一本無形文化資產傳承的教材 Teaching Materials for Inheriting Amis Intangible Cultural Heritage
呂鈺秀 高淑娟 著
Published by Taitung County Government
美麗臺東 幸福歌唱 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯2
馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠傳承的推動⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯10 為什麼我們沒有做到？．複音音樂的價值．馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠的特殊性 長期推動但效果不彰 ．另一種嘗試 ．世界對於口傳傳統的重視
教學前應具備的正確觀念——歌謠的口傳與書寫⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 16 書寫文本有必要嗎？．口傳的價值性．本書的價值
參考文獻⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 18 教師注意事項⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 20 曲名．歌詞．樂譜的選擇．讀譜 ．樂譜在教學上的應用 我們唱的是傳統歌謠嗎？．誰唱的才是對的？．優劣的評判
歌謠與樂譜 單元一：聚會所歌謠 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯26 一首長歌①．一首長歌②．飲酒歡樂歌①．飲酒歡樂歌②．悲傷之歌
單元二：農耕歌謠⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 38 放牛歌．稻米除草歌．小米除草歌①．小米除草歌②
單元三：歡樂歌謠 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 48 拜訪歌．歡樂歌．結婚歌
單元四：生活歌謠⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 58 祛病歌①．祛病歌②．水圳歌．散會歌①．散會歌②
Sing Happily in Beautiful Taitung
When the Next Generation Sings the Songs Which I’ve Learned from the Senior
A Beautiful Pulsation also a Sweet Burden
Promoting the Inheritance of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs
Why We Failed to Make It?．The Value of Polyphonic Music The Peculiarity of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs．Ineffective Promotion Strategies Another Attempt．World’s Close Attention to Oral Tradition
Concepts to Know Before Teaching — Oral Transmission and Documenting of Songs Is There a Need for a Written Text?．Value of Oral Transmission．Value of This Book
Notice for Teachers
21 Song Titles．Lyrics．Choice of Music Scores．Reading Music Scores Applications of Music Sheets on Teaching．Are We Singing a Traditional Song? Whose Version Is Correct?．Assessments of Vocal Technique
Songs and Music Sheets Unit 1: Sefi (Assembly Hall) Songs
A Long Song ①, ②．A Happy Drinking Song ①, ②．A Lament Song
Unit 2 : Farming Songs
A Pasturing Song (Feeding Cattle)．Weeding in Paddy Fields．Weeding in Millet Fields ①, ②
Unit 3: Happy Songs
A Visit Song．A Happy Song．A Wedding Song
Unit 4 : Songs for Daily Life
A Song to Repel Illness ①, ②．A Ditch Song．A Farewell Song ①, ②
臺東阿美族的複音歌唱形式，因 1996 年郭 英男夫婦的歌聲，於美國亞特蘭大奧運會宣傳
（Zemp 1996:105） ，而臺灣的複音歌唱，就擁有
的效果——例如 2012 年獲第 23 屆金曲獎最佳傳
複音音樂的價值 喬治亞共和國的複音歌唱舉世聞名，2001 年 已經被聯合國教科文組織，列入第一批人類
各有巧思，彎曲變化原有低音旋律，造就馬蘭 阿美族複音歌謠的豐富聲響。但就是這種多樣 變化的複音形式，卻使得傳承困難度加大。
口頭和無形資產代表作，並於 2008 年被寫入
他 2001 年的論文〈阿美族馬蘭地區複音歌謠研
彥 2007） ，仍值得我們繼續深入研究，但馬蘭阿
Promoting the Inheritance of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs
Why We Failed to Make It? Thanks to the voice of Mr. & Mrs. Kuo Yin-nan( Difang Duana) in the promotion song of Atlanta Summer Olympics, the polyphonic singing style of Taitung Amis has become well-known to us in Taiwan. Since then, the singing of village seniors has been exposed on media over and over again. What surprised us is, when Bunun and Paiwan tribes have been teaching kids their unique polyphonic singing in primary schools and have received very good results - examples are the Ancient Ballads Troupe of Tai-wu Elementary School who won the Best Traditional Interpretation Music Awards of the 23th Golden Melody Awards 2012, and different Bunun student groups’ performing of the praying song for millet harvest in Taitung region, Amis children, even adults were not capable of performing their own polyphony.
