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THE NEW URBAN FABRI TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK SANT ANDREU / LA SAGRERA BARCELONA 2014

Eduard Balcells Architecture + Urbanism + Landscape


The present document is a synthesis of the work “Previous study to the Modification of the General Master Plan of Barcelona in the Torrent Estadella / La Sagrera area�, commissioned by the Municipality of Barcelona to provide a vision for the future of the inner city industrial area of Torrent Estadella, keeping its current industrial use. The study provides a conceptual framework, successful international references and the main project lines to be developed in the subsequent Modification of the General Master Plan of Barcelona (M.P.G.M.) that will define the urban design conditions of the area.


The author of the study on the future of the Torrent Estadella industrial area and of the present document is:

EDUARD BALCELLS Architecture+Urbanism+Landscape Team:

Eduard Balcells Architect and Urban Designer

Honorata Grzesikowska Architect and Urban Designer

Consultancy in Landscape Architecture and Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) strategies:

Manuel Colominas Founder and principal of Factors de Paisatge, Landscape Architecture Agronomy Engineer and Landscape Architect Professor at the Barcelona School of Agriculture and at the Barcelona School of Architecture

We would like to thank the following people for their generosity and for the exchanges of points of view that we have had, which surely have enriched this work:

Maria Buhigas Architect and expert in urban and metropolitan industry Founder and principal of Urban-Facts and Ex-Head of Urban Strategy at Barcelona Regional

Luis Maldonado Architect and expert in urban and periurban agriculture Professor at the Barcelona School of Agriculture


“Also from the perspective of democracy, industry offers better yields to society than other economic activities. Democracy and its sustainability in time have a high correlation with the importance that the manufacturing industry has in one given country.” in “Manufacturing matters” The return of the industry. Are cities ready? Diputació de Barcelona / 2014

Antón Costas Economist Chair of Economical Policies at the University of Barcelona


“An advanced industrial society offers a wealth of possibilities for an active popular participation in the control of the main institutions and in the reconstruction of social life.” in “A genuine movement for social change” Ara newspaper 5/2/2014

Noam Chomsky Linguist and intellectual Professor Emeritus at the Massachussets Insitute of Technology


INDEX TORRENT ESTADELLA , THE NEW URBAN FABRIK

SYNTHESIS OF THE PROPOSAL.................................................................. 2 Torrent Estadella, the New Urban Fabrik...................................................... 3 The site........................................................................................................... 7 The industry was once at the heart of the city and it’s coming back................................................... 7 The Torrent Estadella industrial area in the Barcelona plain: a large site that has the size of a whole neighborhood......................................................................... 9 The site is surrounded by the city but historically disconnected from it........................................... 11 The Green Joints: historical barrriers turn into metropolitan parks................................................... 13

From “rieres” (intermitent streams) to Green Ramblas.............................. 15 From “rieres” (intermittent streams) to Green Ramblas: the reconnection to the city................... 15 The urban mesh: the reconnection to the surrounding neighborhoods.......................................... 17

The Green Infrastructure.............................................................................. 19 The Stream Street as a Green Rambla: towards a resilient rain water management in Barcelona using Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) strategies................................................................. 19 The Green Infrastructure: The Stream Street, The Filtering Rambla and the Farm of Sant Andreu.......................................... 21

The New Urban Fabrik................................................................................. 23 The Sagrera Eco-Cluster within Barcelona’s metropolitan industrial belt..................................................................................... 23 The Sagrera Eco-Cluster as the productive center of the green economy within the city Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park as the starting point of the Sagrera Eco-Cluster.................................................................................. 25 Torrent Estadella Manufacturing Alliance (T.E.M.A.) and the governance framework BCN Made: the promotion of the local industry and its products.................................................... 26 Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park and the Green Economy activities that can be developed................................................................ 27 22a, the current suburban industrial zoning category......................................................................... 29 22u, the proposed urban zoning category and The Silo Building..................................................... 30 The Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park reconnected to the city through the Green Ramblas and the metropolitan parks......................................31 Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park: a vibrant industrial neighborhood ....................................... 33


FROM “RIERES” TO GREEN RAMBLAS

THE RECONNECTION TO THE CITY.........................................................35 The Green Ramblas The “rieres” (intermittent streams) as the primeval urban order of the Barcelona plain............... 39 From “rieres” (intermittent streams) to Green Ramblas: towards resiliency in the torrential rain management in Barcelona................................................... 41 The Green Ramblas at the city scale: an evolution of the “rieres” system integrating Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D) ........... 43 From “rieres” to Green Ramblas: the neighborhood scale and the layers that have shaped the site................................................... 45 The Green Ramblas follow the former “rieres” order......................................................................... 47 The urban mesh: the reconnection to the surrounding neighborhoods.......................................... 49 References Melbourne, transition to Water Sensitive Urban Design / Melbourne, Australia / 2007..............51 Europan 12 - 1st Prize Winner - “Green Ramblas” / Barcelona, Spain / 2014..............................53

The Accessibility........................................................................................... 55 The barriers: the topographic cuts and fences..................................................................................... 55 The lack of accessibility: the ad hoc road system................................................................................. 56 Strategies for the improvement of the accessibility............................................................................. 57 Proposed street structure evolved from the existing situation........................................................... 58 Overall plan of the proposal for the Torrent Estadella area ............................................................... 59 Torrent Estadella topographical boundary sections............................................................................ 60

THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

THE PRODUCTIVE AND ECOLOGICAL FREE SPACE...............................62 The Green Infrastructure.............................................................................. 63 The Stream Street........................................................................................ 65 Recent flooding in Barcelona caused by torrential rains..................................................................... 67 Current system of torrential rain management in Barcelona: the retention tanks.......................... 69 The Stream Street as a Green Rambla: towards a resilient rain water management in Barcelona using Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) strategies................................................................. 71 The Stream Street during a rain episode............................................................................................... 73 The Stream Street between rain episodes............................................................................................ 74 The streets of the Torrent Estadella area as Stream Streets............................................................... 75


Torrent Estadella Street as a Stream Street........................................................................................... 77 References North Wharf Silo Park / Auckland, New Zealand / 2011................................................................81 Waitangi Park / Wellington, New Zealand / 2005..........................................................................83 Generic references...........................................................................................................................85

The Filtering Rambla.................................................................................... 87 The Filtering Rambla as a “vertical flow system” ................................................................................ 89 of vegetal water-cleaning basins............................................................................................................. 89 The “subsurface flow constructed wetlands” method: waste water is never accessible, thus eliminating sanitary risks and bad smells............................. 90 The Filtering Rambla................................................................................................................................. 91 References Ecopolis Plaza / Madrid, Spain / 2009-10.......................................................................................93 Sidwell Friends School / Washington, U.S.A. / 2007......................................................................95 Solar Pyramid / Kolding, Denmark / 1994......................................................................................97 Green Filter / Monzón, Spain .........................................................................................................99 Vegetal water purifying plant / Sant Hilari Sacalm, Catalonia, Spain...........................................101

The Farm of Sant Andreu........................................................................... 103 Historical urban farming within XIXth century walled Barcelona.....................................................105 Torrent Estadella was once a fertile agricultural land on the Besòs river delta..............................107 The current model of urban farming in Barcelona focuses on the elderly ....................................109 The Farm of Sant Andreu: enlarging the public of urban farming..................................................111 The Farm of Sant Andreu as a stair in the landscape linking the Sagrera Linear Park and the Torrent Estadella area........................................................113 The Farm of Sant Andreu: a public, open and permeable urban agriculture garden as part of the Sagrera Linear Park.........................................................................................................115 References Rosendal Garden / Stockholm, Sweden / 1984............................................................................117 Brooklyn Grange / New York, U.S.A. / 2010.................................................................................119

THE NEW URBAN FABRIK

THE GREEN INDUSTRY AS CITY BUILDER..............................................122 The New Urban Fabrik............................................................................... 123 The industry is part of the city................................................................................................................125 Why does the city need the industry?..................................................................................................126 How does the new urban industry look like?......................................................................................127 References Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Park / N.Y.C., U.S.A / 1996...........................................................129 San Francisco’s P.D.R. (Production, Distribution, Repair) zoning / 2008......................................131 Industrial City Berlin (Industrial Master Plan 2010-2020)..............................................................133


The Sagrera Eco-Cluster............................................................................. 135 The Sagrera Eco-Cluster as a new identity within the industrial belt of Barcelona.......................136 The Third Industrial Revolution and the Green Economy.................................................................138 Green Economy definition.....................................................................................................................139 The five pillars of the Green Economy.................................................................................................140 Needs and objectives of Barcelona related to the development of the Green Economy..........141 The Sagrera Eco-Cluster and the other industrial areas within Barcelona city boundaries.........143 Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park, the starting piece of the Sagrera Eco-Cluster. Green economy activities that can be developed.............................................................................145

The Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park and the new 22u urban industry zoning category..................................... 147 The sustainability strategies in Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park..............................................149 References Sustainability in the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Park / N.Y.C., U.S.A. / 1996.........................151 Hartberg Eco-Park / Hartberg, Austria / 1997..............................................................................153 LUFA Farms / Montreal, Canada / 2009.......................................................................................155

The Industrial Symbiosis Strategies......................................................................................................157 References Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park / Kalundborg, Denmark / 1972.................................................159 BioPark Terneuzen / Terneuzen, The Netherlands / 2007............................................................161

An activity under the actual capacity: map of current activities in the Torrent Estadella area.....163 Visual survey of the current industrial activity......................................................................................165 The existing suburban industrial fabric as a consequence of the current 22a industrial zoning category ...................................................................167 Analysis of the existing: a suburban industrial fabric.........................................................................169 Analysis of the existing: a varied and rich industrial fabric................................................................171 Elements of interest to be integrated into future developments....................................................173 The 22a zoning category: existing model of suburban and extensive industry............................175 The Proposed 22u zoning category: proposal of a new model of urban and compact industry.176 The Silo Building: a new urban and compact industrial building type...........................................177 References David Building / Barcelona, Spain / 1928-31................................................................................179 Historical compact and urban industrial building types / Barcelona , Spain / 1850-1950’s........181 Volkswagen Transparent Factory / Dresden, Germany / 2002....................................................183

BCN Made, the promotion of the urban industry in Barcelona................. 185 BCN Made, non-profit corporation and website for the promotion of Barcelona’s new urban industry.......................................................................187


References Made In NYC non-profit corporation and website / N.Y.C., U.S.A. / 2013.................................189 SFMade non-profit corporation and website / San Francisco, U.S.A. / 2010.................................................191

Torrent Estadella Manufacturing Alliance (T.E.M.A.) and the governance framework................................................................ 193 T.E.M.A. and the stakeholders of Torrent Estadella...........................................................................195 References Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation / N.Y.C. , U.S.A. / 1981.....................................199 Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center / N.Y.C. , U.S.A. / 1992.....................................201


TORRENT E THE NEW UR SYNTHESIS OF

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ESTADELLA , RBAN FABRIK THE PROPOSAL

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TORRENT ESTADELLA, THE NEW URBAN FABRI If Barcelona is to become a self-sufficient city with productive neighborhoods, its urban industry will have a key role. Torrent Estadella, a centrally located but decadent and disconnected industrial area, provides a unique opportunity for a green new urban industry to crucially contribute to the city’s economic and environmental resilience.

FROM “RIERES” TO GREEN RAMBLAS THE RECONNECTION TO THE CITY

The railway and the river, the historical barriers that cut off the site from the city, are turning into metropolitan parks, allowing the area to be relinked with the surroundings. The site is reconnected to the city by the Green Ramblas, a new concept of urban axis that recovers the original meaning of rambla as “riera”, the intermittent streams that formed the primeval structure of the Barcelona plain. Green Ramblas add to the urban condition of the rambla the ecological rain water management function of the “riera”. Torrent Estadella Street, a former “riera”, becomes the main Green Rambla on the site.

THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE THE PRODUCTIVE AND ECOLOGICAL FREE SPACE

The streets and free spaces of the area will become a truly Green Infrastructure, energetically self-sufficient and able to close the water cycle on site. The Green Infrastructure has three elements: the Stream Street, the Filtering Rambla and the Farm of Sant Andreu. The Stream Street is a type of Green Rambla that stores rain water for further uses. The Filtering Rambla is a chain of wetlands that clean the industries’ waste water on site, and the Farm of Sant Andreu is new model of permeable and open urban agricultural garden that connects the site to the Sagrera Park.

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THE NEW URBAN FABRIK THE GREEN INDUSTRY AS CITY BUILDER

The term New Urban Fabrik proposes to merge two words that have been at odds for too long: “fabrik”, understood as factory, and “fabric”, the urban tissue of the city. This merger is possible thanks to the appearance of new urban manufacturing activities that are clean, sustainable, intensive in added value, largely contribute to the city’s gross domestic product and are perfectly compatible with all the other uses of the city. Torrent Estadella, with its privileged accessibility and centrality, provides a prime opportunity for this New Urban Fabrik to prosper. Many of the new manufacturing activities are related to the Green Economy, which Barcelona needs to develop if it wants to cope with its challenges regarding Climate Change. The development of the Green Economy and its associated green industries, along with the implementation of top sustainability strategies, can turn the area into an Eco-Industrial Park. The clearly urban condition of the area is recognized with a new zoning category, 22u, that allows for more compact industrial building types, like The Silo Building. The local industries can be promoted through BCN Made, an organization and website that supports the new urban industry and puts in contact businesses and clients. Finally, at the center of a well-defined governance framework, the Torrent Estadella Manufacturing Aliance (T.E.M.A.) is an on-the-ground and non-profit management company with the mission of fostering the industry in the area. Today, a New Urban Fabrik can come to life by turning the green industry into a city builder at the heart of our cities.

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fabrik

factory, productive space A building or group of buildings with facilities for the manufacture of goods; the productive space.

fabric

structure of the city, urban tissue The physical aspect of urbanism, emphasizing building types, thoroughfares, open space, frontages, streetscapes and including environmental, functional, economic and sociocultural aspects.


the new urban fabrik

the productive space as urban tissue builder New industry that is clean, sustainable, intensive in added value, provides qualitative jobs, is perfectly compatible with the other uses of the city and can, therefore, become a part of the urban fabric again. The industry is back as a city-maker.


THE INDUSTRY WAS ONCE AT THE HEART OF THE CITY AND IT’S COMING BACK The current Sant Andreu District was, until the beginning of the XXth century, an independent town from Barcelona. This historical picture of the center of Sant Andreu, taken in the middle of the XXth century, shows how the industry was completely embedded in the urban fabric. The Fabra i Coats factory (lower left) was a major job provider, and was located at the core of the town, very close to the townhall and the church. The site of the present study, Torrent Estadella, is at the lower right corner, at the other side of the railway tracks.

Townhall of Sant Andreu

Fabra i Coats factory

Image source > “Barcelona, memòria des del cel” Manuel Guardia

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Orfila Square


Sant Andreu Church

Railway tracks

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE TORRENT ESTADELLA INDUSTRIAL AREA IN THE BARCELONA PLAIN: A LARGE SITE THAT HAS THE SIZE OF A WHOLE NEIGHBORHOOD The industrial site of Torrent Estadella is located in Sant Andreu District, at the northern part of Barcelona, between the railway tracks and the Besòs river. It’s a relatively large area (30 ha), similar in size to the Barceloneta neighborhood situated between the Old Port and the beaches.

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Montjuïc mountain

Barcelona Port

Image source > Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (I.C.G.C.)

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Collserola Natural Park

Tres Turons Park

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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Sant Andreu District center

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Poblenou (22@ technological district)

Barceloneta neighborhood

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THE SITE IS SURROUNDED BY THE CITY BUT HISTORICALLY DISCONNECTED FROM IT The site has been historically disconnected from its surroundings by the railway lines and the formerly polluted Besòs river. Now, the river is clean and has become the Besòs Fluvial Park. In the near future, the railway tracks will also be covered by the Sagrera Linear Park, the largest urban park of the city. Thus, former barriers become green joints.

