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Cost-Effective Wind-Turbine Generators

Functional Safety Standards

Energy Efficiency: The Smart Way Oct/Nov 2013

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Attend Singapore International Energy Week from October 28 to November 1, 2013 - See page 71 for details

ISSUES & INSIGHTS

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Can South Korea Lead APAC Utility-Level Energy Storage?

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Asian Energy: The Smart Way

There is an on-going initiative in South Korea to implement ‘Smart Grid’ demonstration projects and the subsequent roll out of smart grids across the country requires the support of energy storage at the utility level. The smart grid plan will increase the demand for utility-level energy storage systems. By Vishal Narain, Frost & Sullivan

IAA interviewed Hayama Hiromu, CEO, Fuji Electric on the company's operations in Asia, and its involvement in smart grids. By Mark Johnston

26

Process CONTROL

30

Building An HMI That Works: Best Practices For Operator Interface Design

Effective Human Machine Interface (HMI) design is important to maintain productivity and increasing safety by closely monitoring operations effectively. By Jean Femia, Opto 22

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Human Machine Interface Systems

A well-designed HMI System does more than just present control functions and information; it provides an operator with intuitive active functions to perform, feedback on the results of those actions, and information on the system’s performance. By John Pannone, HMI Systems

42

SOFTWARE & NETWORKS

40

Cut Out The Crashes

Machine simulation is the five-axis programmer’s constant companion. By Karlo Apro, CNC Software

INSTRUMENTATION & MEASUREMENT

42

Functional Safety Standards In Safety Instrumentation

Industrial processes carry many risks, as such, functional safety standards are an effective way to manage risks and reduce the occurrence of faults in a system. By Lin Yew Chai, Honeywell Process Solutions

energy

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Building Cost-Effective Wind-Turbine Generators

With an increasing appetite for cheap, clean sources of energy and an environmentally conscious populace, the need to design and build efficient, cost-effective renewable generation of energy, such as wind, is rising. By Corrie van Rensburg, Rockwell Automation

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Industrial Fibre Optics For Wind Applications

With a greater role for renewable energy, proper networking and communication between renewable sources is essential. For wind farm applications, fibre optic components represents an important element in offering protection and providing insulation from high-voltage glitches and unwanted signals in power electronic devices. By Alek Indra, Avago

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SECTOR SPOTLIGHT

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A Smarter Approach To Extracting Natural Resources

Industrial Automation Asia (IAA) is published 8 issues per year by Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd 1100 Lower Delta Road #02-05 EPL Building Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 • Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Website: www.iaasiaonline.com Email: iaa@epl.com.sg

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Power Management In A Power Hungry World

Addressing oil & gas exploration and production challenges with technology. By Gardiner Henderson, Eaton

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Case Study: Setting New Standards

A 30,000 A power supply unit sets new performance and energy efficiency standards. Contributed by David Chia, Beckhoff Automation

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EDITOR’S PAGE

An Eye For

Published By:

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Automation

MANAGING DIRECTOR

Kenneth Tan SENIOR EDITOR

Joson Ng josonng@epl.com.sg

ASSISTANT EDITOR

Mark Johnston

With the increasing need to coordinate energy resources, smart

markjohnston@epl.com.sg

grids are gaining in importance and funding. DNV Kema Clean

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT

Sharifah Zainon

Technology Centre opening an Asia Centre of Excellence (CoE) for

sharifah@epl.com.sg

smart grid and renewable energy management in Singapore, is just

GRAPHIC DESIGNER

one example of the increased presence of smart grid research and

Peh Loon Chin pehloonchin@epl.com.sg

implementation. This centre will aim to offer a range of advisory services, including advanced metering infrastructure deployment

SENIOR SALES MANAGER

strategies, electricity market restructuring and grid infrastructure

derickchia@epl.com.sg

impact to market potential assessments on the technical and

SENIOR CIRCULATION EXECUTIVE

Derick Chia

Brenda Tan

business aspects of smart grids.

brenda@epl.com.sg

As another example, Malaysia has set up a US$100 million investment fund to support renewable energy development in Southeast Asia. A partnership with Japan-based Asian Energy

CONTRIBUTORS

Vishal Narain, Jean Femia, John Pannone, Karlo Apro, Lin Yew Chai, Corrie van Rensburg, Alek Indra, Bryce Gregory, Steve McMahon, David Haake, Gardiner Henderson, David Chia

Investments, the fund will seed promising small to mid-sized green

EDITORIAL CONSULTANTS

Jim Pinto

technologies and businesses. This fund comes at an important time

Industry Analyst

as Malaysia looks to accelerate and modernise its smart grid sector

Alastair Ross

and investments in renewable energy.

Director, Codexx Associates Ltd

Whether in the monitoring of smart grid performance or the monitoring of plant processes, proper HMI/Operator interface

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design is important. Primarily because simple, engaging design reduces undue operator stress and increases reaction time that in turn increases efficiency. Good design also aims at reducing human error and a more favourable outcome to process monitoring.

EASTERN HOLDINGS LTD EXECUTIVE BOARD

Mining is another industry sector that benefits greatly from

CHAIRMAN

Stephen Tay

effective monitoring and automation. Possible automation strategies include putting tele-remote vehicles on site, semi-autonomous loaders, or a driverless fleet for transporting resources. Smart Grids, HMI/Operator interface design, and Mining are just some of the topics we will be covering in this issue of IAA. Other topics include applications in CAD/CAM, safety instrumentation, and wind energy. As always, we welcome your feedback and comments.

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Industry News

Attend Singapore International Energy Week from October 28 to November 1, 2013 - See page 71 for details

Singapore: The Asian market for building automation equipment will grow to more than US$1 billion in 2015, according to a study by IHS. Growth in the Asian market for building automation equipment is being driven by several key factors, including a recovering manufacturing industry; increasing urbanisation in China, India, and Southeast Asia; and a growing commitment towards the use of green building solutions. “The Asian market for building automation equipment is forecast to grow by more than US$400 million from 2012 to 2017,” said Sam Grinter, market analyst in the Building Technologies Group at IHS. “A key driver of growth has been the recovery of the global economy, which has stimulated the manufacturing industry in Asia,” he added. Investment by governments and corporations in construction projects is also increasing demand for building automation equipment in Asia. Examples of construction projects include Terminal 3 at the Soekarno Hatta International Airport in Indonesia, the Anxi Cloud Computing Service Centre in China, the Chongqing Automobile Factory in China and the Yongsan IBD Office Tower in South Korea. “Currently, building automation systems in Asia are predominately installed in the largest buildings, such as airports, hospitals, and large multi-tenant commercial offices,” Mr Grinter continued. “However, as the price of energy in Asia increases, and as governments implement tighter legislation and building standards, it is expected that building automation systems will increasingly be deployed in medium and smaller-

Endorsements

Brian Herzog, Sandusky, OH, US

Asian Market For Building Automation Equipment To Exceed US$1 Billion By 2015

The Asian market for building automation equipment will grow to more than US$1 billion in 2015.

sized buildings. This will greatly increase the demand for affordable building automation systems in Asia.” IHS estimates that Johnson Controls, Siemens and Honeywell were among the largest Western building automation equipment manufacturers in Asia in 2012 in terms of revenue. However, local vendors, such as Azbil (formerly Yamatake), Supcon, and Tsinghua Tongfang, have been successful in previous years and are also well placed to take advantage of the forecast growth. “Today the Asian market remains largely unconsolidated,” Mr Grinter added. “However, it is anticipated that smalland medium-sized local manufacturers may be acquired as Western brands increasingly look to gain a foothold in this high growth market.”

The Sustainable Energy Association Of Singapore

Singapore: Industrial Automation Asia (IAA) has been endorsed by the Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore (SEAS), adding to the list of associations that have endorsed the publication. The Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore (SEAS), represents the interests and provides a common platform for companies in Renewable

Energy, Energy Efficiency, and Financial Institutions to meet, discuss, and collaborate on viable projects together. The Association’s mission is to assist its members in achieving sustainable growth locally and regionally through enterprise development and market development, as well as training and learning platforms. SEAS plays a strategic role in aiding

the realisation of Singapore’s vision to be a global centre for Sustainable energy, where products and solutions are developed and exported. SEAS has also built strategic collaborative relations with regional clean energy industry organisations, multilateral and key government institutions enabling projects for its members.

8  industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2013

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Industry News

Gemalto, Oracle And V2Com Collaborate To Deliver M2M Technology For Smart Grid Solutions reliably communicate energy usage data over wireless networks. These modules communicate with V2Com’s Intellligenceware Suite, which uses Oracle Java SE Embedded, Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management (MDM) and GlassFish Server Open Source Edition to connect meter and sensor data into back-end utility IT systems. This allows electric companies to reduce energy losses and fraudulent incidents by improving remote monitoring and management of energy consumption. Quality of service to customers is also improved with faster response times when outages or other issues occur. The intelligent design is scalable, flexible and robust, and can be quickly customised to the individual demands of local market energy providers.

Daniel Julie, Millau, south France

Singapore: Gemalto has entered into a collaboration with Oracle and V2Com in delivering a flexible smart energy solution. This advanced Smart Grid Platform leveraging Gemalto’s Cinterion modules with Oracle Java ME Embedded and Oracle Java SE Embedded, will help to modernise electrical power delivery throughout Latin America. The combination of data security and modular, Java-based solutions will help enable smart metering, along with ‘big data’ integration and power network automation, to improve overall energy efficiency, as well as quality of service for utility companies. V2Com’s solution uses Gemalto’s Cinterion modules with Oracle Java ME Embedded to securely and

Fuji Electric Establishes Myanmar Branch Office

Fuji Electric has established a branch office in the city of Yangon, Republic of the Union of Myanmar.

