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Optimising Performance With Connectors


Smart Sensors In The Food Industry


Sensor Technology 4.0

Smart Manufacturing


INDUSTRY 4.0: MOVING AHEAD Industry 4.0 continues to revolutionise the manufacturing sector with steady advancements in technology and software.



Factory Automation

A NEW ERA FOR CONNECTIVITY: OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE WITH PROPER SELECTION AND CARE OF CONNECTORS With the proliferation of sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) era caring for and choosing the correct connectors to optimise performance is a must. Achim Klett, CEO, Binder Connector (SEA) spoke to IAA and gave his thoughts on the latest developments and his recommendations on caring for connectors.


Factory Automation

THE SMART FACTORY IS HERE TOP IIOT CAPABILITIES FOR THE MODERN MANUFACTURER With the smart factory being a hot topic nowadays, three critical IIoT capabilities of the smart factory will be discussed.



IoT Standardisation

Factory Automation

Smart Cities



The food industry poses significant challenges to the components — like sensors — used in the Factory. A great number of sensors are necessary for the automation of processes in the food industry.

It is virtually impossible to imagine modern society without digital networking. This megatrend has long been an integral part of all areas of modern life and work.



2 | IoT INSIGHTS 2018



STANDARDISATION: THE LAST HURDLE TO A CONNECTED FUTURE Richard Soley, Executive Director, Industrial Internet Consortium and Chairman and CEO of the Object Management Group (OMG) shared his insights on the adoption of the Internet of Things and the immediate challenges associated with the technology.



Editor’s Note

The Future Of IoT

ence to e-F@ctory

on has enabled unprecedented levels of ation between machines, products and F@ctory is a solution for manufacturing that p ahead of the industry by integrating the bination of manufacturing processes with data, moving autonomously to improve and providing reliable support to manual esses. Your Platform towards Industry 4.0 Enquire about e-F@ctory.



Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)


Data Analytics

te Ltd ding Singapore 159943 (65) 6476-7439 • Email: ID@asia.meap.com


Optimising Performance With Connectors


Smart Sensors In The Food Industry


Sensor Technology 4.0

Cover Credit: Schaeffler

10/10/17 10:40 AM



EDITOR Mark Andrew Johnston markandrewjohnston@epl.com.sg EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Sharifah Zainon sharifah@epl.com.sg


GRAPHIC DESIGNER Zu Teo zuteo@epl.com.sg


SENIOR SALES MANAGER Derick Chia derickchia@epl.com.sg


CIRCULATION EXECUTIVE Jaya Devi jaya@epl.com.sg

CONTRIBUTORS Fritz Cleveland Jörg Lantzsch

The Internet of Things (IoT) is revolutionising one sector at a time, with B2B spending on IoT technologies, apps, and solutions expected to reach €250B (US$267B) by 2020, 50 percent of which is driven by discrete manufacturing, transportation and logistics, and utilities. The IoT by itself has limited value. The real value of IoT comes when combined with other technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Blockchain Technology and so forth. The spending on IoT analytics alone is expected to generate €20B (US$21.4B) by 2020. As the number of IoT devices increases from billions to trillions of sensors and other devices it will create a mesh which would enable even more advanced applications that would otherwise be impossible. According to the IBM Centre for Applied Insights there could be 925 million smart meters, 2.54 million smart lights and 1.53 billion utility-managed connected devices by 2020, based on figures from BI Intelligence, Gartner and Ericsson, respectively. Whilst IoT has been discussed for many years, it is now beginning to reach its potential and a greater diversity of applications should be expected over the coming years. IoT is not meant to be seen. Instead it blends into the background, the very structures that we take for granted everyday. But IoT is by no means complete and other technologies are already having an impact on its evolution. Technologies such as Blockchain Technology. Blockchain Technologies impact on the IoT is yet to be fully understood but it has the potential to remedy one of the major discussion points around IoT implementation, which is security. Blockchain Technology could decentralise the network, doing away with the need for a trusted third party. The network would essentially be secure by design. In our 2018 edition of IAA’s IoT Insights supplement there is a collection of articles on topics from smart sensors and smart cities, as well as Industry 4.0, and standardisation.

Mark Johnston Editor

Head Office & Mailing Address

Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd 12 Hoy Fatt Road, #03-01 Bryton House, Singapore 159506 Tel: +65 6379 2888 Fax: +65 6379 2885 Email: iaa@epl.com.sg Web: iaasiaonline.com


Smart Manufacturing

INDUSTRY 4.0: MOVING AHEAD Industry 4.0 continues to revolutionise the manufacturing sector with steady advancements in technology and software. CONTRIBUTED BY MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC ASIA


NDUSTRY 4.0 has been grabbing the industrial headlines since it started about five years ago. It started off as a vision for manufacturers to innovate their factories for increased productivity, higher performance & increased traceability amid other advantages. This is done through harnessing the power of Information Technology (IT) and networking to complement the strength of automation in the physical factory environment. Boston Consulting Group identified nine pillars of Industry 4.0 that forms the basic technology building blocks for this transformation, and many suppliers have been introducing new technologies in these areas. There are many roadshows, seminars and exhibitions revolving around the topic of Industry 4.0 and governments around the world are pushing industries & factories to adopt Industry 4.0.