Fabra Cultur

La Sagrera neighborhood

Future Sagrera High-Speed Train Station

Railway (future Sagrera Linear Park)

Metro and bus yards and depots

Sant Martí District

La Verneda industrial area

Torrent Estadella industrial area

Montsolís industrial area

Image source > Bing Maps.com

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a i Coats ral Center

Sant Andreu District center

Sant Andreu Comtal train station

Railway (future Sagrera Linear Park)

Torrent Estadella Street

La Maquinista shopping mall

Bon Pastor industrial area

Bon Pastor neighborhood

Besòs river Santa Coloma de Gramenet

Sant Adrià de Besòs

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THE GREEN JOINTS: HISTORICAL BARRRIERS TURN INTO METROPOLITAN PARKS At a city scale, the historical barriers that kept the area apart from the surrounding city are disappearing and giving way to huge metropolitan green joints: the Besòs river has already turned into a major Fluvial Park, and the railway tracks will be covered by the Sagrera Linear Park, that will be the largest of the city and will border the site to the west. The historical barriers: the railway and the polluted Besòs river

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Torrent Estadella industrial area a Diagonal Avenue b Medieval city Neighborhoods A Sant Andreu, La Sagrera, El Clot, Trinitat Vella B Bon Pastor, Baró de Viver, Sant Martí, La Verneda C Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Sant Adrià de Besòs Barriers 1 Railway tracks 2 Polluted Besòs River

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Image sources > Google.com

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The present and near future metropolitan green joints: the Besòs Fluvial Park and the Sagrera Linear Park

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Train Stations 3 Future Barcelona-Sagrera High Speed Train Station 4 Renewed and extended Sant Andreu Comtal regional train station Metropolitan Green Joints 5 Future Sagrera Linear Park (largest urban park of the city; also known as “The Green Diagonal”) 6 Besòs River Fluvial Park

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FROM “RIERES” (INTERMITTENT STREAMS) TO GREEN RAMBLAS: THE RECONNECTION TO THE CITY Again at the city scale, we propose the Green Ramblas as a new concept of renaturalized urban axis that recovers the original meaning of rambla as “riera”, the typical intermittent streams along the Mediterranean coast that only carry water when it rains and that double as paths when dry. “Rieres” are fundamental water cycle and climate regulators, and also formed the earliest urban order of the Barcelona plain, as the world-famous “La Rambla” mall witnesses. Many times, the Green Ramblas even follow the exact path of the former “rieres”, as Torrent Estadella Street does. Torrent Estadella Street will become a Green Rambla, relinking the site to the city. XVIIIth century plan of Barcelona showing the “rieres” system as the first urban order of the plain

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Source > “Le plan de Barcelonne et de ses environs / Trés-exactament Levés sur les Lieux, par un Ingenieur, en 1706. Mis au jour à Amsterdam par Nicolas Visscher, avec Privilège” Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (I.C.G.C.)

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Torrent Estadella, “riera” (intermittent stream) -see upper right corner of the plan1 “La Rambla”, the world-famous mall, also a former “riera”


The Green Ramblas as a new concept of renaturalized urban axis in Barcelona

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Torrent Estadella Street, Green Rambla Torrent Estadella industrial area 1

“La Rambla�, the world-famous mall, can also become a Green Rambla

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THE URBAN MESH: THE RECONNECTION TO THE SURROUNDING NEIGHBORHOODS Zooming in to the neighborhood’s scale, the huge metropolitan parks (Sagrera Linear Park and Besòs Fluvial Park) form large longitudinal green joints that bridge the historical gap between the site and the surrounding neighborhoods. The Green Ramblas are a network of thinner transversal connections. Together, the metropolitan parks and the Green Ramblas form a mesh that relinks the Torrent Estadella area to the surroundings and the city.

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The metropolitan parks 1 Future Sagrera Linear Park 2 Besòs River Fluvial Park

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The Green Ramblas 3 Torrent Estadella Street 4 Sant AdriĂ Street 5 Verneda Street

The urban mesh

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE STREAM STREET AS A GREEN RAMBLA: TOWARDS A RESILIENT RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT IN BARCELONA USING WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN (W.S.U.D.) STRATEGIES

PAST “Rieres” (intermittent streams)

PRESENT Urban axis (ramblas) over former “rieres”

FUTURE The Stream Street (Green Rambla)

In Barcelona, torrential rains are frequent. The first system of “rieres” (intermittent streams), canals eroded by the water along the Barcelona plain, provided natural drainage for these torrential rains. When the “rieres” were dry, they were used as major routes. These routes formed the oldest urban order of the plain. Torrent Estadella Street was one of these “rieres” (intermittent streams)

Gradually, the “rieres” were transformed into streets. Today, rain water is managed underground: it circulates along sewers, were it mixes with black waters. To avoid flooding in the lower parts of the city, huge underground water tanks have been built to retain the torrential downpour, that slowly release the water to the sewage system once the rain has stopped. More of these tanks are being planned and built still today, and with Climate Change, that will bring more extreme rain episodes, more of these cisterns will be probably needed. This mixing of rain and black waters generates huge volumes of dirty water that need to be treated in large water treatment plants.

We propose to recover, were possible, the ecological water management function of the old “rieres”, and combine it with the current urban character of the streets that now cover the old intermittent streams. This would make it possible to manage most of the rain water on site and to reduce the need for large underground water tanks and also the pressure on the water treatment plants. The rain water flows towards parking lots or permeable surfaces and seeps through them towards underground gravel canals that store it. This stored water waters the plants and trees that can grow at the surface or in the canal.

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DETAIL OF THE STREAM STREET 1 Rain water flowing to permeable surfaces (in this case the parking lots) 2 Permeable parking lot surface (it can be a metal mesh that lets the water go through) 3 Gravel-filled underground canal that directly stores rain water. The contiguous vegetation can then slowly absorb it. 4 Part of the canal planted with Mediterranean trees resistant to cycles of humidity and drought: Salix alba Salix fragilis Populus nigra Populus alba 5 Part of the canal planted with Mediterranean vegetation resistant to cycles of humidity and drought: Vitex Agnus Castus Nerium Oleander 6 Overflow tube 7 Infrastructure gallery 8 Sewer

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THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE: THE STREAM STREET, THE FILTERING RAMBLA AND THE FARM OF SANT ANDREU Green Ramblas are part of a wider Green Infrastructure that we understand as an ecological and productive free space. In the Torrent Estadella area, the Green Infrastructure is formed by the Stream Street, the Filtering Rambla, and the Farm of Sant Andreu.

The Stream Street It manages rain water on site, storing it in order to water the street’s vegetation. All the streets of the site are proposed as Stream Streets, including Torrent Estadella Street. Each street will have a different section according to its dimensions and its water harvesting capacity.

The Filtering Rambla It manages on site the waste water produced by the industries. It consists of a 700m long chain of filtering basins. The ponds are formed by a watertight pool filled with gravel and planted with macrophyte plants (the ones to be found in wetlands). Waste water is cleaned naturally by the plants and circulates under the surface, through the gravel, so that any sanitary risk or smell is avoided.The clean water can be used for cleansing the streets or for watering the Farm of Sant Andreu.

The Farm of Sant Andreu New model of public, open and permeable urban agricultural garden for Barcelona. It builds on the existing model of urban farming in the city, adding new programs and functions that have been successful in other countries. The farm is a stair in the landscape, bridging the topographical gap caused by the covering of the railway by the Sagrera Linear Park, the largest park of the city, of which the Farm of Sant Andreu will be part.

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The Stream Street

The Filtering Rambla

The Farm of Sant Andreu

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THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER WITHIN BARCELONA’S METROPOLITAN INDUSTRIAL BELT The Torrent Estadella industrial area is a part of a larger industrial zone to the north of Besòs river which, in turn, belongs to the industrial belt of metropolitan Barcelona, along the main transport infrastructures (ring road, highways and railway). Within this industrial belt, there are some outstanding industrial identities in terms of activity: the port, the airport, Barcelona Fair, the IT district of 22@. The industrial zone that comprises Torrent Estadella can also achieve an clear and strong identity by becoming Barcelona’s center of industrial and economic activities related to the Green Economy: the Sagrera Eco-Cluster.

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER AS THE PRODUCTIVE CENTER OF THE GREEN ECONOMY WITHIN THE CITY The acomplishment of the following objectives require the development of the Green Economy within the city: -energy retrofitting of 70% of the city’s building stock -Barcelona as a productive city, generator and distributor of wealth at the heart of the neighborhoods -zero-emmissions city -smart specialization following EU objectives The Sagrera Eco-Cluster is where this Green Economy can be developed, as it’s the last industrial land reserve available within the city borders. Green Economy activities are compatible with the housing neighborhoods that surround the site, and can provide qualitative jobs within the city. Torrent Estadella area can turn into an Eco-Industrial Park and become the first area where the Green Economy can be established and a new paradigm for inner city industry.

SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER GREEN ECONOMY

22@

IT DISTRICT

PORT - ZONA FRANCA LOGISTICS

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK AS THE STARTING POINT OF THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER Sustainability and ecology form the basis of a thriving “Green Economy” that can yield economic benefits to the businesses of Torrent Estadella and become a powerful tool for the promotion of the area. Therefore, Torrent Estadella turns into an innovative urban Eco-Industrial Park. Sustainable retrofitting of existing buildings and new buildings constructed using high standards of energy efficiency is one way to turn the area into an Eco-Industrial Park. Industrial symbiosis by closing as many cycles on-site as posztttsible is another way: the waste or by-product of one industry’s activity can be used by another industry in the area. New buildings • Use of high energy efficiency and sustainability standards, including on-site water cycle management. • Use of roofs for intensive urban agricultue and solar energy production. • A very successful industrial park that is integrating sustainability at its core is the Brooklyn Navy Yard, in New York City.

Existing buildings • Preservation and reuse of singular industrial buildings. • Energy retrofitting. • Use of roofs for intensive urban agricultue and solar energy production. • If the demand for more industrial surface would increase substantially, it is also possible to demolish existing buildings to make room for new industrial buildings that incorporate high sustainability standards and more compact and urban building types.

Industrial Symbiosis • Closing of as many cycles on site as possible: rain and waste water management, recycling and upcycling, sharing ressources and creating synergies so that the waste or by-product of one industry’s activity can be used by another industry in the area. • There are many examples of symbiotic industrial parks, like Kalundborg EcoIndustrial Park (DK) or Biopark Terneuzen (NL).

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TORRENT ESTADELLA MANUFACTURING ALLIANCE (T.E.M.A.) AND THE GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK A good governance framework is key to the success in retaining and fostering the industry. We propose the creation of a mission-driven, on-the-ground and non-profit management company that takes real care of supporting the industry in the area and that is in close relation to the different stakeholders of the site. This approach has been very successful in the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial park in New York. Companies and owners of Torrent Estadella (main stakeholders) Municipality of Barcelona (urban planning and policies)

Neighborhood associations (participation)

Professionals, workers, future employees, entrepreneurs (training and working in Torrent Estadella’s businesses)

Experts group (elaboration of a model for the industrial development of Torrent Estadella; consultancy)

BCN MADE: THE PROMOTION OF THE LOCAL INDUSTRY AND ITS PRODUCTS An accurate image of the new urban industry, that is clean, sustainable and provides qualitative jobs, needs to be conveyed to the citizens, so that they become aware of the beneficial presence of the industry in the city. Towards this purpose, we propose the creation of BCN Made, a non-profit corporation and website that becomes a channel to advertise the urban industries so that they can increase their impact and success, both locally and globally. Similar initiatives have been successful in New York City (Made in NYC) and San Francisco (SFMade).

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TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK AND THE GREEN ECONOMY ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE DEVELOPED

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22A, THE CURRENT SUBURBAN INDUSTRIAL ZONING CATEGORY The current 22a zoning generates an industrial urban fabric that is suburban, and not appropriate for the clearly urban condition of the Torrent Estadella area nor the Sagrera Activity Area (S.A.A.).

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The current suburban industrial fabric and building typology

Image source > Bing maps.com

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22U, THE PROPOSED URBAN ZONING CATEGORY AND THE SILO BUILDING The proposed category allows for more compact industrial building types that free up space for the renaturalization of the city. We propose The Silo building, where “plots” are stacked and trucks can be lifted with elevators: every floor becomes a ground floor.

20-30m

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The Silo building

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1 Vierendeel beams structure including services (column free space) 2 Mezzanines 3 Truck elevator 4 South PV façade 5 Roof farming (hydroponics) 6 Stream Street (Green Rambla) 7 Rain harvesting garden 8 Undergound car parking

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THE TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK RECONNECTED TO THE CITY THROUGH THE GREEN RAMBLAS AND THE METROPOLITAN PARKS The Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park will become a mixed and lively industrial neighborhood at the heart of Barcelona. It will be reconnected to the surroundings through the Green Ramblas and the metropolitan parks, and situated in a central and hyperconnected location: close to the future Barcelona-Sagrera High Speed Train Station, the new central station of the city; located in front of the historic center of Sant Andreu District and the regional train station of Sant Andreu Comtal; and facing the future Sagrera Linear Park, which will be the largest urban park in the city.

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1 Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park 2 Torrent Estadella Street (Green Rambla and Stream Street) 3 The Filtering Rambla (Green Rambla) 4 Sant Adrià Street (Green Rambla) 5 The Farm of Sant Andreu 6 Sagrera Linear Park 7 Besòs river Fluvial Park 8 Sant Andreu District historical center 9 Sant Andreu Comtal regional train station 10 Barcelona-Sagrera High Speed Train Station

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TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK: A VIBRANT INDUSTRIAL NEIGHBORHOOD 1 Torrent Estadella Street (Stream Street - on site rain water management) 2 The Filtering Rambla (chain of planted basins that clean waste water on site) 3 The Farm of Sant Andreu (open and permeable urban agricultural garden) 4 Sagrera Linear Park 5 Sant Andreu Comtal regional train station 6 Existing buildings retrofit 7 New buildings: energy efficient and compact urban fabric including The Silo building type 8 Roof use: solar farm energy production 9 Roof use: intensive agriculture (hydroponics) or conventional farming 10 Preserved and recycled singular industrial building 11 Existing vegetation and large trees preserved 12 Metro and bus depots 13 Planned public facility 14 Planned belvedere park 15 Planned singular towers

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FROM “RIERES” TO

THE RECONNECTI

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O GREEN RAMBLAS

TION TO THE CITY

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THE GREEN RAMBLAS We propose to turn Torrent Estadella Street, the main axis of the site, into what we call a Green Rambla. Green Ramblas are a new concept of renaturalized urban axis which, through the use of Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) techniques, manages to recover the original meaning of rambla as “riera”, the typical intermittent streams along the Mediterranean coast that only carry water when it rains. “Rieres” are fundamental water cycle and climate management agents, and also formed the earliest urban order of the Barcelona plain. Most of the time, when the “rieres” were dry, they doubled as urban routes. In time, these routes turned into major urban axis that link the mountains to the sea and the rivers. The proposed Green Ramblas follow the direction of these former ”rieres”, and, sometimes, even the exact path, as is the case of Torrent Estadella Street. These Green Ramblas relink the site to the surrounding neighborhoods and to the city beyond, and can be a way of making Barcelona as a whole more resilient to Climate Change, which will bring more severe droughts and torrential rain episodes.

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THE “RIERES” (INTERMITTENT STREAMS) AS THE PRIMEVAL URBAN ORDER OF THE BARCELONA PLAIN The “rieres”are the typical intermittent streams along the Mediterranean coast that only carry water when it rains. “Rieres” are fundamental water cycle and climate management agents, and also formed the primeval urban order of the Barcelona plain. Most of the time, when the “rieres” were dry, they doubled as urban routes. In time, these routes turned into major urban axis that link the mountains to the sea and the rivers. Torrent Estadella Street, that crosses the site, was one of this “rieres”. By comparing different historical plans witht a current digital drawing of the “rieres” we have marked in red the “riera” of Torrent Estadella. Source > “Le plan de Barcelonne et des environs / Trés-exactament Levés sur les Lieux, par un Ingenieur, en 1706. Mis au jour à Amsterdam par Nicolas Visscher, avec Privilège” Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya

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Torrent Estadella “riera” (intermittent stream) 1

“La Rambla”, the world-famous mall, also a former “riera”

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FROM “RIERES” (INTERMITTENT STREAMS) TO GREEN RAMBLAS: TOWARDS RESILIENCY IN THE TORRENTIAL RAIN MANAGEMENT IN BARCELONA

The old “rieres” (intermittent streams) and the geology

The old roads and paths

The Cerdà Eixample

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Ciutat Vella (the medieval city)

The main canals

The towns on the plain

The railway

XXth century growth

The Green Ramblas

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE GREEN RAMBLAS AT THE CITY SCALE: AN EVOLUTION OF THE “RIERES” SYSTEM INTEGRATING WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN (W.S.U.D) Torrent Estadella Street will become a Green Rambla that will relink the site to the city. Green Ramblas form a system of urban axis on the Barcelona plain that links the mountains to the sea and the rivers. These axis double their urban function with that of managing rain water on site through the incorporation of Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) strategies.