Singapore: TÜV SÜD PSB has signed a five-year landmark agreement with Singapore Green Building Council (SGBC) to establish a partnership for the certification of green building products under the Singapore Green Building Product labelling scheme. The company will be the assessment body providing all assessment services and issuance of certificates under the Singapore Green Building Product labelling scheme. In addition, the company will maintain valid ISO/IEC Guide 65 accreditation by the Singapore Accreditation Council (SAC) for its assessment and certification services. “By attaining successful certification under the scheme, manufacturers and suppliers will be able to market their products to the green building industry and consumers. This partnership allows it to continually provide our customers

Mark Hunter

TÜV SÜD PSB Partners With Singapore Green Building Council

TÜV SÜD PSB has entered into a five-year agreement with Singapore Green Building Council to establish a partnership for the certification of green building products.

and the building industry with valueadded services as well as enhance our commitment towards sustainability,” said Richard Hong, CEO, TÜV SÜD PSB.

Tokyo, Japan: Fuji Electric has established a branch office in the city of Yangon, Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Myanmar is presently in the process of developing large-scale special economic zones, and the construction of public infrastructure along with capital investment by foreign corporations, including Japanese companies, is expected to pick up in the future. The company has been supplying various products including Electric Substation Equipment to Myanmar since the 1980s. The company intends to boost sales by capitalising on demand for social and industrial infrastructure in Asia, which it has positioned as a key market. By establishing this branch office in Myanmar, it is aiming to expand its business while contributing to the country’s economic development going forward.

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Industry News

Mitsubishi Electric Launches Strengthened Factory Automation Business In Thailand Tokyo, Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Corporation has announced that newly established company Mitsubishi Electric Factory Automation (Thailand) (hereinafter MELFT) completed the acquisition of FA product distributor F A Tech and the integration of the FA product and Computer Numerical Controller

(CNC) sales and service divisions of Mitsubishi Electric Automation (Thailand) (hereinafter MEATH). With this company, Mitsubishi Electric envisions factory automation sales in Thailand reaching JPY 20 billion (US$210 million) by the fiscal year ending in March 2018. MELFT will leverage the strengthened FA

product and CNC sales and service capabilities to provide ample opportunities for future growth in this high-priority market. MEATH continues to manufacture and sell industrial motors, pumps, electrical discharge machines and laser processing machines.

Abhisek Sarda, Goa, India

Yokogawa Wins Mizushima Oil Refinery FEED Contract From JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation

Tokyo, Japan: Yokogawa Electric Corporation announces that Yokogawa Solution Service Corporation, a subsidiary that oversees the company's IA and control business in Japan, has received an order from JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation (JXE) to execute the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) for a project to consolidate the control rooms and systems at its Mizushima-A oil refinery. To s t r e n g t h e n i t s g l o b a l competitiveness, JXE is working to ensure the safe and stable operations at all of its refineries in Japan. One of the means to accomplish this is the consolidation of control rooms, which facilitates faster decision making

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and improves efficiency by allowing the different refinery units to share more information. Consolidation of the control systems will enable the refinery's various processing units to share more production data, thereby leading to more integrated operations and improved efficiency. During the planning phase of this project, the company conducted a feasibility study of control systems. Upon signing the contract, it will prepare a master plan to introduce a Centum VP production control system that will integrate the monitoring and control functions for units throughout the refinery complex that are currently handled by multiple control systems.

This master plan will also address the introduction of a ProSafe -RS, a safety instrumented system to ensure the safety of processes throughout the refinery. It will also propose solutions to JXE such as software packages for remote monitoring and online diagnosis that improve maintenance efficiency, field wireless solutions that enable the installation of measuring instruments at previously difficult-to-install locations, advanced control rooms with designs that enhance operability and the visibility of data, and operator training systems. These solutions can as such enhance operational safety and stability.

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Industry News

Rueil-Malmaison, France: Schneider Electric and the Philippine NGO Gawad Kalinga have signed a partnership agreement aimed at increasing access to electricity for rural communities in the Philippines. Fifty-one percent of people in the Philippines live in rural areas. Although only 10 percent have no access to electricity, rural communities often need a reliable power supply for medical facilities, and for entrepreneurial and agricultural activities. Schneider Electric and Gawad Kalinga have teamed up to address these issues. Gawad Kalinga will provide social expertise, thanks to its knowledge of the region, the needs on the ground and of local stakeholders, and will be able to build social models adapted to the Philippine reality. Schneider Electric will contribute with its technological products and solutions (developed specifically to meet the needs of disadvantaged populations), technical expertise and experience in providing access to energy gained since the launch of its

Shho, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Schneider Electric And NGO Gawad Kalinga Sign A Partnership

Schneider Electric and the Philippine NGO Gawad Kalinga have signed a partnership agreement aimed at increasing access to electricity for rural communities in the Philippines.

BipBop program in 2009. "Within the framework of our BipBop program to increase access to reliable, affordable and clean energy, we are always looking for innovative partnerships with actors who can offer us a clear vision and detailed knowledge of the needs of populations. The aim is to help people through a business creation process" explains JeanPascal Tricoire, Chairman and CEO of Schneider Electric. "We're joining

Gawad Kalinga in its mission to create models for sustainable communities based on lasting economic development where access to electricity is essential," he added. The first year of the partnership is intended for field studies and initial tests to fully grasp and model the needs of the communities and local entrepreneurs, to then define a specially adapted deployment plan in the course of 2014.

Schaeffler Opens Training Centre Eltmann/Schweinfurt, Germany: Schaeffler has officially opened a technical training centre in Eltmann, Germany. Among the guests who were provided with information about the new classrooms, technical equipment and contents of training during the ceremony were Michael Ziegler, mayor of Eltmann, Helmut Zirnsak, deputy mayor of Ebelsbach, and Bernhard Russ, deputy administrator of the Hassberge district. The training centre was officially opened by Robert Schullan, member of the executive board of Schaeffler and president Industrial, and Karlheinz Lindner, who is responsible for all technical training activities

worldwide as VP of the technical office in Eltmann. The training centre was relocated from Hirschaid to Eltmann for reasons of space. The company has conducted training on various levels for its customers, sales partners and employees in the TÜV-certified facilities in Eltmann since the beginning of 2013. In future, all standard rolling bearing training will take place here. “After a long construction and renovation period, today we are very pleased to officially open the new training centre and all the amenities it offers. All participants will find an ideal environment for theoretical and practical training here”, explains Mr Lindner.

The training centre is also responsible for the central planning and coordination of the contents of all training activities worldwide. The coordination centre’s employees are currently supporting training courses conducted in 30 Schaeffler Technology Centres or sales offices worldwide by more than 100 trainers with their methods expertise. Providing large classrooms with equipment for theoretical training. A hall with an adjacent preparation room can be used for practical mounting training sessions. A video conference room for communication with trainers at locations abroad or learning in virtual classrooms is also available.

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TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR BUSINESS AND GAIN VISIBILITY ACROSS YOUR SUPPLY CHAIN As technology levels the playing field, businesses today are finding ways to better allocate their finite number of resources to generate value and profit. Reducing wastefulness and inefficiency along the production line continues to be a challenge as many companies are expanding their operations to an international level. Zebra Technologies identified seven common areas where wastage affects profitability of the business. • Over-production: producing more than the demand • Waiting: whether for the previous, current, or next step in the process, waiting results in wasted worker time • Transportation: unnecessary transport of materials, work-in-progress, and unfinished goods that add little value to the final product • Non-value added processing: doing more work than is necessary often due to poor plant layout or misguided attempts to recover expensive machinery costs • Unnecessary motion: relating to people bending, stretching, or walking too far, due primarily to the inappropriate location of tools, parts inventories, and fixtures • Excess inventory: specifically referring to work-in-progress between operations and purchased parts within the supply chain, frequently resulting from overproduction • Defects: producing defective parts or products results in rework and scrap and invariably adds to manufacturing cost One of the best ways to address the various productive inefficiencies is to have visibility across the supply chain at all times. Being able to track the way in which their products are moving from the factory to the warehouse, and finally to the retail store allow companies to make informed business decisions in real time that have an impact on profitability. A way of gaining visibility is by using Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled solutions such as RFID printing and barcodes. Tagging goods with RFID tags and barcode labels offer a bevy of benefits including complete traceability throughout the entire supply chain through accurate product labelling and tracking, as well as streamlined efficiency through better asset availability and utilisation. To provide businesses with this strategic insight into their supply chain, Zebra offers an extensive portfolio of printing solutions, incorporating IoT solutions like barcode and RFID technologies to transform physical elements of a business into the digital, allowing organisations real time access to their supply chain - in terms of location, condition, timing, accuracy, and speed of events occurring throughout their supply chain.

The Link-OS™ environment is available for use with the following Zebra devices: • Mobile Printers: – iMZ220™ and iMZ320™ – QLn220™ and QLn320™ (Print Touch not available) – QLn420™ • Industrial Printers: – ZT200™ Series

Scan to find out more about the Link-OS™ Environment.