The Value of Polyphonic Music The polyphonic singing of Republic of Georgia is famous worldwide. It was proclaimed by UNESCO as one of the first tier on the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001, and inscribed in 2008 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The origin of polyphonic singing, according to Joseph Jordania, an expert who has devoted many years in researching local and world polyphonic music, can be traced back to the very beginning of human beings as a skill to defend themselves from attacks of enemies (2011:76133) because many ancient elements are found in the singing method. African Pygmies are taken as the origin of humans. The feature of their singing is “yodelling”, a singing technique involves changes between chest voice register and falsetto; no lyrics accompanied with the melody; polyphonic forms of ostinato and counterpoint (2011:21) Other polyphonic forms found in ancient singing style, say drones and parallels are also elements from ancient times. Nowadays, except for Africa, living polyphonic traditions of other continents are discovered only in high mountain regions, rim areas, and isolated islands. The polyphonic music of
Taiwanese aborigines is categorized into this ancient form which could trace the lineage back to the origin of humans.
The Peculiarity of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs The polyphonic singing of Taiwanese aborigines has a good variety; it has seven out of nine world polyphony types (Zemp 1996: 105) categorized by Musée de l’Homme in its publication Voices of the World (3 CDs). The seven types are heterophony, overlapping, drone, parallel, oblique, chords and counterpoint; only contrary motion and hocketting are missing. The polyphonic music of Malan Amis is presented in the form free counterpoint singing. That is, the low voice part is performed by one to several singers while the high voice part by one singer given the right to create variations with contrapuntal techniques. Due to the flexibility entitled to the high voice singer and the ingenuity from the low voice singers, the original low melody shows a “curving” flavor and makes the polyphonic sound of Malan Amis very rich. It is because of the versatility of polyphony forms that makes the inheriting extremely difficult. In his master’s thesis “The Research of the Polyphonic Songs of Malan Amis Tribe” published in 2001, Sun Chun-yen, a researcher of Malan Amis Polyphonic Music, mentioned about the model of Malan Amis’ polyphonic music: “call and response”, “high voice and low voice”, and the “curving” singing tactic. According to Sun, the so-called “polyphony” is formed by the high voice singer singing an octave above the melody of low part singers with curing variations (2013:22-24). In other words, the singing of high voice part is performed in the method of “heterophony” in music terms. In recent songs (for examples those written in the Japanese Occupation Period), singing an octave higher but in different timbre is indeed a way of presenting high voice part sound. However, distinct differences and changes are noticed between the high and the low voice parts of old songs. Although the concept and phenomenon concerning the polyphonic music are worth more exploring (Lu
教學前應具備的正確觀念—— 歌謠的口傳與書寫 2014 年底，我們選出了有著音樂才華以及
約翰．邁爾斯．弗里（John Miles Foley）1988 年
在他《民族音樂學研究。 31 個問題與概念》一
（2005:74–91） ，用以批評 我無法說什麼：採譜〉
求下，「縮減錄製聲響（的書寫）以符合西方樂 。雖然整篇文章探討的重 譜的規範」（2005:75）
點，是樂譜採記問題，但 Nettl 的批評，的確發
Concepts to Know Before Teaching — Oral Transmission and Documenting of Songs
At the end of 2014, we selected some middleaged members with music talents and enthusiasm to experiment the mission of documenting Malan Amis polyphonic songs. In the project end review meeting conducted after one year, these singers mentioned to us that they tried very hard to take down every single note and word at the beginning, and that consumed a lot of their time. During singing practice, they fixed their eyes on the document they created; however, this did not make the learning any easier. Their progress was extremely slow. To meet the goals we set, e.g. singing in the review performance and competition held every three months, rewards were provided to singing winners. Probably due to this incentive, members begun to discard their handwritten texts which retarded their learning, and listened to the audio they recorded in the class over and over again: they listened to it in the morning, in the afternoon, when getting out of bed, and before sleeping; they listened to it at meals and when they were driving... After hearing it for so many times, they begun to imitate what they had heard and then sang loud in the class, during the group practicing, and when taking a bath. Finally, not only have eleven members completed what they thought “mission impossible”, a successful learning of 12 polyphonic songs, but they have gained much confidence in inheriting Malan Amis polyphonic songs.