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Torrent Estadella Street as Green Rambla Torrent Estadella industrial area 1

“La Rambla�, the world-famous mall, can also become a Green Rambla

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FROM “RIERES” TO GREEN RAMBLAS: THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE AND THE LAYERS THAT HAVE SHAPED THE SITE

The “rieres” (intermittent streams) and the geology

The old roads and paths

The railways

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The canals

The agriculture

The early factories

The urban fabric follows the topography

The urban highways

The Green Ramblas Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE GREEN RAMBLAS FOLLOW THE FORMER “RIERES” ORDER The primeval “rieres” structure has evolved towards a system of urban axis that connect the mountains with the sea and the rivers. Today, this system can recover the ecological function of water cycle regulators that the “rieres” had, thus becoming “Green Ramblas”. These Green ramblas re-connect the site to the surrounding neighborhoods.

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Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE URBAN MESH: THE RECONNECTION TO THE SURROUNDING NEIGHBORHOODS Zooming in to the neighborhood’s scale, the historical barriers will become huge metropolitan parks (Sagrera Linear Park and Besòs Fluvial Park) that form large longitudinal green joints that bridge the historical gap between the site and the surrounding neighborhoods. The Green Ramblas are a network of thinner transversal connections. Together, the metropolitan parks and the Green Ramblas form a mesh that relinks the Torrent Estadella area to the surroundings and the city.

railway

Sagrera Linear Park

polluted Besòs river

The historical barriers

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Barcelona-Sagrera High Speed Train Station

The historical barriers turned into metropolitan green joints


Besòs Fluvial Park

The Green Ramblas as articulation of the site with the surroundings

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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Green Ramblas as Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D) strategy - Reference

Melbourne, transition to Water Sensitive Urban Design / Melbourne, Australia / 2007 A Report by the School of Geography and Environmental Science of Monash University

In the last 40 years, Melbourne has undergone a transformation process towards W.S.U.D. (Water Sensitive urban Design). This a relevant case for Barcelona, because Melbourne also has a Mediterranean climate where water is a scarce resource. The study “Transition to Water Sensitive Urban Design. The story of Melbourne, Australia”, elaborated by the School of Geography and Envirnmental Scicences of Monash University, draws from a retrospective analysis of the key factors that have led to the successful institutionalisation of ‘urban stormwater quality management’ (USQM), as an essential component of WSUD, across metropolitan Melbourne so far. Presented in this report is an analysis of the key factors over the last 40 years that have enabled this transition across Melbourne to date. This research attempts to draw on the Melbourne case as a proxy for addressing this significant knowledge gap, notably the process of ‘change’ that results in the implementation of new technologies and processes within the urban water system.

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Green Ramblas as Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D) strategy - Reference

Europan 12 - 1st Prize Winner - “Green Ramblas� / Barcelona, Spain / 2014 Eduard Balcells and Honorata Grzesikowska (authors of the present study)

Winning scheme in the renowned European competition for young architects Europan 12. The brief asked for a new mixed use neighborhood in Sant Andreu / La Sagrera, Barcelona. The proposal incorporated Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) as a core strategy.

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THE BARRIERS: THE TOPOGRAPHIC CUTS AND FENCES The Torrent Estadella site is at the edge of the Besòs river delta, where there is a historical jump in height. This jump has been increased with the covering of the railway line to build the future Sagrera Linear Park.

+25m

future Sagrera Linear Park 1

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metro and bus metropolitan 2 garage

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barriers 1 lateral wall supporting the slab of the future Sagrera Linear Park at the +25m level 2 5 to 9 m high and 400m long façade of the metropolitan bus and metro garage 3 railway fence 4 car only bridge

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THE LACK OF ACCESSIBILITY: THE AD HOC ROAD SYSTEM There was never a proper master plan for this site, just some regulations of the uses. As a consequence, every owner built the roads he needed, without never having an overall view of the circulation in the whole area.

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Torrent Estadella Street free access roads private or limited access roads

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STRATEGIES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ACCESSIBILITY Some small openings that don’t affect main buildings and the addition of a new perimetral street allow for a much greater coherence, permeability and vehicular accessibility. Where the streets cannot be constinued because of topographical cuts, pedestrian connections are provided.

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Accessibility improvement stretegies 1

Pedestrian continuity of Torrent Estadella Street (the slope is too high to provide street continuity) 2 Lateral street to give vehicular access to Torrent Estadella Street 3 Opening of the end of Cordelles Street 4 Opening of the end of Torrent Estadella Passage 5 Connection with C/ Santander that provides a new accessible urban façade 6 Pedestrian connection between the upper level (bus and metro metropolitan garages) and lower level (Torrent Estadella area) 7 Clear and double way access from Santander Street 8 New roundabout to allow for u-turns 9 Private road turned public and accessible from Santander Street 10 Pedestrian connection with the future park over the bus and metro metropolitan garages

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PROPOSED STREET STRUCTURE EVOLVED FROM THE EXISTING SITUATION

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Torrent Estadella Street road sidewalk public green and streets renaturalization private or limited access roads only pedestrian connections

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OVERALL PLAN OF THE PROPOSAL FOR THE TORRENT ESTADELLA AREA

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TORRENT ESTADELLA TOPOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARY SECTIONS

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THE GREEN INF

THE PRODUCTIVE AND E

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FRASTRUCTURE

ECOLOGICAL FREE SPACE

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THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE The Green Ramblas are part of a Green Infrastructure that we understand as an ecological and productive free space. Ecological, because the existing and future streets will be energetically self-sufficient and capable of managing the water cycle on site. Productive, because the green areas will provide locally grown food and clean water from filtered waste water. The Green Infrastructure is formed by the following elements: the Stream Street, the Filtering Rambla and the Farm of Sant Andreu. The Stream Street is a type of Green Rambla that collects soft or torrential rain water for direct watering of the street vegetation. The Filtering Rambla is another type of Green Rambla, formed by a chain of ponds that clean the waste water produced by the local industries on site. The Farm of Sant Andreu is a new model of urban agricultural park for Barcelona; public, permeable and open. The Farm of Sant Andreu is part of the Sagrera Linear Park, the future largest urban park of the city, that will border the area of Torrent Estadella to the west.

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The Stream Street Use of Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) strategies in order to manage the torrential rain water on site.

The Filtering Rambla On-site waste water manmagement

The Farm of Sant Andreu New model of urban agricultural garden, open and permeable, as part of the Sagrera Linear Park

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THE STREAM STREET Torrent Estadella Street is the axis that vertebrates the site. This street was formerly a “riera”, the typical intermittent stream that can be found along the Mediterranean coast. “Rieres” are major water cycle regulators, draining the torrential rains out of the plain towards the sea, and sustaining biodiversity. Most of the time, when dry, “rieres” doubled as urban routes forming the first urban order on the Barcelona plain. Today, this “rieres” have become major urban axis (or “rambles”), linking the mountains with the sea and the rivers. In Torrent Estadella Street and the other streets in the area, we propose to recover the former ecological function of the “rieres” as water cycle regulators. To achieve this, we propose the construction of continuous gravel canals that form the parking and planted areas. The parking surfaces are covered with highly permeable corten-steel mesh that can stand the charge and the movement of the cars. Rain water can rapidly percolate through this mesh and be stored in the gravel canal underneath. From under the parking lots, water can circulate by gravity towards the adjacent planted areas, where it can be slowly absorbed by the roots of the plants and trees after the rain. In this way, rain water is retained immediately and reused on site, rather than mixed with waste water, then stored for a while in massive underground tanks to avoid flooding, and finally treated in already overloaded distant conventional treatment plants. The circulation and social function of the “rambla” merges again with the ecological function of the “riera”. 65


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RECENT FLOODING IN BARCELONA CAUSED BY TORRENTIAL RAINS In average, it rains more in Barcelona (*1) than in London, but, in Barcelona, it rains torrentially (a lot of rain in a very short time). These rains can cause flooding, as in the image, taken in Paral路lel Avenue the 30th of july 2011 (*2). (*1) 621 mm average from 1981 to 2010. Source > Observatori Fabra (*2) Source > Ara newspaper

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CURRENT SYSTEM OF TORRENTIAL RAIN MANAGEMENT IN BARCELONA: THE RETENTION TANKS Today, flooding by torrential rains is (almost always) avoided by the retention of the fast downpour in massive water tanks, that release slowly the water again to the sewer system after the rain episode. As we can see in the plan below, there’s still a huge need for water retention, to avoid flooding, and many new reservoirs are wether under project or planned. Two of the planned reservoirs are not far from the site. If Barcelona would adopt Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.)strategies sytematically, the costly construction of more water tanks might be avoided. Source > CLABSA (Sewage of Barcelona) website

Functionning water tanks (522.400m3) Water tanks under project (28.000m3)

Planned water tanks (788.100m3)

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INTERIOR OF AN UNDERGROUND RAIN RETENTION TANK IN BARCELONA Source > CLABSA (Sewage of Barcelona) website

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THE STREAM STREET AS A GREEN RAMBLA: TOWARDS A RESILIENT RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT IN BARCELONA USING WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN (W.S.U.D.) STRATEGIES

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1 “Riera” (intermittent stream) 2 Rain water flowing on street surface 3 Black water 4 Sewer 5 Gravel filled canals for on-site rain water storage 6 Underground retention tank for flood prevention 7 Water treatment plant 8 Stream Street

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PAST “Rieres” (intermittent streams)

PRESENT Urban axis (ramblas) covering the “rieres”


PAST “Rieres” (intermittent streams) In Barcelona, torrential rains are frequent. The first system of “rieres” (intermittent streams), which were canals eroded by the water on the Barcelona plain, provided natural drainage for the torrential rains. When the “rieres” were dry, they were used as major routes. These routes formed the oldest urban order of the Barcelona plain. Torrent Estadella Street was one of these “rieres” (intermittent streams).

PRESENT Urban axis (ramblas) over former “rieres” Gradually, the “rieres” were transformed into streets. Today, rain water is managed underground: it circulates along sewers, were it mixes with black waters. To avoid flooding in the lower parts of the city, huge underground water retention tanks have been built in order to hold the torrential downpour, that is slowly released to the sewage system once the rain has stopped. More of these tanks are being planned and built still today, and with Climate Change, that will bring more extreme rain episodes, more of these cisterns will probably be needed. This mixing of rain and black waters generates huge volumes of dirty water that need to be treated in large water treatment plants.

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FUTURE The Stream Street (Green Rambla)

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FUTURE The Stream Street (Green Rambla)

We propose to recover, through the use of Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D) techniques, the ecological water management function of the old “rieres”, and combine it with the current urban character of the ramblas that now cover the former intermittent streams. This would make it possible to manage most of the rain water on site, thus reducing the need for large underground water tanks and also alleviating the pressure on the water treatment plants. Rain water flows towards parking lots or permeable surfaces and seeps through them towards underground gravel canals that store it. This stored water is slowly absorbed by the plants and trees that grow in the canal or at its surface.

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THE STREAM STREET DURING A RAIN EPISODE Rain water flows towards permeable surfaces (in this case the parking lots) and seeps through them towards underground gravel canals that store it.

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THE STREAM STREET BETWEEN RAIN EPISODES When the rain has ceased, the underground gravel canals are full of rain water that can be slowly absorbed by the vegetation, which is chosen among the typical vegetation of the “rieres�, resistant to cycles of humidity and drought. 1 Rain water flowing to permeable surfaces (in this case the parking lots) 2 Permeable parking lot surface (it can be a metal mesh that lets the water go through) 3 Gravel-filled underground canal that directly stores rain water. The contiguous vegetation can then slowly absorb it. 4 Part of the canal planted with Mediterranean trees resistant to cycles of humidity and drought: Salix alba Salix fragilis Populus nigra Populus alba 5 Part of the canal planted with Mediterranean vegetation resistant to cycles of humidity and drought: Vitex Agnus Castus Nerium Oleander 6 Overflow tube 7 Infrastructure gallery 8 Sewer

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THE STREETS OF THE TORRENT ESTADELLA AREA AS STREAM STREETS We propose that all the streets of the area contribute to the torrential rain water management, and that there is a hierarchy between these streets. Torrent Estadella Street and Passeig de la Verneda are Green Ramblas that follow the maximum slope and have the maximum water retention capacity. The other streets are considered as “tributaries” of theese Green Ramblas, with less retention capacity. The section of the underground gravel “canals” of each Stream Street has a dimension that follows the described hierarchy.

A Torrent Estadella Passage

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B Cordelles Street and new street

C Torrent Estadella Street

D Farm Street


E Verneda Street

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TORRENT ESTADELLA STREET AS A STREAM STREET Typical plan and sections

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2 1 Mediterranean vegetation typical from the “rieres” resistant to cycles of humidity and drought:

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Vitex Agnus Castus Nerium Oleander

2 Mediterranean trees typical from the “rieres” and resistant to cycles of humidity and drought:

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Salix alba Salix fragilis Populus nigra Populus alba

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Recycled gravel large stones Recycled gravel smaller stones Vegetal soil Asphalt Permeable parking lot surface made of a corten steel metal mesh that lets the water go through 8 Asphalt paint 9 Overflow tube 10 Sewer 11 Water tight membrane to avoid contamination of water table 12 Infrastructure gallery


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TORRENT ESTADELLA STREET AS A STREAM STREET

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Stream Street - Reference

North Wharf Silo Park / Auckland, New Zealand / 2011 Taylor Cullity Lethlean + Wraight and Associates

This project was awarded 1st Prize at the 2014 Rosa Barba International Landscape Biennale.

This example is relevant in the Barcelona contexgt because New Zealand has a Mediterranean climate, although the rain regime there is of softer rains. “The Jellicoe precinct is located at the edge of the city and the harbour on contaminated land. The public space is designed as a catalyst for development with emphasis on Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D). The objectives established were: -Extensive rain gardens that receive and treat all site water from Jellicoe St and surrounds; -Establishes a unique civic streetscape language for Auckland on Jellicoe St; -Introduces rich, lush palette of native planting that recalls Auckland’s gully ecologies; -Large retention wetland that detains and treats storm water; -Outflow to harbour expressed poetically via salvaged tidal steps; -Utilises WSUD as key structuring elements within the precinct, ensuring they are visible This project is an exemplar of innovative public space design. It demonstrates the importance of public space by implementing landscape before building. It demonstrates a coherent use of new and old materials and elements, and integrates sitewide stormwater treatment.” Source > Wraight and Associates website, google.com

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Stream Street - Reference

Waitangi Park / Wellington, New Zealand / 2005 Wraight + Associates

“A first for Wellington, if not New Zealand, in relation to the implementation of environmental infrastructure at such a large urban scale. The water sensitive urban design strategy not only promotes improvement of water quality, it contributes to the visual appeal of the park generating a unique quality. The Park’s environmental infrastructure includes: -Stormwater filtration of road runoff -Bio-retention along Waitangi Stream -Polishing in the Graving Dock -Recycling of harvested water for irrigation -Ecologically sourced plants from the Wellington region” Source > Wraight and Associates website

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Stream Street - Reference

Generic references Diverse authors

Integration of W.S.U.D. (Water Sensitive Urban Design) stratgies for on-site rain water management in street design. Source > google.com

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THE FILTERING RAMBLA The waste water generated by the industries of the area will be cleaned on site along The Filtering Rambla, a vegetal waste water treatment plant. Over the 700m long and 1.4ha surface now occupied by the railway tracks that will be freed in the near future, we propose to build a chain of filtering basins composed of gravel where macrophite plants (plants typical from wetlands) will grow, forming a wild meadow. The waste water from the industries will be collected by gravity in tanks and pumped to the upper part of The Filtering Rambla, where the solid parts will be filtered out and pathogenic germs will be removed by a UV treatment. After this treatment the water is safe for public health, but needs to be cleaned. This cleaning and filtering is done along the filtering planted basins, where the water stays for one or two weeks. The water flows under the surface of the gravel, which avoids the possibility of bad smells or the possibility of touching the dirty water. After going through the basins, the water is clean enough to be infiltrated into the aquifer, used to clean the streets or water the plants of The Farm of Sant Andreu. In this way, the waste water cycle is closed on site, reducing the pressure on far away treatment plants and increasing the biodiversity of the site.

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1 The Filtering Rambla (planted gravel ponds that look like meadows) 2 Sewers 3 Waste water reservoirs and pumps to higher point of The Filtering Rambla 4 Waste water decantation and germicide UV filter 5 Clean water reservoir

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THE FILTERING RAMBLA AS A “VERTICAL FLOW SYSTEM” OF VEGETAL WATER-CLEANING BASINS The system proposed for the waste water cleaning basins of The Filtering Rambla is the frequently used “vertical flow system”. The system uses several basins, almost always fed by alternately by rotation or by tank-load. The water flows freely under natural gravity between the different basins.