For example, ECHO Inc, a worldwide leader in the development and manufacturing of professional-grade handheld power equipment used Zebra’s QL 420 Plus Direct Thermal Printer to improve the speed and accuracy of product picking for distribution. As a result, there was at least 35 percent improvement in efficiency and accuracy in the product picking process, also resulting in improved customer service. Complimenting Zebra’s printer offering, the QLn420, is the new Link-OS™ environment. Developed in response to rising demands for greater mobility, flexibility, and device-connectivity, the Link-OS environment is an open platform that pairs operating system for smart Zebra devices with powerful apps, making them easy to integrate, manage, and maintain from any location. To find out how Zebra’s products and solutions can be customized for your business, contact our consultants at SGMarcom@zebra.com. ©2013 ZIH Corp. All rights reserved.

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Industry News

France: Dassault Systèmes has acquired Safe Technology. The acquisition of Safe Technology, based in Sheffield, UK, expands Dassault Systèmes’ 3DExperience platform and its realistic simulation applications (Simulia). Safe Technology, developer of the fe-safe durability simulation application suite, has more than 500 customers, including General Motors, Caterpillar, Cummins, Emerson Climate Technologies, Honda Jets, Harley Davidson Motor Company and Hyundai Motors. The amount of the transaction was not disclosed. “Consumers want a product that is built right. They want a product that lasts. Durability deeply affects the emotional attachment between brands and their users. The 3DExperience platform is all about building brand loyalty for a company’s business and

Abdulhamid AlFadhly, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Dassault Systèmes Acquires Safe Technology

Dassault Systèmes has acquired Safe Technology. The acquisition of Safe Technology expands the company’s 3DExperience platform and its realistic simulation applications (Simulia).

the products it offers. This is why Safe Technology is such a good fit for Dassault Systèmes,” said Bernard Charlès, president and CEO, Dassault Systèmes. “Advanced fatigue and durability software solutions are an

ABB Wins Its First Variable-Speed RingGeared Mill Drive Order In Namibia Baden, Switzerland: ABB has won an order to provide four dual pinion high-speed ring-geared mill drive systems for the Swakop Uranium Husab mine, in the Erongo region in western-central Namibia. The Husab greenfield project is expected to become the second largest uranium mine in the world, with production potential of 6,800 tonnes of uranium oxide per year. This amount surpasses the total current uranium production of Namibia, enabling the country to become the second largest uranium producer worldwide. The mineralisation grade of the granite-hosted uranium at the Husab greenfield project is considered one of the world’s most significant mineral discoveries in decades. The scope of supply comprises

four variable-speed drive systems with asynchronous motors, ACS6000 frequency converters with mill application controller, transformers, medium voltage cubicles and system engineering and spare parts for two 6.75MW semiautogenous (SAG) mills, and two 4.25MW ball mills. The company’s variable-speed Ringgeared Mill Drive (RMD) solutions are designed for reliable, long-life and low maintenance operation. The proven technology optimises the grinding process, which makes it ideal for ores with varying grinding properties. In addition to high system efficiency, availability and process reliability, the variable-speed drive also provides energy and operating cost savings by using less electricity than a conventional fixed-speed mill drive.

essential part of the product design process. Safe Technology will enhance Dassault Systèmes’ Simulia structural simulation to predict and analyse product life quickly and accurately,” he added.

Success For Open Source Strategy In Industrial Environments US: Five years after the open source PowerLink stack was first published on SourceForge.net as openPowerLink, the download count crossed another threshold in September 2013, by surpassing the 20,000 downloads mark. “The decision to make openPowerLink available as a free download has brought sustained growth in the number of system integrators using this advanced communication standard,” says Stefan Schönegger, MD of the Ethernet PowerLink Standardisation Group.

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Industry News

Panduit And Stulz Launch Partnership Tinley Park, US: Stulz is now a Panduit Technology Ecosystem Partner (TEP). This collaborative relationship between these two companies leverages technology leadership and innovation to provide mutual customers with validated, interoperable and best-inclass product sets for the data centre. “We are very excited to bring these compatible product sets to the market,” said Jeff Paliga, director of Data

Omega Engineering Opens First Office In Southeast Asia

Centre Solutions, Panduit Corporation. “Optimal thermal efficiency in the data centre demands that the cooling systems and the physical infrastructure are tightly aligned. The proper cooling system (from Stulz) must be selected to properly fit with the hot or cold aisle containment, racks, and pathway systems (from Panduit) to deliver maximum cooling efficiency,” he added.

Kärlis Dambräns, Räga

Appurify Launches Public Beta Of Mobile Test Automation Platform

Mobile teams are looking for more efficient ways to test and optimise their apps for iOS 7 and new Apple phones, which are also supported by the Appurify platform.

San Francisco, US: Appurify has launched the public beta of its platform for testing, run-time debugging and performance optimisation of mobile applications. The launch comes after several months of private beta testing with some of the world's largest technology companies and independent developers, and just as mobile teams look for more efficient ways to test and optimise their apps for iOS 7 and new Apple phones, which are also supported by the Appurify platform. The company also announced product collaborations with two mobile application development platforms, alongside a free SDK for the iOS development community. The company, which announced its

Series-A funding in May 2013, is leading the movement toward automation and performance optimisation for mobile apps. ABI Research predicts the mobile testing market in the coming years will be predominately driven by the adoption of automation. Further, in an analysis of critical 1-star reviews among top free applications in the Apple App Store, the company found that more than half of user complaints were tied to performance issues. With mobile development maturing and performance issues top of mind, the company is well-positioned to serve mobile teams eager to move away from manual testing and ensure their apps perform as expected in the real world.

Stamford, US: Omega Engineering has opened an office in Singapore to coordinate its business throughout the Southeast Asia region. This is part of a multi-phase plan to expand its global presence and footprint across Asia. The official grand opening of the new office was held on September 27, 2013. This follows the opening of the China office in 2012, with additional investments to be made in other countries in the Asia Pacific region, according to the company‘s officials. Michael Lopez was appointed as the GM of Southeast Asia. Its Southeast Asian business unit will have more than a dozen employees, including trained applications and technical support engineers, offering customer service in this region. “Our move into Singapore helps us to better service our clients in Southeast Asia,” said Patricia Liu, VP and MD, Omega Engineering (Asia Pacific), commenting: “We have a significant installed base of business here where customers in multiple industries continue to expand their operations. Locating our newest office near our customers allows us to serve their needs more efficiently. It also presents us with an opportunity to grow our activities and expand our impact while more effectively reaching new customers in this emerging economic region.”

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Industry News

Daewoo Awards US$6.7 Million+ Order To Rockwell Automation Milwaukee, US: Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME), a South Korean shipbuilder established in 1973 in South Korea, has awarded a US$6.7 million+ order to Rockwell Automation. Rockwell Automation will deliver fully integrated safety solutions for Transocean, an international provider of offshore contract drilling services for energy companies, and an important DSME customer. Rockwell Automation will employ its large-project delivery management expertise to provide its PlantPAx Integrated Control Power and Safety

Solution with the AADvance process safety system. The contract covers deliveries to four new Transocean drill ships, with options for six more ships. It follows a US$6 million+ order from DSME to Rockwell Automation for four new offshore drill ships in 2011. According to DSME, Rockwell Automation offers a complete portfolio of offshore solutions, and a proven, robust system for DSME to improve its system availability and enhance the safety systems for offshore applications, including drill ships and rigs.

“We are confident that Rockwell Automation will deliver and commission integrated information, control, power and safety systems needed to complete this important project for Transocean, based on their expertise to design, develop and deliver automation systems for the offshore industry,” said a DSME spokesperson. Deliveries are scheduled for early 2014. All key solutions are scheduled for completion by June 2014 for the first vessel, and by October 2015 for an additional three vessels.

Emerson Automating Lubrizol Additives Facility In China A u s t i n , U S : E m e r s o n P ro c e s s Management and The Lubrizol Corporation have completed onschedule, on-budget factory acceptance of Emerson’s integrated automation solution for Lubrizol’s greenfield additives manufacturing facility in Zhuhai, China. Emerson is the Main Automation Contractor for the plant, which will offer select additive component manufacturing as well as additive package blending. The Zhuhai plant is the cornerstone of Lubrizol’s 10-year investment plan to upgrade operations and increase global capacity in additives. Lubrizol will phase in select capacity additions at the facility to meet market demand. Emerson has collaborated with Lubrizol since the 2002 installation of a DeltaV digital automation system at a facility in Lanzhou, China. Since then, Lubrizol has expanded use of the DeltaV system into its largest base of production in Deer Park, Texas, as well as other sites. The two companies have worked to further improve operational excellence at Lubrizol plants. A t Z h u h a i , E m e r s o n ’s M a i n Automation Contractor role includes collaborating with the Lubrizol team to

Emerson is the Main Automation Contractor for Lubrizol’s greenfield additives manufacturing facility in Zhuhai, China, which will offer select additive component manufacturing as well as additive package blending.

engineer, project-manage, install and commission a complete automation solution for the new additives plant. The Emerson solution is based on a FrontEnd Engineering and Design (FEED) study done previously at Lubrizol’s facility in Deer Park, Texas. Emerson’s DeltaV system will manage more than 2,900 inputs and outputs, including Rosemount measurement and analytical instruments, Micro Motion Coriolis meters, Fisher control valves and regulators, and on-off valves with

FieldQ actuators — a total of almost 1,900 Emerson measurement and control devices. The system and devices are digitally integrated using IEC 62591 (WirelessHART), Foundation fieldbus, and Profibus communications. Emerson’s DeltaV Electronic Marshalling with CHARMs technology helps simplify engineering and installation by eliminating many of the wires and connections required by traditional marshalling.