Is There a Need for a Written Text? Many people think that “real music” must sing with a score, and music has to be in a written form. In the book The Study of Ethnomusicology. Thirty-one Issues and Concepts, Bruno Nettl has a chapter titled as “I Can’t Say a Thing until I’ve Seen the Score: Transcription.”(2005:74-91). It is to criticize those who, including someone with academic music background, take “the true representation of music is the written form”(2005:74) as their motto. Ethnomusicologists, also been constrained by such condition, follow the convention “the reduction of recorded sound to standard Western music notation”(2005:75). While music transcription is the focus area to be explored
in the article, the critics from Nettl is worth of thinking. Ultimately, is music an audio form or a visual form? Since different media is used, the presentations of visual written form and audio sound form cannot be completely identical. This means music notation is not fully equal to sound, and this should be a common experience for those who have learned western musical instruments from teachers. The learner has already played all the notes written on music sheets, but his/ her teacher told him/her that there were more to show including style, breathing, timbre and others. These are things what cannot be printed on the music sheet.
Value of Oral Transmission The live example of our members given above fully illustrates that written form is not the only way to learn traditional songs. In the process of learning, ears may be more important than eyes. In addition, oral tradition has its own lasting value. The book The Theory of Oral Composition. History and Methodology written by John Miles Foley in 1988 is to further explore the research two scholars Milman Parry and Albert Lord made in transiting Homer’s two epic poems Iliad and Odyssey from a written form back to an oral form. They discovered that some certain formulas were present in these long passages by Homer, for example, formative function of rhythm and melody, noun-epithet formulas, narrative grammar and so on. Not only did the narrators master the formula for creating epic poems, but they also revived the oral tradition by coming up with new interpretations (2000:110). Similar to the case of Homer’s long epics, these two scholars also had some findings from wandering poets of former Yugoslavia. Through long-term observations and research, they’ve discovered that the poets who learned their poetry singing through oral tradition did not try to memorize all the lyrics; they did the following when they sang, He remembers the essential ideas rather than the exact verbal expression, and, having learned to compose in the traditional idiom ... The result is that versions of the same idea have a distinct verbal
“h” 聲詞起始，例如 ha、hai、ho 等；結尾則多
yan、yai 等 “y” 聲詞起始。在與耆老更多的溝通
聲辭，例如 “b”、“p” 等則不會去應用的說法出
或張金次與陽順英等幾組耆老 ） 。另外我們的
Notice for Teachers
The polyphonic songs collected in this book are traditional Malan Amis songs which were sung by cooperative working groups during farming or at nights when taking a rest from work. Songs for daily events are also collected. These songs are usually performed by a group of six - sometimes by a man and a woman, a group of 3-5, or even as many as 10 members. The singing is usually initiated by a lead singer with a chest voice, he continues his low voice part melody together with more low voice part singers who join in after initialization; another singer with a sharp and piercing high tone color joins them from an appropriate position, usually a fixed one; he/she is the one who performs the high voice part. Singers who join the lead singer after initialization sing the low voice part melody together, but they are free to add ornaments on the same base of the low voice melody, this enriches the sound acoustically. Today, society has changed. The strong manpower demand for old time farming has been replaced by machines. The timing and environment for singing traditional songs have disappeared. Performances of traditional songs are now moved to the stage, and inheriting goes to schools and communities. Under such a change, the number of learners increases. In the inheriting experiments of Taitung Shin-Sheng Elementary School and Team “Park” of Malan Amis age grade (Kaput), the singing group is no longer consisted of a traditional size of 3-5 members; it’s now an entire class or an age grade (Kaput) of more than 10 persons. The high voice part is now performed by several persons at the same time. So that teachers need to pay attention to what listed below when using this material for teaching.