Vertical bed of macrophytes

Rain water

Inspection hole+screening 1st stage

2nd stage

3rd stage

Purified water

Source > “Waterscapes: using plant systems to treat wastewater” - Hélène Izembart and Bertrand Le Boudec - Ed. GG

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THE “SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS” METHOD: WASTE WATER IS NEVER ACCESSIBLE, THUS ELIMINATING SANITARY RISKS AND BAD SMELLS The construction of the filtering basins follows the “Subsurface flow constructed wetlands” technique, where the wastewater circulates inside a gravel bed where macrophite plants (wetland plants) are planted. In this way, the dirty water is out of sight and cannot be touched, and the filtering basin looks like a wild grass meadow.

Recycled mound of large bark mulch

Wetland plants

Gravel Pea gravel

Source > “The sustainable sites handbook” Ed. Wiley and Sons

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THE FILTERING RAMBLA On the area currently occupied by the railway tracks, a 700m long and 1,4ha vegetal treatment plant will clean the waste water produced by the industries in Torrent Estadella. The clean water can be used for cleaning the streets, watering the vegetation, infiltrating it back to the aquifer, and, if clean enough, to water The Farm of Sant Andreu.

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Filtering Rambla - Reference

Ecopolis Plaza / Madrid, Spain / 2009-10 Ecosistema Urbano

Example of an on-site waste water cleaning pond, inserted in the middle of a public square and in front of a civic center, demonstrating that the proposed system proposed in The Filtering Rambla works in a clearly urban setting. “Ecopolis Plaza is conceived as a source of learning for citizens, educating on energy saving and optimization of natural resources. The project integrates ecology in everyday life, without turning it into an exceptional phenomenon more akin to a theme park or museum. In this project, the architecture is challenged beyond formal experimentation, to transform a vacant lot in the outskirts of Madrid into a space for social interaction. In addition all the waste water from the building is naturally purified by a macrophyte lagoon incorporated in the public space. This recycled water is stored under the ground within a gravel tank and then used for all the irrigation needs of the garden. This artificial landscape emulates a natural riverbank. The surrounding topography creates an enclosure and buffer area protecting the building and users from the aggressive industrial environment. Plaza Ecopolis has received several awards among which is a Best Practice from the United Nations Habitat program.� Source > Ecosistema urbano website

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Filtering Rambla - Reference

Sidwell Friends School / Washington, U.S.A. / 2007

Kieran Timberlake Associates + Living Systems International + Andropogon Associates

Example of a system of ponds using the “subsurface flow constructed wetlands”, where waste water circulates under the surface of a bed of gravel, thus avoiding any smell or sanitary risk. “Typically, wastewater is drained away via a complex network of tunnels that requires vast financial resources just for its maintenance, an infrastructure that’s undoubtedly deteriorating just as fast as tax revenues get siphoned off away from public works budgets to General Motors and Bank of America. Miles and miles away from its point of origin, the water then gets treated in an energy intensive process. But it still isn’t entirely clean afterwards. Thus, when discharged, it still poses a risk to bodies of water, contributing in many instances to elevated bacterial count and eutrophication. At Sidwell, wastewater is treated on-site, somewhat off-the-grid and using comparatively minimal infrastructure. The treatment cycle begins inside the building in a tank filled with anaerobic bacteria. Among other things, these bacteria help break down solids. The effluent is then pumped outside to a trickle filter before continuing on by gravity to a series of tiered wetlands. To lessen the health risk of contact with students and to mitigate any odor problems, water flows through beneath layers of pea gravel; there’s no surface flow, in other words. This planting medium contains phytoremediating plants which, together with the microorganisms attached to their root hairs and to the gravel stones, extract contaminants from the water. After slowly trickling its way outside for about a couple of days or so, the water then re-enters the building and gets collected in storage tanks as greywater ready for reuse, for instance, to flush toilets.” Source > Pruned blog

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Filtering Rambla - Reference

Solar Pyramid / Kolding, Denmark / 1994 “For seven years an original waste water plant has been at the heart of a programme for the rehabilitation of 140 low-cost homes. The block has even become a symbol for the neighbourhood in this suburban area of Kolding. Increasing environmental costs will be offset by energy savings and reduced charges. An economic agreement was reached with the municipality which took into account the reduction in waste disposal and in the volume of water discharged into the sewer system. This project is intended as a reminder of the vital role of water and the possibilities for reprocessing it at a local level. The aim of the operation is to use the nutritive qualities of wastewater in the biological process to avoid any evacuation of water outside the block. The rainwater is collected from the roofs of the block and gathered in a tank, which supplies water to the lavatories and washing machines in the apartments. All of the wastewater (lavatories, bathrooms and liquid kitchen refuse) is then processed by the treatment plant. A first phase takes place outside the pyramid in a series of reservoirs that reduce the organic matter, settle the sludge and eliminate the bacteria or other pathogenic germs by ultraviolet filtering. A second stage takes place inside the water plant. The water goes through a series of basins containing algae, zooplanktons, fish and bivalves that form a sort of high-yield food chain. As it leaves the last basin the water is directed through the upper levels of the pyramid, which are rented to a horticulturalist who cultivates 15.000 plants in pots yearly. At the end of the process the water is discharged into the reed bed outside, then irrigates the green spaces of the block. This project proves that an ecological approach is able to identify a building block, a neighbourhood, and a city.” Source > “Waterscapes: using plant systems to treat wastewater” - Hélène Izembart and Bertrand Le Boudec - GG

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Filtering Rambla - Reference

Green Filter / Monzón, Spain “At the green filter at Monzón, timber productionis combined with waste water purification. A 245 hectare stand of willow trees is watered using the waste water of the town of Monzón, diluting it with clean river water, in summer using a proportion of 1/3, and in winter a proportion of 1/1. Through this system, a somewhat satisfactory second purification of water is achieved while at the same time the productive yield of the plantation is increased since the organic matter in the water acts as nutrients. The timber stand is divided into eleven plots with a 10-day watering rotation. Every day, wateris issued from the distribution canal to a different plot. There is always one unwatered plot where no trees are planted. Felling takes place every twelve years, so that the trees can be planted in each plot during consecutive years. This organisation enables timber stands to be consistent and regular, thus also ensuring consistency in the water purification.” Source > “The same landscapes. Ideas and interperetations” Teresa Galí-Izard Ed GG

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Filtering Rambla - Reference

Vegetal water purifying plant / Sant Hilari Sacalm, Catalonia, Spain “Four consecutive reservoirs located at the lowest point in the town, alongside the course of the stream’s downward flow, comprise the water purifying plant in this town of 5.000 inhabitants. Every day, the wastewater collector conducts 1.200m3 of waste water to the pumping well, where the largest particles are filtered out. The waste from the filter is transported to the dumpsite. The reservoirs were dug into the ground, made impermeable using clay and replanted with forest vegetation. They thus resemble natural lakes. Aeration and silt decantation take place in the first redervoir. The silt proceeds to the third or fourth reservoir, where it falls as sediment, and the remaining waters overflow into the second reservoir. The aeration process continues in the second reservoir: movable sticks with ceramic diffusors that are supported on the sides provide the congoing oxygenation need for biological processes to take place. Finally, the extraneous water empties into the stream using the force of gravity. The entire process takes fifteen to twenty days.” Source > “The same landscapes. Ideas and interperetations” Teresa Galí-Izard Ed GG

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THE FARM OF SANT ANDREU Along the boundary between the site and the Sagrera Linear Park, we propose a new model of public, open and permeable agricultural garden for the city and the District of Sant Andreu: The Farm of Sant Andreu. Because of its location within the industrial area of Torrent Estadella, The Farm of Sant Andreu will have an accent on production, focusing on ecological urban farming. With a surface of almost 2 ha, The Farm of Sant Andreu will be a part of the Sagrera Linear Park, and its cultivated terraces will form a stair in the landscape that will bridge the difference in level between the Sagrera Linear Park and the Torrent Estadella area. Building on the existing initiatives of urban agriculture in Barcelona, in The Farm of Sant Andreu we propose to incorporate new models of urban agriculture in the city, that will be able to engage a wider public and that have been successfully tested in other cities in Europe and worldwide. Beyond its purely productive dimension, agriculture is considered here as a mean that provides social and environmental services to the urban population.

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HISTORICAL URBAN FARMING WITHIN XIXTH CENTURY WALLED BARCELONA This plan of Barcelona from approximately 1806 shows how, inside the city walls, there was quite a big reserve of ground for urban agriculture, that was both of a productive and of a leisure nature. “Jardins de regal” were the equivalent of the current allotment gardens, were citizens could plant food for eating and had a place for retreat and leisure. Source > Detail of the Plan of Barcelona in 1806 by Moulinier, Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya

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TORRENT ESTADELLA WAS ONCE A FERTILE AGRICULTURAL LAND ON THE BESÒS RIVER DELTA This picture shows an area close to the site in the 1920’s. Two peasants ar praying at the moment of Angelus. At the background we can see the neighbourhood and Church of Sant Andreu and some factories with their chimneys. Source > Institut d’Estudis Fotogràfics de Catalunya, Arxiu Històric Fotogràfic

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THE CURRENT MODEL OF URBAN FARMING IN BARCELONA FOCUSES ON THE ELDERLY The current model of institutional fostering of the urban agriculture in Barcelona is the “Horts Urbans” (Urban Orchards) program, aimed mainly at the elderly. “The network of Urban Orchards of Barcelona is a participation program of the Municipality of Barcelona, aimed at people over 65 years in the city, with the objective of incorporating them into environment improvement activities through the cultivation of vegetables, following the principles of organic farming. This program began in 1997. Urban Orchards feature some important social values between the people involved, allowing them to occupy their time, favoring the creation of a network of new relationships and improving their quality of life through healthy physical activity. Urban Orchards also have a high environmental value for the city: they become new public green spaces in which the orchard is the main character. Another highlight is the function of environmental education through activities aimed at schools that allow children to get to know the agricultural world and the principles of organic farming. The orchards also serve the function of social coexistence between generations, as educational activities provide the occasion for establishing relationships between the children and the elderly. Urban Orchards ar divided in small plots of 25 to 40 m2, where vegetables, herbs and seasonal flowers can be grown. Tomatoes, green beans, potatoes, zucchini, chard, beans, cabbage, eggplant, garlic, onion, artichoke and lettuce abound. The spice plantations with seasonal blooms adorn the plots, and medicinal and aromatic plants have an important role in organic farming by contributing to eliminating or repelling pests.” Source > Barcelona Medi Ambient website

Location of the Urban Orchards in the city Source > Barcelona Medi Ambient

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Urban Orchard in Sant Pau, Barcelona Source > La Vanguardia

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THE FARM OF SANT ANDREU: ENLARGING THE PUBLIC OF URBAN FARMING Currently, the dominant model of urban farming promoted by the Municipality of Barcelona is aimed at people over 65 that can cultivate plots in the Urban Orchards and where the harvest can only be consumed by them. It’s a successful model, to which we propose to add other models that can engage a wider public. These models have been successfully tested in other countries and can be integrated as an innovation in Barcelona, in order to foster urban farming. In The Farm of Sant Andreu, a flexible combination of any of the following models could be adopted, depending on the needs and preferences of the different stakeholders. We advocate the models that generate openness and publicness, rather than the ones, like the allotment gardens, that cause private use of public ground. We propose the following possible options, with emphasis on: Social aspect •

Therapeutic experience for people in risk of social exclusion or disabled people.

Work programme for people in risk of social exclusion, like immigrants without work.

Self-sustaining of people who have economic difficulties in paying for their food.

Shared garden or “jardin partagé” to be used by a collective, usually a neighborhood association. This model is very frequent in Paris.

Economic self-sufficiency After an initial investment in the construction of the garden, it can self-finance and have a zero maintenance cost for the tax-payers. There are different activities that could guarantee self-financing: •

Restaurant where the seasonal products of the farm are cooked and served. Products from the farm can be combined with others coming from other local ecological farms.

”Pick-your-own Farm (PYO)”: the clients themselves can pick up the vegetables and flowers they like and pay for them. It’s a highly educative and fun activity that can easily engage a very broad public, and it’s a very successful model in the U.S. and in European countries.

”Farmer’s market”: selling of the products of the farm in a purpose-made market or supermarket inside the farm, or in the local markets.

Parallel activities compatible with farming: yoga and taichi lessons, workshops, events (like banquets, open air meals and weddings)

”Garden center”: shop that sells plants nursed in the farm, seeds, horticulture tools, specialized books, etc.

”Direct Farm”: possibility of selling products of the farm inside supermarket chains that label the product as a km0 or proximity product.

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Ecological vegetable box: selling by order of seasonal vegetables in a box to be received by the client every weekl, for example. This model is already known and successful in Barcelona.

Leasing of plots to private clients where a professional farmer teaches the client how to keep up an orchard.

Leisure •

Public picnic areas

Allotment gardens

Education •

Visits and workshops for schools

Courses and workshops on horticulture, cooking, floral art, etc.

Seminars on ecology, urban farming, etc.

Training and education of gardeners and horticultorists

Research •

Collaboration with the university, that can monitor and do a following of the chosen models

Art •

Art as a part of the garden: ephemeral art, installations, permanent art pieces, “land art”, landscape interventions

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THE FARM OF SANT ANDREU AS A STAIR IN THE LANDSCAPE LINKING THE SAGRERA LINEAR PARK AND THE TORRENT ESTADELLA AREA Sagrera Linear Park

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The Farm of Sant Andreu

Torrent Estadella area

Section A

Section B

Section C

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THE FARM OF SANT ANDREU: A PUBLIC, OPEN AND PERMEABLE URBAN AGRICULTURE GARDEN AS PART OF THE SAGRERA LINEAR PARK

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The Farm of Sant Andreu - Reference

Rosendal Garden / Stockholm, Sweden / 1984 Rodendal Garden is located at the heart of Stockholm, very close to the Vasa Museum and the Abba Museum. The garden is economically sel-sufficient and offers a lot of activities and programmes related to agriculture and gardening. “Rosendal’s Garden is an open garden, with the main purpose of presenting biodynamic (organic) garden cultivation to the general public. Other educational and cultural activities are also important, such as courses, lectures, excursions, and exhibitions on subjects like environment, horticulture, organic cooking, or garden art. Notable features of the garden are the Orchard with some hundred apple trees, many planted in the 1860’s; the Wine garden with its selected hardy vines; and the magnificent Rose garden with over a hundred varieties of rare old roses. Our plots and greenhouses yield a wide selection of biodynamically grown vegetables, flowers, herbs and potplants, most of it sold in the Plant Shop or the Garden Shop, or used for cooking in the Café. In the café, we serve coffee and tea, sandwiches, pastries, and light lunch dishes, with nothing but organically grown ingredients. All bread, pies, buns, cookies and cakes come from our own Bakery, boasting a wood-fired stone oven built in 1998. The biodynamic principles include a constant focus on quality. Besides environmental considerations in all gardening work, all produce used in our food processing is selected with utmost care. The garden crops are served at our tables, and leftovers go back to the compost heap, providing first-rate soil for next year’s growth. Visitors can actually feel the continuity of a connected whole. Since 1984, a self-supporting foundation manages the garden, without grants or subsidies. The proceeds from café, bakery, and shops directly support garden maintenance. “ Source > Rosendal Garden website

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PYO (Pick your own) flowers

Restaurant

Shop

Plant shop

Workshops

Public picnic area

Art

Old apple grove - local fruit

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The Farm of Sant Andreu - Reference

Brooklyn Grange / New York, U.S.A. / 2010 The Brooklyn Grange is a farm built on the extensive roof of a refurbished industrial building in the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial park. “Brooklyn Grange is the leading rooftop farming and intensive green roofing business in the US. We operate the world’s largest rooftop soil farms, located on two roofs in New York City, and grow over 50,000 lbs of organically-cultivated produce per year. In addition to growing and distributing fresh local vegetables and herbs, Brooklyn Grange also provides urban farming and green roof consulting and installation services to clients worldwide, and we partner with numerous non-profit organizations throughout New York to promote healthy and strong local communities. From fitness classes, to farm and garden workshops, to film screenings, concerts, wine tastings, weddings, fashion shows and, of course, dinners, we have one of the most diversified events programs in town! And what better way to celebrate summer in the city than with a rooftop event?! We have the best views in town: and not just of the Manhattan skyline, but of the beautiful plants and flowers that make our secret garden in the sky so special and delicious! So check out our upcoming events, or, if you have a special occasion on the horizon, reach out about booking one of our spaces!” Source > Brooklyn Grange website

