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一本無形文化資產傳承的教材 Teaching Materials for Inheriting Amis Intangible Cultural Heritage

呂鈺秀 高淑娟 著

臺東縣政府 發行

Lu Yu-hsiu

Published by Taitung County Government

Kao Shu-chuan


目次

縣長序

美麗臺東 幸福歌唱 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯2

序一

當下一代歌唱著我從先輩學來的歌謠⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯4

序二

美麗的跳動 甜美的負荷⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯6

馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠傳承的推動⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯10 為什麼我們沒有做到?.複音音樂的價值.馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠的特殊性 長期推動但效果不彰 .另一種嘗試 .世界對於口傳傳統的重視

教學前應具備的正確觀念——歌謠的口傳與書寫⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 16 書寫文本有必要嗎?.口傳的價值性.本書的價值

參考文獻⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 18 教師注意事項⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 20 曲名.歌詞.樂譜的選擇.讀譜 .樂譜在教學上的應用 我們唱的是傳統歌謠嗎?.誰唱的才是對的?.優劣的評判

歌謠與樂譜 單元一:聚會所歌謠 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯26 一首長歌①.一首長歌②.飲酒歡樂歌①.飲酒歡樂歌②.悲傷之歌

單元二:農耕歌謠⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 38 放牛歌.稻米除草歌.小米除草歌①.小米除草歌②

單元三:歡樂歌謠 ⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 48 拜訪歌.歡樂歌.結婚歌

單元四:生活歌謠⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯ 58 祛病歌①.祛病歌②.水圳歌.散會歌①.散會歌②


Contents

Forword

Sing Happily in Beautiful Taitung

Preface

When the Next Generation Sings the Songs Which I’ve Learned from the Senior

Preface

A Beautiful Pulsation also a Sweet Burden

3 5

7

Promoting the Inheritance of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs

11

Why We Failed to Make It?.The Value of Polyphonic Music The Peculiarity of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs.Ineffective Promotion Strategies Another Attempt.World’s Close Attention to Oral Tradition

Concepts to Know Before Teaching — Oral Transmission and Documenting of Songs Is There a Need for a Written Text?.Value of Oral Transmission.Value of This Book

Reference

18

Notice for Teachers

21 Song Titles.Lyrics.Choice of Music Scores.Reading Music Scores Applications of Music Sheets on Teaching.Are We Singing a Traditional Song? Whose Version Is Correct?.Assessments of Vocal Technique

Songs and Music Sheets Unit 1: Sefi (Assembly Hall) Songs

26

A Long Song ①, ②.A Happy Drinking Song ①, ②.A Lament Song

Unit 2 : Farming Songs

38

A Pasturing Song (Feeding Cattle).Weeding in Paddy Fields.Weeding in Millet Fields ①, ②

Unit 3: Happy Songs

48

A Visit Song.A Happy Song.A Wedding Song

Unit 4 : Songs for Daily Life

58

A Song to Repel Illness ①, ②.A Ditch Song.A Farewell Song ①, ②

17


10

馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠傳承的推動

為什麼我們沒有做到?