INDUSTRY 4.0 FATIGUE SYNDROME Some companies have attended many of these seminars, read up alot on these technologies, 4 | IoT INSIGHTS

accepted the marketing from many suppliers, with the hope to choose the best for their companies to adopt and improve their business. They are eager to absorb as much knowledge as they can from these events. However, many of these seminars are over-hyped, with some still harping on broad concepts rather than real solutions or ideas. The audience ended up not reaping any benefits from these seminars. These series of events have created an ‘Industry 4.0 fatigue’. When the next seminar invitation comes, they will groan “Not another Industry 4.0 seminar again”. Many companies are adopting the wait and see attitude. ‘What are my peers doing?’ ‘What are my competitors doing?’ ‘Which technology is beneficial for my company?’ ‘Should I invest in digitalisation?’ ‘What is the Return Of Investment (ROI)?’ These are some of the common questions that many companies are asking themselves.

MOVING AHEAD The industry has reached a stage when most of the technology and capabilities are available, or almost available, in the market (albeit from different suppliers). Why then are companies still hesitant to take the leap? There is a need to move beyond marketing and concept selling, a need to start seeing benefits of Industry 4.0 in your very own factory.

There is a need for a success story: A story that shows the real benefit of adoption of Industry 4.0. A story that anchors in improved business performances. A story that can be used to convince fellow employees, dif ferent functional groups in the companies. A story that sells a vision. How can this success story be created in your very own factory?

There is a need to move beyond marketing and concept selling, a need to start seeing benefits of Industry 4.0 in your very own factory. FOR PRODUCTION END-USERS While everyone is certain that Industry 4.0 will bring benefits to the company, not everyone is sure how to go about doing it. The nine pillars of Industry 4.0 are focusing from the technological front. That alone is not enough. What is needed is for companies to have a clear roadmap, a business strategy, focusing on performance and value it brings to your customers. It is necessary to think big, a vision, have longer term roadmap, and a financial plan to support it. This enables the employees from various levels to follow this vision. With clear directions and roadmap, the team can start identifying the company’s pain points, making problem statements, and start small pilot projects, in line with these directions. Failures are bound to happen, as in all pilot projects. But more successes will happen when everyone pushes forward with a clear goal. These small steps of successes will allow the company to leap forward in mid to long term. Stop adopt ing t he wai t and see at t i tude. Competitors will not tell you what they are planning. By the time they are ready and move into the market, you will be left behind.

FOR TECHNOLOGY SUPPLIERS As discussed earlier, it is time to move beyond concepts and marketing. Customers are hungry for ready solutions, so suppliers need to talk to customers to understand their needs and be prepared to develop solutions that satisfy these needs. The other key aspect is Open Communication. With potentially so much data flowing from one level to the next, or a few levels beyond, there is a need for open and standardised communication. Competing suppliers

need to sit down and discuss on cooperation and collaboration to achieve such standardisation. If that is difficult to achieve, end-users and open standard organisation need to gather the suppliers and lead the way. And this does not only apply to either the IT side or the OT side. It has to happen across both ways, albeit with security in mind. At Mitsubishi Electric, the approach to customers is always based on the Kaizen way, in which improvement is done in small steps and results are constantly monitored for adjustments. This becomes much easier with the e-F@ctory solutions, including interfaces such as MES-Interface module for direct database connection (such as SQL, Oracle, etc) and the OPCUA module, which is based on secured platform independent communication standard developed by OPC Foundation.

FOR SYSTEM INTEGRATORS (SI) Industry 4.0 encompasses a broad front. Sometimes, not a single party can implement all levels of the integration. System integrators can adopt two ways to help a customer achieve success in Industry 4.0. 1. Work with other system integrators Accept that any one particular SI may not have all the capabilities to successfully implement an Industry 4.0 project. It may not necessary be with competing system integrators, but rather complementing ones. For example, a control automation specialist can work with a network infrastructure specialist to ensure that machine data gets send to the customer’s database for analysis. 2. Develop new capabilities

The market is ever evolving. With Industry 4.0 demanding IT and OT capabilities, system integrators of each side will need to start building new capabilities to cover both bands of the technology. It will almost certainly be an uphill task since each band already have its own group of specialised professionals. However, the SI’s on each band may not be wellversed in the other band. Whoever can master both IT and OT bands first will certainly dominate the market. CONCLUSION A full Industry 4.0 implementation is not expected to be cheap, considering the cost of both the IT and the OT capital investments. However, with proper vision and roadmap, the value it can bring will be many folds of the initial investment. Take the first step today. IoT INSIGHTS | 5

Factory Automation

A NEW ERA FOR CONNECTIVITY: OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE WITH PROPER SELECTION AND CARE OF CONNECTORS With the proliferation of sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) era caring for and choosing the correct connectors to optimise performance is a must. Achim Klett, CEO, Binder Connector (SEA) spoke to IAA and gave his thoughts on the latest developments and his recommendations on caring for connectors.

