J. Martin, M. McCann, S. Miller, H. O’Neill, A. Sadow, S. Scott, L. Sita, D. Vlachos, K. Winey, and R. Waymouth, Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Roundtable on Chemical Upcycling of Polymers, United States Department of Energy, Washington DC (2019). 9. H. A. Petersen, T. H. T. Myren, S. J. O’Sullivan, and O. R. Luca, Mater. Adv., 2, 1113 (2021). 10. P. Xu, D. H. S. Tan, and Z. Chen, Trends Chem., 3, 620 (2021). 11. M. Gao, S.-Y. Pan, W.-C. Chen, and P.-C. Chiang, Mater. Today Energy, 7, 58 (2018). 12. M. Grotheer, R. C. Alkire, R. Varjian, V. Srinivasan, and J. W. Weidner, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 15(1), 52 (2006). 13. P. J. A. Kenis, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 29(3), 41 (2020).





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The Future of Nuclear Energy: Electrochemical Reprocessing of Fuel Takes Center Stage by Bethany Kersten, Krista Hawthorne, Mark Williamson, Rohan Akolkar, and Christine E. Duval


uclear power generates approximately 10% of the world’s electricity, and in 2020, nuclear energy surpassed coal in US electricity generation.1,2 Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency predicts that the worldwide nuclear energy capacity will nearly double by 2050.3 Nuclear power uses energy-dense fuel, does not directly produce greenhouse gas emissions, and provides dependable baseload energy. Despite these advantages and the growing prominence of nuclear reactors in commercial power generation, long-term management of used nuclear fuel (UNF) remains a key challenge for the industry. During nuclear power generation, fuel rods containing enriched uranium are irradiated by neutrons, which causes uranium nuclei to fragment and generate energy through a process called fission. When used fuel rods are removed from the nuclear reactor, they contain both unreacted uranium (U) and elements created during fuel irradiation, including transuranic elements (actinides with a higher atomic number than uranium, e.g., Np, Pu, Am, Cm), lanthanides, noble metals, and others (Fig. 1). A key challenge for UNF management is the radiotoxicity derived from the transuranic elements (TRU), which have extremely long half-lives (e.g., Am-241 has a half-life of 432 years and its decay product, Np-237, has a halflife of 2.14 million years). It takes approximately 300,000 years for UNF to decay to the radiation levels of naturally occurring uranium ore due to the slow radioactive decay of the transuranic elements. However, it is possible to separate uranium and TRU from the bulk of the UNF through reprocessing (recycling), thereby decreasing the decay time of the waste from 300,000 to 300 years.4,5 Reprocessing recovers the actinide elements for future use as fast neutron reactor fuel and minimizes the waste volume for direct disposal. In addition to the decrease in waste volume, the waste poses a lower threat to the environment if the integrity of the containment vessels were to be

compromised, as the elements that are contained have much lower radiotoxicity than the actinides. Direct disposal and reprocessing paths for UNF disposition are illustrated in Fig 1. Recycling components of used nuclear fuel will bring the nuclear fuel cycle closer to being self-sufficient and decrease the demand and environmental impact of uranium mining.

Electrochemical Processing of UNF Actinide separation from bulk UNF can be achieved via a series of electrochemical operations in high-temperature molten salt electrolytes, with the main separation occurring through electrorefining of the actinides. In the field of nuclear fuel reprocessing, this approach is sometimes referred to as pyrochemical reprocessing, pyrometallurgical reprocessing, or pyroprocessing. This type of UNF separation was first developed in the 1950s, and the technology was greatly expanded in the 1980s as part of the United States’ Integral Fast Reactor program. This program proposed a metal fuel-based fast spectrum reactor that incorporated onsite UNF recycling.7 Electrochemical reprocessing can be used to recycle fuel from a wide variety of reactors, including uranium oxide fuel from light water reactors (LWRs), metal fuel from fast reactors, and molten salt fuel from molten salt reactors. In the case of molten salt reactors, the electrolyte can be tailored to the reactor salt (e.g., UNF from fluoridebased molten salt reactors are reprocessed in fluoride salts). In the case of oxide fuel from LWRs, a two-step process is used: 1) oxide reduction: an electrochemical conversion of oxide fuel to its metallic form, and 2) electrorefining: electrodissolution and electrodeposition of the actinides from UNF. After the electrodeposited actinides are removed from the refiner, any residual actinides and lanthanides that (continued on next page)

Fig. 1: An overview of potential paths for the treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). Nuclear fuel assemblies (bundles of fuel rods) are placed within the reactor core at the nuclear power plant. The uranium oxide fuel assemblies (100% uranium per metal basis) are bombarded with neutrons during plant operation, generating energy and many new elements. After 1-2 years of service, UNF is removed from the reactor and stored in a pool prior to disposal or reprocessing. The representative UNF composition shown above is based on a used nuclear fuel rod from a pressurized water reactor after 10 years of cooling in a storage pool.6 Percentages are given as weight percent of total metals. Currently, the US UNF management plan is direct disposal in underground repositories. Alternatively, U and TRU can be recycled for reuse in fast neutron reactors via electrochemical reprocessing. In this scenario, only the remaining fission products, lanthanides (Ln), noble metals (NM), and other metals (OM), are sent to an underground repository as stable waste forms. Reprocessing UNF can drastically reduce the volume of waste buried underground and allow for additional electricity generation through the use of recovered actinide elements as fuel. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


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In an alternative route, UO2 can also be chemically reduced through a metallothermic reaction with Li metal:16


The Li metal reactant required for Eq. 3 is formed by the in situ electrochemical reduction of Li2O present in the electrolyte. This reduction occurs at a potential of about –2.47 V vs. SHE at 650oC, i.e., 70 mV more cathodic compared to the potential at which UO2 is reduced.18 (4)

Oxide Reduction Challenges Fig. 2: Linear sweep voltammogram of a typical electrorefiner molten salt versus a tungsten quasireference electrode. Ln represents a mixture of lanthanides in the electrorefiner. Molten salts are excellent supporting electrolytes for actinide electrodeposition because of their electrochemical stability. In the widely-studied LiCl-KCl eutectic melt, electrolyte decomposition occurs at the negative potential limit via Li metal deposition and at the positive potential limit via evolution of Cl2, in a window of about 3.3 V. This large window of stability is important for UNF processing because the reduction of actinides to their metallic states occurs within the LiCl-KCl stability window. Adapted with permission from N. Hoyt (Argonne National Laboratory).

remain in the molten salt are “drawn-down” through electrolysis, resulting in an electrolyte that can be reused. The recovered actinides are recycled, and the lanthanides are prepared for disposal as stable waste forms. Electrochemical separation of actinides is performed using molten salt electrolytes because of their high ionic conductivity (>1 S/cm) and wide electrochemical stability windows (>3 V).8,9 Furthermore, exchange current densities for solid metal electrodeposition in high-temperature molten salts are typically in the 10-100 mA/cm2 range. These properties result in high processing rates, low energy consumption, and absence of parasitic reactions. In the context of the nuclear industry, molten salts offer the additional benefit of radiolysis resistance due to the fast recombination kinetics of the salt, whereas other solvents decompose due to the high radiation field of the UNF.10,11 Figure 2 shows the electrochemical activity associated with various actinides and lanthanides within the electrochemical stability window of a LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. Note the very negative reduction potentials for the actinide electrodeposition reactions. Oxide reduction and electrorefining processes have been demonstrated both at the laboratory- and pilot-scales, but several challenges in both processes still remain. In this article, we review the current status of these processes, discuss key technical challenges, and offer our perspective on future prospects as they relate to electrochemical reprocessing of UNF.

Unanswered questions remain pertaining to the operation of the oxide reduction process and its chemistry. One of the challenges is understanding the transport mechanism of O2– out of the reduced UNF cathode pellet. The O2– diffusion in the solid pellet is slow and limits the overall rate of the process.18,19 This limitation occurs because diffusion coefficients in solids are orders of magnitude lower than those in liquids (Fig.4). Additionally, controlling the Li2O concentration in the bulk electrolyte is important. Too high of a concentration of Li2O may result in thermodynamically unfavorable conditions, whereby Li deposition is favored over lanthanide oxide reduction in UNF (the UNF contains lanthanide fission products).20 Many current research efforts in this field are focused on optimizing cell operating parameters, identifying inert anode materials that maintain their integrity at high processing rates, and optimizing UNF oxide particle sizes and geometries for more efficient O2– out-diffusion.16,21 A fundamental approach to understanding the O2– out-diffusion process and influencing factors is needed. Precise characterization of the transport within the solid pellets can enable a theory-guided approach towards achieving enhanced oxide reduction rates. Furthermore, understanding the synergistic interplay between the electrochemical (Eq. 1-2) and chemical routes (Eq. 3-4) for UO2 reduction is an opportunity for improved fundamental understanding of this process.

Electrorefining Once the metal oxide UNF is reduced to its metallic form in the oxide reduction step, the fuel is moved to the electrorefiner where the metallic actinides are separated from the fission products through

Oxide Reduction Before actinides can be recovered from LWR or other oxide fuels, they must be converted from oxide to metallic form. This transformation is accomplished via solid-state electrochemical conversion. As LWR UNF is predominantly U (>95 wt% metals basis), the oxide reduction process is explained here in the context of UO2. The process uses a porous stainless-steel basket to contain the chopped UNF. A current collector is placed in the center of the UO2 bed and serves as the cathode lead in the electrochemical cell. A consumable or inert material is employed as the anode, and a LiCl melt with ~1 wt% Li2O at 650oC serves as the molten salt electrolyte (Fig. 3).12,13,14,15 At the cathode, UO2 is electrochemically reduced to U (at potentials negative with respect to –2.40 V vs. SHE). At the anode, O2– liberated during the reduction of UO2 is oxidized to O2: 46

Fig. 3: Schematic of the oxide reduction cell during operation. UO2 is electrochemically converted to U, and the reduction front moves gradually inwards from the shell towards the core of the oxide particles. Oxide ions diffuse out of the solid-state pellets and are transported towards the anode where they are oxidized to O2. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

Fig. 4: During the electrochemical conversion of UO2 to U, O2– is produced and must diffuse out of the UNF oxide pellet. Transport of O2– is limited by the sluggish solid-state diffusion process within the pellet, which limits the oxide reduction rate.

electrodeposition in a LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt electrolyte at 500oC or LiCl electrolyte at 650°C.22,23 The anode is a porous stainless-steel basket containing the metallic UNF and the cathode rod material is stainless-steel. At the anode, the actinides and fission products are oxidized to form their soluble chloride complexes. Noble metals and, if present, elements that comprise nuclear fuel cladding do not dissolve and remain in the anode basket. Figure 5 shows a schematic representation of the electrorefining process. The electrorefining operation occurs in two parallel stages. During steady-state operations, uranium is electrodeposited at a uraniumdeposition cathode, and at a separate cathode, uranium and the transuranic elements are co-deposited. This co-deposition occurs because polarizing the co-deposition cathode to sufficiently negative potentials results in an alloy deposit of U, Pu, Am, and Np.9 Once the desired actinides are deposited, the cathodes are removed from the electrorefiner and the metal is separated from residual molten salt in a high temperature vacuum furnace. Finally, the actinides are consolidated into an ingot and are ready for fabrication into nuclear fuel rod form.

growth of the resulting electrodeposits. Actinides and lanthanides exhibit multivalency in the halide environment of a molten salt and many undergo multistep electron-transfer reactions during electrodeposition. Several publications have examined the redox behavior of actinides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salts. Most actinides are found to behave quasi-reversibly or irreversibly during fast scan voltammetry experiments and at the high concentrations (i.e., higher than 2 wt% actinide) typically found in an electrorefiner.27,28,29,30 This behavior means that the deposition reactions experience kinetic limitations of a measurable degree. In an analogous lanthanide electrochemistry study, it was shown that kinetic limitations during Nd deposition in a NdCl3-LiCl-KCl system result in out-diffusion of intermediate species (Nd2+) causing coulombic efficiency loss. This type of behavior may be prevalent in other multivalent actinide and lanthanide systems and thus deserves investigation.31 Additionally, such behavior may influence the accuracy of electrochemical sensing as part of process monitoring, which employs voltammetric waveforms to correlate peak current densities to actinide or lanthanide concentrations.32 Another aspect of the process that is not wellcontrolled is the formation of the actinide deposits. Uranium typically deposits dendritically, even under low current and high mass transfer conditions. The dendrite morphology is highly dependent on the cell operating conditions, with larger crystals observed at lower deposition currents and thin, branching dendrites observed at high deposition currents.33 The dendritic nature of the uranium deposits can result in detachment from the electrode surface which may in turn reduce recovery.34 Understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms of actinides is thus important.35 Quantifying these effects will enable theory-guided designs for more efficient electrorefining processes.


Nuclear energy is an essential component in humankind’s transition to carbon-free energy. Recycling used nuclear fuel reduces waste, increases resource utilization, and enables the use of next-generation advanced nuclear reactor technologies. Molten salt electrolysis methods play a key role in the recycling of used nuclear fuel due to their scalability, potential for in situ diagnostics and control, and their ability to produce recycled actinides that are suitable for re-use as reactor fuel without generating hazardous waste. Much work is still needed to address the unanswered scientific questions outlined (continued on next page)

Lanthanide Draw-down Over time, the lanthanide concentration in the electrorefiner electrolyte increases. The increased activity of the lanthanides in the electrolyte moves their reduction potentials to more positive values, which can result in co-deposition of lanthanides during actinide electrorefining.24,25,26 In order to prevent this, electrochemical separation of lanthanides is performed in a separate process. In this process, called “draw-down,” a cathode is polarized to sufficiently negative potentials to facilitate the electrodeposition of the lanthanides. Because draw-down is performed in a molten chloride salt, chlorine gas is evolved at the anode. The recovered lanthanides are then prepared as stable waste forms suitable for disposal. The electrorefiner salt need not be treated in its entirety for lanthanide separation. Instead, the lanthanide fission product concentrations can be actively monitored in the electrorefiner using electrochemical sensing. When the lanthanide concentration reaches a critical level, a portion of the electrorefiner salt can be removed and treated via the draw-down method.

Electrorefining and Draw-down Challenges Electrorefining processes for UNF have been under operation for decades. Nevertheless, there is an incomplete understanding of the actinide and lanthanide species transport in a molten salt, kinetics of their electrochemical transformations, and the nucleation and

Fig. 5: Electrorefining involves the anodic dissolution of the elements that constitute UNF and electrodeposition of the actinides onto cathodes. Transuranic elements (TRU), lanthanides (Ln), and other metals (OM) (including alkali and alkaline earth metals) anodically dissolve into the molten salt while noble metals (NM) and fuel cladding materials remain in the anode basket. In electrorefining, uranium is electrodeposited onto one cathode and uranium and transuranics are co-deposited at a second cathode.

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herein and to enhance our understanding of the relevant transport and reaction processes in molten salt based electrochemical technologies for nuclear fuel reprocessing. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F06213IF.

Acknowledgements The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This material is based upon work supported under an Integrated University Program Graduate Fellowship awarded to Bethany Kersten at Case Western Reserve University. We would also like to thank Dr. Nathaniel Hoyt for providing the linear sweep voltammetry in Fig. 2 and to acknowledge Benjamin Fugate for his help in creating figures for this paper.

About the Authors Bethany Kersten, PhD student, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical Engineering (University of Idaho). Research Interests: Actinide electrochemistry in molten salt and aqueous electrolytes in support of nuclear fuel management. Work Experience: Internships at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of analytical chemistry and molten salt electrochemistry. Awards: The Nuclear Energy University Program-Integrated University Program fellowship from the US Department of Energy in 2020 and the Lee Swanger Fellowship from Case Western Reserve University in 2019. Krista Hawthorne, Section Manager, Pyroprocess Engineering, Chemical and Fuel Cycle Technologies Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical Engineering (University of New Mexico); PhD in Chemical Engineering (Case Western Reserve University). Research Interests: Scale-up of high temperature electrochemical processes for recycling and recovery of radioactive materials, electrochemical engineering and process development, electrochemical kinetics, and electrode materials development. Work Experience: Postdoctoral appointments in the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research at the University of Michigan and in the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division at Argonne. Mark Williamson, Division Director, Chemical and Fuel Cycle Technologies Division, Argonne National Laboratory Education: BS in Chemistry and Mathematics (University of Toledo); PhD in Chemistry (University of Kansas). Research Interests: Nuclear fuel recycling, fuel fabrication, safeguards for next-generation nuclear energy systems, radioisotope generation and separation, pyrochemical processing technologies, sustainable nuclear energy systems, molten salt chemistry, chemical process design, development, and demonstration, equipment engineering, and facility design. 48

Work Experience: 20 years of experience at Argonne National Laboratory, before which Dr. Williamson was a technical staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Rohan Akolkar, Milton and Tamar Maltz Professor of Energy Innovation, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical Engineering (University Department of Chemical Technology, India); PhD in Chemical Engineering (Case Western Reserve University). Research Interests: Electrodeposition, electrometallurgy, and electrochemical materials development for applications in nano-electronics, batteries, sensors, and extraction and refining of critical materials. Work Experience: Formerly R&D at the Components Research Division of the Intel Corporation. Currently Ohio Eminent Scholar in Advanced Energy Research, Faculty Director of CWRU’s Great Lakes Energy Institute, and joint Chief Scientist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Awards: Young Author Award of ECS, elected as Senior Member of the National Academy of Inventors (NAI). Christine E. Duval, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical Engineering (University of Connecticut); PhD in Chemical Engineering (Clemson University). Research Interests: Advanced materials and processes for f-element separations with applications in nuclear fuel reprocessing, nuclear forensics and medical isotope purification. Work Experience: Business strategist at the Connecticut Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, DOE Scholar in the Nuclear Materials Information Program. Awards: The AIChE Graduate Student Research Award from the Separations Division in Adsorption and Ion-Exchange and the DOE Early Career Research Award from the Isotope Program in the Office of Nuclear Physics.