類起源的古老形式。

臺東阿美族的複音歌唱形式,因 1996 年郭 英男夫婦的歌聲,於美國亞特蘭大奧運會宣傳

馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠的特殊性

歌曲中出現,早已普遍為國人所知曉。於此之

臺灣原住民的複音音樂種類豐富, 在法國

後,部落耆老的歌聲,一再於媒體中曝光。但

人類學博物館出版的《世界的人聲 》三張光碟

令人驚訝的是,早在布農族、排灣族等族群,

中,將世界的複音歌唱形式分為九種不同類型

已在國小推動其特有的複音唱法,且收到很好

(Zemp 1996:105) ,而臺灣的複音歌唱,就擁有

的效果——例如 2012 年獲第 23 屆金曲獎最佳傳

其中的異音、重疊、持續音、平行、斜行、和

統音樂詮釋獎的泰武國小排灣族古謠傳唱,或

聲、對位等七種不同的形式,僅有反行與連鎖

臺東地區學生音樂比賽中,布農族學生團體亦

交錯唱法未曾出現。馬蘭阿美族的複音音樂,

能演唱祈禱小米豐收歌等等——而臺東阿美族

屬於對位唱法中的自由對位形式:即有一至數

的孩童,甚至是中年人,卻未能演唱自己族群

位歌者演唱低音部份,而由一位歌者自由創造

的複音音樂。

高音部分,進行對位。由於高音演唱者具有很 大的自由性,加以演唱低音的幾位歌者,亦可

複音音樂的價值 喬治亞共和國的複音歌唱舉世聞名,2001 年 已經被聯合國教科文組織,列入第一批人類

各有巧思,彎曲變化原有低音旋律,造就馬蘭 阿美族複音歌謠的豐富聲響。但就是這種多樣 變化的複音形式,卻使得傳承困難度加大。

口頭和無形資產代表作,並於 2008 年被寫入

馬蘭阿美族複音音樂研究專家孫俊彥, 於

人類無形文化資產代表作名錄中。 長期以當

他 2001 年的論文〈阿美族馬蘭地區複音歌謠研

地以及世界複音音樂為研究對象的專家 Joseph

究〉 ,已經提及馬蘭阿美族複音的模式,即:領

Jordania 認為,複音音樂的起源,應該可以追

。 唱與和腔、高音與低音、彎曲唱法(2001:161)

溯到人類起源之時,做為禦敵防衛的一項能力

但對於這種複音的形成,孫俊彥認為,高音演

(2011:76–133) ,因為這種唱法,具有許多古老

唱者通常是在低音的高八度音程下,加以每

元素。非洲俾格米人被視為人類共同母親來源

位歌者彎曲變化的巧思,而形成所謂的複音

的族群,歌謠的最大特點,就是真假聲互換的

(2013:22–24) ,亦即高音聲部的演唱,有如音樂

Yodel 唱法,旋律沒有歌詞,頑固音型以及對位

術語中的異音唱法。在一些較晚近創作的歌謠

,另有持續音唱法、 的複音形式等等(2011:21)

(例如日據時期所創作的歌謠)中,以高八度但

平行唱法等複音類型,也屬於古老形式。但現

不同音色來表現高音聲部,的確是一種高音的

今世界上,除了非洲大陸有著連綿不斷的傳統

呈現方式。但較為古老歌謠的高音聲部,已經

複音分佈,其他各大洲僅僅見於大陸的深山處

與低音聲部有著極大的差異與變化。雖然此處

或邊緣地帶,以及一些隔離的島嶼。臺灣原住

涉及複音音樂的概念與現象問題(呂鈺秀、孫俊

民的傳統複音音樂,即屬於這種可能追溯到人

彥 2007) ,仍值得我們繼續深入研究,但馬蘭阿


11

Promoting the Inheritance of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs

Why We Failed to Make It? Thanks to the voice of Mr. & Mrs. Kuo Yin-nan( Difang Duana) in the promotion song of Atlanta Summer Olympics, the polyphonic singing style of Taitung Amis has become well-known to us in Taiwan. Since then, the singing of village seniors has been exposed on media over and over again. What surprised us is, when Bunun and Paiwan tribes have been teaching kids their unique polyphonic singing in primary schools and have received very good results - examples are the Ancient Ballads Troupe of Tai-wu Elementary School who won the Best Traditional Interpretation Music Awards of the 23th Golden Melody Awards 2012, and different Bunun student groups’ performing of the praying song for millet harvest in Taitung region, Amis children, even adults were not capable of performing their own polyphony.

The Value of Polyphonic Music The polyphonic singing of Republic of Georgia is famous worldwide. It was proclaimed by UNESCO as one of the first tier on the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001, and inscribed in 2008 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The origin of polyphonic singing, according to Joseph Jordania, an expert who has devoted many years in researching local and world polyphonic music, can be traced back to the very beginning of human beings as a skill to defend themselves from attacks of enemies (2011:76133) because many ancient elements are found in the singing method. African Pygmies are taken as the origin of humans. The feature of their singing is “yodelling”, a singing technique involves changes between chest voice register and falsetto; no lyrics accompanied with the melody; polyphonic forms of ostinato and counterpoint (2011:21) Other polyphonic forms found in ancient singing style, say drones and parallels are also elements from ancient times. Nowadays, except for Africa, living polyphonic traditions of other continents are discovered only in high mountain regions, rim areas, and isolated islands. The polyphonic music of

Taiwanese aborigines is categorized into this ancient form which could trace the lineage back to the origin of humans.