Q: FIRSTLY, COULD YOU GIVE ME A BREAKDOWN OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONNECTORS YOU SPECIALISE IN? ACHIM KLETT (AK): We are a German manufacturer of circular connectors for industrial applications, measurement, control, and automated processes. Our core business is in the range of M12 connectors with all different kinds of codings, like A-, B-, D-, X-coded. We offer the largest and widest range of M12 variations of connectors. That is our core business, which is surrounded by additional kinds of circular connectors like M16, very strong M9 connectors, and so on. Additionally, we offer distribution boxes for all the different M5, M8, and M12 connectors. We also offer special connectors for power supplies and dif ferent market s like 7/8 inch 6 | IoT INSIGHTS

connec tors, which are mainly used in the US markets and finally solenoid connectors, to name a few. Q: WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LATEST TRENDS IN REGARDS TO CONNECTORS? AK: In the end, it is still the M12 sector moving towards a special kind of coding. In regards to the x-coded, the trend is moving towards the transfer of data inside this connector system up to 10Gbits or category 6 signals which, for example, are used in wireless LAN applications. Apart from that there is a strong trend in regards to the Internet of Things (IoT) whereby you need not only supply and transfer signals inside connector systems but in addition have the power supply

inside the same system. This would mean coming up with larger cross-sections and diameters of the single wires carrying higher voltages. In order to make sure that nothing is mated wrongly going for a different kind of coding. Q: IS THERE A TREND TOWARDS MORE WIRELESS TYPE CONNECTIONS, AND IS THAT IMPACTING YOUR BUSINESS? AK: Not really. It would be a pity for us if this trend would be stronger but nevertheless, even if you go for wireless devices, they have got certain base stations which need a power supply where you need to have some kind of bus system in between. I think this will still continue.

There is a strong trend in regards to the Internet of Things (IoT) whereby you need not only supply and transfer signals inside connector systems but in addition have the power supply inside the same system.

AK: Connectors in general are a very old principle. There might be some lower quality connectors where the plating is not really that good, wider tolerances, and not ver y solid. This might be suitable for certain kinds of applications where you might be looking for something that is simply fit for use, rather than worrying about higher levels of performance. In regards to our customers, sometimes they complain that our connectors are too expensive, but this is down to the high quality we provide. We took these complaints into consideration and came up with connectors with technical features that are a bit lower than what we usually offer. For instance, if you are coming up with a series with shielded, molded cables inside, and the customer only needs a standard cable, we are also offering that. We are also changing the designs to be more compact, meaning that the connector itself will be reduced to the minimum dimensions needed for those applications. We always try and react to the requirements of the market to be as close as possible to the customer.

Q: COULD YOU GIVE TIPS ON CHOOSING THE RIGHT CONNECTOR FOR A CUSTOMER’S APPLICATION? AK: Our connec tors are mainly used indoors, w h i l s t s o m e o t h e r co n n e c to r s a re u s e d fo r outdoor applications. As such, knowing where the connectors will be used and in what environment, whether indoors or outdoors. This would be the first step. The next step, is knowing the number of signals you will likely be transferring. It is probably sufficient in most cases to go for a smaller connector, going up to 8 pins. A future trend might see more signals being transferred requiring a larger connector going up to 24 pins. The next consideration is the plating of the contacts. Silver is an option, which is cheaper. The other option is gold, which has a higher cost but has a superior corrosion resistance, taking longer to corrode compared to silver. Q: ARE THERE ANY ISSUES WITH TODAY’S CONNECTORS WHICH HAVE NOT QUITE BEEN RESOLVED OR THE CUSTOMERS MIGHT NOT BE SO HAPPY ABOUT? IoT INSIGHTS | 7