References 1. O. Comstock, “Less Electricity Was Generated by Coal than Nuclear in the United States in 2020,” US Energy Information Administration (2021). 2. International Energy Agency, “Electricity Generation by Source, World 1990-2018” (2018), data-and-statistics/charts/electricity-generation-by-sourceoecd-1990-2019. 3. “Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050”; Reference Data Series No. 1, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (2020) publications/14786/energy-electricity-and-nuclear-powerestimates-for-the-period-up-to-2050. 4. Y. I. Chang, R. W. Benedict, M. D. Bucknor, J. Figueroa, J. E. Herceg, T. R. Johnson, E. R. Koehl, R. M. Lell, Y. S. Park, C. L. Pope, S. G. Wiedmeyer, M. A. Williamson, J. L. Willit, R. James, S. Meyers, B. Spaulding, J. Underdahl, M. Wolf, Nuclear Technology, 205(5), 708–726 (2019). 5. C. E. Till and Y. I. Chang, Plentiful Energy: The Story of the Integral Fast Reactor; CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (2011). 6. G. Choppin, J. O. Liljenzin, J. Rydberg, C. Ekberg, Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, 2nd ed., ButterworthHeinemann Ltd, Oxford (1995). The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

7. C. E. Till, Y. I. Chang, W. H. Hannum, Prog. Nuclear Energy, 31, 3–11 (1997). 8. G. J. Janz, C. B. Allen, N. P. Bansal, R. M. Murphy, R. P. T. Tomkins, “Physical Properties Data Compilations Relevant to Energy Storage”, National Bureau of Standards (1979). 9. P. Masset, R. J. M. Konings, R. Malmbeck, J. Serp, J. Glatz, J. Nucl. Mater., 344, 173–179 (2005). 10. L. M. Toth, L. K. Felker, Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids, 112(4), 201–210 (1990). 11. H. Groult, F. Lantelme, Molten Salt Chemistry: From Lab to Applications, 1st ed., Elsevier: Amsterdam (2013). 12. J. Figueroa, M. A.Williamson, “Uranium Dioxide Conversion”, ANL/CSE-13/25 (2008). 13. A. Merwin, M. A.Williamson, J. L. Willit, D. Chidambaram, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(8), H5236–H5246 (2017). 14. Y. Sakamura, M. Kurata, T. Inoue, J. Electrochem. Soc., 153(3), D31 (2006). 15. B. H. Park, S. B. Park, S. M. Jeong, C. S. Seo, S. W. Park, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 270(3) 575–583 (2006). 16. E.-Y. Choi, J.-K. Kim, H.-S. Im, I.-K. Choi, S.-H. Na, J. W. Lee, S. M. Jeong, J.-M. Hur, J. Nucl. Mater., 437(1) 178–187 (2013). 17. J.-M. Hur, S. M. Jeong, H. Lee, Electrochem. Commun., 12(5) 706–709 (2010). 18. Y. Sakamura, J. Nucl. Mater., 412(1), 177–183 (2011). 19. E.-Y. Choi, J. W. Lee, J. J. Park, J.-M. Hur, J.-K. Kim, K. Y. Jung, S. M. Jeong, 22nd Int. Symp. Chem. React. Eng. ISCRE 22, 207–208, 514–520 (2012). 20. E. Y. Choi, S. M. Jeong, Prog. Nat. Sci.-Mater. Int., 25(6), 572– 582 (2015). 21. S. M. Jeong, H.-S. Shin, S.-H. Cho, J.-M. Hur, H. S. Lee, Electrochimica Acta, 54(26), 6335–6340 (2009).

22. M. A.Williamson, J. L.Willit, Nucl. Eng. Technol., 43(4), 329– 334 (2011). 23. J. Willit, M. Tylka, M. A. Williamson, S. Wiedmeyer, J. Figueroa, “Actinide and Rare Earth Drawdown System for Molten Salt Recycle”. US 10,550,489 (2020). 24. B. J. Riley, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 59(21), 9760–9774 (2020). 25. P. Soucek, R. Malmbeck, E. Mendes, C. Nourry, J.-P. Glatz, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 286, 823–828 (2010). 26. S. W. Kwon, K. M. Park, H. G. Ahn, H. S. Lee, J. G. Kim, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 295(1), 559–562 (2013). 27. M. M. Tylka, J. L. Willit, J. Prakash, M. A. Williamson, J. Electrochem. Soc., 162(12), H852–H859 (2015). 28. P. Masset, C. Apostolidis, R. J. M. Konings, R. Malmbeck, J. Rebizant, J. Serp, J. P. Glatz, J. Electroanal. Chem., 603(2), 166–174 (2007). 29. R. O. Hoover, M. R. Shaltry, S. Martin, K. Sridharan, S. Phongikaroon, J. Nucl. Mater., 452, 1-3, 389–396 (2014). 30. J. Serp, P. Chamelot, S. Fourcaudot, R. J. M. Konings, R. Malmbeck, C. Pernel, J. C. Poignet, J. Rebizant, J. P. Glatz, Electrochimica Acta, 51(1)9, 4024–4032 (2006). 31. D. Shen, R. Akolkar, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(8), H5292– H5298 (2017). 32. N. C. Hoyt, J. L. Willit and M. A Williamson, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 164(2) H134-H136 (2017). 33. J. L. Willit, W. E. Miller, J. E. Battles, J. Nucl. Mater., 195(3), 229–249 (1992). 34. T. Koyama, M. Iizuka, Y. Shoji, R. Fujita, H. Tanaka, T. Kobayashi, M.Tokiwai, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 34(4), 384–393 (1997). 35. M. M. Tylka, J. L.Willit, M. A. Williamson, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(8), H5327–H5335 (2017).

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How to Maximize the Value Recovered from Li-Ion Batteries: Hydrometallurgical or Direct Recycling? by Linda Gaines, Yan Wang



he United States does not have sufficient domestic raw material resources to supply the inputs needed for projected production of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells for electric vehicles and other uses. Current or planned cell manufacturing capacity is about 60 GWh per year, so it can be seen from Table 11 that even with no growth or other uses for the material, the reserves in the United States will not last long. Material recovered from end-of-life cells (from electric vehicles [EVs], stationary storage, and consumer electronics), as well as manufacturing scrap, can help alleviate material supply constraints, but only if it is recycled here. Capacity for recycling these materials is starting to be built in the United States, but what technology is best? How can we maximize the value (the quantity—and the quality) of material that is recovered? If recycling can be made attractive economically, government regulations or incentives will not be necessary. We generally discuss three types of processing; however, in this paper we will disqualify pyrometallurgy (smelting) from the competition because so many of the cell components are lost or otherwise devalued in that process. The carbon anode, electrolyte solvent, and plastics are burned, and the lithium and aluminum (which is oxidized) are captured in the slag, from which they can only be recovered at considerable cost. In this short paper, we compare hydrometallurgical processing (hydro) to direct recycling.

Comparison of Hydrometallurgical and Direct Recycling Hydrometallurgical processing is based on wet chemistry. During the process, spent Li-ion batteries are normally discharged and shredded into fine particles. Then the shredded particles are sieved and separated. The powder—including cathode, anode, and some impurities—is leached into solution, generally using strong acid. The solution is subjected to a series of separation operations based on ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and electrolysis to obtain pure chemicals (e.g., metal sulfates and lithium salts). Finally, these recovered compounds can be used to synthesize precursors and new cathode materials. The coarse fraction after sieving can be further separated using air classification, density separation, or magnetic separation. Most hydro operations focus on recovery of cathode constituents due to their high value. Other cell

components are generally either not recovered or are downcycled, although the separator foils can be sold to metal recyclers. Currently, hydro is deployed on very large scale in China and Korea.2 The direct recycling process uses physical separation methods to separate different components in Li-ion cells, recovering cathode material without breaking down its structure. As with the hydro process, spent Li-ion batteries need to be discharged and broken down into small pieces. The resultant materials are separated using a variety of nondestructive physical separation methods (e.g., magnetic separation, thermal processing, froth flotation). After effective separation, the materials need to be further purified. The cathode materials require additional processing to restore their original electrochemical properties; spent cathode materials normally have become deficient in lithium and must be relithiated to restore their original performance. Direct recycling is still in the development stage and is not yet commercially available. The U.S. Department of Energy established the ReCell Center ( with the goal of developing a cost-effective direct recycling process; more details on the individual unit operations being studied can be found in Gaines et al.3 Table 2 compares the hydro and direct recycling processes. Both hydro and direct recycling have their own advantages and disadvantages. The authors think that the main research focus for hydro is to simplify the process and reduce the wastewater. For example, instead of separating the different ions in the solution, Wang et al. developed a process to directly synthesize high-performance cathode materials, which simplifies the process and has the potential to lower costs.4–8 For the direct recycling process, scale-up and industrial demonstration of recovered cathode material performance are needed to advance the technology toward commercialization. In addition, for both hydro and direct recycling processes, methods for recovery and reuse of other materials (graphite, electrolyte, etc.) from spent Li-ion cells need to be further developed and demonstrated.

Which Process Could Potentially Maximize the Value Recovered from Li-ion Batteries? There is material available for recycling now, from end-of-life consumer electronics and manufacturing scrap, and hydro is ready to handle it. Several North American companies are ramping up capacity. The cathode material from consumer electronics cells (continued on next page)

Table I. Comparison of U.S. Mineral Reserves and Manufacturing Capacities versus the World.


U.S. reserves (1,000 Metric tons)

World reserves (1,000 Metric tons)

Total manufacturing capacity with U.S. reserves (GWh)

Total manufacturing capacity with world reserves (GWh)





















Source: Argonne National Laboratory, derived from U.S. Geological Survey mineral commodities summaries (2021) and simulations using BatPaC 4.0 for Li-ion batteries with LNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 cathode. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


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(continued from previous page) Table II: Comparison of the Hydrometallurgical and Direct Recycling Processes


Hydrometallurgical process

Technology principles Advantages


• Leaching, separation, purification, and recombination

• Physical separation and purification

• Recovers high-purity material • Can recover most material • Low energy usage

• Relatively simple process • Recovers usable cathode material • Low emissions and energy usage

• • • •

• Many separation steps required • Sensitive to the input stream • Cathode material may be too damaged

Sorting is needed Wastewater is generated Hard to separate different elements Uses harsh reagents

State of the technology

• Relatively mature technology • Demonstrated on industrial scale

• Immature technology • Only demonstrated at lab scale

Future development

• Simplify the overall process • Reduce or eliminate wastewater • Recover and reuse other materials

• Demonstrate at industrial scale • Recover and reuse other materials

is primarily lithium cobalt oxide. This material offers the highest revenue product (per unit mass) for recyclers because of its high cobalt content. However, cathode material from electric vehicles contains less cobalt, and the concentration is rapidly decreasing. Nickel recovery offers some value, but some formulations contain little or no cobalt or nickel. Direct recycling, because the main product is intact cathode material rather than elemental constituents that need to be reconstructed into a valuable cathode product, offers the potential to economically recycle cells that contain little or no cobalt, such as lithium iron phosphate and high-nickel LiNixMnyCozO2 like NMC811. Thus, in the long term, direct recycling may be a more attractive investment. However, there are still challenges to be overcome in the research on direct recycling. Therefore, until direct recycling technology is further developed, hydro is a good option for recovering critical minerals from end-of-life batteries. In a long-term steady-state situation, manufacturing scrap is likely to represent only a few percent of material throughput and not be a major concern. However, during periods of rapid growth, such as the current period of battery manufacturing, scrap is very significant. There are two reasons for this situation. One is that rapid growth implies many new lines starting up and undergoing startup optimization, which often results in high initial scrap rates. One report showed Tesla’s scrap rate starting out well over 50% before settling down to about 25% after a year.9 The other reason is growth itself.


MASS (arbitrary units)

Direct recycling process




EOL Recyclable

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0






Fig. 1. Relative importance of scrap and EOL material under rapid growth. 52

Current production is much higher than it was when the products now reaching end of life (EOL) were produced, and scrap availability is based on current high production. Therefore, the quantity of scrap available can exceed the quantity of EOL material, as illustrated in Fig. 1 for a hypothetical demand curve for EV batteries with 20% scrap and 100% material recovery after 10 years. There are several reasons direct recycling is expected to be much more advantageous than hydro for recycling manufacturing scrap. The scrap material has not undergone a use phase and is not degraded at all, so it needs little or no upgrading. It is of known composition, often containing few components, and, depending on which step it is from, can go directly back into the process chain with minimal processing. For hydro, it is likely to get mixed with other materials and require the entire treatment process. Argonne staff examined the costs and revenues of scrap recycling and found that direct scrap recycling has lower costs and higher revenues than does direct recycling of EOL material (see Fig. 2). Direct recycling of cathode scrap has been demonstrated at lab scale and could be commercialized quickly.

Future Considerations: Upcycling Li-ion battery technology, especially for cathode materials, is very dynamic. The cathode materials in spent (old) Li-ion batteries may be considered obsolete, even if they can be restored to their original performance levels. For example, NMC111, used in the Chevy Volt, was one of the most common early cathode materials for EV batteries. However, the industry is moving to high-nickel NMC cathode formulations to increase energy density and lower costs. Hydro processing allows easy upcycling (conversion of an old cathode chemistry to a new one), as shown in Fig. 3a. In the process, cathode materials (like NMC111) are dissolved into acid solution. By adding additional virgin or recycled nickel, the target ratio of nickel, manganese, and cobalt for the production of a new cathode can be achieved in the solution. This is a key innovation. Then, through co-precipitation and sintering, the target cathode material can be synthesized in the same way as virgin materials. Wang et al. demonstrated production of NMC622 from different recycling streams (e.g., NMC111).10,11 It is also possible to directly upcycle the cathode materials without dissolving the cathode materials (see Fig.  3b), although this approach is quite challenging because the metal oxide crystal structure must be disrupted. For example, to convert NMC111 to NMC622, a considerable quantity of nickel needs to be added to the original NMC111 particles. Diffusion of this nickel into the entire particle can be enabled by solid diffusion via high temperature or hydrothermal treatment. Further research will reveal whether it is more advantageous to upcycle directly or via hydro. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

Cost and Revenue of Processing 1kg Material via Direct Recycling Spent cells




Revenue Rejected cells

Electrode manufacturing scraps

Cathode manufacturing scraps $(20.00)





$(16.49) $(15.00)

$1.23 $(10.00)





Fig. 2. Costs and revenues of processing 1 kg EOL cells and manufacturing scrap. (Courtesy of Q. Dai, Argonne) 1

Another method for increasing the value of recovered cathode material is to convert polycrystalline materials into single-crystal materials. This process can also be called upcycling. Single-crystal cathode materials hold the promise of better performance in terms of cycle life and rate performance. Conventional cathode materials are secondary particles that include numerous primary particles, which can be separated into single-crystal particles. Wang et al.12 developed a universal etching method for synthesizing high-performance singlecrystal cathode from multi-crystal particles of the same formulation.8 In the process, dilute acid is used to attack the boundaries between primary particles in the polycrystalline secondary particles. After polycrystalline materials are broken apart into primary particles, lithium carbonate is added to compensate for the loss of lithium during the etching process. Impressive rate performance and cycle life of prepared single-crystal NMC111 cathode materials have been demonstrated. Rate performance of the single-crystal NMC111 is improved by 10%–15% and the cycle performance by ~12% compared to the polycrystalline NMC111. Other polycrystalline

cathode powders (NMC622, NMC532, NMC811, and NCA) have also been successfully upcycled to the corresponding single-crystal powders.

Summary Technology is available for recycling of Li-ion cells, and it continues to improve. Hydrometallurgical processing will enable recycling of both EOL cells and manufacturing scrap until direct recycling is sufficiently developed to be deployed on large commercial scales. Then the direct process will start to grow, helped by its economic advantage for the rapidly increasing market penetration and subsequent retirement of low-cobalt cathodes. There may still be situations when hydro processing is more economical, especially if direct upcycling proves to be expensive or if technical difficulties are not overcome. However, both will be needed if we are to recycle Li-ion batteries in the United States and to minimize the material that must be imported for the production of new batteries.