The Peculiarity of Malan Amis Polyphonic Songs The polyphonic singing of Taiwanese aborigines has a good variety; it has seven out of nine world polyphony types (Zemp 1996: 105) categorized by Musée de l’Homme in its publication Voices of the World (3 CDs). The seven types are heterophony, overlapping, drone, parallel, oblique, chords and counterpoint; only contrary motion and hocketting are missing. The polyphonic music of Malan Amis is presented in the form free counterpoint singing. That is, the low voice part is performed by one to several singers while the high voice part by one singer given the right to create variations with contrapuntal techniques. Due to the flexibility entitled to the high voice singer and the ingenuity from the low voice singers, the original low melody shows a “curving” flavor and makes the polyphonic sound of Malan Amis very rich. It is because of the versatility of polyphony forms that makes the inheriting extremely difficult. In his master’s thesis “The Research of the Polyphonic Songs of Malan Amis Tribe” published in 2001, Sun Chun-yen, a researcher of Malan Amis Polyphonic Music, mentioned about the model of Malan Amis’ polyphonic music: “call and response”, “high voice and low voice”, and the “curving” singing tactic. According to Sun, the so-called “polyphony” is formed by the high voice singer singing an octave above the melody of low part singers with curing variations (2013:22-24). In other words, the singing of high voice part is performed in the method of “heterophony” in music terms. In recent songs (for examples those written in the Japanese Occupation Period), singing an octave higher but in different timbre is indeed a way of presenting high voice part sound. However, distinct differences and changes are noticed between the high and the low voice parts of old songs. Although the concept and phenomenon concerning the polyphonic music are worth more exploring (Lu


16

教學前應具備的正確觀念—— 歌謠的口傳與書寫 2014 年底,我們選出了有著音樂才華以及

書寫的視覺呈現與實際聲響的聽覺呈現之

學習熱忱的中生代,進行馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠

間,由於媒介不同,二者是無法全然相等的,

的實驗性傳承任務。一年後的檢討會中,歌者

因此樂譜採記,必然無法完全等同於音樂的聲

提及,剛開始,他們很認真的把耆老所演唱的

響本身。學習過西方樂器的人都有這樣的學習

每個音,每句歌詞記下,這花了他們很多的時

經驗,當這個星期,把樂譜中的每個音符都演

間。練唱時,他們也是各種書寫形式不離手,

奏出來後,去老師家上課時,老師還會跟你解

不離眼,但學習上並沒有因此變得容易,進步

釋音樂的風格、呼吸、音色等問題,這些都是

也異常緩慢。

樂譜沒有或無法呈現出來的。

但為了達到我們預設的目標,即三個月一次 的成果發表與比賽,何況比賽設置了獎勵,也

口傳的價值性

許這也是一種誘因,他們開始丟掉手中那份讓

上面發生在我們團員間真真實實的例子告

他們學習變得緩慢的書寫文本,改以不斷地

訴我們,傳統歌謠的學習,並不一定要依靠書

聆聽他們的上課錄音:早上聽、下午聽、醒來

寫,而學習的過程中,耳朵可能比眼睛更為重

聽、睡前聽、吃飯聽、開車聽……接著開口模

要。此外,口傳傳統還有其不可抹滅的價值:

仿,上課時大聲唱、團練時大聲唱、邊洗澡邊

約翰.邁爾斯.弗里(John Miles Foley)1988 年

大聲唱……最後,不但有十一位團員達成原來

出版的《口頭詩學:帕里—洛德理論 》一書,

認為是「不可能的任務」所要求的十二首複音

是以帕里以及洛德兩位學者對於荷馬長篇史詩

歌謠學習,而且大家對於傳承馬蘭阿美族複音

《伊里亞德》 、《奧迪賽》的研究為基礎,探討二

歌謠,都深具信心。

位學者將荷馬史詩從文本研究轉至口傳研究的 新成果。他們發現,長篇的荷馬史詩,具有一

書寫文本有必要嗎?