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Industry News

National Instruments Lead User Program Paving The Way For 5G Wireless

Chris Dlugosz, Buffalo, NY, US

Endress+Hauser To Acquire Kaiser Optical Systems

Through the RF/Communications Lead User program, NI works with research institutions around the world to address network capacity concerns. Wireless communications researchers involved in the lead user program accelerate prototyping with graphical system design.

Texas, US: National Instruments is collaborating with several researchers focused on RF and wireless communications research — specifically fifth generation (5G) wireless communications. The proliferation of smart devices has led to a wireless spectrum shortage, which means researchers are seeking new ways to alleviate the bandwidth crunch and increase network data capacity. Market analysts predict that spectrum demand in the US will outstrip capacity by 2017. Through the RF/Communications Lead User program, NI works with research institutions around the world to address network capacity concerns. Wireless communications researchers involved in the lead user program accelerate prototyping with graphical system design. Conventional methods and disparate tools make prototyping expensive and can add years to development time as researchers struggle with long learning curves on tools, which detracts focus from the actual research. The graphical system design approach significantly reduces the time it takes to transition from theory to practical results in a realworld environment. “The complexity of today’s wireless communication challenges requires a new design approach,” stated Sundeep Rangan, NYU Wireless professor. “We were able to build a functional LTE prototype in a few months as a foundational element to our research.” TU Dresden joined the RF/Communications Lead User program in 2011 and demonstrated a fully functional Generalised Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM) prototype at NIWeek 2013 in Austin, Texas. “The rapid progress from simulation to prototype was surprising,” said Vodafone Chair, professor Gerhard Fettweis of TU Dresden. “We now have a functional GFDM prototype to clearly demonstrate the benefit of this approach to 5G wireless systems, but it also enables our team to continue to iterate and explore other aspects of 5G systems including cross layer optimisation with a new physical layer.” “As part of the National Instruments Lead User program, our team has been measuring and developing channel models for spectrum above traditional cellular frequencies,” said Ted Rappaport, NYU Wireless professor. “The road to 5G will inevitably involve deployments in these new frequencies,” he added.

US: Endress+Hauser has acquired the US company Kaiser Optical Systems. The Swiss process automation specialist has signed an agreement with parent company Rockwell Collins. Kaiser Optical Systems is a specialist in spectrographic instrumentation and applied holographic technology. Principal products include Raman sensors and instrumentation, advanced holographic components f o r s p e c t ro s c o p y, telecommunications, astronomy and ultra-fast sciences, and display systems for aircraft. The company's main offices and manufacturing are located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. "With the acquisition of Kaiser Optical Systems we are expanding our range in the field of advanced analytics for liquids, gases and solids. In addition we are strengthening our optical measurement technology and manufacturing competence," said Klaus Endress, CEO of the Endress+Hauser Group. Kelly Ortberg, president and CEO of Rockwell Collins, added: "This transaction provides Kaiser Optical Systems with the resources and expertise better suited to the industries it serves, and helps Rockwell Collins keep its focus on strengthening the company's core communication and aviation electronics business for commercial and military customers."

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INDUSTRY UPDATES

The Perfect Union P R O F I N E T , the ‘Industrial Ethernet’ communication system based on standard Ethernet, combines with the PROFIdrive drive profile, which has already been used successfully with Profibus for decades, as well as other technologies such as device and application profiles, to form the basis for high-performance and future-proof drive technology. This ‘Drive Technology with Profinet’ has a comprehensive range of applications, scalable performance with cycle times as short as a few µs, and user-friendly, cost-effective implementation. This makes it a suitable solution for all drive tasks. All of the technologies used originated from, and are supported by, working groups of Profibus & Profinet International (PI).

Drive Technology For the past two decades, electric drive technology has gone through an innovation phase and, as a result, has contributed to various optimisations in the production and process industries, including achievement of ambitious targets for energy saving. The importance of this is underscored by the fact that electric drives for machines, conveyor belts, pumps, compressors, and so on are responsible for up to 70 percent of total industrial power consumption. Our objective here is to present the coming together of the Profinet communication technology developed and supported by PI with the PI PROFIdrive device profile (and additionally the PROFIsafe and 20

PROFIenergy profiles) to form a high-performance, flexible, and scalable drive technology. This will result in the ability to operate Profinet drives of different manufacturers with or without device profiles with scalable communication (Standard Ethernet, RT, or IRT). With that, the Profinet universal bus will also prove itself as a high-performance drive bus (Figure 1).

Drive Technology Before The Fieldbus Era The earliest interface for drive systems was the discrete analogue interface, which used I/O terminals to transfer control commands and status messages and voltage or current signals to deliver setpoints to the frequency converter. With the changeover of closedloop control and signal processing in converters to digital technology, serial interfaces such as RS422 and RS232 found their way into drive technology in the 1980s. Initially, they were used mainly to connect a PC for parameter assignment or

commissioning purposes. A second interface enabled connection to a controller or an overall control system. Finally, a third interface was used to quickly forward analogue process variables to the downstream drive. These three communication paths co-existed side by side for many years.

Drive Technology Around And After 2000 ‘Drive technology’ was generally understood to mean a frequency converter or servo amplifier that controlled a motor according to a preassigned speed setpoint. All components required for this (motor, converter, encoder, and closed-loop controller) were parts of the drive (Figure 2), while only setpoint setting and actual value monitoring were handled by the controller using Fieldbus c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( P ro f i b u s , Profinet). From a technological perspective, therefore, a vertical 1:1 relationship existed between the controller and drive without any

Figure 1: Drive Technology with Profinet (‘Drive bus’)

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Figure 2: Drive technology (technological perspective) around the year 2000.

possibility, for example, for direct communication between network nodes. Additional functionalities such as safety engineering and standby management had to be implemented using separate additional monitoring and control systems. The effect of the new Fieldbus communication technology was first seen on the interface to the automation system, where it enabled distributed I/O signals to be read into the control system and output from there using cyclic communication. Many Fieldbuses added acyclic communication shortly thereafter, which also replaced the previous interface for parameter assignment and commissioning. Following introduction of direct data exchange in Profibus, it was possible to replace the third interface between the drives, as well, with a single interface on the drive. For servo drives in motion control applications, however, the standardised Fieldbus systems were generally too slow or lacked real-time capability. In particular, the synchronisation between the strictly cyclical motion control application in the control system and the equally cyclical closedloop position and speed control

Figure 3: Drive technology (technological perspective) in the year 2012.

in the drive required isochronous communication capability, ie: clock synchronisation. Many drive manufacturers developed special communication systems for this, which are still available on the market today. The mechanical shafts and cams customarily used up to that point were increasingly replaced by electric drive functions. This was particularly evident in Profibus. In order to operate even greater numbers of drives within an acceptable cycle time in the range of 1-10 ms, the transmission rate was increased from 1.5 to 12 Mbps. At the same time, isochronous communication and clock synchronisation were added for motion control applications. This enabled Profibus to replace special-purpose bus systems and to realise all applications of standard drives up to and including machine tools with a single system.

Drive Technology In 2012 A characteristic feature of drive technology in 2012 is the combining of typical drive and technology functions with additional and increasingly important applications such as safety engineering and energy

management in the drive (Figure 3). The drive is as such evolving into a platform for various drive-related automation functions. Accordingly, the former ‘single’ Fieldbus interface of the drive is upgraded to a ‘multifunctional communication node point’ between the automation functions distributed among the drive and controller. Another advancement is the increasing replacement of conventional Fieldbuses with industry-compatible Ethernet systems, such as Profinet, as the automation bus. This has boosted performance in many ways, and not just as a result of the shorter cycle times and simplified networking with higher levels. The technological perspective (Figure 3) of the indicated advancements shows — compared to Figure 2 — several vertical and horizontal relationships between one or more controllers with different functions. On the control side, there is not only the drive controller but also controllers for energy management and/or safety. On the drive side, there are energy management and safety engineering functions in addition to the drive functions. ENQUIRY NO. 7101

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Newsdesk Newsdesk

Working Towards Industry 4.0 With CANopen MSF Vathauer Antriebstechnik is supplementing its family of fully electronic motor starters and frequency converters for decentralised automation with the Mono-Switch Fieldpower for logistics systems and the Power & Free (P&F) Energy Saver Controller for P&F conveyor systems. As drive system partner, the company uses the Fieldpower power network system by Weidmüller for its drive solutions. Industry 4.0 With both drive systems, the company is promoting the factory of the future, which will organise itself. This concept is known as the fourth industrial revolution, or simply ‘Industry 4.0’. The company is already making a contribution in this area, which will enable autonomous decision processes in companies and entire value creation networks to be managed and optimised in close to real time. It is presenting a drive automation system that can be used, for example, to automate logistics systems and other industrial applications with or without overriding system control and adapt them to changing production processes. The motor management is distributed in a decentralised manner via a power network cable to the machinery line, with all of the

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motor management components communicating with each other. Modular Power Network Fieldpower by Weidmüller is a modular power network system for decentralised automation. The MSF Vathauer drive components are simply plugged into the installed Fieldpower boxes on location, which has the advantage of greatly shortened installation and activation times, as well as the modular design of the production structures. Facility planning is also accelerated with this integrated and flexible drive solution. Power & Free Conveyor systems are robust and reliable material flow systems with a high degree of flexibility for the user. They are particularly suitable for transporting materials under difficult environmental influences, such as dirt and high temperatures. Using the decentralised P&F Energy Saver Controller enables a high degree of flexibility during the planning and automation phase. The controller can be installed at any point close to the actuators in the machine’s vicinity, and with P&F conveyor systems at decentralised locations along the belt systems. The system is supplied and controlled via a power and data network line. To this end, a P&F network interface