Q: COULD YOU PROVIDE ADVICE TO A CUSTOMER THAT WANTS TO EXTEND THE LIFE OF A CONNECTOR? AK: Yes, certainly. First of all, we have got a 2-year warranty on our products, provided that they are installed per fectly. I would highly recommend that the customer go for our instruction mounting manuals in order to do the best job possible. It is important to be aware that smaller connectors are much more fragile than the bigger ones because of the pin diameters. I would say always treat these smaller connectors carefully because we are talking about an M5 connector, for instance, that has a diameter of about 6mm in total with the main pin having a diameter of less than 0.5mm. We very often have cases where the customer requires a replacement after the connector has been in use for 45 years, for instance, because it was treated very well but eventually broke because someone stepped on it. If the customer is doing a good job taking care of their connectors and are using a suitable connector for their application, then this will greatly extend the lifespan of the connector. Q: WHERE DO YOU SEE THE BIGGEST OPPORTUNITY FOR GROWTH FOR YOUR OWN COMPANY OVER THE NEXT YEAR? AK: In regards to the industry, it is still automation processes. We will be fur t her ex tending our ranges in that direc tion, meaning all the M12 connec tors with all the variations. In regards to market opportunities, I would say there is a ver y strong trend to be present in Southeast Asia and Asia Pacific more generally. This is the place to be because there is still quite a lot of potential and a lot of emerging markets, such as Vietnam, Thailand, South Korea, Indonesia, and the Philippines. These are all markets that are showing a clear upward trend.

Southeast Asia is the place to be because there is still quite a lot of potential in the region, especially in emerging markets, such as Vietnam, Thailand, South Korea, Indonesia, and the Philippines.


Acquisition By Binder Group Helps Grow Industry 4.0 Business With the continued orientation of companies towards the Industry 4.0 mega trend, Franz Binder GmbH & Co. Elektrische Bauelemente KG acquired Introbest GmbH & Co. KG earlier in 2017, with its headquarters in Fellbach near Stuttgart, Germany. The acquisition took effect from January 1, 2017. With the increasing prominence of IIoT/ Industry 4.0 flexible supplier structures are becoming even more important than ever. This is why a company such as Introbest is a timely acquisition. Introbest is a specialist in the manufacturing and assembly of electronic components and systems. In close cooperation with binder electronic manufacturing services (b-ems) in Vohburg, Donau, existing competencies will be strengthened and the existing portfolio of products and services will be expanded in order to adequately meet the growing challenges of the market. Thomas Lacker, former CEO of Introbest, is going to be plant manager with immediate effect – also at b-ems. Mr Lacker remarked: “ I ex pe c t major changes in t he mar ket for elec tronic components and systems. Flexible supplier struc tures will become more important than ever in the industry – especially with regard to a further orientation of companies towards Industry 4.0. In this respect, Introbest has extensive experience also due to different public funding programs by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. I am sure that we will shape our future successfully and am looking forward to our cooperation.” B y t ak in g t his s tep, M ar k u s B ind er, Managing Partner of the binder Group and new CEO of Introbest, wants to give new impetus and explained: “In order to position binder sustainably, continuous development is essential. With this step, we bundle our strengths and we are convinced that we will advance this business segment.” All jobs at Introbest will be preserved. The existing site will also be entirely used in the future.

Factory Automation

THE SMART FACTORY Is Here Top IIoT Capabilities For The Modern Manufacturer With the smart factory being a hot topic nowadays, three critical IIoT capabilities of the smart factory will be discussed. BY FRITZ CLEVELAND, DIRECTOR OF MARKETING, BANNER WIRELESS


IOT IS PERHAPS the biggest buzzword in factory automation today, and IIoT technologies already impact the way factories operate. Therefore, it is essential to understand the terms being used, recognise how IIoT technologies are already being implemented in smart factories, and prepare your business for the future. The following article highlights three critical IIoT capabilities of the smart factory: remote monitoring, predictive maintenance, and process optimisation.

WHAT IS A SMART FACTORY? Smart factories are an important part of the Internet of Things (IoT). The term IoT describes the technologies that connect objects — from consumer electronics to industrial components — to the internet. Meanwhile, the Industrial Internet of Things (or IIoT) refers specifically to the impact of this innovation on industrial applications. IoT/IIoT technologies together create ‘smart’ networks. For example, the wireless technologies of a smart home connect homeowners to almost anything in the house — from their garage door to their refrigerator — and allow remote access via smartphone. Similarly, a smart factory provides plant managers with remote access to wirelessly-connected machines — as well as access to a wealth of data on the operation of those machines — by automating the communication between industrial automation equipment and systems. Data availability is one of the hallmarks of IIoT because it allows businesses to 10 | IoT INSIGHTS

leverage data more meaningfully, including enabling predictive maintenance for machines.

TOP CAPABILITIES OF SMART FACTORIES Three key capabilities of smart factories are remote monitoring, predictive maintenance, and process optimisation. Keep reading for practical examples of each of these capabilities in action in smart factories. Remote Monitoring Visibility into the operational status of machine components (both historically and in real-time) allows plant managers to remotely monitor and diagnose systems quickly as well as identify and resolve problems before the impact on machine availability and productivity compounds. F o r ex a m p l e , t o w e r l i g h t s w i t h w i re l e s s communication allow operators to remotely monitor machine performance without lengthy and expensive cable runs. The lights indicate machine status visually while updates are also transmitted over a secure

The interconnectivity afforded by IIoT technologies enables seamless communication among machines, components, and people.