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Fig. 3. Upcycling by (a) hydrometallurgical and (b) direct recycling processes. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


Gaines and Wang

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Acknowledgments This work was performed through the ReCell Center, which gratefully acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149.2/3.F07213IF.

About the Authors Linda Gaines, Founding Chief Scientist, Recell Center For Advanced Battery Recycling, Transportation Systems Analyst, Argonne National Laboratory Education: BA in Chemistry and Physics (Harvard University); PhD in Physics (Columbia University in the City of New York). Research Interests: Problem solving, applied to efficient use of resources. Work Experience: Began her career by writing handbooks of energy and material flows in major industries that enabled later studies of technical and institutional issues involved in recycling discarded tires, packaging, automobiles, and most recently, batteries. Pubs + Patents: 120+ papers, 150+ presentations. Awards: Impact Argonne Award for establishment of the ReCell Center; R&D 100 Award for development of the EverBatt model; Editor, Sustainable Materials and Technologies. Website: Yan Wang, William Smith Foundation Dean’s Professor Of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Education: MS and BE in Electrochemical Engineering (Tianjin University); PhD in Engineering Materials (University of Windsor); Postdoctoral Fellow, Materials Science & Engineering (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Research Interests: Fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemistry-based technologies including electrolysis, lithium ion batteries, solid electrolyte and solid state batteries, battery recycling, and battery materials. Work Experience: In 2010, joined Worcester Polytechnic Institute as an assistant Professor and promoted to associate and full professor in 2016 and 2019, respectively. Pubs & Patents: 86 papers, 2 book chapters, 10+ issued and pending patents. Awards: Board of Trustees’ Award for Outstanding Research and Creative Scholarship; National Academy of Inventors; William Smith Foundation Dean’s Professorship Website:


References 1.

Federal Consortium for Advanced Batteries, Executive summary, National Blueprint for Lithium Batteries 2021–2030, National Blueprint Lithium Batteries 0621_0.pdf (June 2021). 2. Executive Summary of Study of Large Format EV Lithiumion Battery Recycling in China, prepared for NAATBatt by Avicenne Energy, uploads/2019/03/Executive-Summary-of-China-RecyclingStudy-v2-1.pdf (accessed June 1, 2021) 3. L. Gaines, Q. Dai, J.T. Vaughey, S. Gillard, Direct recycling R&D at the ReCell Center, Recycling,  6(2021) 31 https://doi. org/10.3390/recycling6020031. 4. H. Zou, E. Gratz, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, A novel method to recycle mixed cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, Green Chemistry, 15(2013) 1183–1191. 5. E. Gratz, Q. Sa, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries, J. Power Sources, 262(2014) 255–262. 6. Q. Sa, E. Gratz, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, Synthesis of high performance LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 from lithium ion battery recovery stream, J. Power Sources, 282(2015) 140–145. 7. Q. Sa, E. Gratz, J. Heelan, J. Ma, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, Synthesis of diverse LiNixMnyCozO2 Cathode Materials from lithium ion battery recovery stream, J. Sustainable Metallurgy, 2(2016) 248–256. 8. M. Chen, Z. Zheng, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, C. Shen, D. Xu, J. Liu, Y. Liu, P. Gionet, I. O’Connor, L. Pinnell, J. Wang, E. Gratz, R. Arsenault, Y. Wang, Closed loop recycling of electric vehicle batteries to enable ultra-high quality cathode powder, Scientific Reports, 9(2019) 1654. 9. Z. Meseldzija, Proceedings of International Battery Seminar, March 10, 2021 fWSkH9LMeRW8huMz3 (accessed June 13, 2021). 10. Z. Zheng, M. Chen, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, C. Shen, D. Xu, J. Liu, Y. Liu, P. Gionet, I. O’Connor, L. Pinnell, J. Wang, E. Gratz, R. Arsenault, Y. Wang, High performance cathode recovery from different electric vehicle recycling streams, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 6(2018) 13977–13982. 11. B. Chen, X. Ma, M. Chen, D. Bullen, J. Wang, R. Arsenault, Y. Wang, Systematic comparison of Al3+ modified LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material from recycling process, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2(12) (2019) 8818–8825. 12. X. Ma, P. Vanaphuti, J. Fu, J. Hou, Y. Liu, R. Zhang, S. Bong, Z. Yao, Z. Yang, Y. Wang, A universal etching method for synthesizing high-performance single crystal cathode materials, Nano Energy, 87(2021) 106194.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

Circular Economy of Polymers – Electrochemical Recycling and Upcycling by Chockkalingam Karuppaiah, Natasa Vasiljevic, Zheng Chen



ur society depends on fossil-based resources for energy needs and feedstocks to make many synthetic organic materials, i.e., polymers. Synthetic polymers from fossil resources amount to over 440 million metric tons annually, and are expected to reach 700 million metric tons by 2030. About 20% of discarded synthetic polymers are recycled globally, about 25% are incinerated, and the balance are added to landfill.1 While some energy is recuperated through incineration, the overall impact of today’s linear economy principles of “make, use and mostly discard” approach impacts both local and global environment negatively. An alternative to this is a circular economy principle which aims at restructuring the way we think of design, manufacturing, consumption, and waste. By employing circular economy principles (Fig. 1), the feedstock for new synthesis will originate from discarded and recycled polymers after their useful life. To be sustainable, our aim is to identify non-fossil feedstocks for synthesizing organic molecules, monomers and polymers. In addition to synthetic polymers, biopolymers such as cellulose and lignin, if not valorized appropriately, can end up in landfills generating methane through anaerobic decomposition.2 Both end up contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while losing valuable feedstock organic materials along the way. Thus, rethinking and expanding the circular economy principles to biopolymers has become paramount in addressing overall sustainability. One of the main principles of the circular economy is prolonging the life of materials and products by upscaling them into new products with better performance and sustainable, simple reuse/recovery of components. Thus, to truly implement a circular economy, we need to advance from polymer recycling to polymer upcycling. Most of the current methods to depolymerize plastic waste have been focused on pyrolysis-based methods.3,4 Those methods involve significant energy input, which if not generated through renewable sources, contributes to additional GHG release. In addition to that, achieving selective depolymerization with pyrolysis is challenging. Discarded polymers are typically mixtures of different types in terms of their molecular weight and nature. Discarded (recycled) plastic

Fig. 1: Linear vs. circular economy of polymers.

often contains pigments and other additives which interfere with the chemical or pyrolytic approach, making it difficult to re-create the monomers and fine chemical feedstocks. The non-pyrolytic methods of polymer re/up-cycling involve homogeneous and heterogenous catalysis and utilize chemical oxidizing and reducing agents for the process. Moreover, separating and treating the wastes from this process adds an additional step and overhead in the chemical recycling process. There is a need to identify novel techniques that are less harsh, selective, tolerant to contaminants and energy-efficient.5 The electrochemical recycling methods can offer a new economic prospect of generating monomers from waste polymers and new pathways to produce valuable chemicals. There has been progress in the synthesis of organic molecules through electrochemical reduction or oxidation.6,7 The electrochemical depolymerization reactions generally occur at milder conditions of ambient pressure and at temperatures below 100oC. The combination of improved selectivity, minimized usage of additional chemicals as oxidizing and reducing agents, and lower temperature operation can enable electrochemical approaches to close the loop on the circular economy of polymers. Despite the opportunities, significant barriers remain before electrochemical recycling, and upcycling can be scaled up. One major challenge in the development is to address the difficulties associated with multi-functional polymers in which two or more of chemical groups such as aldehyde, alkyne, hydroxyl, carboxylic, ester etc. can co-exist. Without careful control, these functional groups will react at different voltage windows and generate a wide range of products during electrochemical depolymerization, which complicates the entire upcycling process with poor selectivity. Understanding the fundamental redox properties along with the innovation of cell and processes design could pave the way toward new practical applications.

Electrochemical Recycling of Synthetic Polymers As mentioned above, common plastics such as polyolefin are often recycled by mechanical or chemical methods.3,4 The mechanical process requires clean and pure feedstock to be melted and remolded into a new product of the same type as that being recycled.3 Chemical methods can upcycle spent plastics by using a recycled monomers feedstock to synthesize other types of polymers, which can generate more valuable products. However, due to the high chemical stability of polyolefins, harsh conditions such as very high temperature as well as catalysis are required to deconstruct their original structure.4,8 In contrast to that, the electrochemical oxidation combined with potent oxidation mediators, e.g., Ag2+ (E0 = 1.98 V), Co3+ (E0 = 1.9 V), and Ce4+ (E0 = 1.7 V),9 have been reported as a new path to depolymerize polyolefins (Fig. 2).10 For example, using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry it has been identified that polypropylene and high-density polyethylene treated by electrochemical oxidation in the presence of Ag2+ ions can generate hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups.9 These molecules with functional moieties can then be further processed to synthesize different types of polymers. These findings also suggest that the selectivity of such oxidation mediatorcoupled electrochemical oxidation remains to be improved through cell chemistry design and/or process engineering, an important merit one should achieve to avoid complicated down-stream chemical separation.

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Fig. 2: Representation of an electrochemical oxidation of a polyolefin mediated by Ag2+. Although speculative, the mechanistic schemes outlined above account at least partially for the surface electrochemical functionalization of HDPE, principally generate carbonyl and carboxylic acid fragments, with evidence for hydroxyls. These would be produced by oxidative attack at the —CH2— moieties, resulting ultimately in chain scission.9,10

Other polymers (e.g., polyesters, amides) that contain relatively fragile linkages offer a better opportunity for electrochemical upcycling. For example, in a batch reactor using 1:1 methanol/water solution as the electrolyte, electrolysis of polyethylene (terephthalate) (PET) at 2.2V produced a yield of 17% of terephthalic acid after the one-hour operation.11 By contrast, only 0.5% of terephthalic acid can be produced in 0.1M NaCl solution under the same voltage.11 It is evident that improving the solubility of both the plastic and the upcycled product represents an important direction to pursue when designing electrolysis cells for upcycling. In addition, as compared in Table I, although the chemical upcycling process remains advantageous in terms of the product yield (in the batch, microwave reactors), one should note that the electrochemical method avoids the use of corrosive solutions that may solve a significant challenge in the scaling of the polymer recycling process. For electrochemical upcycling to play a more important role, electrode and electrolyte improvements will be essential tasks. Understanding the chemical interaction and charge-transfer processes in the three phase electrolyte/ polymer/electrode interface may create critical knowledge to better design electrochemical depolymerization systems. It should be noted that besides chemically simple polymers, any real plastic waste stream will consist of a diverse range of polymers with complex compositions. It may be possible to design a cascade electrochemical upcycling that treats each polymer component by a step-by-step approach, if the earlier products can be easily removed before electrochemical reactions move to the next step. However, a desirable and selective oxidation or reduction of one type of polymer may interfere with other polymers, which poses further challenges on achieving overall high selectivity of the entire stream. As such, effective pre-separation of mixed waste plastics will be a valuable step before an effective electrochemical upcycling can be applied to chemically similar polymers.

Electrochemical Recycling of Biopolymers Owing to the strong inter-molecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, traditional methods of upcycling of biopolymers include the use of microbial processes (such as the use of fungi), use of the acidic environment, use of inorganic salts such as ZrCl2, CrCl3 and/or the use of high temperature.12,13 These approaches have the downside of poor selectivity, the need for additional purification steps and can be energy-intensive. Electrochemical upcycling of biopolymers has attracted attention to potentially address these disadvantages through innovations in materials and electrochemical engineering. Aqueous electrolytes offer inherent environmental advantages for chemical processing. The downside of the aqueous system is the faradic efficiency loss due to oxygen evolution. Similar to other electrochemical systems with gas evolution as a parasitic reaction, selecting an electrode material that has high overpotential for that parasitic reaction has been employed. Meng et al.14 used PbO2 on Pb, with sulfuric acid as the electrolyte to oxidize cellulose. In addition to avoiding oxygen evolution, in-situ generation of hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical helped enhance the break up of inter-molecular and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. After this depolymerization, further chemical reactions can be carried out to convert to fine chemicals that can be used as feedstock. One of the proven methods in electrocatalysis is the use of mediators to widen the electrode materials selection. In the case of biopolymers, the type of mediators used will depend on the specific reaction. For example, TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1oxyl radical) can be used as a mediator for the oxidation of primary hydroxyls of cellulose. However, it is not strong enough to abstract benzylic hydrogen of lignin type alcohols during lignin oxidations.

Table I. Comparison of PET depolymerization using chemical and electrochemical methods. Reaction #


Reaction time

Terephthalic Acid Yield%


Water, 0.1 M NaCl, −2.2 V

60 min



50% MeOH in water, −2.2 V

60 min



MeOH, 85 °C

13 min



MeOH, 85 °C

40 min



a. Reactions at room temperature (21 °C), for 1h in a batch electrolysis H-Cell divided by a coarse ceramic frit at controlled potential against a singlejunction Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Yield of terephthalic acid was obtained after the acidic workup of the cell contents. b. Reactions were run in 20 mL CEM GlassChem vessels equipped with magnetic stir bars charged with 14 mL solvent and 10 mg end-use PET and 3.75 M NaOH with a maximum power of 1000 W.11 56

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

approach using a membrane18 and the other with an anionic resin.19 Permeation through the nanofiltration membrane predominantly containes oxidized lignin, and the retentate containing unoxidized lignin can be recirculated. In the case of product separation with an anionic resin, the separation was carried out through the ionic and van der Waals interaction of generated product, vanillin, with the anionic resin.19 The product separation method not only helped with reducing the mass transport resistance but also helped avoid the over-oxidation of the generated product.

Summary and Outlook Electrochemical pathways provide numerous advantages over chemical pathways in upcycling polymers. They enable carrying out the reaction under milder conditions of temperature and pressure. The use of electrons as redox agents helps avoid expensive and complicated additional purification of added oxidizing or reducing agents. Inherent shortcomings associated with the electrochemical approach may be addressed by innovations in: (i) efficient solubilization and mass transport of polymer to the electrode; (ii) improving selectivity through optimization of redox mediator; (iii) optimizing the extent of reaction through electrochemical reaction engineering; and (iv) effective combination of electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical approaches to maximize efficiency and yield. Doing so will convert this problem into tremendous environmental and economic benefits, opening up a plethora of opportunities for the electrochemical community to contribute to a sustainable way of living. © The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/2.F08213IF.

About the Authors

Fig. 3: Redox behavior of NHPI/2,6-lutidine catalyst and oxidation optimization. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) at 50 mV/s of a 0.1 M NaClO4 acetonitrile solution containing (a) 10 mM of NHPI (purple line), after addition of 10 mM of 2,6-lutidine (orange line), and (b) after addition of 100 mM 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) ethanol (green line) or 100 mM of ethanol (red line).15

To depolymerize lignin through electrooxidation, Bosque et al.15 used hydrogen atom transfer mediators based on N-hydroxypthalimide (NHPI) with the addition of 2,6-Lutidine. The addition of Lutidine helped improve reversibility and decrease the oxidation potential (Fig. 3). The most common solvent and electrolyte systems for electro-oxidation have been either aqueous or organic systems. One of the new classes of electrolyte system that has been used in organic electrosynthesis is based on ionic liquids.16 Typically water is considered an impurity in these systems as it impacts the stable potential window in which oxidation can be carried out. Nevertheless, in the case of depolymerization, water is added intentionally to create hydroxy radical and peroxide in-situ within the ionic liquid system, leading to significantly improved depolymerization efficiency of lignin.17 Investigations in the depolymerization and upcycling of biopolymers also included engineering approaches based on the understanding of the mechanisms. One of the critical aspects that need to be optimized is the mass transport of the polymer. Approaches to address this include optimization of electrode morphology and removal of products generated.18,19 Stiefel et al.18 studied various morphologies of electrodes and reported the increase in the fraction of molecular weight reduction, with increase in volumetric mass transfer coefficient, tailored through increase in surface area and porosity. Removal of generated products has been a time-tested way to improve the mass transport of reactants to the surface of the electrode. Implementation of this was investigated in the depolymerization of biopolymers through two techniques, one with a nano filtration

Chockkalingam (Chock) Karuppaiah, Chief Technology Officer, Ohmium, Fremont, CA, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical and Electrochemical Engineering (Central Electrochemical Research Institute); PhD in Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute). Research Interests: Polymer electrolyte fuel cells, flow batteries, and solid oxide fuel cells, scaling and adaptation of electrochemical technologies in support of decarbonization. Work Experience: Founder of Vetri Labs, vice president of fuel cell stack engineering at Bloom Energy, founder at EC Labs, research professor at Case Western Reserve University, manager of fundamentals team at Plug Power, and graduate research assistant at Los Alamos National Lab. Pubs + Patents: 12+ publications, 19+ patents. Natasa Vasiljevic, Senior Lecturer, School of Physics, University of Bristol, U.K. Education: BS in Physics (University of Belgrade); PhD in Science and Engineering of Materials (Arizona State University) Research Interests: Electrochemical surface science, electrodeposition of thin films and functional nanomaterials for electrocatalysis, magnetics and optoelectronics. Work Experience: Lecturer at the School of Physics, University of Bristol (since 2011); Research Associate, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S. (2004-2008) Pubs: 40 + papers, 1 book chapter, 50 + presentations Awards: Great Western Research Fellowship, University of Bristol, U.K. (2008-2011)

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Work with ECS: Member of the ECS ISTS Subcommittee (since 2019), ELDP Division executive committee member (since 2011) and current ELDP Division Vice Chair (2020). Website:


Zheng Chen, Assistant Professor, the Department of NanoEngineering, the Program of Chemical Engineering, and the Program of Materials and Science Engineering, UC San Diego, CA, U.S. Education: BS in Chemical Engineering (Tianjin University); PhD in Chemical Engineering (University of California, Los Angeles). Research Interests: Nanomaterials and polymers, energy storage and conversion and next-generation battery recycling technology. Work Experience: Dr. Chen has been working on battery materials for >15 years, including battery chemistries for extreme temperatures, high energy cathodes, silicon/Li anodes, solid-state batteries, and battery recycling. Pubs + Patents: 90+ papers, 30+ presentations, and 10+ patents. Awards: NASA’s 2018 Early Career Faculty Award, the LG Chem Global Battery Innovation Contest (BIC) Award in 2018, the 2018 ACF PRF New Investigator Award, Scialog Fellow in Advanced Energy Storage by Research Corporation, 2018 Emerging Investigator of Journal of Materials Chemistry C., Chem. Comm. Emerging Investigator of 2020, and Nanoscale Emerging Investigator of 2021. Website:


References 1.