定之程式系統:例如節奏與旋律的形構功能、

許多人認為,歌唱必須要有樂譜,音樂必須

名詞—特性形容詞程式、敘事語法等等。講述

被書寫下來,才是真真實實的音樂。Bruno Nettl

者不但掌握了這些創作程式,且透過再度詮

在他《民族音樂學研究。 31 個問題與概念》一

。與荷馬長篇 釋,使得傳統得以復興(2000:110)

書中,有一篇章的標題就是〈看到樂譜以前,

史詩相似的例子,兩位學者在前南斯拉夫境內

(2005:74–91) ,用以批評 我無法說什麼:採譜〉

的吟遊詩人中也有所發現。透過長期的觀察研

人們, 尤其還包括一些學院派音樂人士,認

究,他們發現依靠口傳形式傳承的這些吟遊詩

為「音樂的真實呈現是那被書寫下來的形式」

人,並不是努力的去背誦長篇歌謠中的歌詞,

(2005:74) 。而民族音樂學者們,也在這樣的要

而是在演唱時:

求下,「縮減錄製聲響(的書寫)以符合西方樂 。雖然整篇文章探討的重 譜的規範」(2005:75)

回憶的只是一些基本的觀念,而不是

點,是樂譜採記問題,但 Nettl 的批評,的確發

確切的詞語表達。而且,由於他已經

人深省。究竟音樂是聽覺形式還是視覺形式?

掌握用傳統習語進行創作……其結果


17

Concepts to Know Before Teaching — Oral Transmission and Documenting of Songs

At the end of 2014, we selected some middleaged members with music talents and enthusiasm to experiment the mission of documenting Malan Amis polyphonic songs. In the project end review meeting conducted after one year, these singers mentioned to us that they tried very hard to take down every single note and word at the beginning, and that consumed a lot of their time. During singing practice, they fixed their eyes on the document they created; however, this did not make the learning any easier. Their progress was extremely slow. To meet the goals we set, e.g. singing in the review performance and competition held every three months, rewards were provided to singing winners. Probably due to this incentive, members begun to discard their handwritten texts which retarded their learning, and listened to the audio they recorded in the class over and over again: they listened to it in the morning, in the afternoon, when getting out of bed, and before sleeping; they listened to it at meals and when they were driving... After hearing it for so many times, they begun to imitate what they had heard and then sang loud in the class, during the group practicing, and when taking a bath. Finally, not only have eleven members completed what they thought “mission impossible”, a successful learning of 12 polyphonic songs, but they have gained much confidence in inheriting Malan Amis polyphonic songs.

Is There a Need for a Written Text? Many people think that “real music” must sing with a score, and music has to be in a written form. In the book The Study of Ethnomusicology. Thirty-one Issues and Concepts, Bruno Nettl has a chapter titled as “I Can’t Say a Thing until I’ve Seen the Score: Transcription.”(2005:74-91). It is to criticize those who, including someone with academic music background, take “the true representation of music is the written form”(2005:74) as their motto. Ethnomusicologists, also been constrained by such condition, follow the convention “the reduction of recorded sound to standard Western music notation”(2005:75). While music transcription is the focus area to be explored

in the article, the critics from Nettl is worth of thinking. Ultimately, is music an audio form or a visual form? Since different media is used, the presentations of visual written form and audio sound form cannot be completely identical. This means music notation is not fully equal to sound, and this should be a common experience for those who have learned western musical instruments from teachers. The learner has already played all the notes written on music sheets, but his/ her teacher told him/her that there were more to show including style, breathing, timbre and others. These are things what cannot be printed on the music sheet.