Single-drive roller conveyors and installed Mono-Switch Fieldpower drives; thanks to their internal control logic, the devices can be operated without an overriding control system.

transforms the generic CANopen signals into P&F CANopen signals. The control signals from the CANopen network and the voltage supply are then combined in a single standard cable. The resulting power and data network is distributed via a single cable along the belts to the controllers, as such initiating the conveying process. Conclusion The realisation of Industry 4.0 may appear utopian at first glance, but in fact current technologies are already bringing it to life. MSF Vathauer Antriebstechnik and Weidmüller present the first innovative drive and automation solutions, which will make the factory of the future a reality. ENQUIRY NO. 7102

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Luiz Fernando Pilz, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Industrial Communication Foundations Discuss Potential Merger

The Fieldbus Foundation and the HART Communication Foundation have entered into discussions on the potential for merging the two organisations into a single industry foundation dedicated to the needs of intelligent device communications in the world of process automation. The chairmen of the two organisations — Dr Gunther Kegel of the Fieldbus Foundation and Mark Schumacher of the HART Communication Foundation — issued the following statement on behalf of their Boards of Directors: “We believe combining the resources and capabilities of each foundation into a single organisation will provide significant benefits to both end users and suppliers. For end users, a single organisation that combines the power of both Fieldbus Foundation and HART Communication Foundation would provide a full solution that addresses every conceivable aspect of field communications and intelligent device management for the process industries. For suppliers, a single organisation would create efficiencies in resource utilisation, consistency of processes and procedures, and would deliver significant improvements in member services and support.”

Potential To Harmonise The Fieldbus Foundation and HART Communication Foundation have worked together in the past and have a long history of cooperation. For example, the two organisations worked together on the development of common international standards such as Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) and, most recently, the development of the Field Device Integration (FDI) specification. The merger offers potential to harmonise many aspects of the two protocols, making it easier for end users and suppliers to implement the technology and obtain the full benefits of each technology in plant operations and maintenance. ENQUIRY NO. 7103

Modbus Integration Into Foundation For Remote Operations Management The Fieldbus Foundation is developing technical specifications for integration of devices based on the Modbus communications protocol into its Foundation for Remote Operations Management (ROM) technology. Integration of these instruments will help enable an overall remote operations solution in a wide range of industrial automation applications. The first development of its kind integrating remote input/output (I/O), ISA100.11a, WirelessHART, wired HART, and Foundation fieldbus H1 protocols into a single, standard data management environment, Foundation for ROM extends the capabilities of Foundation fieldbus to wired and wireless devices installed in some of the world’s harshest and most remote locations. This open, non-proprietary solution provides a unified digital infrastructure for asset management in applications ranging from tank farms and terminals to pipelines, offshore platforms, and even Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) skids. The Foundation for ROM technical specifications for the remote I/O, wired HART, WirelessHART and wireless ISA100.11a interfaces have been completed and were successfully demonstrated at a live end user demonstration at the Petrobras research and development facility (Cenpes) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April of this year. The Fieldbus Foundation is now proceeding to develop specifications for Modbus integration into Foundation for ROM. Modbus devices such as well head flow meters and submersible pump controllers need to be integrated as part of the overall solution in some applications. Whether operating on a wired or wireless HSE backhaul network, the Foundation for ROM solution enables automation end users to bring device data into the Foundation fieldbus infrastructure, which provides a single source of data management, diagnostics, alarms and alerts, data quality control, control-in-the-field capability, and object-oriented block structure. ENQUIRY NO. 7104 Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  23

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Industrial Ethernet Roadshow 2013 In Taiwan & South Korea I n S e p t e m b e r 2 0 1 3 , t h e E t h e r C AT Technology Group (ETG) conducted its Industrial Ethernet Seminar Series in three cities in Taiwan and two cities in South Korea. “With a total of about 300 participants in Taipei, Tainan and Taichung we received consistently positive feedback from the attendees who were very interested in EtherCAT in general and the content of the seminars in particular,” explains Beryl Fan, manager of the ETG office China, who was on-site during the events in Taiwan. In South Korea the ETG visited Seoul and DaeJeon. A total of 120 participants came to the Industrial Ethernet Seminars there — a very positive result for the first EtherCAT Roadshow in this country. The seminars in Taiwan and South Korea, which were free of charge for the attendees, provided information about

using EtherCAT as an Ethernet-based real-time communication system. The participants learned about EtherCAT technology in detail, explored best practice approaches to implementation from ETG member companies and received general information about the benefits and challenges of Industrial Ethernet.

Member Support As usual for the EtherCAT Roadshow concept, the seminars in Taiwan and South Korea were supported by several ETG member companies, who sponsored the event and provided practical informative presentations about their EtherCAT implementations. ENQUIRY NO. 7105

Impressions from the EtherCAT Roadshows in Taiwan and South Korea.

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ETG: Success In Japan Continues This year’s visit in Yokohama, Japan, was — just like last year ­— once again marked by success for the EtherCAT Technology Group (ETG). During the EtherCAT Technology Update as well as the 2013 Japanese EtherCAT Plug Fest, numerous participants learned about the latest technology trends and received helpful EtherCAT development support from the EtherCAT experts on-site. The first of the ETG activities in Japan was the annual EtherCAT Technology Update, an event, which informs its participants — mainly developers and product managers of EtherCAT devices — about the latest results and developments within ETG’s technical working groups as well as news and trends of EtherCAT technology in general.

Active exchange at the 2013 Japanese EtherCAT Plug Fest in Yokohama, Japan.

“This year, special interest was given to the results of ETG’s SEMI TWG, the working group which received widespread publicity due to its specification of new device profiles for the semiconductor industry,” explains Dr Guido Beckmann, chairman of the ETG Technical Committee and main presenter of the event. Additionally, about 45 attendees received details about EtherCAT in mobile applications and the Safety over EtherCAT (FSoE) Conformance Test Tool from the ETG which has been certified by TÜV not long ago.

Developers & Manufacturers The next day the ETG invited developers and manufacturers of EtherCAT devices to its 2013 Japanese EtherCAT Plug Fest which also took place in Yokohama, more precisely at the facilities of Beckhoff Automation located there. A total of 32 participants from 14 different companies met in the frame of the event to test their five master and 18 slave devices for interoperability by using ETG’s Conformance Test Tool. ENQUIRY NO. 7106

EtherCAT Technology Info: Diagnostics And Error Localisation With EtherCAT Experience with conventional fieldbus systems has shown that diagnostic characteristics play a major role in determining a machine’s availability and commissioning time. In addition to error detection, error localisation is important during troubleshooting. EtherCAT features the possibility to scan and compare the actual network topology with the planned topology during boot up. EtherCAT also has many additional diagnostic capabilities inherent to its system.

The EtherCAT Slave Controller The EtherCAT Slave Controller (ESC) in each node checks the moving EtherCAT frame for errors with a checksum. Information is provided to the slave application only if the frame has been received correctly. If there is

a bit error, the error counter is incremented and the subsequent nodes are informed that the frame contains an error. The master device will also detect where the fault originally occurred in the system by analysing the nodes’ error counters. This is an advantage in comparison to conventional fieldbus systems, in which an error is propagated along the entire party line, making it impossible to localise the source of the error. EtherCAT can detect and localise occasional disturbances before the issue impacts the machine’s operation.

Working Counter Within the frames, a working counter enables the information in each datagram to be monitored for consistency. Every node

that is addressed by the datagram and whose memory is accessible increments the working counter automatically. The master is then able to cyclically confirm if all nodes are working with consistent data. If the working counter has a different value than it should, the master does not forward this datagram’s data to the control application. The master device is then able to automatically detect the reason for the unexpected behavior with help from status and error information from the nodes as well as the link status. Since EtherCAT utilises standard Ethernet frames, Ethernet network traffic can be recorded with the help of free Ethernet software tools. ENQUIRY NO. 7107

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issues & insights

Can South Korea Lead APAC Utility-Level Energy Storage?

South Korea has a strong technology advantage that works in its favour.

U

tility-level energy storage is an often-discussed topic in the energy storage industry, widely expected to be the Holy Grail unearthing a huge potential market across the world. It has the ability to provide power utility customers multiple benefits such as electric energy time shift, peak management, area regulation, transmission support and time-ofuse energy cost management.

The Technology Advantage Energy storage, being a technologyintensive market, necessitates that technology be developed and supported locally. In this

case, South Korea has a strong technology advantage that works in its favour. For instance, in lithiumion batteries, the market has witnessed the evolution of two global giants in companies such as Samsung SDI and LG Chem, which have been able to surpass the Japanese market dominance since 2011-2012. This success has led to investments in futuristic battery energy storage technologies like NaS batteries, Redox Flow batteries and Metal air batteries. The next two to three years will largely be focused on developing these technologies. As per the

el Trekero

There is an on-going initiative in South Korea to implement ‘Smart Grid’ demonstration projects and the subsequent roll out of smart grids across the country requires the support of energy storage at the utility level. The smart grid plan will increase the demand for utility-level energy storage systems. By Vishal Narain, industry analyst, Energy & Environment, Asia Pacific, Frost & Sullivan

current corporate and government plans, from 2015 onwards, there is likely to be a spurt in utility-level energy storage demonstration projects using these technologies, which will be a pre-cursor to mass commercialisation. Post 2017, batter y technologies are expected to dominate the country’s utility-level energy storage infrastructure. Apart from batteries, South Korean firms such as Nesscap and LS Mtron also have a strong presence in the supercapacitors market, though their application for utility-level benefits may be limited due to their discharge

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characteristics. Other than these, efforts are underway to develop Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) technology that would suit the geological conditions of the country. Currently, strong government suppor t exists for lithium-ion batteries and CAES, in which there have been demonstration projects to support utility-level installations.