W. G. P. F. C. Britt, K. I. Winey, J. Byers, E. Chen, B. Coughlin, C. Ellison, J. Garcia, A. Goldman, J. Guzman, J. Hartwig, B. Helms, G. Huber, C. Jenks, J. Martin, M. McCann, S. Miller, H. O’Neill, A. Sadow, S. Scott, L. Sita, D. Vlachos, and R. Waymouth, Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Roundtable on Chemical Upcycling of Polymers, April 30–May 1, (2019).

4. 5.

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C. S. B. Yu-Sheng Wang and M. A. Barlaz, Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 13, 147–153 (1994). A. Rahimi and J. M. García, Nature Reviews Chemistry, 1, 0046 (2017). M. Z. Fan Zhang, R. D. Yappert, J. Sun, Y.-H. Lee, A. M. LaPointe, B. Peters, M. M. Abu-Omar, and S. L. Scott., Science, 370, 437-441 (2020). H. A. Petersen, T. H. T. Myren, S. J. O’Sullivan, and O. R. Luca, Materials Advances, 2, 1113-1138 (2021). E. J. Horn, B. R. Rosen, and P. S. Baran, ACS Cent. Sci., 2, 302308 (2016). D. Pollok and S. R. Waldvogel, Chem Sci., 11, 12386-12400 (2020). G. Celik, R. M. Kennedy, R. A. Hackler, M. Ferrandon, A. Tennakoon, S. Patnaik, A. M. LaPointe, S. C. Ammal, A. Heyden, F. A. Perras, M. Pruski, S. L. Scott, K. R. Poeppelmeier, A. D. Sadow, and M. Delferro, ACS Cent. Sci., 5, 1795-1803 (2019). D. B. D. M. Brewis, R. H. Dahm, and I. Fletcher, Surface and Interface Analysis, 29, 572-581 (2000). R. S. Weber and K. K. Ramasamy, ACS Omega, 5, 27735-27740 (2020). T. H. T. Myren, T. A. Stinson, and Z. J. Mast, C. G. Huntzinger and O. R. Luca, Molecules, 25, (2020). J. M. Krochta, J.S. Hudson, and C.W. Drake, Biotechn. Bioeng. Symp., 14, 37-54 (1984). A. S. Amarasekara and C. C. Ebede, Bioresour. Technol., 100, 5301-5304 (2009). D. Meng, G. Li, Z. Liu, and F. Yang, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 96, 1173-1178 (2011). I. Bosque, G. Magallanes, M. Rigoulet, M. D. Karkas, and C. R. J. Stephenson, ACS Cent. Sci., 3, 621-628 (2017). M. Kathiresan and D. Velayutham, Chem. Commun. (Camb.), 51, 17499-17516 (2015). T. K. F. Dier, D. Rauber, D. Durneata, R. Hempelmann, and D. A. Volmer, Sci. Rep., 7, 5041 (2017). S. Stiefel, A. Schmitz, J. Peters, D. Di Marino, and M. Wessling, Green Chemistry, 18, 4999-5007 (2016). D. Schmitt, C. Regenbrecht, M. Hartmer, F. Stecker, and S. R. Waldvogel, J. Org. Chem., 11, 473-480 (2015).

242nd ECS Meeting October 9-13, 2022


Atlanta Hilton


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

SEC TION NE WS ECS Canada Section

2020 ECS Canada Section Fall meeting sponsors and participants. Photo: Courtesy of Byron Gates

The ECS Canada Section Fall Symposium was held virtually on December 12, 2020. The symposium brought together a diverse range of researchers from across Canada and abroad. A series of invited talks and student presentations led the discussion on advances in the areas of electrocatalysis, electrodeposition and corrosion, battery materials, and the study of interfaces and interface phenomena. The keynote speaker, Dr. Henry White (University of Utah), and the invited talks of Drs. Linda Nazar (University of Waterloo), Sanela Martic (Trent University), Samira Siahrostami (University of Calgary), Pablo Sebastián Fernández (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), and Karl Mayrhofer (Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH) provoked fruitful discussions among participants. The Jacobsen Award Winner, Dr. Aicheng Chen (University of Guelph), discussed the design of electrochemical sensors for medical, food, and environmental applications. The 2020 ECS Canada Section Student Award was given to Keegan Adair (University of Western Ontario) for his work in the development of next-generation Li metal anodes using advanced characterization techniques. More than 20 graduate student oral presentations were hosted in student-led parallel sessions. The 125 attendees used breakout rooms to network with invited speakers and sponsors in small groups or one-on-one between participants. The event was sponsored by AVL Fuel Cell Canada Inc., CMC Microsystems, Gamble Technologies, PAR-Solartron, Metrohm, Nano One Materials Corp., and Systems for Research. Dr. Byron Gates (Simon Fraser University) organized and hosted the event with Gates Research Group members

Audrey Taylor, Merissa Schneider-Coppolino, Alexi Pauls, Kelsey Duncan, Rana Faryad Ali, Sakshi Sharma, and Dr. Gurbinder Kaur. “Electrochemistry for a Sustainable and Healthier Future” was the theme of the May 15 virtual ECS Canada Section Spring Symposium. The event was designed to maximize discussions by building on the complementarity of speakers’ topics and providing frequent breakout sessions for further discussion. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann (RuhrUniversität Bochum)’s keynote lecture, “Bioelectrochemistry and Electrocatalysis—distinction without much difference,” was followed by invited presentations from Drs. Maria de Rosa (Carleton University), Philippe Dauphin Ducharme (Université Sherbrooke), Shelley Minteer (University of Utah), Sanela Martic (Trent University), David Herbert (University of Manitoba), and Leanne Chen (University of Guelph). Speakers approached electrochemistry from a wide range of disciplines, including biochemistry, synthetic inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and theoretical chemistry. The invited talks were followed by the “Young Investigator Forum,” which gave 14 students and postdocs an opportunity to present their work in three parallel sessions. In the evening, the symposium capped off with a networking session. The symposium also featured the section’s Annual General Meeting. Elections were held and a new slate of executive officers was elected. Support for the event came from Heka Elektronik – Harvard Bioscience and the University of Manitoba, where it was hosted by Drs. Sabine and Christian Kuss with assistance from Drs. Vikram Singh and Dhesmon Lima.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


SEC TION NE WS Section Leadership Section Name

Section Chair

Arizona Section

Candace Kay Chan

Brazil Section

Luis F. P. Dick

Canada Section

Heather Andreas

Chicago Section


Chile Section

Jose H. Zagal

China Section

Yongyao Xia

Cleveland Section


Detroit Section

Kris Inman

Europe Section

Philippe Marcus

Georgia Section


India Section

Sinthai A. Ilangovan

Israel Section

Daniel Mandler

Japan Section

Seiichi Mayazaki

Korea Section

Won-Sub Yoon

Mexico Section

Carlos E. Frontana-Vazquez

National Capital Section

Eric D. Wachsman

New England Section

Sanjeev Mukerjee

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Jie Xiao

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Gao Liu

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Zichuan J Xu

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Hsisheng Teng

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Jeremy P. Meyers

Twin Cities


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Awards, Fellowships, Grants ECS distinguishes outstanding technical achievements in electrochemistry, solid state science and technology, and recognizes exceptional service to the Society through the Honors & Awards Program. Opportunities for recognition are offered in the following categories: Society Awards, Division Awards, Section Awards, and Student Awards. ECS recognizes that today’s emerging scientists are the next generation of leaders in our field. Our competitive Fellowships and Grants empower students and young professionals to make discoveries and shape our science long into the future.

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Society Awards The ECS Allen J. Bard Award was established in 2013 to recognize distinguished contributions to electrochemical science. The award consists of a plaque with a glassy carbon medallion; US $7,500 prize; complimentary meeting registration for the award recipient and companion; dinner honoring the recipient during the designated meeting; and Life Membership in the Society. Application materials are due by April 15, 2022 The Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology Award was established in 1971 for distinguished contributions to the field of solid state science and technology. The award consists of a silver medal; plaque; US $7,500 prize; complimentary meeting registration for the award recipient and companion; dinner honoring the recipient during the designated meeting; and Life Membership in the Society. Materials are due by April 15, 2022.

Division Awards The Battery Division Early Career Award Sponsored by Neware Corporation was established in 2020 to encourage excellence among postdoctoral researchers in battery and fuel cell research with the primary purpose of recognizing and supporting the development of talent and future leaders in battery and fuel cell science and technology. The award consists of a framed scroll; US $2,000 prize; and complimentary meeting registration. Nominations are accepted beginning October 15, 2021; materials are due by March 15, 2022.


The Battery Division Postdoctoral Associate Research Award Sponsored by MTI Corporation and the Jiang Family Foundation was established in 2016 to encourage excellence among postdoctoral researchers in battery and fuel cell research. The award consists of a framed scroll; US $2,000 prize; and complimentary meeting registration. Two awards are granted each year. Nominations are accepted beginning October 15, 2021; materials are due by March 15, 2022. The Battery Division Research Award was established in 1958 to recognize excellence in battery and fuel cell research, and encourage publication in ECS journals. The award—which recognizes outstanding contributions to the science of primary and secondary cells, batteries, and fuel cells— consists of a framed certificate and US $2,000 prize. Nominations are accepted beginning October 15, 2021; materials are due by March 15, 2022. The Battery Division Student Research Award Sponsored by Mercedes-Benz Research & Development recognizes promising young engineers and scientists in the field of electrochemical power sources. The award encourages recipients to initiate or continue careers in the field. Eligible candidates must be enrolled in a college or university at the nomination deadline. The award consists of a framed certificate and US $1,000 prize. Nominations are accepted beginning October 15, 2021; materials are due by March 15, 2022. The Battery Division Technology Award was established in 1993 to encourage the development of battery and fuel cell technology, and to recognize significant achievements in this area. The field of interest covered by the award is defined as “that area of electrochemical technology which deals with the design, fabrication, scale-up, performance, lifetime, operation, control, and application of devices (i.e., primary and secondary cells and batteries, and fuel cells) in which chemical energy can be converted into usable electrical energy by an electrochemical process.” The award consists of a scroll; US $2,000 prize; and Battery Division membership for as long as the recipient maintains Society membership. Nominations are accepted beginning October 15, 2021; materials are due by March 15, 2022. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

AWARDS AWAPROGRAM RDS The Corrosion Division H.H. Uhlig Award was established in 1973 to recognize excellence in corrosion research and outstanding technical contributions to the field of corrosion science and technology. The award consists of a scroll and US $1,500 prize. Materials are due by December 15, 2021. The Corrosion Division Morris Cohen Graduate Student Award was established in 1991 to recognize and reward outstanding graduate research in the field of corrosion science and/or engineering. The award consists of a framed certificate; US $1,000 prize; and up to US $1,000 for travel expenses. Materials are due by December 15, 2021. The Corrosion Division Rusty Award for Mid-Career Excellence was established in 2021 to recognize midcareer achievement and contributions to the field of corrosion science and technology by a scientist or engineer. The award consists of a framed certificate; US $1,000 prize; complimentary meeting registration; and up to US $1,000 for travel expenses. Materials are due by December 15, 2021. The Electrodeposition Division Early Career Investigator Award was established in 2015 to recognize an outstanding young researcher in the field of electrochemical deposition science and technology. The award consists of a framed certificate and US $1,000 prize. Nominations are accepted beginning October 1, 2021; materials are due by April 1, 2022. The Electrodeposition Division Research Award recognizes outstanding research contributions to the field of electrodeposition and encourages the publication of high quality papers in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society. The award is based on recent outstanding achievement in, or contribution to, the field of electrodeposition. It is given to an author or co-author  of a paper that must have appeared in the Journal or another ECS publication. The award consists of a framed certificate and US $2,000 prize. Nominations are accepted beginning October 1, 2021; materials are due by April 1, 2022.

The Luminescence and Display Materials Division Outstanding Achievement Award was established in 2002 to encourage excellence in luminescence and display materials research, and outstanding technical contributions to the field. For the purposes of this award, luminescence and display materials science is defined as that area of knowledge that encompasses the physics, chemistry, and materials technology of luminescence and display materials and devices. The award consists of a scroll; US $1,000 prize; and up to US $1,000 for travel expenses to facilitate meeting attendance. Materials are due by January 1, 2022.

Student Awards The ECS Korea Section Student Award was established in 2005 to recognize academic accomplishments in any area of science or engineering in which electrochemical and/or solid state science and technology is the central consideration. The award consists of a US $500 prize and is presented at a designated Korea Section meeting. The recipient may be asked to speak at that meeting on a subject of major interest to him/her in the field of electrochemical and/or solid state science and technology. Materials are due by December 31, 2021. The San Francisco Section Daniel Cubicciotti Student Award was established in 1994 to assist a deserving student in Northern California pursue a career in the physical sciences or engineering. The award consists of an etched metal plaque and US $2,000 prize. Up to two honorable mentions are also offered, each receiving a framed certificate and US $500 prize. Materials are due by February 15, 2022. The Canada Section Student Award was established in 1987 to recognize promising young engineers and scientists in the field of electrochemical power sources. The award is intended to encourage recipients to initiate or continue careers in the field. It consists of a US $1,500 prize. Materials are due by February 28, 2022.

SUPPORT THE NEXT GENERATION THROUGH STUDENT AWARDS! Student awards—part of the ECS Honors and Awards Program—support the next generation of scientists by expanding opportunities as they progress in their careers. These awards acknowledge student and early career scientists’ dedication and outstanding achievements in their fields of study.

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Award Winners The following awards are part of the ECS Honors & Awards Program, which has recognized professional and volunteer achievement in our multi-disciplinary sciences for decades. Join us in celebrating your peers as we extend congratulations to all!

Society Awards Carl Wagner Memorial Award Yushan Yan is the Henry B. du Pont Chair in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Delaware (UD). He previously served as the Founding Associate Dean for Research and Entrepreneurship at UD; Department Chair at the University of California, Riverside; and Senior Staff Engineer at AlliedSignal. Recognition of his research includes the Donald Breck Award from the International Zeolite Association; Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum Award; Braskem Award for Excellence in Materials Science and Engineering; R. H. Wilhelm Award for Chemical Reaction Engineering from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers; ECS Energy Technology Division Research Award; and Fellow of The Electrochemical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and National Academy of Inventors. Named a Highly Cited Researcher by Web of Science, Yan is an inventor of over 20 issued US patents that contributed to several startups, including NanoH2O and Versogen (for which he is the Founder and CEO). He is the author of more than 270 publications that are widely cited (24,000+ citations, h-index of 85, Web of Science; 30,000+ citations, h-index of 93, Google Scholar). Yan received his BS in Chemical Physics at the University of Science and Technology of China, and PhD in Chemical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology. He has supervised more than 30 PhD students and more than 30 postdoctoral researchers, with over 20 of them now holding faculty positions.

Olin Palladium Award Gerald S. Frankel is Distinguished Professor of Engineering in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Director of the Fontana Corrosion Center at Ohio State University (OSU). His primary research interests are in the passivation and localized corrosion of metals and alloys, corrosion inhibition, protective coatings, and atmospheric corrosion. He earned his ScB in Materials Science Engineering from Brown University, and his ScD in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before joining OSU in 1995, Frankel was a post-doctoral researcher at the Swiss Federal Technical Institute and then a Research Staff Member at the IBM Watson Research Center.


The author of over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, he is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society and Corrosion Science and Technology. A Fellow of The Electrochemical Society, NACE International, and ASM International, his research has been recognized by the 2015 W.R. Whitney Award from NACE International; 2011 U.R. Evans Award from the UK Institute of Corrosion; 2010 OSU Distinguished Scholar Award; 2010 ECS Corrosion Division H.H. Uhlig Award; and 2004 Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Research Award for senior US scientists. He was appointed by President Obama to serve as a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, he became the Director of a DOE-funded Engineering Frontier Research Center focused on the performance of nuclear waste forms.