Value of Oral Transmission The live example of our members given above fully illustrates that written form is not the only way to learn traditional songs. In the process of learning, ears may be more important than eyes. In addition, oral tradition has its own lasting value. The book The Theory of Oral Composition. History and Methodology written by John Miles Foley in 1988 is to further explore the research two scholars Milman Parry and Albert Lord made in transiting Homer’s two epic poems Iliad and Odyssey from a written form back to an oral form. They discovered that some certain formulas were present in these long passages by Homer, for example, formative function of rhythm and melody, noun-epithet formulas, narrative grammar and so on. Not only did the narrators master the formula for creating epic poems, but they also revived the oral tradition by coming up with new interpretations (2000:110). Similar to the case of Homer’s long epics, these two scholars also had some findings from wandering poets of former Yugoslavia. Through long-term observations and research, they’ve discovered that the poets who learned their poetry singing through oral tradition did not try to memorize all the lyrics; they did the following when they sang, He remembers the essential ideas rather than the exact verbal expression, and, having learned to compose in the traditional idiom ... The result is that versions of the same idea have a distinct verbal


20

教師注意事項

本教材中的傳統馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠,主要

些歌謠已有學者為其命名,但隨著不同人的文

是在農耕社會中,白天農事相互幫工後,晚間

學造詣與命名旨趣,同一首歌謠,也可有意義

大家休閒時的產物,或工作間與生活上所吟唱

雷同但表述不同的名稱出現,此並無孰是孰非

的歌謠。是由通常是六人的小團體——有時也

的問題。至於本教材單元名稱則主要是提示情

可僅僅一對男女歌者,有時會形成三五人團

境,讓歌謠在演唱情感上更有想像空間。但這

體,最多並有十人團體——其中一位歌者以胸

樣的命名舉動,並非馬蘭阿美族人的傳統慣例。

聲領唱,之後並與其他加入的歌者一起演唱 低音旋律;另一位歌者,在領唱句後的適當位

歌詞

置,通常是一個固定的位置,以尖銳具有穿透

雖然有很大一部分馬蘭阿美族傳統歌謠,

性的音色,加入高音旋律;其他幾位歌者,雖

尤其是本教材所收錄全部歌謠,均以無字面意

然亦在領唱句後加入,並與領唱者一樣演唱低

義的聲辭歌唱,且有耆老認為,只要自己的小

音旋律,但在同一個低音旋律基礎上,每個人

團體能有整齊的歌詞,並非一定要使用本教材

均可自由加花轉音,形成聽覺上的豐富聲響。

所寫固定的歌詞演唱。換言之,無意義聲辭的

但今日社會型態改變,早期需大量人力投入

創唱,是有其一定的自由性,但每首開頭均以

的農業耕作,已為機器所取代,傳統的歌唱場

“h” 聲詞起始,例如 ha、hai、ho 等;結尾則多

域與時機不再,傳統歌謠的演唱,轉變成舞台

yan、yai 等 “y” 聲詞起始。在與耆老更多的溝通

形式,歌謠的傳承,也進入校園及社區。面對

中,亦常有某首歌謠應用某些聲辭較佳,某些

這樣的改變,學習者增多,2015 年在臺東新生

聲辭,例如 “b”、“p” 等則不會去應用的說法出

國小以及臺東馬蘭部落年齡階層公園隊的傳承

現,因此建議在歌唱時,仍以應用本教材所寫

實驗中,整個形式不是傳統的三五人,而是一

歌詞為佳。

個班級或一個年齡階層的十多人,高音聲部也

本教材歌詞部分除了以羅馬拼音表示,也附

不再是一人,而是數人共同演唱。因此對於本

上同音的漢字,提供給不同需求的讀者應用。

教材的應用,教師們應該注意以下說明。

樂譜的選擇 曲名

我們的教材,對於同一首歌謠,會設法提供

大部份馬蘭阿美族複音歌謠並無曲名,領唱

不同耆老相互搭配的唱法(本教材的搭配組合

者會先哼唱樂曲的第一句、第一段,甚至歌唱

有李原信與汪寶連、豐福明與吳葉枝、豐福明

整首歌謠,大家就會知道當下要演唱的樂曲。

或張金次與陽順英等幾組耆老 ) 。另外我們的

但這本教材賦予了每一首歌謠一個名稱,三

教材雖將單元分為四部份,將同類樂曲放在一

首歌謠一起,則賦予一個單元名稱。曲名的賦

起,並對樂曲進行了排序,但學習上並無前後

予,乃是為了適應現代社會的教學方式,讓教

順序之別。教師可先選擇較為短小,轉音較少

唱者與學習者便於溝通。命名方式,乃依照這

(音符較少 )的樂曲,例如第四單元的第三首

首歌謠傳統及主要演唱場域或情景而定。 有

樂曲《散會歌 》,或最為著名的樂曲,例如第


21

Notice for Teachers

The polyphonic songs collected in this book are traditional Malan Amis songs which were sung by cooperative working groups during farming or at nights when taking a rest from work. Songs for daily events are also collected. These songs are usually performed by a group of six - sometimes by a man and a woman, a group of 3-5, or even as many as 10 members. The singing is usually initiated by a lead singer with a chest voice, he continues his low voice part melody together with more low voice part singers who join in after initialization; another singer with a sharp and piercing high tone color joins them from an appropriate position, usually