By monitoring machine components in real-time for increases in vibration and temperature, problems can be detected and resolved before they become too severe and cause additional damage or result in unplanned downtime. Over time, the historical data creates a valuable machine performance log that can be used to make more informed maintenance decisions down the line.

wireless network to a remote device, triggering an action or prompting a response from an operator at a workstation away from the machine. Predictive Maintenance Predictive analytics allows for more accurate planning of machine maintenance, which can help reduce machine downtime, increase Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), and reduce costs of unnecessary preventative maintenance and spare parts inventory. With predic tive maintenance, much of the guesswork is removed because maintenance decisions can be made based on the historical and real-time data from the machine itself. For example, wireless vibration and temperature sensors like the QM42VT Series from Banner can detect signs of misaligned, loose or worn parts on a machine. The wireless sensors then transmit that information to a wireless controller that makes data available immediately (via text or email alerts) and for long term analysis.

Process Optimisation The interconnectivity afforded by IIoT technologies enables seamless communication among machines, components, and people. This interconnectivity allows for data-driven process optimisation. For example, a wireless notification system can be used to alert managers and technicians that they are needed on the line, reducing the need for technicians and managers to constantly check each production line and for workers to leave their workstations when they need assistance. A system like this could be set up so that an operator pushes a button or flips a switch to alert the manager or technician that he or she is needed on the production line. A tower light connected to the gateway’s outputs would then indicate which production line needs a manager’s attention, and colours could be assigned to indicate the need for a technician (yellow) or manager (red). By utilising a wireless network of connected devices to streamline communications, managers, technicians, and line workers are able to use their time more efficiently and productively.

CONCLUSION Overall, the capabilities afforded by IIoT mean that these technologies are not just short-term investments or solutions to immediate problems; rather, they enable continuous improvement by providing companies with the ability to solve new problems as they arise — compounding the value of the investment over time. IoT INSIGHTS | 11

Factory Automation

SMART SENSORS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY The food industry poses significant challenges to the components — like sensors — used in the Factory. A great number of sensors are necessary for the automation of processes in the food industry. BY JÖRG LANTZSCH


HE FOOD INDUSTRY poses significant challenges to t he comp onent s — like sensors — used in the process technology. This means, for example, consistent hygienic design of parts in direct contact with the media. Also the requirements on the sensor technology are rising. In this case, the future belongs to smart sensors offering the user added value. A great number of sensors are necessary for the automation of processes in the food industry. The most important values to be detected are pressure, temperature, flow and level. The requirements on the respective sensors are similar to those in the process industry. Moreover, hygienic design is often absolutely necessary. In some applications it must also be possible to use sensors in hazardous areas.


SENSORS WITH ADDED VALUE A current example for sensor innovations is the LR level sensor operating to the guided wave radar principle. The sensor is installed vertically on the upper end of a tank and emits a microwave signal propagating downwards along the sensor probe. When the microwave hits the surface of the medium it is reflected back towards the sensor. From the transit time of the signal, the sensor determines the distance to the surface and thus the level in the tank. This measuring principle solves two difficulties which may occur when level measurements are carried out with other sensor types. This particular sensor is insensitive to deposits on the tank wall or the probe, and even in case of viscous media the microwave propagates along

the probe irrespective of the deposits. Alongside this, level measurement of liquids forming foam on the surface demand a great deal of the sensors. The type LR level sensor can even reliably detect the level in those applications. The level signal, which is inf luenced by the foam, is correc tly evaluated by the sensor and the distance to the surface of the liquid is reliably detected. The probe of the version for the food industry is made of high-grade stainless steel. Also the other parts of the sensor have a hygienic design and meet the requirements according to EHEDG. The user can exchange the probe and adapt the measuring range. Probes can be offered in different lengths from 150 mm to 2,000 mm. The probe can also be cut to length, if needed. This modular concept increases the flexibility for the user and reduces costs. The type LR level sensor is available with the IO-Link interface.

COMMUNICATION VIA IO-LINK Communication in times of Industry 4.0 becomes more and more important. The communication with the sensors is the first step to ensure continuous

communication up to the company level. At ifm, the interface on the sensor level is IO-Link. All new sensors from ifm use this digital protocol in addition to the conventional analogue interfaces such 4...20 mA . As compared to the analogue t ransmis sion t he measured value c annot be distorted by interference on the cable. Moreover, different values from one single sensor can be transmit ted simultaneously adding even more value to the user. Also for maintenance and repair tasks the user can benefit from sensors with IO-Link interface. Since the sensors can be configured via IO-Link, the configuration can be transferred directly to the new sensor in case of replacement. TimeIoT INSIGHTS | 13

consuming setting of the sensor on site is no longer necessary and the interruption to production is very short. Via IO-Link the user can even access the self-diagnostic data of the sensors and the faulty sensor can be quickly found. This will also increase the plant productivity.