Norman Hackerman Young Author Award Stefan Oswald received his BS and MS in Physics at the Technische Universität München (TUM). He started his PhD in 2018 with Hubert Gasteiger, Chair of Technical Electrochemistry at TUM. In collaboration with BASF, Oswald researches cathode active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Oswald’s work centers on understanding morphology effects on the long-term performance of nickel-rich layered oxides. To illuminate fundamental properties of poly- and single crystalline NCMs, he developed a novel method for monitoring particle cracking by in situ impedance spectroscopy. Oswald has authored one publication. Since 2018, he has served as Treasurer of the ECS Munich Student Chapter.

Bruce Deal and Andy Grove Young Author Award Tingyu Bai received a BS in Metallurgical Engineering from the University of Science and Technology Beijing. She completed a PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 2020. Bai’s research at UCLA focused on the study of thermal transport in diamond with the goal of using diamond for heat management applications. Different characterization techniques have been used in this research to study the CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond film and understand the factors that influence its thermal property.

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AWARDS AWAPROGRAM RDS Nick Hines is a PhD student in the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) under advisor Dr. Samuel Graham. Nick’s graduate research centers on developing advanced solutions for the thermal management and reliability of GaN and AlGaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for RF and power electronic applications. In 2015, he received a BS in Applied Physics from Morehouse College and BS in Mechanical Engineering from Georgia Tech through the Atlanta University Center Dual Degree Engineering Program (AUC DDEP). He then completed an MS in Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech (2019) and plans to complete his PhD there in May 2022. Beyond his research interests, Nick is passionate about tutoring and mentorship.

Yekan (Steven) Wang is a PhD candidate in the Department of Materials Engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His research interests include structural characterization of defects and interfacial imperfections in wide bandgap and ultra-wide bandgap materials/systems, using a combination of non-destructive x-ray scattering and electron scattering techniques. His research aims to help enhance both thermal and electrical transport in wide bandgap power electronics, as well as other heterogeneous materials integration applications. He received his BS (2015) and MS (2017) in Materials Engineering also at UCLA.

Division Awards Battery Division Early Career Award Sponsored by Neware Betar M. Gallant is an Associate Professor and the ABS Career Development Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Her research group at MIT focuses on advanced battery chemistries and materials for high-energy primary and rechargeable batteries, including fluorinated cathode conversion reactions and lithium and calcium metal anodes and their interfaces. Her group is leading research into CO2 capture and its direct electrochemical conversion in the

integration with captured state. She received her ScB, ScM, and PhD degrees from MIT, and was a Kavli Nanoscience Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the California Institute of Technology. She is the recipient of multiple awards, including an MIT Bose Fellow; Army Research Office Young Investigator Award; Scialog Fellow in Energy Storage and in Negative Emissions Science; NSF CAREER Award; and Ruth and Joel Spira Award for Distinguished Teaching at MIT.

Battery Division Postdoctoral Associate Research Award

Division Student Research Award in 2017. The author and co-author of more than 50 peer-reviewed journal articles, one book, and six patents, he serves as an active reviewer in the battery field for more than 50 publications, including the Journal of Power Sources and ACS Energy Letters. He is an Ambassador for the 21st International Meeting on Librium Batteries (IMLB 2022). Wei Sun is a postdoctoral researcher under the supervision of Prof. Martin Winter in the MEET Battery Research Center at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster. His research interests lie in the field of energy storage materials and electrochemistry, with a recent focus on understanding the chemistry of rechargeable zinc-based batteries. After completing a PhD in Materials Processing Engineering at the South China University of Technology in 2017, he was a Visiting Scholar in Prof. Chunsheng Wang’s group at the University of Maryland (2015–2017). He has published over 30 peer-reviewed papers in prestigious journals, including Science and the Journal of American Chemistry Society with 3000+ citations and a Google Scholar h-index of 24. He is the main participant in two key research projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Sun has served as a judge for German-Israeli Foundation projects, as well as a reviewer for journals that include Science Advances and Energy & Environmental Materials.

Sponsored by MTI Corporation and the Jiang Family Foundation

Battery Division Research Award

Lin Ma is the first-ever Dr. Brad E. Forch Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, supervised by Dr. Kang Xu and Prof. Chunsheng Wang. His research interests focus on the use of electrochemistry and materials chemistry in clean energy technologies (mainly energy storage systems) to address energy and environmental challenges. He began his career in the energy storage field with the development of conversion cathode materials under the supervision of Prof. Yong Yang at Xiamen University, where he obtained his BSc in chemistry (2012). He earned his PhD in 2019—with support from a Killam Fellowship—working with Prof. Jeff Dahn at Dalhousie University on high voltage Li-ion batteries. Ma received the ECS Battery

Chunsheng Wang holds the Robert Franklin and Frances Riggs Wright Distinguished Chair in Chemical Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, and is co-founder and Director of The UMD-ARL Center for Research in Extreme Batteries. His research interests are electroanalytical technologies, advanced materials for rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Wang’s current research focuses on Li-ion battery electrolytes. He developed a water-in-salt electrolyte and transition metal–free LiBr-LiCl-Graphite cathode for Li-ion batteries. His breakthrough research sets the foundation for new battery chemistries for years to come.

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AWARDS PROGRAM Division Awards

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Photo: Eric de Vries

Wang completed his PhD at Zhejiang University in 1995. He has published over 300 papers and is ranked as a Highly Cited Researcher by Clarivate. Wang received the 2016 and 2021 UMD Invention of the Year Awards and 2004 NASA Technology Brief Patent Application and Software Release Award. His battery technologies have been licensed by AquaLith Advanced Materials and other companies.

Battery Division Student Research Award Sponsored by Mercedes-Benz Research & Development

Muhammad Mominur Rahman recently completed his PhD in Chemistry under the supervision of Prof. Feng Lin at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). His graduate research focused on the design and development of layered cathode materials for alkali-ion batteries, defect dynamics in layered cathodes, advanced synchrotron characterization of electrode materials for alkali-ion batteries, multiscale electrochemistry, and understanding the solid-liquid interfaces in alkali-ion batteries. He earned his BS (2014) and MS (2016) degrees in Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from the University of Dhaka. Rahman’s research is published in journals such as Nature Communications, Energy & Environmental Science, Matter, ACS Materials Letters, and the Journal of Physical Chemistry C. His research contributions have been highlighted by multiple public and scientific media such as DOE Science, ScienceDaily, Virginia Tech News, Xiamen University Malaysia News, and SLAC Science Highlights. Rahman received the 2021 ECS Battery Division Student Research Award, 2020 Chemistry Graduate Research Award, and 2019 Graduate School Doctoral Assistantship Award from Virginia Tech, and the 2014 Dean’s Award from University of Dhaka. Yang Yu is a Senior Cell Materials Engineer at Tesla. He received his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2021 under the supervision of Prof. Yang Shao-Horn. As an undergraduate at Northwestern University, Yu conducted research with Prof. Chris Wolverton using density functional theory to understand the energetic and structural evolution of Li-ion battery cathode materials upon charging. Yu completed his BS summa cum laude in Materials Science and Engineering and Manufacturing and Design Engineering there in 2016. At MIT, he combined his expertise in theoretical calculations with advanced x-ray and vibration spectroscopies to understand the bulk and surface redox process of Ni-rich NMC cathodes as well as Li-excess materials. Through systematic tuning of metal-oxygen interactions, he demonstrated the importance of covalency between transition metal and oxygen to maintain a reversible oxygen redox behavior, enabling future high-throughput high energy–density cathode screening. Yu has published 21 journal articles, including nine (co-)first authored peer–reviewed journal articles on cathode materials in journals that include Energy & Environmental Science, Chemistry of Materials, and ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.


Battery Division Technology Award Arumugam Manthiram is the Cockrell Family Regents Chair in Engineering and Director of the Texas Materials Institute at the University of Texas at Austin (UTAustin). He joined UT-Austin’s Department of Mechanical Engineering faculty in 1991 after receiving his PhD in Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras (1981) and completing postdocs at the University of Oxford and at UT-Austin. His research is focused on batteries and fuel cells. Manthiram is a Fellow of The Electrochemical Society, Materials Research Society, American Ceramic Society, Royal Society of Chemistry, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and World Academy of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. An elected member of the World Academy of Ceramics, he has received the 2020 International Battery Association Research Award; 2020 ECS Henry B. Linford Award for Distinguished Teaching; 2019 Honorary Mechanical Engineer of the ME Academy of Distinguished Alumni Award; 2016 Billy and Claude R. Hocott Distinguished Centennial Engineering Research Award; 2015 Distinguished Alumnus Award of the Indian Institute of Technology Madras; 2014 ECS Battery Division Research Award; and 2012 UT-Austin’s university-wide Outstanding Graduate Teaching Award. Manthiram has been a Web of Science Highly Cited Researcher every year since 2017. He delivered the 2019 Chemistry Nobel Prize Lecture on behalf of Prof. John Goodenough. The former chair of the ECS Battery Division and ECS Texas Section, he founded the ECS UT-Austin Student Chapter in 2006 and continues to serve as its Faculty Advisor. The author of 850 journal articles with 78,000 citations, Manthiram has an h-index of 138. He has mentored 270 students and postdoctoral researchers, including graduating 65 PhD students.

Corrosion Division Morris Cohen Graduate Student Award Thalia Standish is a Research Scientist at Surface Science Western, where she conducts material analyses to advance academic research and to help solve industrial problems. She received her PhD in Chemistry from Western University in 2019. Her graduate research focused on evaluating the galvanic corrosion behavior of copper-coated carbon steel for used nuclear fuel containers, using a combination of electrochemical techniques, x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and surface analytical techniques. Standish is currently developing expertise in Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal analysis techniques, focusing on polymeric materials in particular. During her PhD studies, Thalia published several peer-reviewed research articles and presented her research on numerous occasions, in various formats, to audiences ranging from the general public to experts in her subject area. Her outstanding research ability, academic excellence, and exceptional communication, interpersonal, and leadership skills have been acknowledged via numerous scholarships and awards.

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AWARDS AWAPROGRAM RDS Electrodeposition Division Research Award Noam Eliaz is a Full Professor, Director of the Biomaterials and Corrosion Laboratory, and was the founding first chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Tel Aviv University (TAU); he also is an Adjunct Professor at the Vellore Institute of Technology. His research is multidisciplinary and combines fundamental with applied research. It includes electrodeposition of functional alloys, development of novel electrochemically assisted calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants (he currently serves as the Chief Scientist of SGS Dental), additive manufacturing (either from powders or from electrolyte solutions), corrosion, new applications of bio-ferrography, and failure analysis. The products of his research are used in defense organizations and implant companies. Eliaz received his BSc (academic reserve) and PhD (direct track) degrees in Materials Engineering, and his MBA, all cum laude from Ben-Gurion University. After two years as a Fulbright and Rothschild Postdoctoral Scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he joined TAU in 2001. Eliaz has produced many technical publications, including coauthoring a bestselling textbook on physical electrochemistry, editing three books, and publishing over 140 journal articles. In 2014, an article of his became the firstever open access article in Journal of the European Ceramic Society. He has over 9,600 citations and an h-index of 49. He was on Stanford University’s list of Top 2% Scientists of the World; served for 12 years as Editor-in-Chief of Corrosion Reviews, and is currently on the editorial boards of six international journals. Eliaz has garnered numerous awards, including the T.P. Hoar Award, and NACE International’s H. H. Uhlig, Fellow, and Technical Achievement Awards. He was elected to the Israel Young Academy in 2015, and to US National Academy of Inventors (Senior Member) in 2020. He is a member of the Governing Board of GIF. His group members have won prestigious accolades including the Israel Defense Prize and three currently hold faculty positions in Israel, India, and China.

Electrodeposition Division Early Career Investigator Award

Jingxu (Kent) Zheng is a Postdoctoral Associate in the Department of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under the supervision of Prof. Joseph Checkelsky. As well as continuing his earlier battery research, Zheng works on electrochemical synthesis of quantum materials that host exotic electronic states (i.e., topological insulators and superconductors). He completed his PhD in 2020 at Cornell University with Prof. Lynden Archer as his supervisor. His thesis research focused primarily on the design of reversible metallic anodes in batteries, including Li, Zn, and Al, by regulating their electrodeposition morphologies. Zheng earned a BS degree in Engineering and History from Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2017. His undergraduate research aimed at the atomic-scale characterization of crystalline materials and their phase transformations using advanced transmission electron microscopy. He is the co-author of more than 40 research papers.

High Temperature Materials Division Subhash Singhal Award Nguyen Minh is an internationally renowned expert on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and related technologies, currently with the Center for Energy Research at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Over the past thirty years, he has dedicated his research to the development of SOFCs and new energy systems. His experience covers the full spectrum of industrial/product R&D areas, ranging from technology assessment, strategy and roadmap formulation, fundamental and engineering study, to processes and manufacturing development, system design and operation, prototype demonstration, and cost/market analysis. At UCSD, Minh’s SOFC research focuses on basic and applied science and engineering studies on properties, phenomena, and designs key to stack technology and the development of advanced concepts. Before UCSD, he was Chief Scientist/Manager, Fuel Cells, at General Electric and Honeywell/AlliedSignal, and a Group Leader/ Staff in electrochemical technology at Argonne National Laboratory. Minh is the author/co-author of the book Science and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, as well as nine book chapters, 21 patents, and about 150 published technical articles on SOFCs and related technologies. His review paper “Ceramic Fuel Cells,” published in the Journal of the American Ceramic Society in 1993, serves as a classic article that has been widely cited and translated into several languages. Minh has received awards that include the 2007 ASME Francis T. Bacon Medal and 2017 Fuel Cell Seminar & Energy Exposition Award.

Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division Manuel M. Baizer Award R. Daniel (Dan) Little is a Distinguished Research Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Little is keenly and forever interested in the nature of reactive intermediates and in understanding their behavior: what makes them do what they do, how, and why. He thoroughly enjoys teaching and is passionate about incorporating organic electrochemistry into the undergraduate and graduate curriculum. He earned his PhD in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin—his home state—in 1974 under the tutelage of Howard Zimmerman. He completed his BS degree in Chemistry and Mathematics at the University of Wisconsin, Superior, at which time he also carried out undergraduate research at the University of South Dakota and Argonne National Laboratory with L. Kaplan and K. E. Wilzbach. Before beginning his academic career at UCSB, he completed postdoctoral studies with Jerome Berson at Yale University. Little is grateful to Manuel Baizer for nurturing his interest in electrochemistry when Baizer was an Adjunct Professor at UCSB. He thanks his dedicated and exceptionally talented students whose contributions made it possible for him to publish extensively and lecture throughout the world. Their efforts formed the foundation for his receipt of the 2016 ISE Jaroslav Heyrovsky Prize for Molecular Electrochemistry. (continued on next page)

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Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division Max Bredig Award in Molten Salt and Ionic Liquid Chemistry Tom Welton is currently President of the Royal Society of Chemistry. In 2004, he became the world’s first Professor of Sustainable Chemistry at Imperial College London, where he has been a faculty member since 1993. He has worked with ionic liquids continuously since 1985 when he embarked upon his PhD, supervised by Ken Seddon at the University of Sussex, on “The Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.” He investigates the properties of ionic liquids, their interactions with solutes, and their effects on chemical reactions. He is best known for quantifying these effects and providing mechanistic understandings of their use in organic synthesis. Much of his earlier work was on the application of ionic liquids to transition metal catalyzed reactions. More recently, he has been interested in the use of ionic liquids for the processing of lignocellulosic biomass. Beyond his own research, he has been Head of the Chemistry Department (2007–2014) and Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences (2014–2019). He is a champion for greater inclusion of underrepresented groups in chemistry. In 2017, he was awarded Officer of the Order of the British Empire for his work on diversity in education. He was named Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2007.