a fixed one; he/she is the one who performs the high voice part. Singers who join the lead singer after initialization sing the low voice part melody together, but they are free to add ornaments on the same base of the low voice melody, this enriches the sound acoustically. Today, society has changed. The strong manpower demand for old time farming has been replaced by machines. The timing and environment for singing traditional songs have disappeared. Performances of traditional songs are now moved to the stage, and inheriting goes to schools and communities. Under such a change, the number of learners increases. In the inheriting experiments of Taitung Shin-Sheng Elementary School and Team “Park” of Malan Amis age grade (Kaput), the singing group is no longer consisted of a traditional size of 3-5 members; it’s now an entire class or an age grade (Kaput) of more than 10 persons. The high voice part is now performed by several persons at the same time. So that teachers need to pay attention to what listed below when using this material for teaching.

Song Titles Most Malan Amis polyphonic songs have no titles. When the lead singer begins to sing the first sentence, the first phrase, or even the entire song, all the group members know what to sing. We give every song in this book a title, and group three songs into an unit with a name. The naming is to provide convenience for teaching in the modern society, and it is also for an easier communication between teachers and students.

The naming convention is from the venue or situation/ scene the song was most performed traditionally. Some songs are already given names by scholars. There may be several titles for one song, but there are no right or wrong answers; names given by different persons show the author’s literary attainments and essential thoughts. A song may have a name with a similar meaning but in different expression. The unit name in this book is to remind singers the situation the song was performed, and provides a room for imaginations and feelings for singing. This type of naming is not a traditional convention of Malan Amis.

Lyrics Most traditional songs of Malan Amis, especially those collected in this book, have no meaningful lyrics for singing. Some senior singers even suggested that lyrics could be changed to any syllables if consensus could be made within the singing group; and it was not a must to sing with the syllables provided in the book. In other words, it’s quite flexible to decide which syllables to sing with. But when further communications were made with senior singers, there were arguments over some certain songs where some syllables were better and others were worse. So we recommend that you sing with the syllables we provide. For readers with different needs, lyrics are provided in both Romaniztion and corresponding Chinese characters.

Choice of Music Scores For each song collected in this book, up to three singing combination versions are provided. These singing combinations are Li Yuan-hsin (Ar’sis) & Wang Bao-lien (Hongay) group, Fong Fu-ming (Fe’ek) & Wu Yeh-chih (Lataw) group, Fong Fu-ming (Fe’ek) & Yang Shun-ying (Afan) group. Songs are divided into four units by types, and they are sorted, no priority for learning though. Teachers are suggested to begin with shorter songs with less ornaments (notes), for example the third song in Unit 4 “A Farewell Song” or the most famous one, the second song in Unit 1 “A Happy Drinking Song”. Music sheets with more ornaments and