Song Titles Most Malan Amis polyphonic songs have no titles. When the lead singer begins to sing the first sentence, the first phrase, or even the entire song, all the group members know what to sing. We give every song in this book a title, and group three songs into an unit with a name. The naming is to provide convenience for teaching in the modern society, and it is also for an easier communication between teachers and students.
The naming convention is from the venue or situation/ scene the song was most performed traditionally. Some songs are already given names by scholars. There may be several titles for one song, but there are no right or wrong answers; names given by different persons show the author’s literary attainments and essential thoughts. A song may have a name with a similar meaning but in different expression. The unit name in this book is to remind singers the situation the song was performed, and provides a room for imaginations and feelings for singing. This type of naming is not a traditional convention of Malan Amis.
Lyrics Most traditional songs of Malan Amis, especially those collected in this book, have no meaningful lyrics for singing. Some senior singers even suggested that lyrics could be changed to any syllables if consensus could be made within the singing group; and it was not a must to sing with the syllables provided in the book. In other words, it’s quite flexible to decide which syllables to sing with. But when further communications were made with senior singers, there were arguments over some certain songs where some syllables were better and others were worse. So we recommend that you sing with the syllables we provide. For readers with different needs, lyrics are provided in both Romaniztion and corresponding Chinese characters.
Choice of Music Scores For each song collected in this book, up to three singing combination versions are provided. These singing combinations are Li Yuan-hsin (Ar’sis) & Wang Bao-lien (Hongay) group, Fong Fu-ming (Fe’ek) & Wu Yeh-chih (Lataw) group, Fong Fu-ming (Fe’ek) & Yang Shun-ying (Afan) group. Songs are divided into four units by types, and they are sorted, no priority for learning though. Teachers are suggested to begin with shorter songs with less ornaments (notes), for example the third song in Unit 4 “A Farewell Song” or the most famous one, the second song in Unit 1 “A Happy Drinking Song”. Music sheets with more ornaments and
聚會所歌謠 Sefi (Assembly Hall) Songs
a ladiw 的稱法。 kudaw 是「長 」的意思，
歌 》、《老人飲酒歌 》、《老人相聚歌 》、《歡
樂飲酒歌 》等名稱。因其曾出現在 1996 年
會依次序歌唱。今天，二首歌謠歌唱時，既 不必有順序性，也不必相互連續。 此單元歌謠，傳統是豐年祭時男性在聚 會所中所演唱，今天則男女都可歌唱。其
到悲傷而流淚。 在高低音聲部的旋律變化上，第一首與第 二首歌謠，兩個聲部旋律變化差異大，但第 三首歌謠則兩個聲部旋律差異較小。
一首長歌 A Long Song 飲酒歡樂歌 A Happy Drinking Song 悲傷之歌 A Lament Song
When Amis people mention the first two songs in this unit, the words ‘kudaway a ladiw’ are used. “Kudaw” means “long” and “ladiw” means “song”. This is why these two songs are called “long songs” by some people. The origin of this name comes from three sources: they are sung from morning to evening, it’s a long time; the tempo of these songs is slow, that makes the songs sound long; the last source was from Dr. Sun Chun-yen, “phrases in the songs are longer, so it takes a longer breath to sing it.”(2001:60) In tradition, these two songs are like a “suite”, and are performed in sequence. But today, they can be performed in any order or even independently. Traditionally, the songs in this unit were performed by men in the assembly hall during harvest ceremonies, but today they can be
performed by either men or women. The second one is most famous among the three, and it has titles such as “A Happy Drinking Song”, ”Elders’ Drinking Song”, “Elders’ Gathering Song”, and “Drinking Happily Song”. It was used in the promotion song of 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympics, and made Malan singer Kuo Yinnan (Difang Duana) famous overnight, so many villagers connected it with the Olympic Games. The third one is sung when members of an age grade (Kaput) visit the family of the deceased to express their condolences. The family usually tear in mourning after hearing. The melodies of the two voice parts in the first two songs are very different, while third one quite similar.