Energy Storage Has A Strong Government Focus The technology advantage is supported by a strong government vision to make utility-level energy storage a reality in South Korea. The Korean government, especially the Ministr y of Knowledge Economy (MKE), has been giving a strong impetus to the energy storage sector and

has taken the following steps to ensure that the country becomes a leading provider of energy storage solutions globally, to occupy 30 percent of the global market by 2020.

story of lithium-ion batteries to other technologies as well. • There is an ongoing initiative to implement ‘Smart Grid’ demonstration projects and the subsequent roll out of smart grid across the country requires the support of energy storage at the utility-level.

• The MKE with the private sector plans to invest a total of 6.4 trillion KRW (US$5.7 billion) in the energy storage sector by 2020. Of this amount, the government will spend 2 trillion KRW in R&D, and plans to invest 4.4 trillion KRW in the development of infrastructure.

End-To-End Value Chain Development Supports Market Growth End-to-end (from vendors to customers) value chain support is essential for the overall market growth. While lithium ion battery companies have been flourishing and garnering more market share, the cell component manufacturers’ presence have been limited in the domestic

• The country is positioning itself as a technology-export centre for energy storage technologies. The government strives to replicate the success

Advantech New Generation of HMI Solutions Seamless Interaction between Human and Machines

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ENQUIRY NO. 637

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Operator Panels

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issues & insights

Korea. Its impact is likely to be maximised after 2017, when the stress on Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) is likely to gain maximum mileage. However, it is widely expected that ‘frequency regulation’ will be the major demand driver for utility-level energy storage in the short term, and that renewable integration will be the main source of demand in the medium to long term.

Growth Of Smart Grid & Demand For Better Grid Facilities market. The majority of them were located in Japan. However, over the last two years, the domestic supplier eco-system for lithiumi o n b a t t e r y m a n u f a c t u re r s has been on the rise and the government has introduced measures to support these small and medium enterprises by:

consortiums exist that manage the few demonstration projects. Gradually, as this technology develops and commercialises, it is likely that a strong value chain would develop to support these installations as well.

• Providing financial support to those firms that made initial losses and,

Despite all the support infrastructure and overall ecosystem growth, the need for ESS in grid integration or at the utilitylevel is the key driver for market growth. This support in the form of market demand is expected to remain in South Korea due to the following: Renewable Integration into the grid is governed by stringent renewable portfolio standards. As per the recently released 6th Basic Plan, up to 20 percent of the overall generating capacity would be served by Renewable Energy (RE) by 2027. Of this, three percent of the peak demand would be from RE sources, which would have to be integrated into the grid through ESS. The intermittency in solar and wind capacity has to be eliminated for the integration of these RE sources to the grid that would increase the demand for utilitylevel energy storage in South

• Promoting collaboration between the lithium-ion battery companies and domestic component suppliers by setting up industry associations Besides, established homegrown battery companies such as Samsung SDI, LG Chem, and SK Energy prefer to source from local component suppliers as that gives them cost advantage and technology protection. Furthermore, the downstream segment of the value chain involves Energy Storage System (ESS) integration with Battery Management Systems (BMS) and Power Conversion Systems (PCS). Companies such as Hyosung and LSIS are well-known in this space as ESS integrator companies. F o r C A E S t e c h n o l o g y,

Future Need For Utility-Level Energy Storage Systems

South Korea currently has many smart grid installations coming up and has additional plans for the installation of newer smart grids. With ESS being a basic requirement for smart grids, the smart grid plan will increase demand for utility-level ESS. With time and the increasing cost of power, end users are likely to demand better grid facilities like demand management, time-of-use services and frequency regulation etc. Utility-level energy storage would be crucial to provide these services to end users. While market dynamics are expected to drive the growth of utility-level energy storage, initial government support for energy storage and utility regulations that provide economic benefits for ancillary grid services will go a long way in supporting and ensuring sustainable growth of the utility-level ESS in South Korea. Based on an assessment of these factors and the views of industry participants, Frost & Sullivan predicts that the South Korean utility-level ESS market will reach a size of 300 billion KRW by 2020, from a size of around 9 billion KRW in 2012.

ENQUIRY NO. 7201

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Asian Energy:

The Smart Way IAA interviewed Hayama Hiromu, CEO, Fuji Electric on the company’s operations in Asia, and its involvement in smart grids. By Mark Johnston

IAA: Tell me about Fuji Electric’s presence in Southeast Asia, and how the company is doing globally? Hayama Hiromu (HH): Future market growth is anticipated in Asia through infrastructure investment and development. As foreign companies continue to expand their operations in the region, the company has positioned Asia as a focus market. The company has sales offices in Singapore, Thailand, India and Indonesia. With the aim of strengthening sales and marketing activities in Asia, it has set up an Engineering Centre in Singapore and a Competency Centre in India. We have also strengthened our sales and engineering offices in Thailand and Indonesia, and have set up a sales subsidiary in Vietnam and a representative office in Cambodia, where further expansion by foreign companies, including Japanese enterprises, is expected. We are currently in the process of establishing a representative office in Myanmar which is expected to be operational this year. In addition, we are in the midst of establishing a new power electronics factory in Thailand to increase our manufacturing capacity. This will improve the lead-time of products while meeting customers’ requirements and

enhancing services structure. Besides Southeast Asia, we have sales and marketing networks in Japan, America, Europe, Middle East, China, South Korea and Taiwan. As for target sectors, we will mainly focus on industrial infrastructure, industrial automation, building HVAC, solar PCS and data centres.

IAA: What are the fastest growing markets for you in Asia, in terms of industries and countries? HH: We have been present in Southeast Asia for many years, with the region’s fastest growing industries being industrial, power, automation, construction and IT infrastructure. With regards to countries, we see great growth potential in Indonesia and Thailand, followed by developing economies such as Vietnam, Myanmar and Cambodia. With the recent opening up of Myanmar, the country offers high potential for significant growth.

IAA: What technology has Fuji Electric developed for smart grids and how does the company plan to grow within this sector? HH: We consider ourselves a pioneer in developing technologies in the fields of renewable energy sources and smart grids and micro grids. We develop systems and products for solar power, wind power, hydro power, geothermal and fuel cells. We have developed solutions

in the field of smart grids by applying technology for demand control, peak shift, power storage technology, adapting to varying loads, smart and intelligent metres and rapid car charging stations. These technologies can be applied to convert into high quality and stable smart energy.

IAA: Do you see any regional hurdles to smart grid deployment and realisation in Asia, as compared to Europe and the US? HH: As with any new technology, it takes some time for the market to adapt. Also for such renewable energy projects and smart grid technology, government support is very important. The Singapore government has pioneered in this field with the Energy Market Authority, promoting some pilot projects such as the ‘Pulau Ubin Micro Grid Test Bed,’ intelligent energy system pilot and electric vehicles test-bed. The company is currently working with NEDO (New Energy a n d I n d u s t r i a l Te c h n o l o g y Development Organisation, Japan) for some pilot projects in Indonesia. We continue to be associated with governments in Southeast Asia and are pursuing our interests to support such projects with our technology. Most of these projects are driven by government initiatives and are still in the feasibility study, or even the pilot project stage. ENQUIRY NO. 7202 Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  29

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process control

Building An HMI That Works:

Best Practices For

Operator Interface Design Here is what an improved HMI can do: • Improve quality during normal system running • Save time during startup, shutdown, and transitions • Save money by avoiding downtime and errors • Reduce training time • Provide a less stressful work environment and minimise operator fatigue

Merve Toprak, Tuzla, Istanbul, Turkey

One study testing an ASM-approved display against a traditional interface in a high-fidelity process simulator found that operators using the approved displays: • Recognised problems more quickly and consistently • Responded to problems 35-48 percent faster • Successfully solved problems at a 25 percent higher rate

New Standards For HMIs

Effective Human Machine Interface (HMI) design is important to maintain productivity and increasing safety by closely monitoring operations effectively. By Jean Femia, information architect, Opto 22

T

he Abnormal Situation Management Consortium, a group of companies and universities concerned with the handling of unexpected events in the process control industry, tracks incidents and accidents globally as they appear in the media. In 2012 alone, they recorded more than 1,000 incidents. While few incidents result in explosions and death, all are costly in terms of delays, reduced product quality, or damage to equipment. Based on their research, the ASM Consortium estimates that unexpected events cost 3-8 percent of capacity each year. Three to eight percent is a significant cost for any business.

With awareness of human factors research and spurred by costly industrial accidents, people in the industry are increasingly paying attention to the quality of HMIs and the value of having a truly usable operator interface. Whether they call their new standards ergonomics, user centred design, or high-performance HMIs, researchers and automation professionals are establishing new best practices for HMIs that are clear, consistent, give context, and provide real feedback for operator actions. • NASA Ames Research Centre maintains research data on colour science and usage in complicated information displays. • The Centre for Operator Performance publishes research on operator skills, training, and work conditions as well as automation systems and alarms. • The ASM Consortium’s Guideline, Effective Operator Display Design, was published in 2008 and includes guidelines for displays, navigation, text & numbers, operator interaction with displays, alarm priorities/sounds/physical appearance, operator training, and HMI development methodology.

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Human beings respond to data presented in an analogue format because it reduces our cognitive load.

• The International Standards Association (ISA) has established a committee on HMI standards in manufacturing. The first draft of these standards (ISA101) is currently in review.