26

1

單元 Unit

聚會所歌謠 Sefi (Assembly Hall) Songs

此單元前二首歌謠,阿美族語有 kudaway

中以第二首歌謠最為出名,有著《飲酒歡樂

a ladiw 的稱法。 kudaw 是「長 」的意思,

歌 》、《老人飲酒歌 》、《老人相聚歌 》、《歡

ladiw 是「歌」的意思,因而也有人稱此二首

樂飲酒歌 》等名稱。因其曾出現在 1996 年

歌謠為「長歌 」。這個名稱的由來,有族人

亞特蘭大奧運會的宣傳歌曲中,讓馬蘭歌者

認為因為這些歌謠可從早唱到晚,或有說此

郭英男一舉成名,因此族人多將此曲與奧運

歌節拍有點拖,學者孫俊彥則認為應是「這

相提。第三首通常在有人去逝,此年齡階層

些歌的句子比較長,唱的時候氣要比較長 」

人們拜訪死者家屬時演唱,家屬聽了常會感

(2001:60) 。傳統上,這二首歌謠有如組曲,

會依次序歌唱。今天,二首歌謠歌唱時,既 不必有順序性,也不必相互連續。 此單元歌謠,傳統是豐年祭時男性在聚 會所中所演唱,今天則男女都可歌唱。其

到悲傷而流淚。 在高低音聲部的旋律變化上,第一首與第 二首歌謠,兩個聲部旋律變化差異大,但第 三首歌謠則兩個聲部旋律差異較小。


27

一首長歌 A Long Song 飲酒歡樂歌 A Happy Drinking Song 悲傷之歌 A Lament Song

When Amis people mention the first two songs in this unit, the words ‘kudaway a ladiw’ are used. “Kudaw” means “long” and “ladiw” means “song”. This is why these two songs are called “long songs” by some people. The origin of this name comes from three sources: they are sung from morning to evening, it’s a long time; the tempo of these songs is slow, that makes the songs sound long; the last source was from Dr. Sun Chun-yen, “phrases in the songs are longer, so it takes a longer breath to sing it.”(2001:60) In tradition, these two songs are like a “suite”, and are performed in sequence. But today, they can be performed in any order or even independently. Traditionally, the songs in this unit were performed by men in the assembly hall during harvest ceremonies, but today they can be

performed by either men or women. The second one is most famous among the three, and it has titles such as “A Happy Drinking Song”, ”Elders’ Drinking Song”, “Elders’ Gathering Song”, and “Drinking Happily Song”. It was used in the promotion song of 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympics, and made Malan singer Kuo Yinnan (Difang Duana) famous overnight, so many villagers connected it with the Olympic Games. The third one is sung when members of an age grade (Kaput) visit the family of the deceased to express their condolences. The family usually tear in mourning after hearing. The melodies of the two voice parts in the first two songs are very different, while third one quite similar.


38

2

單元 Unit

農耕歌謠 Farming Songs

農耕是馬蘭阿美族人的傳統工作,並以幫

除此之外,放牛歌乃一人去放牛(pakaen

工方式互助互利,因此農耕歌謠屬於族群複

tu kulong。pakaen 意思是 “ 餵 ” ,tu 為介詞,

音歌謠中重要的組成部分。除了以歌唱判定

kulong 意思是 “ 牛 ” )時,與其他放牛者相

其他夥伴位置,也為枯燥反覆的動作增添趣

遇,歡樂歌唱並談笑。但放牛歌中的第二種

味,更是個人風格展現,卻又不失團隊合作

起音唱法,卻是出自歌者因父母很早就離開

精神的形式。傳統農作為小米(lamelo)。稻

人世,自己也無兄弟姊妹,只能幫人放牛,

米(panay)引入後,族人多改種此經濟效益

為自己的身世感到悲哀而歌。

較佳的穀類。不同類型的除草( miotot )歌 謠,有著個別的旨趣。


39

放牛歌 A Pasturing Song (Feeding Cattle) 稻米除草歌 Weeding in Paddy Fields 小米除草歌 Weeding in Millet Fields

Farming was a traditional work for Malan Amis. They helped each other through a working model ”mipaliw” (cooperative working group). Farming songs are the key part of Malan Amis polyphonic singing. In addition to function as a tool to locate partner’s position, farming songs bring a lot of fun to dull and repeatedly farming actions; they are also a good way to show singers’ personal styles and team work. The traditional Amis crops is “lamelo” (millet). After “panay” (rice) was introduced, most villagers began to grow rice for better economic benefits. “Sapi’ot’ot”(weeding) is an important activity to ensure a harvest. And

Amis people have several songs for weeding in different crop fields. Besides, a pasturing song is sung when a cowherd meets other cowherds when he goes to a pasturing land. They sing this song merrily and chat. “Pakaen” means “feed”, “tu” is a preposition, and “Kulong” refers to “cattle”. The second method to initialize the pasturing song is to express the grief for cowherd himself. The cowherd has no choice but to work as a cowherd since his parents passed away when he was young, and he has no brothers nor sisters to take care of him.