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Education

Workshops

Open air meals

Yoga lessons

Farmer’s market

Events and weddings

On-site market

Honey production

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THE NEW UR

THE GREEN INDUST

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RBAN FABRIK

TRY AS CITY BUILDER

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THE NEW URBAN FABRIK As Barcelona needs to develop the Green Economy if it wants to be able to cope with climate change, the decadent industrial area between Besòs river and Sagrera Park can be revitalized by becoming the Sagrera Eco-Cluster, the productive center of Green Economy within Barcelona. Green Economy activities and its associated Green Industries are clean, provide qualitative jobs and are compatible with the housing neighborhoods around. In this Eco-Cluster, a new zoning category is needed that recognizes its clearly urban location and that allows for a more compact and dense industrial fabric. We call this new zoning category 22u: “22” refers to the name of the current industrial zoning, and “u” to the fact that this industry is urban, not suburban. The Silo Building, a new compact industrial building typology, can thus appear. The area of Torrent Estadella can become an innovative Eco-Industrial Park within the Eco-Cluster, incorporating sustainability and the Green Economy as core business and marketing tools. Industry promotion strategies are also needed, like a BCN Made organization and website that promotes the new urban industry and puts in contact businesses with clients. Finally, at the center of a well defined governance framework, T.E.M.A. (Torrent Estadella Manufacturing Aliance) is an onthe-ground and non-profit management entity with the mission of fostering the industry in the area. Therefore, the factory can become, again, a builder of the urban fabric: the new urban fabrik. 123


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THE INDUSTRY IS PART OF THE CITY If cities are to become self-sufficient in the future, the industry will be a key element towards this purpose. Having first necessity services undertaken and products manufactured far away from the cities has a huge negative impact on the environment and on the economies of cities. After a long exile, the industry is back to the city. The first industries of the Industrial Revolution in the XIXth century were located within the core of the cities. Little by little, this early inner city industry left the city, looking for cheaper land, a better road accessibility, and distance from human settlements that could be disturbed by its activity. Later, at the end of the XXth century, industrial manufacturing was outsourced to other countries, looking for cheaper labor and lower environmental standards. In the last years, though, many industries are bringing back some of their production to their countries. Some reasons for this fact are the increase in labor costs in the emerging economies, logistics and transportation costs, coordination problems and too long delivery times. Another cause is the fact that outsourcing production undermines the research and implementation capacity of the companies, as their engineers and researchers do not have direct access to the manufacturing equipment and facilities, and, because of this, cannot fastly test or improve new products or process improvements. Another thing that is coming back, after the 2008 huge economic crisis caused by the financial services industry, is the social prestige of working in the industry1. In fact, the industry is able to provide, in general, relatively higher and more stable salaries than other sectors of the services industry, like tourism. The model of the Fordist industrial settlement, located outside of the city, entails huge costs, like bringing all the necessary infrastructures to remote places and maintaining them, or transporting all the people who work there every day. It’s a model that uses up the territory extensively depleting extremely scarce and valuable land resources2. For these reasons, the model of a segregated industry from the city is not sustainable. Contemporary industries tend to incorporate, more and more, high environmental and sustainability standards, because ecology and sustainability are values that have taken root in society. Industries strive to present themselves as “green” to the eyes of the public and the clients. In fact, there is a whole new emerging industrial sector in the fields of sustainable construction, recycling, clean energy generation: the so-called “green economy”. For all these reasons, it is today necessary to rethink the industrial zoning policies that segregate the industry, in order to give it, again, a place at the heart of the city. We understand that it is within this line of thought that the Municipality of Barcelona, with the support of the neighbours, the syndicates and the local entrepreneurs, has decided to make a strong bet on keeping the inner city Torrent Estadella area as an industrial zone, not transforming it to other uses. For all the above reasons, the industry should be a part of the city again. 1 Antón Costas “Manufacturing Matters, reflections on the advantages of returning to industry” - The return of industry. Are cities ready? - Ed Diputació de Barcelona 2 F. López Groh “ The future of industrial space in the face of the return of the industry” - The return of industry. Are cities ready? - Ed Diputació de Barcelona

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WHY DOES THE CITY NEED THE INDUSTRY? As Marie Howland puts it 1: “The companies of the old economy are vital for the functionning of the cities of the new economy. (…) Despite the growth and strength of the services sector, industrial activities continue to be critical to the economic health of metropolitan areas.”Also according to Marie Howland, the city needs the industry for the following reasons, among others: •

The industrial sector continues to be an important source of jobs.

Many industrial activities are critical to the operation of government. Industrially zoned areas house government services such as waste hauling and transfer, street cleaning, snowplowing, road construction and repair, recycling, and government printing. For example, in the Torrent Estadella area there’s a very important company occupying huge premises that is dedicated to the cleaning of the streets of a large part of the city.

No matter what the local economic base, industrially zoned areas house back-office activities critical to other sectors. Activities such as supply warehousing, laundries, printing operations, and high technology manufacturing locate in industrially zoned areas even in economies dependent on information, high technology, tourism, finance, and insurance.

Industrially zoned areas are home to many of the activities that support the local population, such as auto repair shops, household repair services, and warehousing of consumer products. In Torrent Estadella there are many companies that belong to these sectors: there are repair workshops, companies that transform metal for example to make aluminium frames and windows, locksmiths, etc.

Industrially zoned areas provide low-cost space that is critical for startups and incubators for innovation in high technology sectors, making industrially zoned areas important to a healthy and vital economy in the long run.

Industrial employment provides relatively good jobs for workers with lower levels of formal education than does the service sector, paying higher wages.

Industry can offer jobs and opportunities to become entrepreneurs to people belonging to inmigrant collectives and citizens blonging to minorities.

In spite of the dominant post-industrial discourse, industrial entrepreneurs and industrial land are fundamental in order to establish a sufficient fiscal base to maintain social services and a qualitative environment for citizens.

1 Marie Howland (2011) “Planning for Industry in a Post-Industrial World. Assessing Industrial Land in a suburban economy.” – Journal of the American Planning Association

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HOW DOES THE NEW URBAN INDUSTRY LOOK LIKE? Traditionally urban industrial sectors There is an industry that is crucial for the functioning of a city, like the cleaning and maintenance of streets and infrastructure, repair workshops of all kinds, printing houses, laundry-cleaning services, storage and distribution warehouses, catering services, etc). These are the more traditional sectors of industry that the city needs to have in it for its correct working. All of these sectors have a strong presence in the Torrent Estadella area. New urban industrial sectors A part from these more traditional industries, there is a whole new range of emerging industrial sectors that have a keen interest on establishing themselves in the city because: •

They work for clients that need their commissions to be carried out locally. For example, clients that systematically have very tight deadlines, such as advertising. It is very difficult for this kind of client to offshore his commissions, as the shipping of the end products can take too long or could suffer from unexpected delays.

They need qualified labor, and cities is where this labor concentrates.

In many cases, these companies are led by entrepreneurs who like the urban lifestyle, and prefer to live in the city rather than in the suburbs.

These companies take advantage of the city’s accumulation of infrastructures, specially transport and logistics

Many of these companies manufacture sophisticated products that satisfy the demand of a kind of client that is usually more abundant in cities. Thererfore, these companies have their natural clients closer.

These companies also tend to feature some of the following characteristics: •

They sell to local shops, but also use internet and the social media intensively and can, thus, also sell globally

They tend to a blurring of the boundaries between artists, artisans, designers, and other design-related disciplines

They are able to design and manufacture inside the company, many times thanks to an intensive use of advanced technologies (3d printing, CNC milling, etc), but in other cases by recovering artisanal techniques, or a mixture between high-end technology and hand crafting.

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Examples of the new urban industry Some sectors of this new urban industry include: •

“Green economy” sector. In the construction field it includes construction companies specializing in energy retrofitting of buildings, companies that manufacture recyclable construction elements, etc. In the energy field it includes companies that design or build elements for the production of renewable energy, like solar panels and selfsufficient street lighting.

“Custom made” or “niche manufacturing”. Companies that produce limited editions or unique pieces for very precise purposes. Sectors like on-purpose furniture making, site-specific architectonic elements (stairs, etc), customized loudspeakers, etc, would be included in this category.

“Hand-made” sector, usually associated to the use of 100% natural products. For example, designers that manually make bags out of ecological products.

Recyclable products. For example, clothes buttons made of wood, or accessories and clothes made out of recycled materials

Recycled products. For example, companies that make furniture out of recycled wood, or wash basins made of a concrete that uses recycled glass as a main component.

Start-up incubators that take advantage of the comparatively lower rental and purchase prices typical of industrial areas

Food sector. For example, craft beers, very successful in the U.S.A.. Also locally grown food, “km0” food. An example can be the use of large flat roofs to build greenhouses for intensive farming of vegetables.

Creative industries. Professionals, many times in the fields of art and design, that feel attracted to these industrial areas because of lower rents and larger spaces.

Companies that base their business model in the use of advanced technology. For example, graphic designers, “mixed-media” artists, “e-commerce” companies, testing and analysis laboratories, manufacturing of custom-made dental prothesis, manufacturing of high precision parachutes, etc.

Therefore, a whole new range of businesses that is expanding and that finds in the city the best place to establish themselves and to thrive.

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The New Urban Fabrik - Reference

Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Park / N.Y.C., U.S.A / 1996 The Brooklyn Navy Yard is a clear example of the new urban industry thriving in an inner city location: in Brooklyn, N.Y.C., just opposite the tip of Manhattan, between the Manhattah and Williamsburg bridges. “The BNY is an active industrial park that occupies 300 acres along the Brooklyn waterfront. It houses over 330 businesses and 5,800 employees and supports several of New York City’s key industries, including film, media, arts and culture, architecture, and design. City-owned and managed by the Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation (a nonprofit organization with a board of directors appointed by the mayor), the Yard has emerged as a successful model for urban industrial development, with an emphasis on sustainability, that other cities can evaluate and use to inform their own efforts to retain and grow industrial jobs. The New York City Regional Economic Development Council, established by Governor Cuomo, recently identified the Navy Yard as a “transformative project” that is a model for 21st-century advanced manufacturing. Nowhere are the challenges to urban manufacturing more evident than in New York City, which has high labor and utility costs, strained transportation and waterfront infrastructure, an extraordinarily dense urban fabric, and porous zoning and land-use policies that aggravate real estate speculation. Nonetheless, in the past 15 years, the BNY has emerged as a major economic force, with Yard tenants taking advantage of the City’s major assets: a prime location, a diverse and talented workforce, and a large and sophisticated local consumer base. The BNY’s annual economic output, that is, its “gross domestic product” for New York City, is nearly $2 billion. It is responsible for 10,350 direct and indirect jobs and $390 million in earnings. That economic activity in turn induces another $2 billion in earnings in the local economy and another 15,500 jobs. By 2015, these impacts are expected to increase to $2.35 billion in recurring annual output; over 30,000 direct, indirect, and induced jobs; and $2.37 billion in induced additional earnings.” Source > “Brooklyn Navy Yard. An analysis of its economic impact and opportunities for replication” - Pratt Center for Community Development - N.Y.C.

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• 121 hectares of land • 330 businesses • 5.800 employees • 1.705,7 Million Euros of economic output to N.Y.C. • 10.350 direct and indirect jobs • 346.4 Million Euros in earnings • 1.732,2 Million Euros in induced earnings • 15.500 induced jobs • 220,9 Million Euros of capital investment from the municipality of N.Y.C. over the past 15 years • 1 Euro of city investment drives on average of: * 10 Euros in economic output for N.Y.C. * 2 Euros in direct earnings to employees * 7,5 Euros in induced earnings • 122,8 Million Euros in taxes to N.Y.C. in 2011 (data from 2011, converted from dollars to euros) Source > “Brooklyn Navy Yard. An analysis of its economic impact and opportunities for replication” - Pratt Center for Community Development - N.Y.C.

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The New Urban Fabrik - Reference

San Francisco’s P.D.R. (Production, Distribution, Repair) zoning / 2008 “San Francisco has pioneered the adoption of industrial retention policies in the U.S.. In 1969 10% of the population was working in manufacturing; in 2012, only 1,5%. Befor the 1990’s, the policy of the municipality was focused on how to manage this decline. Then, attention of the municipality steered to try to save the part of manufacturing related to manual occupations that constitute a basic support for companies and residents, but that were under same pressures and menaces as the manufacturing industry. Like industrial manufacturing, manual jobs are a collective good because they provide good paying jobs to 50% of the adult population of San Francisco, that hasn’t got university education. To protect both manual and industrial manufacturing, the municipality adopted what was called P.D.R. (Production, Distribution, Repair) policy, that has two main aspects: -creation of industrial protection areas called PDR in 2008 to avoid PDR uses being pushed away by other higher paying uses like housing, offices or retail. -creation of a public advisory service to the companies and entrepreneurs in order to help them navigate through the heavy municipal procedures and to help them apply for all the available funding programmes. These policies have been extremely successful and they have, collaterally, attracted to the city a new batch of thriving urban manufacturers, mainly from the “Urban Renaissance” generation, that went the opposite direction than their parents and that prefer to live in the city, have created high end companies that are intensive in technology and that usually tackle niche markets. They benefit from the highly skilled urban workforce and the existence of an urban sophisticated profile of clients and businesses. As a result, for the first time in the last generations, industry has stopped declining and, on the contrary, is showing symptoms of growth, which the city is very willing to cope with.” Source > Steve Wertheim “Urban manufacturing in San Francisco” in The return of industry. Are cities ready? - Ed Diputació de Barcelona

Source > “Production, Distribution and Repair in San Francisco” - Steve Wertheim - San Francisco Planning Department - 2014

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Source > “Industrial Land in San Francisco. Understanding Production, Distribution, Repair � - San Francisco Planning Department - 2002

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The New Urban Fabrik - Reference

Industrial City Berlin (Industrial Master Plan 2010-2020) Berlin is taking action to foster its industrial sector as a way of achieving a more prosperous future. To this purpose, it has elaborated the Industrial Master Plan 2010-2020, one of whose major measures is turning the Tegel Airport into an industrial park. “Berlin is a location for industry and business with considerable potential. The city has long reestablished itself among the fast-growing industrial hubs of Germany. In addition to market leaders with a global reputation, Berlin is home to a wide range of traditional and innovative small to mid-sized enterprises (SMEs), including a number of “hidden champions” that are unique on the global market. (…) The “Industrial Master Plan Berlin 2010-2020” was created two years ago to facilitate productive interplay between these two sectors. Sponsored by a broad coalition of businesses, research institutions, policymakers, administrators and unions, it is a bundle of measures: improving the operating environment for the growth of industry in Berlin (“General Conditions”), fostering innovation (“Innovations”), training and attracting qualified experts (“Labor Force”) and effectively marketing Berlin as a location for business (“Location Communication”). Tegel: Laboratory for the“City of the Future”. The inner-city airport Berlin-Tegel will close once the future Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) in Schönefeld begins operations. A research and industrial park is planned for 210 hectares of the 460-hectare area. As a flagship project, it will bring industrial and research institutions from the field of urban technologies together at one single site. Since September 2011, Tegel Projekt GmbH has provided professional project management for the city in developing the site. In June 2011, the Berlin Senate adopted a marketing concept that targets the site to businesses and research areas. A strategic building master plan will be created in summer 2012 as the legal framework for a binding development plan (a prerequisite for investment projects) for the future-oriented site as a mixture of both campus and innovative companies.” Source > “Industrial Master Plan 2010 – 2020. Status Report 2012 on Selected Projects” - Berlin Senate Department for Economics, Technology and Research

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Partners of the Industrial Master Plan 2010 – 2020

Promotion of Berlin as a location for industries

Future Tegel industrial park

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THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER The industrial zone of Torrent Estadella is part of a larger industrial area in northern Barcelona which should be thought of as a whole, and it can have a distinctive role as the best place for the new urban industry to thrive within the industrial belt of metropolitan Barcelona because it has: • Prime centrality given by nearby construction of the Sagrera High Speed Train Station • Strong urban condition, as it’s surrounded by consolidated and dense neighborhoods • Clear geographic boundaries, as it is comprised within the triangle formed by the Besòs river Fluvial Park, the future Sagrera Linear Park, and Rambla Guipúscoa • Excellent vehicular accessibility from the Ronda Litoral (Barcelona’s ring road) Barcelona needs the development of the Green Economy if it is to meet its ambition of becoming a self-sufficient and zero-emissions city. This is why we propose that the area specializes in green companies dedicated to the Green Economy. Green companies, as they are clean, compatible with the other uses of the city, especially with housing, can, therefore, be located inside the city and form a green economy hub: the Sagrera Eco-Cluster.