Sensor Division Outstanding Achievement Award Marc Madou is the Chancellor’s Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), with joint appointments in the departments of Biomedical Engineering and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. He specializes in the application of miniaturization technology to chemical and biological problems (BIOMEMS). Madou completed his BS (1973), MS (1975), and PhD (1978) at the Rijksuniversiteit Ghent. Before joining UCI in 2002, he was Vice President of Advanced Technology at Nanogen (2001–2002). Madou was the

founder of SRI International’s Microsensor Department; founder and President of Teknekron Sensor Development Corporation; Visiting Miller Professor at the University of California, Berkeley; and held an endowed chair at Ohio State University. He is the author of several books in this burgeoning field he helped pioneer in academia and industry. Fundamentals of Microfabrication, an introduction to MEMS and NEMS, is known as the “bible” of micromachining. He has founded several micromachining companies and has been on the board of many others. Many of his students have become well known in their own right in academia and through successful MEMS start-ups. Today, Madou works with research teams in India (IIT Kharagpur), Mexico (Tec de Monterrey and UNAM), Malaysia (UM), and Germany (KIT). In the recent past, he also worked on large projects with teams in South Korea and Canada. He is considered the pioneer of two research fields that are now being pursued worldwide: carbon micro- and nanofabrication and compact disc fluidics for molecular diagnostics. These two technologies have resulted in at least 10 start-up companies. From those founded by Madou, the lithium-ion battery company Enevate is the largest and best known. Madou has an h-index of 79. Yasuhiro Shimizu is Professor and Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering at Nagasaki University. His research has focused on chemical sensors, including various kinds of gas sensors capable of detecting humidity, oxygen, VOCs, and odors, by employing several detection principles. Most recently, his work has been directed at developing gas sensors for use in safety and in health care. Shimizu received his PhD in Engineering in 1987 from Kyushu University after completing his BS in Applied Chemistry there in 1980. He joined the faculty of Nagasaki University in 2005. His scientific contributions and service to The Electrochemical Society of Japan (ECSJ) was recognized with his appointment as a Fellow in 2020. Other awards include the 2008 ECSJ Scientific Achievement Award; 2001 Seiyama Award of the Japan Association of Chemical Sensors (JACS); 2001 and 2005 ECSJ Distinguished Paper Awards; and 1992 ECSJ Sano Award for a young distinguished researcher. He has been Chair of the Asia/Pacific Region in the Executive Steering Committee of the International Meeting on Chemical Sensors since 2016, and Chair of the International Steering Committee of the Asian Conference on Chemical Sensors since 2017, and served as President of the Japan Association of Chemical Sensors (JACS), an expert division of ECSJ, in 2015 and 2016; Editor of Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (January 2008 to June 2018), and Co-Editor in Chief of Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical since July 2018. The latest record of his scientific achievements can be seen on the ORCiD website (

Section Awards Canada Section Student Award Holly Fruehwald is pursuing a PhD in Materials Science at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (Ontario Tech) where she completed her BS in 2017. Her research focuses on the development of non-precious metal materials for applications in clean electrochemical energy technologies under the co-supervision of Profs. Brad Easton and Olena Zenkina. Fruehwald is 68

generally interested in the development of novel catalysts for fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrolyzer applications. She recently received the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canadian Graduate scholarship. Her research was featured on the covers of ChemElectroChem and Catalysis Science and Technology. She is passionate about outreach and about communicating science, specifically electrochemistry, on social media.

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AWARDS AWAPROGRAM RDS Canada Section W. Lash Miller Award Fiorenzo Vetrone is Full Professor at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications (INRS-EMT), Université du Québec. A pioneer in the field of rare earth doped upconverting nanoparticles, he published the first paper in the field in 2000. The overarching theme of his research group is to develop multifunctional nanoplatforms, excited by near-infrared light to simultaneously trigger other light-activated modalities. Vetrone received his PhD in Chemistry from Concordia University followed by postdoctoral fellowships from the UK Royal Society and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). He was appointed Assistant Professor of Nanobiotechnology at INRS-EMT in October 2010 and promoted to Associate Professor in June 2015. Concordia hired Vetrone to develop an ambitious and vigorous research program at the vanguard of nanomaterials research and their implementation in the life sciences and in nanomedicine. He has published some 100 papers in peer-reviewed publications such as Journal of the American Chemical Society, Nano Letters, ACS Nano, Chemistry of Materials, Advanced Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Nanoscale, and Science, with a number of ISI Highly Cited Papers. Vetrone has given over 120 invited lectures at prestigious conferences, research institutions, and summer schools around the world. His research has been recognized by prestigious awards from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; Royal Society; ASM International; Provinces of Benevento and Shandong; and most recently, the Keith Laidler Award from the Chemical Institute of Canada/Canadian Society for Chemistry. Vetrone was elected as a member of the Global Young Academy, and in 2019, to the College of New Scholars, Artists and Scientists of the Royal Society of Canada.

There he played a key role in the early development of compound semiconductor science and technology, in recognition of which he received the ECS Electronics and Photonics Division Award in 2017. A Past President and Fellow of The Electrochemical Society, Buckley served as Associate Editor of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society and Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of ECS Transactions. He has been Chair of the ECS Europe Section, and Chair, Secretary, and Treasurer of the Electronics and Photonics Division.

Korea Section Student Award Ik Seon Kwon is a PhD candidate at Korea University (KU), working in Prof. Jeunghee Park’s Laboratory. His research focuses on developing promising water-splitting electrocatalysts with various group V, VI, and VII transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials. Kwon received a BS in Advanced Materials Chemistry at KU in 2015 and an MS in Micro Device Engineering in 2018. He began work in Prof. Park’s lab at that time. Currently, he is synthesizing composition-controlled TMD materials like Mo1-xNbxSe2, Mo1xVxSe2, and Nb1-xVxSe2, using a colloidal synthesis method to research physicochemical properties. These results help enhance the electrocatalytic performance of TMDs. Kwon is the first author on papers in ACS Nano, Small, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, and other significant journals. He has received awards that include the 2020 KU Graduate Student Achievement Award; Korean Synchrotron Radiation Users Association’s 2019 Graduate Student Outstanding Paper Award; and the Korean Chemical Society’s 2018 Excellent Poster Presentation Prize. In 2021, Kwon was selected for the BK21 Plus Outstanding Graduate Student Award given by the South Korean Ministry of Education.

San Francisco Daniel Cubicciotti Award

Europe Section Heinz Gerischer Award D. Noel Buckley is Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Limerick and Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at Case Western Reserve University. His current research includes electrochemistry at the compound-semiconductor/solution interface; the kinetics of vanadium redox couples on carbon electrodes that are the basis for the vanadium flow battery; and stress in electrodeposited metal nanofilms. He has long been interested in the communication of science. Buckley teaches graduate courses on Scientific Writing and Methodology of Research, and has presented short courses on scientific writing at several ECS meetings and European Union Innovative Training projects. Buckley obtained his BSc and PhD from the National University of Ireland. His PhD research with the late Prof. Declan Burke was on the oxygen electrochemistry of ruthenium and iridium and led to the discovery of electrochromism in iridium oxides. He subsequently completed postdoctoral research with the late Prof. Wayne Worrell at the University of Pennsylvania before joining Bell Laboratories.

WINNER Iwnetim (Tim) Abate is a DARE Doctoral Fellow in Materials Science & Engineering at Stanford University. Working with Profs. William Chueh and Thomas Devereaux, his research aims to improve the energy capacity of batteries to meet the ever-growing global demand for energy storage. His work combines x-ray and electrochemical characterization with quantum mechanical simulations to design next-generation lithium and sodium-ion batteries. Prior to joining Stanford, he completed a research stint at IBM Almaden and at Los Alamos National Laboratory working on metal-air batteries and hybrid photovoltaics, respectively. Abate is also co-founder and president of a non-profit organization ( working to empower African youth to solve local energy and medical problems through scientific research and innovation. Abate is an incoming University of California, Berkeley Miller and Presidential Postdoctoral Fellow starting in the fall of 2021.

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HONORABLE MENTION Sarah A. Berlinger is a PhD candidate and NSF Graduate Research Fellow in the Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, where she is co-advised by Prof. Bryan D. McCloskey and Dr. Adam Z. Weber (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). Her research focuses on understanding multi-component interactions among catalyst particles, polymers, and solvents in fuel cell electrode precursor inks, and how these forces drive electrode microstructure formation. Prior to her graduate studies, she completed a BS in Chemical Engineering at Columbia University. There, under the direction of Prof. Alan C. West, she researched battery charging protocols for capacity recovery and bioelectrochemical fuel production pathways. Outside of research, Sarah is passionate about mentorship and outreach. She mentored five undergraduate researchers over the past few years and is involved with Bay Area Scientists in Schools (BASIS).

Eric McShane received his BS in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from Cornell University in 2016, where he worked as an undergraduate researcher in the lab of Tobias Hanrath. Before beginning his graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley in the fall of 2016, he earned the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and joined Bryan McCloskey’s lab to study the kinetic, transport, and degradation phenomena underpinning lithium-ion battery operation during fast charge. Outside the lab, McShane has been an active teacher in many arenas. He earned an Outstanding Graduate Student Instructor Award in 2017; developed a science lesson for second graders as part of Bay Area Scientists in Schools (BASIS); and created and remotely instructed a course for incarcerated students entitled Statistics of Vaccinations and Herd Immunity as part of a Mount Tamalpais College program.

2021 Class of Fellows Fellow of The Electrochemical Society was established in 1989 for advanced individual technological contributions to the fields of electrochemistry and solid state science and technology, and for service to the Society. These members are recognized at the Plenary Session for scientific achievements, leadership, and active participation in the affairs of ECS. Each year, up to 15 renowned scientists and engineers are chosen by their peers for this honor. Join us in celebrating the 2021 Class of Fellows of The Electrochemical Society. Shekhar Bhansali is Distinguished University Professor at Florida International University (FIU), where he also holds the CALA-Technologies Lucent Distinguished Chair. He has served as Division Director (Electrical Communications and Cyber Systems) at the National Science Foundation since fall 2020. Bhansali’s expertise is in electrochemical biosensors, wearable sensors, microfluidic sensors and systems, nanostructured catalysts, and microsystems. Bhansali received his PhD in Electrical Engineering at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, then completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the National Research Laboratory of Metrology (Japan). Bhansali served as Chair of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at FIU from 2011 to 2020, and was the Interim Director of the School of Electrical, Computer and Enterprise Engineering from 2019 to 2020. Previously, he spent 11 years as a professor at the University of South Florida. He holds 40 patents and has published over 300 papers. Bhansali has mentored and supported over 200 minority PhD students and 200 undergrads as they pursued their doctoral degrees in all areas of STEM. His mentoring has been recognized through multiple awards, including the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Mentor of the Year Award and William R. Jones Outstanding Mentor Award. Bhansali is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering; Institute of Physics; and National Academy of Inventors.


Anja Boisen is Head of Section and Professor in the Department of Health Technology at the Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU). She heads IDUN, a Danish National Research Foundation and the Villum Foundation Center of Excellence that conducts research in micro and nano technology. Her research group focuses on the development and application of micro and nano mechanical sensors and microfabricated systems for oral drug delivery. Boisen co-founded the companies Cantion, Silmeco BluSense Diagnostics, and LightNovo. Boisen completed an MS in Physics at Roskilde University and a PhD at DTU in 1997. She completed a research period at IBM Almaden and a postdoc at DTU. She joined the DTU faculty as Associate Professor in 1999 and became a full professor in 2005. She is a board member of the Leo Foundation, Villum Foundation, Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, and Royal Danish Academy of Sciences. Boisen has an h-index of 62 with over 14,000 citations. Her work has garnered significant recognition. In 2020, she was awarded the Order of Dannebrog by Her Majesty the Queen of Denmark. Boisen received the 2013 Danish Council for Independent Research Sapere Aude Top Researcher Award; 2012 Danish Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education EliteForsk Award; and 2008 Villum Kann Rasmussen Award (the largest Danish research prize).

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AWARDS AWAPROGRAM RDS Stanko R. Brankovic is a Professor in the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Houston (U of H). His group explores physical and chemical processes at the electrochemical interface and their use to produce materials and nanostructures with novel functionality and application. These research activities into sensors, magnetic materials, thin films, electrocatalysis, and nanofabrication are supported by federal (NSF, DOE, DOD), private, and state grants. Brankovic received his BE in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering in 1994 from the University of Belgrade and PhD in Science and Engineering of Materials in 1999 from Arizona State University. Before joining U of H in 2005, he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (1999–2001) and worked as a research staff member at the Seagate Research Center (2001–2005). Brankovic served as Chair of the ECS Electrodeposition Division (2017–2019) and Chair of the Material Science Division of the International Society of Electrochemistry (2015–2017). His work has been acknowledged by the 2017 ECS Electrodeposition Research Award; 2017 Best Fundamental Paper Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineering; 2010 University of Houston Research and Excellence Award; and 2010 National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Award. Ernesto Julio Calvo is Professor of Physical Chemistry at the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) and a Permanent Research Staff member at the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. His research focuses on wiring redox enzymes to electrodes; layer-by-layer redox polyelectrolytes; and oxygen reduction on oxides, enzyme functionalized surfaces, and in Li-air cathodes. Calvo received first prize in the 2017 Bright Minds Challenge for inventing a lithium extraction method powered by solar energy that is quicker and cleaner than existing technology. Calvo completed an MS in Chemistry at UBA (1975) and PhD in Chemistry at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata (1979) under Prof. David J. Schiffrin. As a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Chemistry and Materials Science at Imperial College London from 1979 to 1982, he worked with Profs. Wyndham John Albery and Brian C. H. Steele, and then with Prof. Ernest B. Yeager as a Senior Research Associate at Case Western Reserve University. He was Director of INQUIMAE (El Instituto de Química Física de los Materiales, Medio Ambiente y Energía) at UBA from 2008 to 2018. He served as the Vice President of the International Society of Electrochemistry from 2009 to 2011. Calvo has an h-index of 52 and has published some 180 research papers in peer-reviewed international journals. He has supervised 20 chemistry PhD students. Calvo is an ECS Emeritus Member; Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; and member of the Latin America Academy of Science. Among the accolades garnered by his research are the 2020 Argentine National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences Prize; 2017 Personality of the Year in Science and Technology; 2017 Schumacher Prize in Physical Chemistry of the Argentine Chemical Society; 2005 National Award in Science from the Argentine Ministry of Education and Science; 2003 Konex Award in Science and Technology; and 2000 John Simon Guggenheim Award.

Douglas C. Hansen is a Distinguished Research Scientist in the Nonstructural Materials Division at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), and he holds a Joint Faculty Appointment in the Graduate Chemical and Materials Engineering Program, University of Dayton. His research interests include biological interactions at metal surfaces—metal and alloy corrosion in the human body, biomaterials, and the interaction of marine biopolymers as corrosion inhibitors with metals and alloys; scanning probe techniques to explore corrosion, biochemical, and electrochemical processes such as the scanning Kelvin probe; and analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electrokinetic (zeta) potential measurements. Hansen received his PhD from the University of Delaware in 1993 and then worked under Ed McCafferty at the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Associate, investigating environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. In 1995, he joined NRL as a Research Chemist, and then spent seven years with Princeton Applied Research as their Senior Scientist before moving to Dayton. Hansen has served ECS as Chair of the Corrosion Division; Chair of the Short Course Subcommittee, Sponsorship Committee, and Uhlig Award Subcommittee; member of the Honors and Awards, Nominating, New Technology, Education, Finance, and Development Committees; and member of the Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Subcommittee. Hansen has been the Lead or Co-Organizer of 26 ECS symposia over the years. The author of more than 110 publications, Hansen was selected Fellow of NACE International in 2019. Jihyun Kim is a Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Director of the Inter-University Research Institute for Energy Technology at Korea University (KU). He has made numerous pioneering contributions in the development of processing techniques for wide and ultrawide bandgap semiconductor material systems that are crucial for the demonstration of state-of-the-art performance of highpower compound semiconductor electronic devices such as MOSFETs, rectifiers, and HEMTs. His interests also include electronic/optical properties and device fabrication of 2D semiconductor materials. His group has developed novel 2D devices (double heterojunction bipolar transistors, memristor, and photodetector and chemical sensors). He is also interested in radiation damage and radiation-hard devices in semiconductor materials, improving their reliability in harsh environments. Kim received his BS from Seoul National University, and his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Florida, where he studied GaN-based electronic devices. During his graduate study, he completed an internship in Semiconductor Physics Research at Bell Laboratories. His postdoctoral research at the Electronics Science and Technology Division of the US Naval Research Laboratory was on the optical and thermal analysis of wide-bandgap semiconductors. In 2006, he became a KU faculty member, where he has been honored with the Crimson Professorship. Kim is the author of more than 250 peer-reviewed articles (with over 10,000 citations) and seven book chapters. His service to ECS includes being Guest Editor of two focus issues of the Journal of Solid State Science and Technology; organizing five symposia; and editing six ECS conference volumes. (continued on next page)

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AWARDS PROGRAM 2021 Class of Fellows

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Jagjit Nanda is a Distinguished Staff Scientist and Group Leader of the Energy Storage and Conversion Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Chemical Sciences Division. He is also on the faculty of the Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, and joint professor in the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at the University of Tennessee. Prior to joining Oak Ridge in 2009, Nanda worked as a technical lead at the Research and Advanced Engineering Center, Ford Motor Company, leading R&D projects in lithium-ion battery materials and in nanomaterials for energy application. Nanda received his PhD in Solid State Chemistry & Materials Science from the Indian Institute of Science in 2000, followed by a post-doctoral fellowship at Stanford University (2000–2002) and a Research Associate position at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2002–2005). He has published more than 150 journal and technical publications on the topic of energy storage and conversion, and holds 10 US and international patents in the area of energy storage R&D. Nanda is an active member of several professional scientific societies. Rosa Palacin is a Research Professor at the Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC). Her career has focused on solid state chemistry and electrochemistry applied to batteries, and has covered a wide diversity of technologies from commercial (e.g., Ni or Li-ion) or pre-commercial (Naion) concepts to new emerging chemistries (Mg, Ca). She has always placed emphasis on developing fertile cooperation scenarios between basic-oriented research and industry, and often performed research under direct industrial contracts. She received her BS (1991) and PhD (1995) in Chemistry from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Following a postdoc at Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides at the Université de Picardie Jules Verne (LRCS-UPJV), she started research on inorganic battery materials at ICMAB-CSIC in 1998. Palacin has received significant recognition, delivering numerous keynote/invited talks at international conferences/workshops, and being invited to write several reviews in wider scope and specialized journals. She has published over 140 articles in peer-reviewed journals, and is the coinventor of nine patents (six of which are licensed and jointly owned with industry). She has served as an Associate Editor for Chemistry of Materials since 2016. Palacin was the scientific co-director of ALISTORE ERI from 2010 to 2017. A member of the International Battery Association Board since 2012, she was also elected to the Governing Board of Batteries Europe ETIP (Future and Emerging Technologies) in 2019.