48

3

單元 Unit

歡樂歌謠 Happy Songs


49

拜訪歌 A Visit Song 歡樂歌 A Happy Song 結婚歌 A Wedding Song

拜訪( palafangay )歌通常出現在聚會開 始,並承接在聚會起頭的固定歌謠之後。

Lafang 是客人的意思,因此是首作客拜訪, 心中無限歡喜時所唱的歌謠。聚會時,大家 聊天喝酒,伴以歌唱,歡樂歌與結婚歌都充 滿了快樂之情,旋律流暢,音符走動快速, 顯現阿美族樂天的個性。

A palafangay (visit) song is usually performed in an early stage of a gathering, right after the first starting song. Lafang means “guests”, so it is a happy song sung by guests when they pay a visit to friends or relatives. When Amis people get together, they like to chat, drink and sing. You can feel their joy in the happy song and the wedding song. The melody of these songs flows quite smoothly and rapidly, and fully demonstrates the optimistic trait of Amis people.


58

4

單元 Unit

生活歌謠 Songs for Daily Life

小孩頭痛、肚子痛,或老人生病時,馬

歌②呈現了同一首歌謠的另一種旋律樣貌,

蘭阿美族人會拿著酒,唱祛病(ma’ang’ngan-

其並非出自我們的歌者,而是採自 1967 年

gay)歌,趕走這個病,使身體好起來。水圳

郭英男與林振金、楊登輝、郭秀英四人的合

歌為日本人過來之後,族人必須負擔部落的

唱錄音。這種唱法今日較少聽聞。由此可見

苦力工作,挖掘水圳(kaselaw)。但耆老說

馬蘭阿美複音的多樣性,正逐步消逝,並走

這首歌可能比挖水圳時間更為久遠。

向統一化。期待透過此首歌謠的不同版本以

拜訪朋友告別( lakacaw )時,會唱散會 歌,通常歌謠搭配主人送客以及客人告別, 有著較快的速度,並伴隨舞蹈。今日此首歌 謠基本固定為散會歌①的旋律輪廓。但散會

及這本教材的多樣呈現,喚起大家對於馬蘭 傳統複音歌謠創唱的能力。


59

祛病歌 A Song to Repel Illness 水圳歌 A Ditch Song 散會歌 A Farewell Song

If the child had a health problem like headache or stomach pain, or an old man got sick, Malan Amis would hold some wine in the hand, and sing “ma’ang’ngangay”to repel the sickness. Kaselaw (digging ditches) are a hard labor work that villagers need to share after Japanese Occupations. But according to seniors, this song might be much older than digging ditches in the Japanese time. A farewell song is usually sung on the way home after paying a visit to friends. It is usually sung when the host or guest say goodbye to each other. The singing has a faster tempo, and usually accompanies with dance. The melody in “A Farwell Song ①” is basically the melody sung when saying farewell. A Farwell

Song ②- is considered as the same song but with a different melody. Rather than performed by our singers as the rest, Song 2 was sung by the group of Kuo Yin-nan (Difang Duana), Lin Chen-chin, Yang Teng-hui, Kuo Hsiu-ying. We transcribed it from an audio document recorded in 1967. This performing style is not common today, and it means that versatility used to exist in the polyphonic music of Malan Amis is now withering away to standardization. We sincerely hope that with the efforts invested in providing the songs in different versions and teaching materials with diversified contents, the skill of performing Malan polyphonic traditions with creativity can be revived.


【如何歌唱媽蘭阿美族複音歌謠】