Putting New Standards Into Practice All right. So if a good HMI can save time and money, increase quality, and avoid accidents, it sounds like a good thing. But how do you build one? Let’s look at three keys to building an HMI that works: • Put data in context to increase the operator’s situation awareness. • Make it easy by reducing the operator’s cognitive load. • Build an information hierarchy that’s easily navigated.

Put Data In Context Putting data in context increases the operator’s situation awareness. Situation awareness is a deceptively simple concept. Of course the operators who run your system should be aware of its current state. But there’s much more to it than that. Dr Mica Endsley, P.E., writes that an operator must go through three steps to achieve true situation awareness: • First, he must perceive important data. • Second, he must comprehend the current situation. • Third, he must predict future status. It is not enough to see current system values; the operator must see them in context to know their meaning, and then see where they are trending in order to predict what is likely to happen next. Situation awareness does not come from a control system, writes Endsley. “[T]rue situation awareness only exists in the mind of the human operator. Therefore presenting a tonne of data will do no good unless it is successfully transmitted, absorbed, and assimilated in a timely manner by the human to form situation awareness.”

Situation awareness includes a number of factors, including alarms, trends, and ergonomically designed control rooms to reduce fatigue and distractions. You cannot automate your way out of human error by burying information in the system. If humans are kept out of the loop, they will not understand how the system is progressing and will lose situation awareness. Instead, you need to use the human in the best way possible: by giving him or her the information to develop situation awareness and be able to predict and respond. Here are some ways to put data into context to increase operators’ situation awareness.

Match The Operator’s Mental Model Good situation awareness demands that the operator’s mental model of how the system works matches the way the system is presented in the interface. Without an accurate mental model, an operator may misinterpret information. She will not know the significance of changes in the system or the probable results of actions she may take. Before designing the HMI, work closely with operators to understand their mental model and their responsibilities for the system. Beware of changes over time, too: as systems change or become more complex, mental models may become out of date and need adjustment.

Make Important Information Stand Out Attention tunneling, or fixating on one set of information to the exclusion of others, is cited as the most common failure of situation awareness. You can increase situation awareness by making critical information stand out and less important data recede to the background. The first step is knowing what information is more important and what is less so. Your study of operator tasks should help you determine the relative importance of data in normal and abnormal situations.

Make It Easy Once you have put data into context, focus on making it really easy for the operator to use your HMI. In the early days of personal computers, you typed commands into the operating system to find or save files or complete any other function. You had to know and remember these commands exactly in order to accomplish any task. Later text-based software presented a list of commands from which you could choose, and then graphical user interfaces and icons made the job easier by reducing your cognitive load. Cognitive load refers to the total amount of Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  31

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process control

Difference between deep navigation (at left) and shallow navigation (at right).

mental work you have to do in order to understand something. Having to remember a number of exact commands increases cognitive load; having recognizable commands or icons right in front of you reduces it. To make it easy for operators to use an HMI, we must reduce the cognitive load required to find pertinent data, understand it, predict the future course of events, and take action. Here are some ways to make it easy.

Put Yourself In The Operator’s Shoes Design from the operator’s point of view. Talk with operators directly. Do not ask how to improve the HMI; most will not know, and some comments may lead you down the wrong path. Instead, ask operators what tasks they have to do, and find out what information they need in order to do those tasks easily and successfully. Watch them as they work. Lay out a process in a way that is generally consistent with the operator’s mental model of the process and the direction from which she looks at it. Make gases flow up and liquids flow down, as they do in real life. In regions where people read from left to right, show a process flowing in that direction.

Group Data That Belongs Together Again from the operator’s point of view, what information should logically be grouped together? Suppose that part of the job is to monitor four compressors, three of which are running at any given time, with one held ready to swap in when one of the three is running poorly. You would not want to check four screens to see the status of each, and try to keep those values in your head as you switch screens. Instead, they should be grouped together on one screen, for example as shown at right, so you can easily scan them all at once. Grouping can be done in a variety of ways. Physical location is one of the most effective ways. Humans naturally perceive objects as belonging together when they are in proximity. But there are other ways, too: by making objects the same shape,

size, or colour; by connecting them with a line; by enclosing them in a box or putting a subtle shaded background behind them. Grouping information that belongs together helps the operator perceive important connections. It also cleans up the screen visually, making it easier for operators to absorb information. In the case of our four compressors, putting a shaded box behind their data indicates that they should be looked at as a group and separates them from unrelated information on the same screen.

Keep It Simple An HMI that is optimal for running a process and handling abnormal conditions should look boring. Simplicity is not a matter of increasing white space on the screen, but of what is shown and how it is presented. Take a good look at the screen and try to eliminate anything that does not add information: unchanging internal parts of equipment, floors and walls, 3D depictions of equipment or data, unnecessary lines or movement, colour gradients.

Use Colour, Motion, And Sound Sparingly If too much is vying for the operator’s attention at any given time, he will not be able to focus on what is important. Increase the signal to noise ratio, so the important things are not drowned out by the trivial. Use colour carefully, because it makes the screen more complex. It’s impractical for operators to memorise several colours and what they mean. Also, about 10 percent of men and 1 percent of women are colour blind. Because peripheral vision and colour blindness can be problems, make sure you distinguish the most important elements, like alarms, by more than just colour. For example, give alarm level indicators different shapes as well as different colours. Be even more careful with motion than you are with colour. Humans are immediately attracted to movement: we are wired to do that because we spent thousands of years as hunters, where anything that moved was either potential prey or a potential danger. Reduce the cognitive load by saving motion for important things. A bad way to use motion is to show spinning pumps. A good way to use motion is to blink an unacknowledged alarm. (Better to blink the alarm indicator than the value; the operator will need to read the value.) Sound is distracting as well, so limit its use and let the operator turn it down or off when acknowledging.

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Be Consistent A consistent interface makes it easy for the operator to understand the system and know how to take actions or respond to problems. Familiarity breeds confidence. When Apple introduced the iPhone, they required that developers building apps for the new device follow strict standards for elements and actions in their apps. The standards provided controls with specific functions, prescribed where to place buttons, what a finger pinch should do, and much more. Because all iPhone apps were consistent, users could confidently use any app on their phones.

validate actions as needed, especially actions that are seldom performed and actions with significant consequences, such as a shutdown. • Question typed values that are outside the expected range. For example, if an operator types 388 when the expected value would be 3.88, verify that it is correct. Mistyping can easily happen, especially on soft keyboards or membrane keyboards.

Use Analogue Representations Human beings respond to data presented in an analogue format because it reduces our cognitive load. When you ask, ‘What time is it?’ you usually are not interested in the time itself. Instead, you want to know how long you have been in a meeting, or you are feeling hungry and want to know how soon that 12:00 lunch break will come. An analogue clock shows us the context; with a digital clock, we have to do the math.

Provide Feedback

• If he selects something on the screen, indicate that it is selected (for example, outline it in white). • If he initiates an action, indicate that the action is being carried out. • Design graphics and controls so they behave consistently in all screens and do not offer surprises. • Require security checks and

ENQUIRY NO. 631

When an operator interacts with the system, he needs to know that what he is doing is correct and effective. You can make his job easier by building in checks, so it’s hard to make mistakes, and by making it obvious what is happening.

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process control

• • • • •

Controllers Values Alarms Trends Status

Think about how to provide information for specific situations like startup or transitions: you may need a different version of the level 2 screen. For abnormal situations, you can pop up information and controls and provide checklists to guide the operator.

An example of a level 1 overview screen.

Build An Information Hierarchy One of the problems with HMIs based on P&IDs is that they tend to show a series of flat views of the control system. What is missing are often overview screens that show the status of the whole system, or the major part of the system that an operator is responsible for.

Create Levels Best practices suggest a four-level hierarchy, or three levels for a less complex system. Each lower level provides more detail for a portion of the higher level. Level 1: Overview — The Level 1 screen gives an at-a-glance overview of the complete system. This overview should include: • Key performance indicators (safety, environmental, production, efficiency, quality) • Top priority alarms & acknowledgment status • Major equipment status • Trends for important process parameters • Abnormal situations and their severity. The level 1 display often appears on a large screen visible to the operator, supervisors or managers, other employees within the area, and maybe operators in adjacent process areas. It should also be available on the operator’s console. An example of a level 1 overview screen is shown above. Level 2: Unit Control — Level 2 screens are the primary screens for monitoring and control. This is where operators take almost all of their actions. Create one level 2 screen for each logical subsystem covered by a level 1 overview. Level 2 screens should include:

TIP: When designing your HMI, focus on the operator’s tasks for each subsystem and design the level 2 screens first; then go back and design the level 1 overview. Level 3: Unit Details — Level 3 screens show more detail for an item on a level 2 screen. Level 3 screens may include: • Control loops • Individual pieces of equipment • Troubleshooting displays for problems that are not time critical • If useful, some P&ID drawings. If you are revising an existing HMI, level 3 screens are a good place to use any P&ID-based screens you already have. Level 4: Unit Support — For a complex system, you may need to separate support documents and information in a fourth level. Here you would include operating procedures, alarm documentation and guidance, and so on.