Slava V. Rotkin is the Frontier Professor of Engineering Science & Mechanics at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). He has made lasting contributions to the theory of fullerenes, nanocarbon, and twodimensional (2D) materials and devices, in particular, by introducing novel concepts of quantum capacitance, van-der-Waals/ quantum forces in NEMS, and heat tunneling in 1D/2D materials. Most recently, his work is focused on near-field optics and plasmonics, nano-biophysics, and 2D quantum materials. He received his MSc in Optoelectronics summa cum laude from the Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University and his PhD in Physics & Mathematics under Prof. Robert A. Suris at the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ioffe Institute). Rotkin was Professor of Physics and Professor of Materials Science & Engineering at Lehigh University (2004–2017), Beckman Fellow working with Prof. Karl Hess at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1999–2004), and Staff Member at the Ioffe Institute (1994–1999). Rotkin is the recipient of scientific awards that include the Hillman Award; Class of ‘68 Fellowship; Libsch Early Career Research Award; Feigl Junior Faculty Chair; Beckman Fellowship; and IEEE Senior Member. An editor of three books and author of 170 papers and proceedings, Rotkin has mentored 30 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, more than 60 undergraduates, and a dozen high-school students. Rotkin has served The Electrochemical Society as a board member (2016–2020); a member of the Interface and ECST Advisory Boards (2014–2020); as ECS Nanocarbons Division Treasurer and Senior Advancement Officer (since 2020), Chair (2016–2020), Vice-Chair (2014–2016), and Secretary (2012–2014). He has been an organizer of 24 ECS meetings and more than a dozen other conferences/ workshops. Xiao-Dong Zhou is currently the Stuller Endowed Chair in Chemical Engineering and Director for the Institute for Materials Research and Innovation at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Zhou’s research interests are the synthesis, characterization, and theoretical understanding of materials for fuel cells, batteries, electrolyzers, and gas separation membranes. He is recognized for the fundamental understanding of materials and interfaces for the activation of small molecules, such as O2, CO2, and CH4. Zhou has his BS and MS in Chemical Engineering from the East China University of Science and Technology, and a PhD in Ceramic Engineering from the Missouri University of Science and Technology. He received an ECS High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes Division J. Bruce Wagner Young Investigator Award and Department of Defense DARPA Young Investigator Award. He serves the Society as a Technical Editor of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society in fuel cells, electrolyzers, and energy conversion. The former chair of the ECS High-Temperature Energy, Materials, & Processes Division, Zhou has served on the board of directors and on several ECS committees. He is the author of more than 150 peer-reviewed publications.

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Member Spotlight A favorite thing about my 15-plus years as an ECS member is how the Society has allowed me to be an active and engaged member in a huge community of people. My role has constantly evolved since my time as a graduate student, and my level of involvement and service in the ECS community has steadily grown.”

William Mustain Member since 2003

ECS is my home community in terms of my research; ECS has been very generous to me over the years. I received the ECS San Francisco Section Daniel Cubicciotti Award in 2010 and was an ECS Herbert H. Uhlig Summer Fellow in 2009.”

Venkat Viswanathan Member since 2008

New Members ECS is proud to announce the following new members for April, May, and June 2021 (Members are listed alphabetically by family/last name.)



Muhammad Imran Asghar, Espoo, Helsinki, Finland John Ayers, Ashford, CT, USA


Mark Camenzind, San Ramon, CA, USA Fabien Chauvet, Toulouse, Midi-Pyrénées, France Chanyut Chayawattana, Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand Parameswara Chinnam, Idaho Falls, ID, USA


Rutooj Deshpande, Pune, MH, India Suhash Dey, Kandi, Sangareddy, TG, India


Peiyuan Gao, Richland, WA, USA


Masahiro Higashi, Kyoto, Kansai, Japan James Hill, Cedar Grove, WI, USA

Anupama Kaul, Denton, TX, USA Ajeet Kaushik, Lakeland, FL, USA Norihisa Kobayashi, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan Yasuhiro Kobori, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Anton Kokalj, Ljubljana, Osrednjeslovenska, Slovenia


Abhishek Lahiri, Uxbridge, West London, UK Leanna Levine, Rancho Dominguez, CA, USA Meng Li, Idaho Falls, ID, USA


Harunobu Mitsunuma, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Emmanuel Mousset, Nancy, Lorraine, France Astrid Mueller, Rochester, NY, USA


Mikito Nagata, Alameda, CA, USA Osamu Nakatsuka, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan Nathan Neale, Lakewood, CO, USA



Anthony O’Mullane, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


Ramchandra Pode, Seoul, Gyeonggi, South Korea

Nadia Intan, Seattle, WA, USA Mikhail Islyaikin, Ivanovo, Ivanovo, Russia Jianbing Jiang, Cincinnati, OH, USA


Hironori Kaji, Uji, Kyoto, Japan Tomaz Katrasnik, Ljubljana, Osrednjeslovenska, Slovenia



Arunas Ramanavicius, Vilnius, Vilnius County, Lithuania

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Samuel Ramirez, Dripping Springs, TX, USA Evan Rasmussen, Calgary, AB, Canada Ashley Ross, Cincinnati, OH, USA


Ryan Sekol, Grosse Pointe Woods, MI, USA Andrew Shapiro, Malta, NY, USA Katsuaki Suzuki, Kyoto, Kansai, Japan


Todd Thompson, Sacramento, CA, USA Nhan Tran, Berkeley, CA, USA


Giovanni Valenti, Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy


Mark Wanta, Plainfield, IL, USA James Willit, Batavia, IL, USA Keisuke Yamamoto, Kasuga, Fukuoka, Japan

Student Members


Abid Abid, New Delhi, DL, India Anu Adamson, Tartu, Eastern Estonia, Estonia Stanley Agbakansi, Tampa, FL, USA Vinita Ahuja, Bangalore, KA, India Md Ali Akbar, Hamilton, ON, Canada Mahnaz Alijani, Brno, South Moravian, Czech Republic Bander Alsekhan, Kingston, ON, Canada Priyanka Angarkhe, Mumbai, MH, India (continued on next page) 73

NE W MEMBERS (continued from previous page)

M. Shariq Anwar, Mumbai, MH, India Utsav Aryal, Newark, DE, USA Akhil Ashar, Golden, CO, USA Saad Azam, Halifax, NS, Canada Tahereh Azizivahed, London, ON, Canada


Tingyu Bai, Sunnyvale, CA, USA Aaron Bain, Cookeville, TN, USA Mahla Bakhshi, München, Bavaria, Germany Paola Baldaguez Medina, Urbana, IL, USA Mitchell Ball, Halifax, NS, Canada Trapa Banik, Cookeville, TN, USA Lieven Bekaert, Ninove, East Flanders, Belgium Marc Bertrand, Montréal, QC, Canada Navjyoti Boora, New Delhi, DL, India Welathantrige Thilini Boteju, Calgary, AB, Canada Elsa Briqueleur, Montréal, QC, Canada


Chen Cai, Charlottesville, VA, USA Eric Carmona, Washington, DC, USA Ezer Castillo, Johnson City, NY, USA Anshuman Chauhan, Karlsruhe, BW, Germany Yu-Ting Chen, La Jolla, CA, USA Lauren Clarke, Cambridge, MA, USA Juan de los Rios, Los Angeles, CA, USA


Emrah Demirkal, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey Shamya Dey, West Lafayette, IN, USA Diwash Dhakal, Lake Forest Park, WA, USA Lei Ding, Tullahoma, TN, USA Shichao Ding, Pullman, WA, USA Tony Dong, Toronto, ON, Canada Tali Dotan, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Tel Aviv, Israel Mikaela Dunkin, Stony Brook, NY, USA Animesh Dutta, Halifax, NS, Canada


Ahmed Eldesoky, Halifax, NS, Canada Eugene Engmann, Idaho Falls, ID, USA Reza Eslami, Toronto, ON, Canada


Daniela Fontecha, Arlington, VA, USA


Yuxuan Gao, Hamilton, ON, Canada David Giraldo, Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain Dalton Glasco, Pullman, WA, USA Rajeev Gopal, Saint Louis, MO, USA Anil Govekar, Mumbai, MH, India


Ines Hamam, Halifax, NS, Canada John Hena Jr., Storrs, CT, USA Nourhan Hendawy, Newtownabbey, Ulster, UK Nicholas Hines, Atlanta, GA, USA Kaoru Hiramoto, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Jefferson Honorio Franco, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Tomoki Hori, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Samuel Horlick, Greenbelt, MD, USA Qingping Hou, Edmonton, AB, Canada Zakaria Hsain, Philadelphia, PA, USA Ying Huang, Irvine, CA, USA


Nurbol Ibadulla, Nur-Sultan, Astana, Kazakhstan Izthak Icin, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Tel Aviv, Israel Alain Ilunga wa Ilunga, Kinshasa, Congo, Zaire Fatma Ismail, Hamilton, ON, Canada


Nushrat Jahan, Aurangabad, BR, India Aroosa Javed, Calgary, AB, Canada Denis Johnson, Bryan, TX, USA Taeho Jung, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK Andrea Jurov, Ljubljana, Osrednjeslovenska, Slovenia


Firoz Kahn, New Delhi, DL, India Ishita Kamboj, Raleigh, NC, USA Mohammadjavad Karimi, Bryan, TX, USA Zahra Karimi, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Michael Keating, Croton Falls, NY, USA Aiman Khaleel, Guelph, ON, Canada Marya Khan, New Delhi, DL, India Abdur Rahman Khan, MD, Calgary, AB, Canada Doo San Kim, Suwon, Gyeonggi, South Korea Aswathi Koorikkat, Bristol, England, UK Syam Krishnan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia Loganathan Kulandaivel, Kallakurichi, TN, India Devashish Kulkarni, Irvine, CA, USA Ryoma Kumagai, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Piyush Kumar, Hattiesburg, MS, USA Sriram Kumar, Corvallis, OR, USA


Jersson Leon-Medina, Bogota, Cundinamarca, Colombia Wenzao Li, Centereach, NY, USA Yixuan Li, La Jolla, CA, USA Yui Lin, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan Christopher Liu, Dublin, CA, USA Mingyuan Liu, West Lafayette, IN, USA Xinyi Liu, Dekalb, IL, USA Jesus Lopez Ochoa, Delano, CA, USA Diana Lutz, Stony Brook, NY, USA Huy Luu, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Sam Ly, Brampton, ON, Canada


Edelmy M. Marin Bernardez, Stony Brook, NY, USA Alison McCarthy, Centereach, NY, USA Jarek Metro, Mishawaka, IN, USA Nathaniel Metzger, Lawrence, KS, USA Jungki Min, Blacksburg, VA, USA



Vandana Nagal, New Delhi, DL, India Thiba Nagaraja, Manhattan, KS, USA Amanda Ndubuisi, Calgary, AB, Canada Augustine Ndukwe, Marburg, Hessen, Germany Michael Njuki, Binghamton, NY, USA Aisha Noor, New Delhi, DL, India Guru Prakash Nunna, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea


Jorge Luis Ocampo-Espindola, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abraham Ogungbile, Rehovot, Central District, Israel Tonny Okedi, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK Jessica Ortega Ramos, Lubbock, TX, USA Oscar Ossorio, Valladolid, Castile-Leon, Spain


Akaash Padmanabha, Rossville, TN, USA Reetika Pandita, Gautam Buddha Nagar, UP, India Aadarsh Parashar, Golden, CO, USA Honghwi Park, Daegu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea Jong-Yoon Park, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Kwang-Won Park, Amherst, MA, USA Eduardo Parma, Valinhos, São Paulo, Brazil Michael Pence, Urbana, IL, USA


Lanting Qian, Guelph, ON, Canada Yitao Qiu, Stanford, CA, USA Calvin Quilty, Port Jefferson, NY, USA


Elham Rafie Borujeny, Edmonton, AB, Canada Shafaque Rahman, New Delhi, DL, India Sundararajan Ramakrishnan, Chennai, TN, India Divya Rathore, Halifax, NS, Canada Julius Reitemeier, South Bend, IN, USA Genesis Renderos, Port Jefferson Station, NY, USA Paul Rudnicki, Stanford, CA, USA


Max Saccone, Pasadena, CA, USA Dipu Saha, Lubbock, TX, USA Brian Salazar, Berkeley, CA, USA Devashish Salpekar, Houston, TX, USA Allison Salverda, Ayr, ON, Canada Mohamed Sanad, El Paso, TX, USA Rahmat Saputro, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Dipobrato Sarbapalli, Champaign, IL, USA Subhajit Sarkar, Calgary, AB, Canada Baharak Sayahpour, La Jolla, CA, USA Robin Schaefer, Ulm, BW, Germany Monja Schilling, Ulm, BW, Germany Michael Schmid, Ulm, BW, Germany Kirby Schmidt, Greensboro, NC, USA

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NE W MEMBERS Aijaz Shaikh, Mumbai, MH, India Milad Shamsi, Calgary, AB, Canada Kritika Sharma, Saint Louis, MO, USA Hassan Shirzadi Jahromi, Kalamazoo, MI, USA Edmund Shumway, Pleasant Grove, UT, USA Harish Singh, Rolla, MO, USA Vikram Singh, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Poom Sittisomwong, Saint Louis, MO, USA Nicholas Smieszek, Lincroft, NJ, USA Navid Solati, Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey Nima Soltani, Houston, TX, USA Tom Sperling, Ulm, BW, Germany Genevieve Stelmacovich, Wheat Ridge, CO, USA Moarij Syed, Halifax, NS, Canada Nicholas Szaro, Columbia, SC, USA

New Members by Country


Stefano Tagliaferri, London, Greater London, UK Christopher Tang, Bohemia, NY, USA Wei Tang, Idaho Falls, ID, USA John Tetteh, Saint Louis, MO, USA Stefan Theodoro, College Park, MD, USA Nikita Thomas, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Ishant Tiwari, New Delhi, DL, India Talia Tuba, Bhopal, MP, India


Matthias Uhl, Ulm, BW, Germany Great Umenweke, Lexington, KY, USA


Alina Valimukhametova, Fort Worth, TX, USA Anjali Vanpariya, Gandhinagar, GJ, India Guillermo Vinuesa, Valladolid, CastileLeon, Spain


Jonah Wang, Rockville Centre, NY, USA Kuangye Wang, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Weitian Wang, Tullahoma, TN, USA Yekan Wang, Los Angeles, CA, USA Thomas Welles, Syracuse, NY, USA


Dawei Xia, Blacksburg, VA, USA Jing Xie, Saint Louis, MO, USA Silin Xing, Ulm, BW, Germany

Look who joined ECS in the Second Quarter of 2021.















Czech Republic







South Korea Spain


Zahid Ali Zafar, Prague, Central Bohemian, Czech Republic Yuxin Zhang, Blacksburg, VA, USA Zhehao Zhang, Chicago, IL, USA Tianyu Zhao, Berkeley, CA, USA Yu Zheng, College Station, TX, USA Ivana Zrinski, Linz, Oberösterreich, Austria

Australia............................ 1 Austria.............................. 1 Belgium............................ 1 Brazil................................. 2 Canada............................ 32 China................................ 1 Colombia.......................... 1 Czech Republic................. 2 Estonia.............................. 1 Finland.............................. 1 France............................... 2 Germany........................... 9 India................................ 21 Israel................................. 3 Italy................................... 1 Japan.............................. 12 Kazakhstan........................ 1 Lithuania........................... 1 Malaysia........................... 1 Russia............................... 1 Slovenia............................ 3 South Korea...................... 4 Spain................................ 3 Taiwan............................... 1 Thailand............................ 1 Turkey............................... 3 UK..................................... 6 USA.............................. 117 Zaire.................................. 1

Advertisers Index BioLogic............................................................................ 6 El-Cell............................................................................. 23 ECS Transactions SOFC XVII..................................... 50 Gamry............................................................................... 2

Ion Power........................................................................ 61 Pine Research Instrumentation....................................... 4 Scribner Associates.......................................................... 1 Wiley............................................................................... 40

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


ST UDENT NE WS ECS National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University Student Chapter Many graduate students struggle to compress years of literature studies, experiments, and results into a crystal clear and coherent dissertation when writing their dissertation. And, explaining their research work within three minutes to an unfamiliar audience may seem next to impossible. This was not the case for the graduate students who participated in the ECS National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University Student Chapter’s Three Minute Thesis (3MT) Competition on February 1, 2021. Graduate students were put to the test with a mission to present their research, clearly and engagingly, to a lay audience, in no more than three minutes. This scientific version of an elevator pitch is intended to develop communication skills, and disseminate research to a public audience. The event featured ten student presenters. The following graduate students received first, second, and third-place award recognition for the presentation: First place: Mr. You-Xuan Li, senior graduate student from Department of Photonics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, was recognized for research titled “Tungsten Doping effect on Performance of InZnO Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory.” Second place: Mr. Tsung-Che Chiang, Senior graduate student from Department of Photonics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, was recognized for research titled “TwoPhotomasks Process to Prepare Tri-Layer Thin Film Transistor.” Third place: Mr. Cheng-Han Song, Senior graduate student from Department of Photonics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, was recognized for research titled “Facile Anion Exchange Reaction in Visible Spectrum Using Formamidium Halides Hybrid Perovskite QDs.”