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THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER AS A NEW IDENTITY WITHIN THE INDUSTRIAL BELT OF BARCELONA

Torrent Estadella industrial area

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THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE GREEN ECONOMY

URBAN INDUSTRY

F

I

R

S

SUBURBAN

T

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

STEAM ENGINE + TYPOGRAPHIC PRINTING

S E C

REVOLUCIÓ

COMBUSTION AND + ELECTRIC COM

Source: The Third Industrial Revolu

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N INDUSTRY

O N D INDUSTRIAL

D ELECTRIC ENGINES + MMUNICATION

NEW URBAN INDUSTRY

T H I R D REVOLUCIÓ INDUSTRIAL

RENEWABLE ENERGIES + INTERNET

GREEN ECONOMY

ution: How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World, Jeremy Rifkin, 2011

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GREEN ECONOMY DEFINITION “A green economy is one whose growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. These investments need to be catalyzed and supported by targeted public expenditure, policy reforms and regulation changes. This development path should maintain, enhance and, where necessary, rebuild natural capital as a critical economic asset and source of public benefits, especially for poor people whose livelihoods and security depend strongly on nature.�

United Nations UNEP United Nations Environment Programme 139


THE FIVE PILLARS OF THE GREEN ECONOMY (THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION)

1. SHIFTING TO RENEWABLE ENERGY 2. TRANSFORMING THE BUILDING STOCK OF EVERY

CONTINENT INTO GREEN MICRO–POWER PLANTS

to collect renewable energies on-site

3. DEPLOYING HYDROGEN AND OTHER STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES IN EVERY BUILDING

and throughout the infrastructure to store intermittent energies

4. USING INTERNET TECHNOLOGY TO TRANSFORM THE

POWER GRID OF EVERY CONTINENT INTO AN ENERGY INTERNET

that acts just like the Internet (when millions of buildings are generating a small amount of renewable energy locally, on-site, they can sell surplus green electricity back to the grid and share it with their continental neighbors)

5. TRANSITIONING THE TRANSPORT FLEET TO ELECTRIC PLUG-IN AND FUEL CELL VEHICLES

that can buy and sell green electricity on a smart, continental, interactive power grid

Source: The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World, Jeremy Rifkin, 2011

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NEEDS AND OBJECTIVES OF BARCELONA RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEN ECONOMY

70% OF BARCELONA’S BUILDINGS NEED ENERGY RETROFITTING “We need to be aware that 70% of Barcelona’s buildings are more than 80 years. What is needed is to start their retrofitting in order to make them more efficient energetically.” Vicente Guallart, Architect in chief of Barcelona La Vanguardia, El Mirador 5/3/2015

BARCELONA WILL TRANSFORM INTO A ZERO-EMMISSIONS SELF-SUFFICIENT CITY “Barcelona will become a self-sufficient city of productive neighborhoods at human speed within a hyperconnected, high speed and zero-emmissions metropolis.” Barcelona Regional, Urban Development Agency

PRODUCTION AND URBAN INDUSTRY AS JOB SOURCES “The industrial bet of cities has no going-back. The model of a productive city that works to become self-sufficient and clean from the energetic point of view, is the model of city that generates new wealth, at the heart of the neighborhoods” Antoni Vives, Urbanism Deputy Mayor at Barcelona City Council Article “Generar riquesa, repartir riquesa”. Ara newspaper 1/9/2014

SMART SPECIALIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTIVE AREAS “Smart specialization (which is defined as a key component of the future cohesion policiy of the EU) allow companies to obtain efficiency gains which otherwise could be achieved through taking advantage of the internal scale economies, increasing their productive scale in order to be able of operating in conditions of lower unitary costs” Néstor Duch Economist, Institut d’Economia de Barcelona-UB Recent Dynamics in the industrial and productive land I Urban Specialization, PDU Wokshop 3

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEN ECONOMY AND ITS JOBS WITHIN BARCELONA

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THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER AND THE OTHER INDUSTRIAL AREAS WITHIN BARCELONA CITY BOUNDARIES The industrial area where the Sagrera Eco-Cluster is proposed is the last indutrial land reserve within Barcelona city limits. Therefore, the only zone available to develop the Green Economy.

PORT - ZONA FRANCA LOGISTICS

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SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER GREEN ECONOMY CENTER

22@

IT DISTRICT

Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park 144


TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK, THE STARTING PIECE OF THE SAGRERA ECO-CLUSTER. GREEN ECONOMY ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE DEVELOPED

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THE TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK AND THE NEW 22U URBAN INDUSTRY ZONING CATEGORY Torrent Estadella can become an innovative Eco-Industrial Park that demonstrates to citizens that a new environmentally-aware industry can thrive inside the city. As the number of businesses engaged in the “Green Economy” (sustainable construction and renovation, clean energy production, design with recycled and recyclable materials, etc) is growing steadily, by promoting innovative sustainability strategies, Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park can lure this kind of companies to establish themselves in the area. A wide range of sustainability strategies can be applied to the site: energetically efficient renovation of the existing buildings, construction of new innovative and efficient industrial buildings, use of roofs and façades for solar energy production, use of flat roofs for traditional or intensive greenhouse hydroponic agriculture, installation of windmills, specific treatment for the different façades according to orientation, etc. Innovation and investment in sustainability strategies can be a major economic driver for the site. For this area, we also propose a new zoning category called 22u that recognizes the specific urban character of this industrial area and that frees up space for renaturalized open space and encourages a more compact industrial tissue that better merges within the typically compact (and, therefore, sustainable) urban fabric of the Barcelona.

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THE SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES IN TORRENT ESTADELLA ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK Sustainability measures need to be applied both to the existing buildings and the new ones. Pedestrian and cyclist accessibility are also very important to achieve standards high enough to call the area an Eco-Industrial Park.

New buildings with high sustainability standards

Existing buildings with sustainable retrofitting

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PV plus green roof

PV on flat roof

PV on existing saw-tooth roof

Agriculture on roof

Intensive agriculture on roof with greenhouses (hydroponics)

Intensive agriculture on roof with greenhouses (hydroponics)

Green roof garden

Wind mill on roof

PV pergolas

Green façade

Sun shading façade

Sun shading + PV canopies + green roofs

PV+windmill street lighting

Bicycle use encouragement (“Bicing”)

Electric vehicles use encouragement Source > Google.com

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Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park - Reference

Sustainability in the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Park / N.Y.C., U.S.A. / 1996 Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation (B.N.Y.D.C)

The urban industrial area of the Brooklyn Navy Yard (B.N.Y.) has understood that incorporating sustainability strategies was positive for their image, both towards the neighboring communities and slso in order to attract new companies and to convey a to clients an environmentally responsible attitude. The B.N.Y.D.C. (Brooklyn Navy yard Development Corporation), who manages B.N.Y., has even elaborated a “Green Business Directory” of “green companies” in the Yard in order to attract more sustainability-aware businesses. “B.N.Y.D.C. has launched an aggressive development strategy. With a significant number of major developments planned and under way, BNYDC has also become increasingly conscious of the Yard’s existing and potential future impact on the surrounding communities. To that end, BNYDC has set the following goals: • Develop a coordinated green strategy to offset the Yard’s environmental footprint; • Position the Yard to be a national model for sustainable industrial parks in terms of green technology and sustainability; and • Establish the Yard as an attractive location for socially-responsible and tech-driven companies. Sustainability Initiatives underway at the Yard: • Supporting alternative uses for building rooftops including the installation of the largest rooftop farm in NYC • Reusing Navy-built buildings for their original industrial intent • Constructing first multi-tenanted, multi-story industrial LEED Silver buildings in U.S. (including NYC’s first roof mounted wind turbines) • Requiring new buildings and full-building renovations to be certified LEED Silver, at a minimum • Using green technologies for renovations and maintenance, i.e. Energy Star roofs, energy efficient windows and lighting • Undertaking a major water / sewer project to upgrade the Yard’s aging infrastructure and improve water conservation; rebuilding the road system with improved stormwater management systems, expanded landscaping with water-loving plants, and permeable asphalt • Use of hybrid and low-emission vehicles for the Yard’s fleet • Solar-powered trash compactors and solar and wind-powered street lamps • Eco-friendly cleaning products • Bicycle racks and lanes” Source > B.N.Y.D.C. website

Roof agriculture

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“Green Business Directory”

LEED platinum building extension and renovation

“Green Business Directory”

Roof windmills

PV and windmill street lights

Bicyle tours

Bicyle use encouragement

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Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park - Reference

Hartberg Eco-Park / Hartberg, Austria / 1997 Hartberg Eco-Park is a mixture of sustainability-aware businesses, a research center on ecology and renewable ressources and a theme park on ecology, nature and sustainability. If Torrent Estadella would be turned into a state-of-the-art Eco-Industrial park, visits could be organized to show and explain the functionning of the site’s sustainability measures. “At the current location on the edge of Hartberg, the town’s public utility company as a municipal subsidiary ran the municipal brick company for decades. After the brickearth supply was exhausted at the end of the 1990s, the production had to be closed for good in 1999. Comprehensive production site analyses and studies were carried out to determine a further use of the 15 ha site. Starting an ecologically-oriented innovation centre was found to be the most promising thing to do. The intention was to combine commercial, research and adventure sites under the umbrella term of ecology. Accordingly, companies were located there which were supposed to cooperate and, ideally, conduct a recycling economy. It is worth mentioning that several enterprises dealing with alternative energies and waste management of existing commercial chemical substances were found for the Ecopark site. Furthermore, service, catering and trade businesses settled here. At present there are more than 30 enterprises at the Hartberg Ecopark site, with about 130 staff. The Hartberg utility company workers, the site operator, have not been included in these figures.” Source > Hartberg Eco-Park website

“Hartberg Ecopark is a business park containing only businesses, industries and research institutions that are deemed to be ecologically aware. The project aims to create a network to develop scientific, structural, economic and marketing support to the businesses within the park. The park contains three connected fields of activity. Firstly, an ecological business park, containing companies involved in environmental production and ecological services. The park provides companies with the opportunity to enter into co-operation in waste exchange programmes etc. Secondly, an exhibition and recreational park that provides permanent exhibitions on topics, such as water, energy and waste. Thirdly, a research centre where constant scientific development is undertaken to assist the companies on the park. The public utilities company, Stadtwerke Hartberg, was responsible for the initial development of the Ecopark in 1996, and a development corporation was established in 1997 to establish the structural and financial basis of the park. The corporation consists of Stadtwerke Hartberg and two banks. Stadtwerke Hartberg covered the majority of the financial needs of the park. The banks have also made considerable contributions. Additionally, the project is subsidised by public funding from national and regional development funds.”

Ökopark-Lageplan

Source > European Environment Agency website 1

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Die Bürotürme bestechen durch moderne Architektur

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Betriebsgebäude umgeben von grüner Natur

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2 4 16

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21 22 23

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Das Café Leonardo bietet günstige Menüs für Mitarbeiter und Kunden

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Individuelle Shopgestaltung, z.B. Biosphäre Naturkost- und Naturwaren

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Blick vom gläsernen Lift auf die Bezirkshauptstadt Hartberg

Im Gewächshaus werden baubionische Anwendungen gezeigt.

1 Rechtsanwalt Mag. Gerd Egner

Seva Handels GmbH DAVINCI Schule EQD Equipment Design GmbH Facharzt für Unfallchirurgie, Dr. Hannes Friedam Hilfswerk Steiermark GmbH Ökoplan Energiedienstleistungen GmbH pmh Personalmanagement - Montagen & Handel TAC Informationstechnologie GmbH Stadtwerke Hartberg Wasserdienstleistungs GmbH 2 Stadtwerke Hartberg Verwaltungs GmbH Steirischer Wasserversorgungsverband Biokraft GmbH Leonardo Café & Restaurant – pro mente Stmk. 3 Parkplatz 4 C.Y.L. Vertriebsges.m.b.H. Dr. Claudia Furian Sovema Austria

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Pro Mente Dr. Hermann Sommer SteuerberatungsgmbH WOCHE/Hartberger Bezirkszeitung

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5 Das Erlebnismanagement

TALCUS Reithofer – Handel & Bearbeitung von Speckstein & Specksteinprodukten Pro Mente Steiermark GmbH – Flohmarkt

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6 Ausstellung „Wasser erleben“ 7 Veranstaltungszentrum (Maxoom, Ausstellungen) 8 Bio-Sphäre – Naturkost & Naturwaren

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Wodtke GmbH 9 Energiezentrale 10 Holz Bau Weiz 11 Redwell Manufaktur GmbH 12 Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH Marsway Handels GmbH 13 Scherf Isolierungen 14 Hauptplatz

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CPH – Cellulose Dämmstoff Produktion ME&C | Dr. Rastädter SIM - Lackner & Rastädter KEG (Servicecenter für Innovation & Management) Verein Passivhaus Pivot Point Stadtwerke Hartberg Die Hartberger Saubermacher Ges.m.b.H. AWZ – Abfallwirtschaftszentrum Biogasanlage Peinsipp Trockenbau Ringana – Naturkosmetik Triflex Beschichtungssysteme Pro Mente Steiermark GmbH – Tischlerei Andy Wolf Fashion GmbH Höhenberger Engineering ZT GmbH Stadtwerke Hartberg Vermessung freie Gewerbeflächen

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www.maxoom.at: Österreichs einziges LFC (Large-Format-Cinema)


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Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park - Reference

LUFA Farms / Montreal, Canada / 2009 LUFA Farms is a company that rents extensive flat roofs of factories and commercial malls to intensively produce vegetables in greenhouses through hydroponics. They don’t use any pesticide, and sell locally. Some of the flat roofs of Torent Estadella, existing and new, could be used for this productive purpose. “Lufa Farms is an agricultural and technology company located in the Ahuntsic-Cartierville neighborhood of Montreal, Quebec. It is reputed to have built the world’s first commercial greenhouse on the roof of a building. The company’s first Montreal greenhouse began operations in early 2011. Its second greenhouse, located in Laval, is set to open in late 2013. Lufa Farms specializes in new agricultural technologies in urban zones. In 2009, Mohamed Hage founded the company and brought on a team consisting of Lauren Rathmell, Kurt Lynn, and Yahya Badran, which built the first rooftop greenhouse in early 2011. Lufa Farms’ headquarters is located beneath its first greenhouse at 1400 Antonio-Barbeau Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Covering an area of 31,000 square feet, Lufa Farms produces vegetables year-round for more than 3,000 people in the greater Montreal area. The farms produce forty varieties of vegetables grown without synthetic pesticides, capturing rainwater, and recirculating irrigation water. The company delivers more than 2,000 baskets per week, or about 700 pounds of produce per day. Lufa Farms’ relies on a direct-to consumer business model, which minimizes the transport of food. Unlike traditional greenhouses, Lufa Farms recreates several microclimates to provide the quality and productivity of cultivars. According to the founder of Lufa Farms, Mohamed Hage, “If we were using the roofs of 19 shopping centers in Montreal, we could make the city self-sufficient.” A second greenhouse of 43,000 square feet will open in September 2013 in Laval. This facility was built in conjunction with the Dutch greenhouse manufacturer KUBO. Lufa Farms plans to export the model to the United States in the near future, targeting cities including Boston.” Source > LUFA Farms website

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THE INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS STRATEGIES Industrial symbiosis, also called industrial ecology, is the closing of as many material and energy cycles on site as possible. Industrial ecology is a discipline in itself, for which there are university studies. Ideally, the businesses of the site should get to know each other’s activities, and with this knowledge, strategies can be elaborated for the sharing resources and the use of by-products and waste. Waste products that cannot be used by other companies of the area could also be recycled or selected for further processing on site, or sold to business outside of the site that could use them. These operations of controlling material and energy cycles and of recycling, could be centralized in what we have called the “Cyclifier Building”. The landscape is also used as a part of this closing of cycles on site: in this case, the waste water produced by the industries can be cleaned through the Filtering Rambla, and reused for other purposes. Rain water is also collected in the “Stream Streets” and reused immediately to water the vegetation of the streets. And, finally, vegetables and flowers can be produced in the “Farm of Sant Andreu”, and on the roofs of the buildings.