DATA TRANSMISSION TO AN ERP SYSTEM Another important aspect of the digital sensor communication is the possibility to use sensor data additionally for higher-level ERP systems on the company level. For such tasks, ifm uses the Linerecorder. The Linerecorder Agent Connectivity Port, for example, is a software gateway allowing bidirectional communication between a great number of different interfaces. This allows communication between ERP systems and data from devices at the field, control and process control level. The Linerecorder sensor allows the capture and transmission of any data especially for IO-Link sensors. With this system the data can be transmitted directly to the ERP system without an additional PLC in the automation solution being loaded. This direct path for sensor data by omitting the control level is referred to as ‘Y communication’ in ifm terminology because, splitting up like the letter Y, the data reaches, on the one hand, the PLC, and, on the other hand, the company management level. This solution of fers possibilities which are hard to implement with conventional sensors and analogue interfaces. Data logging, condition-based maintenance and improvement of energy efficiency are just some of them.

independently from each other. The two sensor elements — P t1000 and an NTC thermistor — have inver se temperature charac teris t ic s . A microprocessor integrated in the temperature sensor evaluates the signal of both sensor elements and checks the measured temperature value for plausibility. The TAD provides the result of the internal drift monitoring via a separate diagnostic output. Both measured temperature values, the differential value as well as the diagnostic value, can be transmitted via IO-Link. W i t h t h i s s e n s o r t h e p re s c r i b e d re g u la r calibration of temperature sensors is no longer necessary. Especially in the food industry where some processes require t hat t he prescribed temperatures are exactly adhered to, the costs for external calibration can be saved.

THE FUTURE BELONGS TO SMART SENSORS Smart sensors offer many advantages in applications in the food industry and help to reduce costs. Even if today many automation solutions still process analogue sensor signals, the distribution of sensors with IO-Link interface strongly increases. The added value provided by these sensors on different levels convinces more and more customers to switch over to digital communication.

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT WITH ADDED VALUE A typical example for a sensor offering the user added value is the TAD temperature sensor. It features two different sensor elements operating 14 | IoT INSIGHTS

IFM Electronic: Process Sensors ifm electronic has developed a new IP 69K field module with four or eight IO-Link ports and full V1.1 functionality, especially for the food industr y. The decentralised IO - Link masters serve as a gateway between intelligent IO-Link sensors and the fieldbus. Master and device can be easily configured with the LR Device software. The integrated ‘LR AGENT EMBEDDED’ sends the process values directly to the ERP system on request, without detours via the PLC. Connecting the sensor is also simple using standard M12 connection cables.

Smart Cities


IDEAS BEYOND LIMITS It is virtually impossible to imagine modern society without digital networking. This megatrend has long been an integral part of all areas of modern life and work. CONTRIBUTED BY PEPPERL+FUCHS


GARBAGE CONTAINER TRANSMITS a signal to indicate that it is over 80 percent full. This signal is sent via the mobile communications network to a Web-based software application used by the waste management company. This application visualises the capacity of the container using a traffic light system. The company then uses this system to plan the best route for waste collection — garbage trucks travel only to the containers that actually need to be emptied. This system of targeted waste collection saves time, money, and fuel; it also reduces exhaust gas emissions and noise levels for local residents. This sounds too good to be true? This technology has been made a reality by MOBA Mobile Automation AG, a company based in Limburg, Germany. The system has already been put to the test as part of the Smart City project underway in

Barcelona, and it is now being tested for rollout in some twenty other countries. A fill level measurement device is integrated into the lid of every garbage container. This device needs to be extremely robust, and capable of detecting the fill level of the container regardless of what has been deposited inside. It also needs to transmit data on a regular basis. Because absolute reliability is crucial in this application, MOBA opted for ultrasonic technology from Pepperl+Fuchs. The device is equipped with a SIM card and the sensor reports fill level and sensor data at regular intervals. The sensor consumes very little power, so the battery lasts up to 10 years. In the future, such type of flexible automation could also be deployed in traffic management or customised parking guidance systems. IoT INSIGHTS | 15

In Brief: Smart City The Smar t Cit y concept relies on digital technologies to make it easier, more pleasant, and more environmentally friendly for the ever-growing urban population to coexist in society. The aim of the Smart City is to use scarce resources as efficiently as possible and to minimise the negative effects of population growth in large cities. At a technical level, a Smart City requires intelligent and flexible automation solutions that can be used, for example, to manage traffic, commodity flows, waste disposal, and other public services as efficiently as possible, with due consideration for all social and environmental factors. Smart Waste Management is just one example of Smart City technology in action.

EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEW OPPORTUNITIES “Barcelona has taken a key step towards becoming a Smar t Cit y by introducing this Smar t Waste Management system,” said Dr Gunther Kegel, CEO of Pepperl+Fuchs. “With the ultrasonic sensor the fill level measurement device can communicate with other devices and is optimised for low energy consumption. This is a good example of the type of intelligent sensors that are becoming more and more popular. These sensors deliver a differentiated image of reality and can transmit this image in real time.” Other examples include 2-D laser scanners and laser measurement systems with time-of-flight technology, Pulse Ranging Technology (PRT), or laser triangulation. In the future, a combination of these methods could also open up the doors to spatial 3-D detection — and therefore to applications such as fully automated guidance. RFID sensors and components also play a significant role in enabling ever-finer differentiation between production processes, since they are capable of reading and writing tags. This enables them to identify individual parts, so that industrial production processes can be implemented from batch sizes of just one unit and upward. “Combining these kinds of sensors with networked communication technology is the basis for Sensor Technology 4.0,” explained Dr Kegel. “Sensor Technology 4.0, in turn, is the technical prerequisite 16 | IoT INSIGHTS

for the increasing autonomy and automation of plants and factories — in other words, Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things.” New bridge technologies are a crucial link in making this a reality. For the smart waste collection system in Barcelona, mobile communication technology and the Internet fulfill this function. Factory automation often relies on the Ethernet. However, these technologies reach their physical limits in field-level process automation. Even today, mostly analogue signals are used. Plant operators prefer networks with two wires per line for their power and data transmission, instead of the four or eight used by Ethernet technology. For use in hazardous areas, power consumption must be significantly reduced, while the range of a segment must be much larger.

ETHERNET FOR PROCESS AUTOMATION “Together with other well-known manufacturers of automation technology in the process industry, we are conducting a feasibility study on Ethernet application right down to field level,” explained Dr Kegel. “In these applications, it is necessary to define a ‘physical layer’ that meets the requirements for process automation. This process has resulted in two technological concepts for a physical layer, which are now being tested in terms of their economic feasibility and evaluated by users, and may end up being merged into one concept. This technology could replace fieldbuses and open up a new level of flexibility in process automation.” However, some plants are so large that the operators are eager to remove the need for cables, and operate on wireless data transfer. For continuous systems, GSM-based solutions, such as that used for intelligent waste management in Barcelona, are out of the question. A familiar technology used in process automation is WirelessHART, an intelligent and robust data transmission technology that enables all connected devices to act as both transmitters and receivers. The meshed network structure makes it easy to construct extensive networks. However, data transfer in this kind of system is subject to some limitations: If one network participant fails and an alternative route must be found, data transmission can be delayed by the central network management system, and the fact that it is necessary to acknowledge a signal packet transfer. Pepperl+Fuchs is involved in another research project that aims to improve wireless communication. The Dense Cooperative Wireless Cloud Network (DIWINE) project aims to bring

about a network that delivers a significantly higher level of flexibility; one that functions securely, quickly, and reliably even in challenging wireless conditions to transfer data to the cloud. The s y s tem sends messages to dif ferent participants, which no longer need to acknowledge t hem. Ins tead, t he messages are processed autonomously. As the message is forwarded in parallel using this multicast approach, the data is transferred securely and reliably, even if a path is faulty, with no significant increase to the signal runtime. “In this concept, the central network management system is replaced with a decentralised form of intelligence in the individual network nodes,” explained Dr Kegel.

BRIDGING TECHNOLOGY Although research on DIWINE is still ongoing and process Ethernet is yet to make the transition to field level, there is already a technology in existence that, in principle, could be used to add extensive communication features to any sensor. The technology, known as SmartBridge, enables any sensor with an IO-Link interface to be connected to IP structures, providing the sensor with full communication capability. “Currently, sensor data is generally stuck at field level and cannot be made available at a higher level, for example to the Management Execution System. With SmartBridge technology, fill levels from a filling plant, for example, can be fed directly into the performance calculations of the company, without needing to make any changes at the control level to 17 | IoT INSIGHTS

In Brief: Diwine The Dense Cooperative Wireless Cloud Network (DIWINE) is a research project funded by the European Union. The project aims to develop a flexible and wireless network for process automation that functions securely, quickly, and reliably, even in challenging wireless conditions. To achieve this, the central network management system is replaced with a decentralised form of intelligence in the individual network nodes. Each individual participant can respond to faults or unplanned requirements autonomously, which means that a response is initiated extremely rapidly. The cloud-based network securely and reliably transmits all messages. Pepperl+Fuchs is an industry partner of this fundamental universityled research project.

hardware and software,” explained Dr Kegel. “The technology also opens up a host of new options when setting up new plants; if you integrate a machine or plant completely transparently into the network, but do not want to take IP communication right down to the lowest level, or if the sensor is physically inaccessible. SmartBridge technology enables devices to communicate wirelessly with systems in inaccessible locations or encapsulated in the plant or machine. It really is a practical bridging technology that offers great potential for the future.” IoT INSIGHTS | 17