Winners from the 3MT Competition pictured above are first place winner, You-Xuan Li(Center), second place Tsung-Che Chiang (right side) and third place Cheng-Han Song (Left side). Photo: Gautham Kumar

ECS University of California Irvine Student Chapter On May 27, 2021, the newly formed ECS University of California Irvine Student Chapter held their first event—a career panel. Due to gathering restrictions at the time, the career panel was held over Zoom and saw a large attendance from graduate and postdoctoral students as well as undergraduate students looking to learn about life after graduation and career prospects in this field of study. The panel included four members ranging from recently graduated students to established scientists as well as having members from research and policies to industrial scientists and technical staff. The event lasted nearly two hours, providing the attending students with a general knowledge of career path choices in the field and included a fruitful Q&A session allowing for many students to have their questions answered face-to-face.


Dr. Jiangjin Liu - Mechanical Engineering PhD - Postdoctoral Researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Dr. Meron Tesfaye - Chemical Engineering PhD - Senior Policy Fellow at Carbon 180 Dr. Dinesh Sabarirajan - Mechanical Engineering PhD - Junior Member of Technical Staff at Ionic Materials, Inc. Dr. Sadia Kabir - Chemical Engineering PhD - Project Scientist at Giner, Inc. The chapter also had the opportunity to meet one-on-one virtually with Prof. Rohini Bala Chandran, a faculty member in the Mechanical Engineering department at the University of Michigan. Prof. Bala Chandran provided insight into her work on solar fuels as well as advice from the viewpoint of a researcher who is using electrochemistry in interdisciplinary research.

ECS Texas Tech University Student Chapter The ECS Texas Tech University Student Chapter has been active since November 2020. The chapter was formed with the goal of educating students in the field of electrochemistry and solid state science and technology, and keeping them informed on the latest trends in the field. Dr. Gerardine G. Botte, Professor and Whitacre Department Chair at Texas Tech University, and Fellow of The Electrochemical Society, has served as the chapter advisor since its founding. Dr. Botte has guided the chapter to great successes, encouraging and motivating students to learn and grow through seminars and research, and to pass that knowledge on to others 76

through outreach and education. Current chapter officers are Ashwin Ramanujam, President; Behnaz Jafari, Vice President; Maasoomeh Jafari, Treasurer; and Md Alamgir Mojibul Haque, Secretary. The officers meet on a biweekly basis to organize events, tours, and speakers that help educate members and recruit new students. On June 30, 2021, the student chapter organized and facilitated an outreach program for 25 highly motivated high school juniors and seniors as part of Texas Tech’s Explore Engineering program. ECS chapter members had the opportunity to mentor and teach young students and support science education in schools around the country. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

ST UDENT NE WS The aim of the outreach program was to teach the students about electrochemical engineering and its real-world applications. The 25 students split into five groups, each receiving its own fuel cell car to work on—giving them hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion and technology. At the end of the program, the teams were given a specific distance to race their car. Winners of the event received certificates of recognition. At a two-day event on July 8 and 9, 2021, the chapter collaborated with the Texas Tech Alumni Association to organize outreach to grandparents and their grandchildren as part of the Legacy University Initiative. As participants were kids aged seven to 13 accompanied by their grandparents as teammates, this was a first-of-its-kind outreach for student chapter members. The 15 participants divided into six teams, each with its own student chapter mentor providing information on electrochemistry’s impact on everyday life. Each team received a fuel cell car to work with, providing hands-on topical experience in the advantages and challenges of fuel cells. The teams performed calibrations and prepared the fuel cell cars for competition. After a close race, the winning team’s car stopped only three inches from the finish line! Winners and runners-up received certificates of recognition. Later that day, the grandchildren graduated as Chemical Engineers from Legacy University.

Participants in the Texas Tech Legacy University Initiative supported and facilitated by the TTU ECS Student Section. Photo: Ozhan Gecgel

ECS Welcomes New Student Chapters The ECS Student Chapter program continues to expand as students around the world join ECS’s global community. On June 10, 2021, the Board of Directors approved the chartering of two new student chapters, bringing the total number of ECS chapters to 109 worldwide. Join us in welcoming the  ECS  Gebze Teknik Üniversitesi (Gebze Technical University)  Student Chapter, Turkey; and the ECS University of Manitoba Student Chapter, Canada. Visit the ECS  Student Center  for more information about student chapters. To see the scope of the Society’s global student chapter network, check out the  Student Chapter Directory. Interested in establishing an ECS student chapter at your academic institution?  Read the guidelines for starting a chapter  and fill out a new student chapter application today.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •



241st ECS Meeting VANCOUVER BC



May 29-June 2, 2022 Vancouver Convention Center


Abstract Submission Deadline:

December 3, 2021

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

GENERAL INFORMATION The 241st ECS meeting takes place in Vancouver, BC, Canada, from May 29-June 2, 2022, at the Vancouver Convention Center. This international conference brings together scientists, engineers, and researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories to share results and discuss issues on related topics through a variety of formats, such as oral presentations, poster sessions, panel discussions, tutorial sessions, short courses, professional development workshops, a career fair, and exhibits. The unique blend of electrochemical and solid state science and technology at an ECS meeting provides an opportunity and forum to learn and exchange information on the latest scientific and technical developments in a variety of interdisciplinary areas. ABSTRACT SUBMISSION To give an oral or poster presentation at the 241st ECS Meeting, submit an original meeting abstract for consideration via the ECS website, no later than December 3, 2021. Faxed, emailed, and/or late abstracts are not accepted. Meeting abstracts should explicitly state objectives, new results, and conclusions or the significance of the work. Once the submission deadline has passed, the symposium organizers evaluate all abstracts for content and relevance to the symposium topic, and schedule all accepted submissions as either oral or poster presentations. Letters of Acceptance/Invitation are sent in February 2022 via email to the corresponding authors of all accepted abstracts, notifying them of the date, time, and location of their presentations. Regardless of whether a poster or an oral presentation was requested, it is the symposium organizers’ discretion to decide how and when it is scheduled. PAPER PRESENTATION Oral presentations must be in English. LCD projectors and laptops are provided for all oral presentations. Presenting authors MUST bring their presentations on a USB flash drive to be used with the dedicated laptop located in each technical session room. Speakers requiring additional equipment must make written request to meetings@ at least one month prior to the meeting so that appropriate arrangements can be made, subject to availability, and at the expense of the author. Poster presentations must be displayed in English, on a board approximately 3 feet 10 inches high by 3 feet 10 inches wide (1.17 meters high by 1.17 meters wide), corresponding to their abstract number and day of presentation in the final program. MEETING PUBLICATIONS ECS Meeting Abstracts—All meeting abstracts are archived in the ECS Digital Library; copyrighted by ECS; and become the property of ECS upon presentation. ECS Transactions—Select symposia publish their proceedings in ECS Transactions (ECST). Authors presenting in these symposia are strongly encouraged to submit a full-text manuscript based on their presentation. Issues of ECST are available for sale on a pre-order basis, as well as through the ECS Digital Library and the ECS Online Store. Review each individual symposium’s listing in the Call for Papers to determine if your symposium is publishing an ECST issue. Visit the ECST website for additional information including overall guidelines, author and editor instructions, a downloadable manuscript template, and more. ECSarXiv—All authors are encouraged to submit their full-text manuscripts, posters, slides, or data sets to ECS’s preprint service, ECSarXiv. For more information visit the ECSarXiv website. Note that submission to ECSarXiv does not preclude submission to ECST. ECS Journals—Authors presenting papers at ECS meetings and submitting to ECST or ECSarXiv are encouraged to also submit to the Society’s technical journals: Journal of The Electrochemical Society and ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. Although there is no hard deadline for submitting these papers, six months from the date of the symposium is considered sufficient time to revise a paper to meet stricter journal criteria. Author instructions are available on the ECS website. SHORT COURSES Check the 241st ECS Meeting website for updated Short Course information.

TECHNICAL EXHIBIT The 241st ECS Meeting is the right place to exhibit. The Society provides a powerful platform for meeting major new customers while enhancing relationships with current customers from around the world. Traffic in the exhibit hall is generated by supplying coffee and networking breaks along with evening poster sessions. Your presence at ECS’s leading industry event positions your brand as serious and reliable—and it’s a great way to build buzz for new products! Exhibit opportunities can be combined with sponsorship items to suit your needs. Contact for further details. MEETING REGISTRATION All participants—including authors and invited speakers—are required to pay the appropriate registration fees. Meeting registration information is posted on the ECS website as it becomes available. The deadline for discounted early registration is April 25, 2022. HOTEL RESERVATIONS The 241st ECS meeting takes place at the Vancouver Convention Center. Please refer to the meeting website for the most up-to-date information on hotel availability and blocks of rooms where meeting participants receive special rates. The hotel block is open until April 25, 2022, or it sells out. LETTER OF INVITATION Letters of Invitation are sent in February 2022 via email to the corresponding authors of all accepted abstracts, notifying them of the date, time, and location of their presentations. Anyone requiring an official letter of invitation should email; these letters do not imply any financial responsibility on the part of ECS. BIANNUAL MEETING TRAVEL GRANTS ECS divisions and sections offer travel grants to assist students, postdoctoral researchers, and young professionals in attending ECS biannual meetings. Applications are available beginning December 3, 2021 at The submission deadline is February 28, 2022. For general travel grant questions, contact SYMPOSIA FUNDING ASSISTANCE Additional financial assistance is very limited and generally governed by symposium organizers. Contact the organizers of the symposium in which you are presenting to inquire if additional funding is available. SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES ECS biannual meetings offer a wonderful opportunity to solidify and strengthen your brand with ECS sponsorship. Sponsoring events at ECS meetings gives your brand even more visibility and reinforces your position as an industry leader. Companies can choose from a wide array of activities—from symposia to special events—which deliver worldwide recognition as a supporter of electrochemical and solid state research— and enhance ECS meetings. Please contact for further details. ECS also offers specific symposium sponsorship. By sponsoring a symposium, your company helps offset travel expenses, registration fees, complimentary proceedings, and/or host receptions for invited speakers, researchers, and students. Please contact francesca.spagnuolo@ for further details.


If you have any questions or require additional information, contact ECS. The Electrochemical Society 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ, 08534-2839, USA tel: 1.609.737.1902, fax: 1.609.737.2743

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •


241ST ECS MEETING-SYMPOSIUM TOPICS A— Batteries and Energy Storage A01— New Approaches and Advances in Electrochemical Energy Systems A02— Lithium Ion Batteries A03— Large Scale Energy Storage 13 A04— Battery Student Slam 6 A05— Battery Recycling and Reuse B— Carbon Nanostructures and Devices

I05— Mechano-Electro-Chemical Coupling in Energy Related Materials and Devices 4 I06— Heterogeneous Functional Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage 3 I07— Advanced Electrolysis Systems for Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage I08— Energy Conversion Based on N, P, and Other Nutrients K— Organic and Bioelectrochemistry

B01— Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

K01— 15th Manuel M. Baizer Memorial Symposium on Organic Electrochemistry

B02— Carbon Nanostructures in Medicine and Biology

K02— Electrochemical Synthesis in Water-rich Media

B03— Carbon Nanotubes – From Fundamentals to Devices B04— NANO in Japan

L— Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry

B05— Fullerenes – Endohedral Fullerenes and Molecular Carbon

L01— Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry General Session

B06— 2D Layered Materials from Fundamental Science to Applications

L02— Computational Electrochemistry 7

B07— Light Energy Conversion with Metal Halide Perovskites, Semiconductor and Organic Nanostructures, Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Materials, and Dynamic Exciton

L03— Nanoporous Materials 3

B08— Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, and Supramolecular Assemblies B09— Nano for Industry C— Corrosion Science and Technology C01— Corrosion General Session D— Dielectric Science and Materials

L04— Redox Flow Systems for Energy Storage: New Chemical Systems and Mechanisms of Operation L05— Mechanistic Understanding of Electrocatalytic Electrodics of Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Electrochemistry L06— Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale L07— Advances in Analytical Electrochemistry: A Joint Symposium with Society for Electroanalytical Chemistry (SEAC) M— Sensors

D01— Solid State Devices, Materials, and Sensors: In Memory of Dolf Landheer

M01— Recent Advances in Sensors and Systems 2

D02— Dielectrics for Nanosystems 9: Materials Science, Processing, Reliability, and Manufacturing

M02— Biosensors, Lab-on-chips, Point-of-care Testing, In-vitro and In-vivo Imaging

D03— Nanoscale Luminescent Materials 7

Z— General

D04— Plasma Electrochemistry and Catalysis 2

Z01— General Student Poster Session

D05— Advanced Additive Manufacturing 2

Z02— Electrochemistry for Chemical Manufacturing

D06— Young Scientists on Fundamentals and Applications of Dielectrics 2

Z03— Electrochemical Strategies for the Detection of Viruses and their Antibodies

E— Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition E01— Electrodeposition of Alloys, Intermetallic Compounds, and Eutectics 2

Z04— 1D/2D/3D/4D Materials and Systems + Soft Robotics (4D↓MS+SoRo)

E02— Nucleation and Growth: Measurements, Processes, and Materials F— Electrochemical Engineering F01— Advances in Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering F02— Electrochemical Science and Engineering on the Path from Discovery to Product 2 G— Electronic Materials and Processing G01— 17th International Symposium on Semiconductor Cleaning Science and Technology (SCST 17) G02— Silicon Compatible Emerging Materials, Processes, and Technologies for Advanced CMOS and Post-CMOS Applications 12 H— Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems H01— Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices 23 I— Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion I01— Invited Perspectives and Tutorials on Electrolysis I02— Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution Catalysis for Water Electrolysis 8

IMPORTANT DATES AND DEADLINES Meeting abstract submission opens ..................................August 2021 Meeting abstracts submission deadline...................December 3, 2021 Notification to corresponding authors of abstract acceptance or rejection ............................ February 14, 2022 Technical program published online ........................... February 2022 Meeting registration opens ........................................... February 2022 ECS Transactions submission site opens ............... February 18, 2022 Travel grant application deadline.......................... February 28, 2022 Meeting sponsor and exhibitor deadline (for inclusion in printed materials)............................ March 18, 2022 ECS Transactions submission deadline ..................... March 18, 2022 Travel grant approval notification.................................April 11, 2022 Hotel and early meeting registration deadlines........... April 25, 2022 Release date for ECS Transactions ........... on or before May 20, 2022

I03— Materials for Low Temperature Electrochemical Systems 8 I04— Renewable Fuels via Artificial Photosynthesis or Heterocatalysis 8 80

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2021 •

ECS Institutional Members 2021 Leadership Circle Awards Medallion 65 years GE Global Research Center

Gold - 25 years

TECHNIC Scribner Associates, Inc.

Technic, Inc.

Electrosynthesis Company, Inc.

Benefactor Bio-Logic USA/Bio-Logic SAS (13)* Duracell (64) Gamry Instruments (14)

Gelest, Inc. (12) Hydro-Québec (14) Pine Research Instrumentation (15)

Patron Energizer (76) Faraday Technology, Inc. (15) GE Global Research Center (69)

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (17) Scribner Associates, Inc. (25) Toyota Research Institute of North America (13)

Sponsoring BASi (6) Central Electrochemical Research Institute (28) DLR-Institut für Vernetzte Energiesysteme e.V. (13) EL-CELL GmbH (7) Ford Motor Corporation (7) GS Yuasa International Ltd. (41) Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (14) Medtronic Inc. (41)

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (14) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (2) Panasonic Corporation (26) Permascand AB (18) Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc. (22) Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. (25) Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) (17)

Sustaining General Motors Holdings LLC (69) Giner, Inc./GES (35) Cummins, Inc. (3) Ion Power Inc. (7) Kanto Chemical Co., Inc. (9) Los Alamos National Laboratory (13)

*Membership Years

Microsoft Corporation (4) Occidental Chemical Corporation (79) Sandia National Laboratories (45) Western Digital GK (7) Technic, Inc. (25) Westlake (26) Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences (23)

Please help us continue the vital work of ECS by joining as an institutional member today. Contact for more information.


Profile for The Electrochemical Society

Interface Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 2021  

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