Current situation Open cycles

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Industrial symbiosis Closed cycles

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Industrial symbiosis - Reference

Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park / Kalundborg, Denmark / 1972 The industries in Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park strive to close as many cycles on site as possible, making this industrial area the first and most efficient industrial symbiosis system in the world. In Torrent Estadella, collaboration between companies, the local population and other actors could enable an ecological industrial system that strives to close as many cycles on site as possible. “The Kalundborg Symbiosis is an industrial ecosystem, where the by-product residual product of one enterprise is used as a resource by another enterprise, in a closed cycle. An industrial symbiosis is a local collaboration where public and private enterprises buy and sell residual products, resulting in mutual economic and environmental benefits. Systems make it possible, people make it happen: In the development of the Kalundborg Symbiosis, the most important element has been healthy communication and good cooperation between the participants. The symbiosis has been founded on human relationships, and fruitful collaboration between the employees that have made the development of the symbiosis-system possible. On the right, you can read about some of the most important lessons in creating and maintaining successful symbiosis that we have learned over the last four decades. Result examples: • • • • •

Yearly CO2 emission reduced by 240.000 tons. 3 million m3 of water saved through recycling and reuse. 30.000 tons of straw converted to 5,4 million litres of ethanol. 150.000 tons of yeast replaces 70% of soy protein in traditional feed mix for more than 800.000 pigs. Recycling of 150.000 tons of gypsum from desulphurization of flue gas (SO2) replaces import of natural gypsum (CaSO4) “

Source > Kalundborg Symbiosis website

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Industrial symbiosis - Reference

BioPark Terneuzen / Terneuzen, The Netherlands / 2007 BioPark Terneuzen is an example of agriculture and industry using by-products and waste of each other’s activities. For example, CO2 is provided from the industry to agricultural greenhouses. “Sustainability is our biggest challenge yet: Sustainable growth, in the context of good stewardship of the environment and its resources, is one of the biggest ongoing challenges facing politicians and (industrial) leaders. Zeeland Seaports has identified a route that provides a uniquely innovative solution. Biopark Terneuzen represents a new way of thinking in the creation of agro-industrial sustainability. Under the ‘Smart Link’ heading, Biopark Terneuzen promotes and facilitates the exploitation of key synergies between businesses located in the same geographic area. Specifically, it helps to maximise the potential of the exchange and use of each other’s by-products and waste products, which then become feedstock, energy or utility supplements for their own production processes. Benefits: By converting waste streams into Smart Links, Biopark Terneuzen’s partners are able to capitalise on residual values that would otherwise go unused. Importantly for businesses, smart linking can: •

Eliminate storage and disposal costs

Lower environmental taxes

Optimise production costs

Improve profitablility

In the wider context, these bio-complementary partnerships combine to help: •

Conserve non-renewable resources

Exploit the recoverable value of resources after first use

Reduce the waste and pollution burden on the atmospheric and physical environment

Contribute towards the sustainability of future industrial growth

Partners: Biopark Terneuzen, BER / Holland Innovation, Cargill, DELTA NV, Dow, DSD, Econcern / Evelop, Express Energy / Bio2E, Gemeente Terneuzen, Ghent Bio Economy Valley, Goes on Green, HZ University of Apllied Science, Heros Sluiskil, ICL-IP, Impuls Zeeland, Lijnco Green Energy / Schücking, Nedalco, Provincie Zeeland, ROC Westerschelde, Sagro, Valuepark Terneuzen, Wageningen UR, WarmCO2, Yara, Zeeland Seaports” Source > BioPark Terneuzen website

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AN ACTIVITY UNDER THE ACTUAL CAPACITY: MAP OF CURRENT ACTIVITIES IN THE TORRENT ESTADELLA AREA Following field work, we mapped the activities in the Torrent Estadella area, and we found that the most common activity now is the lack of activity, with a bit less than 25% of empty industrial premises. Situation of activities in plan

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Number of companies by activity

Predominance of activities

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VISUAL SURVEY OF THE CURRENT INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY We elaborated an inventary of the companies of Torrent Estadella with a picture of their premises, a color code indicating the sector of activity, and an alphanumeric code that refers to the situation in plan. This way, we gained a better knowledge of the area as a starting point for our proposals.

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THE EXISTING SUBURBAN INDUSTRIAL FABRIC AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE CURRENT 22A INDUSTRIAL ZONING CATEGORY The current zoning category applied to the site is 22a, which restricts height and doesn’t allow for a compact, urban and intensive industrial fabric. The result is a suburban fabric, which doesn’t match the clearly urban and central setting of the Torrent Estadella area.

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ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING: A SUBURBAN INDUSTRIAL FABRIC The analysis of the current industrial fabric reveals that there’s a wide variety in plot sizes, which allows for a corresponding variety in the sizes of the industries. This size mixture makes it possible for a wide range of possible tenants and sectors to be present in the area, which we think is very positive. Nonetheless, 66% of the buildings are only one storey high, which generates a suburban and not an urban industrial fabric.

<500m2 500 - 1000m2 1000 - 2000m2 2000 - 5000m2 5000 - 10000m2 10000 - 20000m2 20000 - 30000m2 >30000m2 plot limit

Plots

Plot sizes

Blind façade Façade with high windows Predominantly blind façade Predominantly open façade Blind fence Visually permeable fence

Industrial precincts 169

Ground floor permeability


1 storey 2 storeys 3 storeys 4 storeys 5 storeys

Number of storeys

One storey buildings (66%)

Floor Area Ratio

> 2.00 1.5 - 2.0 1.0 - 1.5 0.5 - 1.0 0.0 - 0.5 0.00

More than one storey buildings (34%) 170


ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING: A VARIED AND RICH INDUSTRIAL FABRIC A more detailed morphological analysis of the different existing urban fabric typologies reveals a wide array of situations: from the smaller plots with direct streets access to large industrial complexes in 20.000m2 plots. The area has a richness of variations within the suburban type. A) Warehouse with direct access from street

A1

Street aligned faรงade

S O FAR

A2

Access yard without space for manouvers S O FAR

1376 100 1

A3

Access yard with space for manouvers S O FAR

1121 91 2.7

1022 74 0.8

B) Warehosue with access from passage (industrial precinct)

B1

One single plot with different users

S O FAR

B2

One single plot with different users with access control S O FAR

5148 81 1.6

21999 67 0.7

C) Large industry

C1

Detached building and peripheral circulation S O FAR

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16840 44 0.5

C2

Building occupying the whole plot and central circulation S O FAR

19991 88 1

B3

Different plots with on access control point S O FAR

7912 59 0.8


A4

Access yard with space for manouvers + access from two streets S O FAR

B4

2436 59 1.1

Different plots with different users with on access control point S O FAR

602 100 1-3

Industrial premises Plot Access area Street Access point S O FAR

Plot surface (m2) Plot occupation (land occupied in groundfloor / plot surface) (%) Floor Area Ratio (floor area / pliot surface) (m2 floor / m2 land)

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ELEMENTS OF INTEREST TO BE INTEGRATED INTO FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS There are some industrial buildings that we found interesting: sometimes because of their atypical typology, other times because of the beatuy of their structure, other times because of the pureness of their repetitive character. There are also urban ensembles whose integrity would be good to keep as much as possible, and heritage elements like an old chimney or the still remaining traces of the agricultural past, like the paths of the old “rieres” (Torrent Estadella Street is one of them), and irrigation canals (like the Noval “sèquia”). We propose to integrate these elements in future developments of the site, because we consider that they can give the site complexity and richness.

Elements with architectonic interest

Urban ensembles

1a,1b Warehouses with concrete vaulted roofs

2a Torrent Estadella Passage

1c Warehouse with English courtyard and access bridge

2b Industrial precinct

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Heritage elements

3a Isolated chimney

3b 1c

3a

1a 3c

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3b Underground war refuge (geometrical data unavailable) 2a

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3c Trace of the Torrent Estadella“riera” (formerly an intermittent stream)

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3d Trace of the Noval “sèquia” (formerly an irrigation canal)

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THE 22A ZONING CATEGORY: EXISTING MODEL OF SUBURBAN AND EXTENSIVE INDUSTRY The current 22a zoning generates building typoligies that are suburban, and that do not correspond to the compact nature of Barcelona.

45m

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THE PROPOSED 22U ZONING CATEGORY: PROPOSAL OF A NEW MODEL OF URBAN AND COMPACT INDUSTRY We propose a new zoning category that we have called 22u, where “22” stands for the current key that means industry, and “u” stands for the new urban nature of it. This zoning category generates more compact and urban building typologies that are better integrated in Barcelona’s urban fabric and that also free space for urban renaturalization. One possibility that this new zoning category would open is the “stacking” of industrial plots in height, which could be accesible directly by small and medium trucks via heavy loads elevators: every floor would then become a groundfloor. Depths of buildings could also be optimized, so that natural light can enter from the façades.

20-30m

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THE SILO BUILDING: A NEW URBAN AND COMPACT INDUSTRIAL BUILDING TYPE In The Silo, the industrial “plots” are piled up, and a structure of Vierendeel beams spanning 32 m allows for a flexible column-free interior. This structure can contain all the necessary piping and infrastructure, that is accessible from for repair and maintenance. Mezzanines are possible due to the 8m free height between floor and ceiling. Small and medium sized trucks can be lifted to the upper “plots” for direct loading and unloading.

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The south façade can be a solar energy generator, and the roof can be used for intensive all-year-round urban farming using hydroponics. The more compact nature of this industrial building typology frees up ground that can be used as rain gardens, waste water filtering basins or other productive strategies to renaturalize the area with productive landscapes.

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1 Vierendeel beams structure including services (column free space) 2 Mezzanines 3 Truck elevator 4 South PV faรงade 5 Roof farming (hydroponics) 6 Stream Street (Green Rambla) 7 Rain harvesting garden 8 Undergound car parking

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Urban and compact industrial building type - Reference

David Building / Barcelona, Spain / 1928-31 Ignasi Mas Morell, Architect

This is an example of a designed, urban and compact industrial building located at the heart of the city, very close to Diagonal Avenue at the (still today) more burgeois part of the city. This 70m long building was a taxi factory and garage. On the upper floors, taxis were assembled and the other floors were used to park them. A car ramp and lift connects all the floors. The façade to the street has a strong urban character with its neoclassical style monumental façade. Today, the building, due to its structural regularity and a minimum amount of columns, has become a truly urban hybrid: at the basement, there’s a famous night club; at the ground floor, a big supermarket and a small commercial mall; at the first floor, there’s a huge gym; just above, car parking, and in the last floors, there are offices and ateliers, some of which used by very well known architects and designers. It’s a great example of the capacity of an industrial building to have a strong urban presence, which we advocate in the Torrent Estadella area. Image sources > A.Armesto and M. Benedito -“The David building (1928-1931) - Quaderns magazine num 253, 2007

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arquitectura històrica

secció a càrrec d’Antonio Armesto i Salvador Tarragó

El edificio David (1928-1931) Calle de Aribau, 230-240, Barcelona. Ignasi Mas Morell, arquitecto Antonio Armesto y Mariona Benedito

ARXIU DAVID S.A.

JAUME ORPINELL

MARIONA BENEDITO

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ARXIU DAVID S.A.

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L’edifici David (1928-1931) Carrer d’Aribau, 230-240, Barcelona Ignasi Mas i Morell, Arquitecte (1881-1953)

The David building (1928-1931) Carrer d’Aribau, 230-240, Barcelona Ignasi Mas Morell, Architect (1881-1953)

1 Vista de una planta tipo en una fotografiía de la época

D’aquest immoble, conegut en alguns cercles, envoltat de llegendes sobre el seu origen, el seu autor i les seves vicissituds, hem sentit les conjectures i opinions més variades, gairebé totes molt imprecises, encara que, algunes, interessants.

We have heard the most diverse conjectures and opinions about this building, known in certain circles, shrouded in legends about its origins, designer and vicissitudes. Nearly all are very imprecise, but some are interesting.

Es tracta, en l’essencial, d’un edifici amb una façana de 70 m de llargada, d’estil classicista acadèmic, que acull a l’interior una autèntica sitja, un garatge de vuit plantes a les quals s’arriba per una rampa inscrita en un cilindre de 21,20 m de diàmetre. El nucli, un altre cilindre rematat per un dipòsit d’aigua, amb un buit de 6,80 m de diàmetre, allotja un ascensor per a cotxes i un muntacàrregues, i està envoltat per una rampa de 6,90 m d’amplada. En conjunt, l’edifici David evoca un d’aquells artefactes que es van construir a Chicago fa uns quaranta anys, a les últimes dècades del segle XIX, per donar resposta a les demandes d’una ciutat hipermercantil i industrial que, després del gran incendi del 1871, es preparava per a culminar la colonització de l’Oest nord-americà.

Essentially, it is a building with a 70 m long façade, in academic classicist style, housing a real bunker, an eight-floor garage reached by a ramp set within a 21.20 m diameter cylinder. The core area, another cylinder topped by a water tank, with a shaft measuring 6.80 m, houses a car lift and a service lift, and is surrounded by a ramp 6.90 m wide. Overall, the David building evokes one of those artefacts built in Chicago some forty years previously, in the last decades of the 19th century, to respond to the demands of a hyper-mercantile and industrial city that, after the great fire of 1871, was preparing to culminate the colonisation of the American West.

2 La rampa helicoidal alrededor del cilindro hueco por donde discurren un montacoches y un montacargas (fotografiía de la época)

Com als de Chicago, l’estructura és d’entramat metàl·lic, amb dos grans pòrtics longitudinals, que configuren una planta tipus de tres naus paral·leles al carrer. Unes bigues en gelosia, que descansen als pòrtics i a les façanes, salven, entre eixos, 12,60 m a les naus laterals i 12,45 m a la central. Les bigues estan enjovades a les jàsseres dels pòrtics, amb el seu mateix cantell de 80 cm, formant nusos rígids, i recolzen als pilars i a les llindes embotides a les façanes, tot modulant la planta en trams equivalents a l’amplada d’una plaça d’automòbil. Els pilars dels pòrtics són a 8,265 m entre els eixos (les bigues formen tres mòduls de 2,75 m), però als dos trams que flanquegen el tram

Like those of Chicago, the structure is made of a metallic framework, with two great longitudinal arcades that configure a standard layout of three units parallel to the street. Lattice beams rest on the porticos and on the façades covering, between pillars, 12.60 m in the side units and 12.45 m in the central one. The beams are yoked on the main beams of the porticos, with the same depth of 80 cm, forming rigid joints, and are supported on the pillars and the lintels incorporated into the façades, modulating the layout in sections equivalent to the width of a car parking space. The pillars of the porticos are separated 8.265 m with respect to the axes (the beams form three modules of 2.75 m), but in the two sections either side of the central section, they are at 6.06

3 Fachada principal en la actualidad 4 Esquema del edificio sin las fachadas. La sobrecarga de uso prevista (500 Kg/m2) y la conexión de las plantas libres por medio de la rampa y los montacargas, dan lugar a una estructura formal apta para recibir casi cualquier uso

De este inmueble, conocido en algu to en leyendas sobre su origen, su a hemos oído las más variadas conjet todas muy imprecisas, aunque algun Se trata, en lo esencial, de un edific 70 m de largo, de estilo clasicista acad su interior un verdadero silo, un ga las que se accede por una rampa ins 21,20 m de diámetro. El núcleo, otro un depósito de agua, con un hueco de tacoches y un montacargas y es rode 6,90 m de anchura. En conjunto, el ed de aquellos artefactos que se construy cuarenta años antes, en las últimas para dar respuesta a las demandas de cantil e industrial que, tras el gran ince raba para culminar la colonización de Como los de Chicago, su estruc metálico, con dos grandes pórtico configuran una planta tipo de tres calle. Unas vigas en celosía descan en las fachadas, salvando, entre ejes laterales y 12,45 m en la central. Las en las jácenas de los pórticos, con s cm, formando nudos rígidos, y se y en los dinteles embebidos en las la planta en tramos equivalentes a l za de automóvil. Los pilares de los m entre los ejes (las vigas forman m), pero en los dos tramos que fla tral están a 6,06 m (dos módulos de instauran el acuerdo con la compos Tanto jácenas como pilares se re gón para protegerlos del fuego, per pueden verse aún los pilares y las c


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Urban and compact industrial building type - Reference

Historical compact and urban industrial building types / Barcelona , Spain / 1850-1950’s Barcelona has a tradition of compact and urban industrial building typologies. From the XIXth century multistorey textile factories, like the “Fabra i Coats”, at the core of Sant Andreu District, close to the Torrent Estadella area, to the XXth century multistorey industrial buildings in the areas of Poblenou and Sant Martí. If needed, all these urban typologies have been able to accomodate other uses, when the industry disappeared. This means that urban and compact industrial typologies have the capacity to be recycled into other uses, which increases the resilience and sustainability of the city. Sources > Bing maps, Google maps, BTV

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Urban and compact industrial building type - Reference

Volkswagen Transparent Factory / Dresden, Germany / 2002 Gunter Henn, Architect

This is an example of using the production process as a marketing tool, as a show: industry and theme park merge. The setting of the building is very urban, centrally located in Dresden, besides the botanical gardens and a stadium, and quite close to the old city with the market square. The building is also designed with care and incorporates sustainability measures. “The main purpose of the factory is the assembly of Volkswagen’s luxury sedan, the Phaeton. Spare capacity was also used to construct Bentley Continental Flying Spur vehicles destined for the European market until 2006, when all work was transferred to Bentley’s plant in Crewe, England. Production of the Bentley Flying Spur resumed in late 2013. The Transparent Factory is situated in the city center of Dresden, the 800-year-old baroque city known for its arts and craftsmanship. It stands at the former location of the convention center. The factory’s walls are made almost completely of glass. Its floors are covered entirely in Canadian maple. Its visitor-friendly layout was designed to accommodate up to 250 tourists per day. There are no smokestacks, no loud noises, and no toxic byproducts. Volkswagen has planted 350 trees in the grounds. The transparent factory handles final assembly only. Operations such as stamping and welding and the painting of the steel bodies take place in Zwickau. Painted bodies arrive at the factory by truck. The other 1200 parts and 34 preassembled components are shipped to a remote logistics center and are transferred from there to the factory by CarGoTrams that run on Dresden’s public transport tracks.” Source > Wikipedia

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BCN MADE, THE PROMOTION OF THE URBAN INDUSTRY IN BARCELONA The traditional and new urban industries that can thrive in Torrent Estadella can become environmentally aware and they can serve the Barcelona area and also tap into a global public. The new “clean” and “sustainable” picture of the urban industry needs to be conveyed to the citizens, so that they become aware that the urban industry is not anymore something to be avoided or expelled to the suburbs, but a necessary part of the city. This can be achieved through public media campaigns and also through other means like the creation of a non-profit corporation and website that becomes a channel to advertise the urban industries so that they can increase their impact and success. This model has proven very sucessful in San Francisco and New York. In this direction, we propose a city-scale corporation and website that we have called BCNMade. BCNMade can take charge of promoting the urban industry and of managing a website through which part of this promotion can also be made. In this website, citizens can browse for products they need that are manufactured locally, and, therefore, are more sustainable. A map of the shops in the city that sell locally-made products can also be elaborated and given away through the website.