IoT Standardisation

STANDARDISATION: THE LAST HURDLE TO A CONNECTED FUTURE Richard Soley, Executive Director, Industrial Internet Consortium and Chairman and CEO of the Object Management Group (OMG) shared his insights on the adoption of the Internet of Things and the immediate challenges associated with the technology. BY MARK JOHNSTON

Q: TELL ME MORE ABOUT YOUR BACKGROUND AND THE WORK YOU DO? Dr Richard Mark Soley (RMS): My name is Richard Soley. I am the chairman and CEO of the Object Management Group. One of the largest standards organisations in the world. And also executive director of the Industrial Internet Consortium. The OMG is a 30-year-old standards organisation. We were created originally to invent the field of middleware. In the mid-90s we moved into modelling standards. About 85 percent of the standards thrown to publishers are in vertical markets, such as healthcare, manufacturing, transportation and so forth. We also run consortia that are separate for their members and the one that is most important today is the Industrial Internet Consortium. That is nearly 300 companies that are building IoT applications. We call them testbeds. They are actually applying IoT to industrial systems, manufacturing and production but also energy generation, distribution, and transmission, and smart cities, and precision agriculture and so forth. The idea developing standards when you 18 | IoT INSIGHTS

do not yet know what standards you need is a waste of time. We are collecting information about what standards are necessary; requirements generation, basically. As we build these ecosystems of companies to do these IoT projects, we are also learning how to hire people, how to train people, how to retrain people, those sorts of things.

Q: HOW FAR ALONG ARE WE IN STANDARDISING IOT? RMS: There is a stack of technology which we call IoT. First of all, IoT means collecting information from a large number of sensors, doing real-time predictive analytics and delivering decision support to decision makers or directly actuating actuators in the real world. There are lots of different standards there. There are sensors, there are actuators and real-time analytics, and so forth. In regards to the middleware space we have got it covered. The middleware standards have been around for a while. Our standards, at OMG, have been out for 30 years. Those are the oldest

middleware standards. It is not an easy problem but it is a solvable problem. Even in actuators, it is pretty much done. We need standards in areas such as signal analysis. Most importantly in what OMG specialises in, which is semantics. If you have been listening to some of the sessions at IoT Asia 2017 you will keep hearing GE talk about their jet engines that collect an enormous amount of information on every flight. Rolls Royce engines do that too but they are in different formats. The semantics of that information has to be standardised. We are in its infancy in regards to this. However, rather than just go and standardise, it makes sense to actually build systems and learn. Some of those testbeds are going to fail. I will tell you some of the testbeds to give you a feel for what we are doing. The first testbed was started just 2 years ago and is led by Bosch and Tech Mahindra. It now includes SAP and National Instruments. They are essentially reinventing the way you manage manufacturing floors by tracking ever y thing on the f loor. One of their biggest customers has a factory in which the workers spend half their time looking for the right tool. The system knows where the tools are. It makes more sense to take them back to some central repository. It also allows them to make the floor safer by keeping track of people getting too close to the robots and also knows which tool it picked up and what part it picked up and whether they are putting it into the right work in progress. Which work in progress is going to be completed soon and will be available to ship out. The efficiency of the floor and safety of the floor and so forth.

Q: ARE WE TALKING ABOUT STANDARDISATION IN TERMS OF THE WHOLE IOT SPHERE OR ARE WE TALKING ABOUT IOT FOR DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS? RMS: They are very similar. We need a platform otherwise you are going to have to build your own platform. Different platform vendors are going to win in different markets. You are already seeing that between GE and PTC, for example. The announcement two weeks ago, GE and Bosch are now connecting their platforms. They are working together, even though you could say that they are competitors in the IoT and the Cloud space. In fact, they are working together and I think you are going to see more of that.

Q: STANDARDISATION WILL HAVE AN IMPACT ON SECURITY. CAN YOU DISCUSS THE IMPLICATIONS THERE? RMS: First of all, let me say something horrible about security. If we do not solve the problem everybody is going to ship their product anyway. That is just what we learn from history. That is not going to change anytime soon.

Q: WHAT IS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM ABOUT SECURITY. IS IT THE SECURITY OF THE NETWORK OR IS IT THE SECURITY OF THE DATA IN TERMS OF HOW IT IS STORED? RMS: Those are two different problems. I think the biggest problem right now is the reliance on internet technologies or the underlying infrastructure is not particularly secure. I implemented one of the first TCP/ IP stacks in 1979. Back then security was not an issue because it was shared amongst friends, basically. Everybody trusted everybody. If we are going to use that infrastructure for industrial automation, and we are, then we are going to have to build something on top of it to secure it. In September 2016 we published a security framework on how to secure an industrial solution that uses IoT. The main thing is not to ignore the problem. There have been some voices that actually have said it is not a problem because industrial systems will never be connected to the open internet. That is simply not true. Eventually, every internet system gets connected to the internet, either on purpose or by accident. IoT INSIGHTS | 19













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