農耕歌謠 Farming Songs
tu kulong。pakaen 意思是 “ 餵 ” ，tu 為介詞，
kulong 意思是 “ 牛 ” ）時，與其他放牛者相
較佳的穀類。不同類型的除草（ miotot ）歌 謠，有著個別的旨趣。
放牛歌 A Pasturing Song (Feeding Cattle) 稻米除草歌 Weeding in Paddy Fields 小米除草歌 Weeding in Millet Fields
Farming was a traditional work for Malan Amis. They helped each other through a working model ”mipaliw” (cooperative working group). Farming songs are the key part of Malan Amis polyphonic singing. In addition to function as a tool to locate partner’s position, farming songs bring a lot of fun to dull and repeatedly farming actions; they are also a good way to show singers’ personal styles and team work. The traditional Amis crops is “lamelo” (millet). After “panay” (rice) was introduced, most villagers began to grow rice for better economic benefits. “Sapi’ot’ot”(weeding) is an important activity to ensure a harvest. And
Amis people have several songs for weeding in different crop fields. Besides, a pasturing song is sung when a cowherd meets other cowherds when he goes to a pasturing land. They sing this song merrily and chat. “Pakaen” means “feed”, “tu” is a preposition, and “Kulong” refers to “cattle”. The second method to initialize the pasturing song is to express the grief for cowherd himself. The cowherd has no choice but to work as a cowherd since his parents passed away when he was young, and he has no brothers nor sisters to take care of him.
歡樂歌謠 Happy Songs
拜訪歌 A Visit Song 歡樂歌 A Happy Song 結婚歌 A Wedding Song
拜訪（ palafangay ）歌通常出現在聚會開 始，並承接在聚會起頭的固定歌謠之後。
Lafang 是客人的意思，因此是首作客拜訪， 心中無限歡喜時所唱的歌謠。聚會時，大家 聊天喝酒，伴以歌唱，歡樂歌與結婚歌都充 滿了快樂之情，旋律流暢，音符走動快速， 顯現阿美族樂天的個性。
A palafangay (visit) song is usually performed in an early stage of a gathering, right after the first starting song. Lafang means “guests”, so it is a happy song sung by guests when they pay a visit to friends or relatives. When Amis people get together, they like to chat, drink and sing. You can feel their joy in the happy song and the wedding song. The melody of these songs flows quite smoothly and rapidly, and fully demonstrates the optimistic trait of Amis people.
生活歌謠 Songs for Daily Life
其並非出自我們的歌者，而是採自 1967 年
拜訪朋友告別（ lakacaw ）時，會唱散會 歌，通常歌謠搭配主人送客以及客人告別， 有著較快的速度，並伴隨舞蹈。今日此首歌 謠基本固定為散會歌①的旋律輪廓。但散會
祛病歌 A Song to Repel Illness 水圳歌 A Ditch Song 散會歌 A Farewell Song
If the child had a health problem like headache or stomach pain, or an old man got sick, Malan Amis would hold some wine in the hand, and sing “ma’ang’ngangay”to repel the sickness. Kaselaw (digging ditches) are a hard labor work that villagers need to share after Japanese Occupations. But according to seniors, this song might be much older than digging ditches in the Japanese time. A farewell song is usually sung on the way home after paying a visit to friends. It is usually sung when the host or guest say goodbye to each other. The singing has a faster tempo, and usually accompanies with dance. The melody in “A Farwell Song ①” is basically the melody sung when saying farewell. A Farwell
Song ②- is considered as the same song but with a different melody. Rather than performed by our singers as the rest, Song 2 was sung by the group of Kuo Yin-nan (Difang Duana), Lin Chen-chin, Yang Teng-hui, Kuo Hsiu-ying. We transcribed it from an audio document recorded in 1967. This performing style is not common today, and it means that versatility used to exist in the polyphonic music of Malan Amis is now withering away to standardization. We sincerely hope that with the efforts invested in providing the songs in different versions and teaching materials with diversified contents, the skill of performing Malan polyphonic traditions with creativity can be revived.
Published on Dec 1, 2016