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BCN MADE, NON-PROFIT CORPORATION AND WEBSITE FOR THE PROMOTION OF BARCELONA’S NEW URBAN INDUSTRY

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Promotion of the urban industry - Reference

Made In NYC non-profit corporation and website / N.Y.C., U.S.A. / 2013 Pratt Center for Community Development

“Made In NYC’s mission is to support a vibrant manufacturing sector in New York City. Local manufacturing encourages entrepreneurship and innovation, creates employment opportunities for New York’s extraordinarily diverse workforce and gives the city much of its character and soul. New York City is home to almost 7,000 small manufacturers employing 65,000 people. They make everything from pianos (Steinway in Queens) and landing gear for spacecraft (Vahl in Brooklyn) to food, fashion, film and furnishings which are the largest sectors within manufacturing. What this incredibly diverse community has in common is a commitment to producing high-quality, high-value products, often customized to meet the needs of particular consumers. Consumers can use Made in NYC to: •

Shop directly from local manufacturers;

Find the latest in food, fashion, furnishings and other products from emerging designers;

Reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable development by buying local; and

Create jobs in your community.

Manufacturers can use Made In NYC to: •

Expand their markets and reach more consumers;

Find local suppliers and contractors;

Extend into new supply chains; and

Use the Made In NYC logo to educate consumers about their products.

Manufacturing and a Sustainable City Local manufacturing is essential to an environmentally sustainable city. Cities can either truck in all the products they need to survive and truck out their waste, or they can begin to “close the loop” by encouraging the recycling and re-use of products which have finished their original planned life. We need to phase out polluting and unproductive waste transfer stations by diverting hundreds of tons of glass, plastics, fabric, metals, cardboard, wood and building materials away from landfills and into supply chains for new industries.” In addition, because urban manufacturers are located near their markets, they can work with their customers and designers to develop new, environmentally responsible products, a trend particularly apparent in the development of green building materials, fashion and furnishings. Made in NYC highlights companies that are adopting sustainable business strategies to help consumers make environmentally responsible purchasing decisions. ffiliation Made in NYC is a project of the Pratt Center for Community Development, a part of Pratt Institute. For almost 50 years the Pratt Center has provided services, research and advocacy to help residents of low-income communities to build a more equitable and sustainable city. For further information, go to www.prattcenter.net. Founding Members Made In NYC is generously supported by its founding members. Founding members are Made In NYC manufacturers who believe in the ideals and vision of Made In NYC and urban manufacturing. They are leaders in their industries and contribute to the successes and achievements of the Made In NYC Program. CarryHot USA, Nanette Lepore, IceStone, Hanky Panky, Steve’s Key Lime Pies, Brooklyn Brewery Funders Citi Community Development, New York City Council, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, Zazzle” Source > madeinnyc website

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Promotion of the urban industry - Reference

SFMade non-profit corporation and website / San Francisco, U.S.A. / 2010 “Empowering Manufacturers. Creating Jobs. Transforming our City. SFMade is a California 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation, established in 2010 and headquartered in San Francisco. It is the only organization of its kind focused on building San Francisco’s economic base by developing the local manufacturing sector. SFMade’s mission is to build and support a vibrant manufacturing sector in San Francisco, that sustains companies producing locally-made products, encourages entrepreneurship and innovation, and creates employment opportunities for a diverse local workforce. Our vision is a more diverse and sustainable local economy, where companies who design and manufacture products locally thrive, in turn, creating quality jobs for people from all walks of life and contributing to the overall economic and social vibrancy of our City. SFMade engages directly with entrepreneurs and growing small companies, all of whom are headquartered in and manufacture within San Francisco, offering industry-specific education, networking opportunities, and connecting these companies to powerful local resources. By building strong companies, SFMade helps sustain and create job opportunities for the City’s low-income communities and individuals with less typical education, experience, or skills. We also work with manufacturers directly on workforce issues, including connecting companies to local hiring resources and job training programs and connecting their workers to relevant local resources and assistance. In addition to working with manufacturers and their employees, SFMade engages with the larger San Francisco community, offering educational workshops, factory tours, and other programs designed to heighten the public awareness of manufacturing, the craftspeople they employ, and their collective role in the local economy. SFMade also collaborates with both the public and private sectors to define and enhance the local infrastructure -from access to capital to industrial land use policy -required to support a vibrant manufacturing sector. In our work, SFMade seeks to develop and share a model for manufacturing incubation that other major US cities can use to catalyze their own local manufacturing sectors.” Source > SFMade website

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TORRENT ESTADELLA MANUFACTURING ALLIANCE (T.E.M.A.) AND THE GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK A good governance framework is also crucial for the revitalization of the industry in Torrent Estadella. A fluid relation between the different stakeholders is necessary to foster trust and collaboration. We propose that a non-profit corporation is created that can act as an on-the-ground and mission-driven advocate, manager and developer of the Torrent Estadella industrial activity. We call this corporation T.E.M.A. (Torrent Estadella Manufacturing Alliance). The mission of this corporation is to retain and foster the industrial activity in the area as a necessary public good and to represent the interests of the businesses of Torrent Estadella. The benefits of T.E.M.A. can come, for example, from developing available sites in the area or from renting previously purchased and renovated existing buildings. These benefits are to be used for paying T.E.M.A.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own staff and for reinvesting in the site. This corporation can also be the link between all the different stakeholders involved: the Municipality of Barcelona, in charge of official policies and urbanism; the neighborhood associations, that need to be engaged in participation processes; the persons interested in working in the companies of Torrent Estadella; the companies and owners in the area; and an experts group that can elaborate a development model for the industry of Torrent Estadella and provide its expertise.

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Companies and owners of Torrent Estadella (main stakeholders of Torrent Estadella)

Municipality of Barcelona (urban planning and policies)

Neighborhood associations (participation)

Professionals, workers, future employees and entrepreneurs (getting training, working and founding businesses in Torrent Estadella)

Experts group (development of a model for the industrial development of Torrent Estadella; consultancy)

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T.E.M.A. AND THE STAKEHOLDERS OF TORRENT ESTADELLA These are the main stakeholders in the governance framework of the Torrent Estadella area:

T.E.M.A. (Torrent Estadella Manufacturing Alliance) Main function: Day-to-day basis and on-the-ground management of the area of Torrent Estadella • Non-profit corporation whose mission is to foster the industrial development of the Torrent Estadella area following a model established in the collaboration with the Experts Group. This development will mean the increase in industrial jobs in the area and a more vibrant and varied neighborhood of Barcelona. Its mission is not to obtain benefits like a real-estate company usually would need to, but to give a decisive impulse to the industrial activity in Torrent Estadella. • Highly professionalized management team Responsibilities: • Actively search for companies, investors and tenants to establish themselves in Torrent Estadella • Make strategic decisions regarding: • What kind of investors and tenants are the most appropriate to retain and foster the industrial activity in Torrent Estadella • What should be the rents and selling prices for the real estate properties in Torrent Estadella, so that the corporation

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earns enough to pay its workers but low enough to retain industrial tenants and owners • Development of Torrent Estadella as an Eco-Industrial Park in all the possible aspects: refurbishment of the existing building stock, new construction, establishing best practices for companies • Stimulate deals and business between the companies of Torrent Estadella and their mutual knowledge • Development of an industrial symbiosis between the companies of Torrent Estadella, with the objective of closing as many material and energy cycles on site as possible • Give priority to the companies of Torrent Estadella when there are needs of the area that they can cover (construction, refurbishment, maintenance, catering, engineering and architecture services, etc) • Active search of workers for the companies of the area, facilitating their training in the companies themselves when possible • Consulting and advice to the Torrent Estadella companies as far as paperwork and management is concerned, and helping the companies to find and manage all the possible financial subsidies available


Companies and owners of Torrent Estadella

Municipality of Barcelona

Main function:

Main function:

Making Torrent Estadella an economic success and a source of good jobs and innovation

Urbanism and industrial retention policies design and implementation

The companies and owners of the area are the main stakeholders and actrors, and might be in charge of T.E.M.A. In this sense, T.E.M.A. can represent the owners and stakeholders of the area and act as an interlocutor with the other stakeholders. T.E.M.A. serves basically the interests of this group.

The Municipality of Barcelona can take charge of the following actions: • Urbanism: elaboration of an MPGM (Modification of the General Metropolitan Plan) in the area of Torrent Estadella and, ideally, in the whole Sagrera Activity Area (S.A.A.) zone • 22u: establishment of a new zoning category for Torrent Estadella that allows for a more compact and urban industrial fabric • Sustainable urbanisation of the streets, including Water Sensitive Urban Design (W.S.U.D.) strategies and taking into account the needs of each company and owner • Plan “Barcelona Industrial City”, analogue to the “Industrial City Berlin 2010-2020”master plan • BCNMade corporation, including website, to foster the industry in the city • Fiscal policy favorable to the urban industries • Investment as a non-profit industrial realestate developer

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Neighborhood associations

Professionals, workers, future employees and entrepreneurs

Main function:

Main function:

Participation in urban design processes and decisions that can affect them

Apply, get training, work or become an entrepreneur in Torrent Estadella

Neighbours of the area need to get involved in the development of Torent Estadella with the purpose of allowing them to gain a more accurate image of the new urban industry and also in order to guarantee that the urban design decisions are effectively being good for the community.

This collective is who really fuels the whole area. Ideally, it should consist, as it already happens, of a varied array of individuals with a mix of abilities and professions.

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Experts group Main function: Elaboration of a development model for the Torrent Estadella area and consulting The experts group is formed by local and international experts on the following fields: • sustainable architecture, urban design and engineering • industrial policies • economy • real-estate management • environmental and social sciences • legal expertise • industrial ecology (symbiosis) It can integrate Barcelona Regional corporation.

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T.E.M.A. non-profit managing corporation - Reference

Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation / N.Y.C. , U.S.A. / 1981 “The Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation (BNYDC) is the not-for-profit corporation that manages the Navy Yard under a contract with the Yard’s owner, the City of New York. As the landlord for the Yard’s 330 businesses that employ over 7,000 people, BNYDC’s mission is to lease space in the Yard, develop the underutilized areas of the Yard, and oversee the ongoing modernization of the Yard’s infrastructure. In 2011, the Brooklyn Navy Yard Center at BLDG 92 opened as a program of BNYDC. The mission of BLDG 92 is to celebrate the Navy Yard’s past, present and future, and to promote the role the Yard and its tenants play as an engine for job creation and sustainable urban industrial growth. By providing access to exhibits, public tours, educational programs, archival resources and workforce development services, BLDG 92 reinforces the Yard’s unique bonds with the community and inspires future generations to become industrial innovators and entrepreneurs.” Source > Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation (BNYDC) website

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T.E.M.A. non-profit managing corporation - Reference

Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center / N.Y.C. , U.S.A. / 1992 “The Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center (GMDC) is the premier nonprofit industrial developer in New York City. Since its inception in 1992, GMDC has rehabilitated six North Brooklyn manufacturing buildings for occupancy by small manufacturing enterprises, artisans and artists. Currently GMDC owns and manages four of these properties, and has recently acquired a fifth property that is in the beginning stages of redevelopment. Together, these buildings represent more than half a million square feet of space, and are occupied by more than 100 businesses that together employ more than 500 people. The Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center creates and sustains viable manufacturing sectors in urban neighborhoods through planning, developing, and managing real estate and offering other related services. Here’s how we do it: •

We acquire, rehab, and manage derelict industrial properties.

We act as advocates by building coalitions and fostering collaboration among stakeholders.

We create and influence policy and the allocation of resources related to manufacturing and/or industrial development.

We build the field and promote our model by publishing, presenting at conferences, and providing technical assistance to other communities.

New York City needs industrial real estate that provides small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises with affordable, flexible production space. The Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center (GMDC) started in the late 1980s as an innovative intersection of two interests: reclaiming derelict factories in North Brooklyn’s Greenpoint neighborhood and sustaining industry and manufacturing in New York City. The organization formally incorporated in 1992. From its initial purchase and redevelopment of a large facility at 1155 Manhattan Avenue for use by light manufacturers and artisans, GMDC has since expanded and today is the only nonprofit industrial developer in New York City. The organization acquires, develops, and manages industrial real estate that provides small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises with affordable, flexible production space. GMDC, in addition to managing, maintaining, and improving its properties, actively looks for still more opportunities to uncover underutilized buildings. Crafting public/private financing, engaging staff in building design and reconstruction, and marketing newly renovated spaces to small businesses, manufacturers, and craftspeople are all ways GMDC can influence how unused properties will be reinvented and push its mixed-use agenda. GMDC seeks to position itself as a national model that could be replicated. Keeping light manufacturing and artisans in American cities is paramount to the preservation of buoyant mixed-use communities such as Greenpoint. As long as visionary designers, committed manufacturers, and active small businesses look to grow and thrive in New York City, GMDC will strive to help them realize their ambitions.” Source > GMDC website

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Š Eduard Balcells Architecture+Urbanism+Landscape, 2014 www.eduardbalcells.com ISBN: 978-84-606-8052-9 No part of this book may be printed, or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permissionin writing by the author. The author of all the materials in this document is Eduard Balcells Architecture+Urbanism+Landscape unless where other sources are indicated. Honorata Grzesikowska, urban designer and architect, has extensively collaborated in the development and elaboration of the present study and in this publication. If you are interested in getting further information on this project, or if you are interested in reproducing this document or parts of it, please submit a request to the following e-mail address: eduardbalcells@coac.net or to the postal adress: Travessera de les Corts 265 6è 2a escala A 08014 Barcelona / Spain

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If Barcelona is to become a self-sufficient city with productive neighborhoods, its urban industry will have a key role. The term New Urban Fabrik merges two words that have been at odds for too long: “fabrik”, understood as factory or productive space; and “fabric”, the urban tissue of the city. This merger is possible thanks to the appearance of a thriving new urban industry that is green, intensive in added value, creates qualitative jobs and is perfectly compatible with all the other uses of the city. Torrent Estadella, a centrally located but decadent and disconnected industrial area, provides a unique opportunity for this New Urban Fabrik to prosper and to crucially contribute to the city’s economic and environmental resilience. The site is reconnected to the city through a system of Green Ramblas that ecologically manage rain water. These Green Ramblas recover the original meaning of rambla as “riera”, the typical intermittent streams along the Mediterranean coast which are fundamental water cycle and climate regulators and that formed the primeval urban order of Barcelona. The site will transform into an innovative Eco-Industrial Park, incorporating a wide array of sustainability and industrial symbiosis strategies, unfolding a truly Green Infrastructure, developing a clear governance model and actively promoting its businesses. The industrial fabric can also become more compact and urban to better blend with the compact and, therefore, sustainable, urban tissue of Barcelona. Today, a New Urban Fabrik can come to life by turning the green industry into a city builder at the heart of our cities.

© Eduard Balcells Architecture+Urbanism+Landscape, 2014

ISBN 978-84-606-8052-9

The New Urban Fabrik. Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park. Barcelona  

Synthesis of the work commissioned by the Municipality of Barcelona “Previous study to the Modification of the General Master Plan of Barcel...

The New Urban Fabrik. Torrent Estadella Eco-Industrial Park. Barcelona  

Synthesis of the work commissioned by the Municipality of Barcelona “Previous study to the Modification of the General Master Plan of Barcel...

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