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Lecture 5: Surface active system

Theories of Architecture [ 3 ] FA 400 .4.5 . Fall 2014 Faculty of Fine Arts . Department of Architecture Alexandria University A.Prof Dr .Ebtissam M.Farid Moustapha Associate professor


‫‪Surface Active Structure System‬‬ ‫منشآت تقاوم القوى بسطحها‬ ‫يعتمد هذا النظام على مقاومة األحمال الواقعة عليه عن طريق التحويل إلى إجهادات انحناء وإجهادات قص والتواء في‬ ‫اكثر من اتجاهين ‪.‬‬

‫‪Lecture 5. Surface Active system‬‬


Structure system Form Active system

Vector Active system

Bulk Active system

Surface Active system

Vertical Structure system

Surface Active system Shells Singly curved (developable shells )

Lecture 5. Surface Active system

Folded plates Doubly curved (Non developable shells )


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Shells can be defined as curved structures capable of transmitting loads in more than two directions to supports Loads applied to shell surfaces are carried to the ground by the development of compressive , tensile and shear stresses acting in the plane direction of the surface

Market Algeciras. The first concrete shell structure in Spain by Eduardo Torroja. Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Shells are surface structures which are curved in one of two directions or are warped as in the hyperbolic parabolic shell. The Structural forces in shells are largely pure tension and compression.

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Shells are made of RC 40 m to 73 m Materializing the form of shells with space frames and lattices and membranes is also possible allowing larger spans up to 200 m

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


RYUE NISHIZAWA & REI NAITO, TESHIMA ART MUSEUM: "at 25 cm thick, the white concrete pod shell is devoid of any pillars or visible structural aid.

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Anticlastic Surfaces • The centers of curvature of the membrane are on opposite sides of the membrane e.g. torus

Synclastic Surfaces • The centers of curvature of the membrane are on the same side of the membrane. E.g. sphere or balloon

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Barrel shells formed into various cylindrical and conical ( curved in one direction ) covering large areas Mark Ketchum's Concrete Shell

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


1917-2000 A Uruguayan engineer and architect who made his reputation by building a range of structures from grain silos, factory sheds, markets and churches depending on

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Thin shell Horizontal cantilever structure

Load path

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system

Illini Hall


CONOIDS

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Lecture 5. Surface Active system

Hyperboloids


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


The James S. McDonnell Planetarium, thinshell and hyperboloid structure by Gyo Obata, one component of the St. Louis Science Center campus

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


The 2nd tallest lighthouses in the world. Adziogol by Vladimir Shukhov Hyperboloid Lighthouse 1911. Steel. 64m. Kherson. Ukraine. Tallest in Ukraine. Lecture 5. Surface Active system

Hyperboloid Structure / water tower by Vladimir Shukhov, 1895


Lecture 5. Surface Active system

St. Louis Airport -Designed by Anton Tedesko Outside view - A Cylindrical Groin Vault


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


saddle shell Hyperbolic parabolid with curved edges.

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Hyperbolic paraboloids Hyperbolic parabolid with straight edges

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


A Swiss-born engineer shied away from the mathematical side of engineering and focused his effort on the physical development of structure models, emphasizing form and stability.

“One does not actually create the form; one lets it become, as it has to according to its own law.�

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


The goal to create structures of high efficiency with the lowest possible environmental impact led Isler to explore 3 types of formwork: moulded earth, inflated rubber membranes, and draped fabrics.

Sketch model showing Heinz Isler's theory using modelling clay.

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


The studies with fabric are most interesting because of the relationship between the fabric’s capacity for tension and the concrete’s capacity for compression. In order to apply this same curvature to concrete, the model is “frozen” with epoxy resins and then flipped 180 degrees, thereby putting the material into compression – a strong characteristic of concrete. This geometry can be scaled up to whatever size necessary. Such simple and elegant relationships between geometry and material properties are fascinating

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Wyss Garden center 1961

Sicily company building

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Eduardo Fernando Catalano sat in front of the hyperbolic paraboloid roofed house in Raleigh, N.C.

Hyperbolic Paraboloid Roof Weights suspended from a hyperbolic paraboloid model

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


( Rectangular or diamond hyperpolic paraboloidal surfaces ) coyoacan market

Thin-shell, reinforced concrete, Hyberbolic-parabaloid ‘umbrella.’ Mexico, 1950s | Felix Candela Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Felix Candela

the largest oceanographic aquarium in Europe with 110,000 square meters and 42 million liters of water. The white cement roof of the entrance building and the submarine restaurant... represent a hyperbolic/parabolic figure, resembling a water lily.

L'OceanogrĂ fic, City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia, FĂŠlix Candela, 1998/2002 Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


With the design for Los Manantiales , Felix Candela’s experimental form finding gave rise to an efficient, elegant, and enduring work

Only Hangar - Felix Candela. The hyperbolic parabolic forms became Candela’s hallmark and he built many factories and churches around Mexico City using these forms. Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


TWA Flight Center, Eero Saarinen, JFK Int. Airport, New York

This historical project has evoked the spirit of flight for many generations. This building was made of a revolutionary thin shell concrete structure which continuously curves down from the ceiling to become the walls and floor. It is said that the overall form was inspired by a bird in flight, an appropriate form for a flight center. Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Shell structure of the TWA Flight Center Building by Eero Saarinen , John F. Kennedy International Airport ,New York

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Priory of Saint Mary and Saint Louis in Creve Coeur, Saint Louis County, Missouri, USA, completed in 1962.

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Exhibition hall of the CNIT ,Paris , Pier Luigi Nervi

& Nicolas Esquillan

The principal element is a self supporting RC Shell 1956 - 1958.

A reinforced concrete double thin-shell.1

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


a 1,200-seat auditorium and 200-seat theater in 1950

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Interior of a concrete shell structure

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


FOLDED PLATES

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


BASIC FOLDED PLATE

3 SEGMENT FOLDED PLATE

Z SHELL

CANOPIES

FOLDED PLATE TRUSS Lecture 5. Surface Active system

TAPERED FOLDED PLATES


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


UNESCO conference building , Building section with typical folded plate roof sections Breuer, Nervi and Zehrfuss’s Assembly Hall of the UNESCO Headquarters, Paris

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Example of a combined folded structure formed by a cylindrical folded structure and ½ of a dome structure

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Load path diagram

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Concrete : Highly flexible material when mixed with water it can take up any shape on centering or inside formwork . Small section of Reinforcing bars can readily be bent to follow the curvature of shells The RC membrane acts as a strong rigid shell which serves as both structure and covering to the building

Lecture 5. Surface Active system


Lecture 5. Surface Active system

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