In Conclusion Whether you are considering changes to your existing HMI or are building a new one, take a good look at the new best practices in operator interface design. We have touched on several of them here, but there is a lot more information available. Good places to start are with The High Performance HMI Handbook and the ASM Guidelines, Effective Operator Display Design. Another book less specific to automation but full of excellent examples of effective data presentation is Information Dashboard Design. Remember that a lack of complaints does not necessarily mean your current HMI is good. People know what they are familiar with and usually cannot tell you how to improve it. They do not know what they are missing until they work with something better. ENQUIRY NO. 7301

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Human Machine Interface Systems Intel Free Press, Mountain View, California, US

A well-designed HMI System does more than just present control functions and information; it provides an operator with intuitive active functions to perform, feedback on the results of those actions, and information on the system’s performance. By John Pannone, VP Sales, HMI Systems

H

uman Machine Interface (HMI) Systems provide the controls by which a user operates a machine, system, or instrument. Sophisticated HMI Systems enable reliable operations of technology in every application, including highspeed trains, CNC machining centres, semiconductor production equipment, and medical diagnostic and laboratory equipment. HMI Systems encompass all the elements a person will touch, see, hear, or use to perform control functions and receive feedback on those actions. The task of an HMI System is to make the function of a technology self-evident to the user. A welldesigned HMI fits the user’s image of the task he or she will perform. The effectiveness of the HMI can affect the acceptance of the entire system; in fact in many applications it can impact the overall success or failure of a product. The HMI System is judged by its usability, which includes how easy it is to learn as well as how productive the user can be. It is the mission of everyone involved in the HMI design, the engineers, management, HMI consultant, and industrial designer, to meet the defined usability requirements for a specific HMI System. A well-designed HMI System does more than just present control functions and information; it provides an operator with intuitive active functions to perform, feedback on the results of those actions, and information on the system’s performance.

How Do You Design An HMI System? A highly-reliable HMI System that delivers safe, costeffective, consistent and intuitive performance relies on the application of engineering best practices throughout design and panel layout, production, testing, and quality assurance processes. Just as critical, in-depth knowledge of, and compliance with all relevant ergonomic, safety, and industry standards must inform each step of the design

and manufacturing cycle. Clear definitions of the functional requirements, the operator’s level of expertise, and any communications/interactions with other systems provide the starting point in the knowledge-intensive design process.

Defining The Operational/ Functional Requirements The tools needed for effective operator control of the equipment as well as the requirements of the overall application determine the selection of interface functions. General Functionality How many functions will be controlled by this interface? Where a single function might be served by pushbutton, keylock, and rotary switches, multiple functions could require several screen displays to cover operator functions and options. What kind of visual, auditory, or tactile feedback will best serve the operator in performing the defined functions? Does the operation require real-time indicators? Multiple data-entry points? How many times is a button pressed? Are there safety considerations? Are emergency stop switches required? Which standards apply — industry, safety, international? Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  35

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Intel Free Press, Mountain View, California, US

process control

Proper HMI design is important for clear effective operations and monitoring of processes.

Degree Of Input Complexity Input can be as simple as an on/off switch or a touchscreen display. Touchscreen HMI Systems are increasingly popular in public transaction applications, because they can simplify complex operations, and tolerate a moderate degree of rough use. Defining input requirements will help decide which control technology is best suited for a specific application. Operator Feedback Feedback is critical to operator effectiveness and efficiency. Feedback can be visual, auditory, tactile, or any combination necessary for the application. Feedback is essential in systems that have no mechanical travel, such as a touchscreen or a capacitive device that when triggered has no moving parts. In some cases feedback provides confirmation of an action, while in others it adds to the functionality. Interface/Interconnection With Other Systems HMI Systems must be able to interface/interconnect with the system under control as well as other related systems. For example, in an industrial setting the HMI might connect via hardwire or a serial bus to I/O points that provide machine status. Additionally, it might be networked to a manufacturing execution system and a supply logistics/inventory system. Environmental Considerations The application environment — encompassing both physical location and vertical industry environment — determines HMI System durability requirements. Environmental stresses include exposure to moisture and the elements, temperature extremes, wear and tear, vandalism, and general rough use characteristic of harsh environments such as an industrial production floor.

Lifecycle Durability Not only should the HMI System be rugged enough to withstand the elements and heavy use, but it should also last for the duration of the equipment lifecycle. For example, a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) HMI System interface should last at least 10 years. Style HMI System style is a high priority for many consumer goods and especially luxury products. In the marine industry, the consoles for highperformance racing boats feature contemporary styling and an array of ergonomic technologies. HMI style considerations are effective when they create a level of product differentiation that delivers a unique selling proposition. Regulatory/Standards Considerations A thorough knowledge of technical ergonomic, design, and manufacturing standards is fundamental to HMI System design. These include engineering standards, such as MIL-STD-1472F, which establishes human engineering design criteria for military systems, subsystems, equipment, and facilities; federal standards set by the Americans With Disabilities Act; and industry guidelines such as those from SEMI S293, the global semiconductor industry association, covering HMI for semiconductor manufacturing equipment. Additional HMI specifications are defined by ANSI, IEEE, ISO, and others.

Define The Operator Know your operator — the key to a successful HMI System implementation requires a well-grounded definition and understanding of the operators. Will the operator be a passive/intuitive user? If so, commands/functions should be simple with an easy-tocomprehend interface. For this type of user, repeatability is also important — information and actions should appear consistently from use to use. For an expert user, where more sophisticated control is desirable, there may be multiple layers or levels for interfacing with equipment. For any user along the range from intuitive to expert, interface ergonomic considerations should include: panel layout, HMI Component selection, information presentation, feedback, and safety considerations. Panel Layout The panel layout should be designed to provide the operator functional groups of related information in a predictable and consistent manner. In addition, the system must require an operator to initiate action and keep the operator informed by providing

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timely feedback on those actions. The layout should be organised so that the operator is clearly prompted in advance when the next operator action is required. HMI Component Selection HMI designers can simplify their search for the appropriate switch or HMI Component by carefully analysing their application requirements then determining the following: • Electrical ratings. • Actuation preferences (momentary, maintained, rotary, and so on). • Physical configuration and mounting needs. • Special requirements such as illumination, marking, environmental sealing, and so on. Colour Scheme The key to effective use of colour is simplicity. Avoid too many colours or flashing alarms. Stick with the ‘traffic light’ model for key actions: • Red for stop/failure/fault

• Yellow for warning • Green for OK/start/go/pass Information Presentation Once again, simplicity is the key. Do not crowd a screen — avoid cluttering it with irrelevant data. Forcing an operator to search for the required information increases response time and potential errors. Have a consistent set of menu buttons and functions from screen to screen. User Feedback Feedback is critical to ergonomic industrial design. Make sure the results of pressing a control button, toggling a switch, or entering a command are absolutely clear. Determine if operator feedback is visual, auditory, tactile, or a combination of multiple techniques.

How Do You Choose The Best Control Technologies Appropriate To The Application? Once you have defined HMI functionality, you are ready to investigate control technologies. Each

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process control

Cursor Control (Trackball, Joystick, Keypad, Touchpad...) The selection between different control technologies is primarily determined by the resolution of control that is required by the application. A trackball or joystick enables granular, pixel-by-pixel control, a far higher resolution than possible with a typical PC point-and-click controller. Switches (Pushbutton, Rocker, Slide, Keylock, Rotary...) Pushbutton switches allow the option of illumination to indicate open/close switch status when a quick visual indication is desired. They are also useful in machinery and machine tools, electronic production, rail and bus transportation, medical treatment and diagnostics, or other environments for easier manipulation when gloves are worn. Rotary-switch and keylock technologies serve best when the application requires position indicators such as those used in heater or fan control. Keylocks provide an additional layer of security to the application. Rotary switches also can be used for an application requiring multiple positions. Slide switches are the technology of choice when ease-of-use and low-cost switching is desirable — commonly found on notebook cases and handheld on/off functionality. Short Travel Technologies (Conductive rubber, membrane, keyboard, keypad...) Short travel technologies have been developed for industries where ease of cleaning or disinfecting is mandatory, for example pharmaceutical, chemical, and food processing, or in a hazardous environment where a sealed system is required. Short travel technology can include cost effective, conductive rubber keys in a typical keyboard, dome keys under an overlay, or a multi-layer membrane. Touch And Switching Technologies (Capacitive, Piezo, high frequency...) Applications operating in aggressive environments such as public access or, for example, soda dispensing, where the syrupy liquid tends to get into crevices and gum up the machinery — require a rugged, completely sealed surface. Piezo, capacitive, and high frequency technologies all offer rugged switch technology with long life cycles and low maintenance costs. Capacitive or high-frequency signals electronically activate an on/off function by changing capacitive load. Capacitive/high-frequency technologies require the use

of nonconductive front panel materials which can be up to 15 mm thick, for example those operating under protective glass within hazardous environments. Display Technologies (LCD, Active Matrix, OLED, FED, Plasma...) The basic function of displays in HMI applications is to provide an information source — operators interact to obtain information or to prompt for the next screen. Display technology choices are dictated by the HMI System environment and its degree of ambient illumination, as well as by colour requirements. Active matrix LCD technologies are commonly used for colour functionality, while legacy LCD technology is used in applications where monochromatic feedback is sufficient. OLEDS, organic (carbonbased) light-emitting diodes can currently support smaller displays. Interactive Displays, Touchscreen Touchscreen technologies offer a range of functionalities and characteristics that govern HMI Systems choice according to application and environment. It is important to determine which touch technology will be used in the early stages of the design cycle as the different options offer quite unique electrical and mechanical requirements. Capacitive touchscreens transmit 75 percent of the monitor light (compared to 50 percent by Resistive touchscreens), resulting in a clearer picture. They use only conductive input, usually a finger, in order to register a touch. Infrared touchscreen technology projects horizontal and vertical beams of infrared light over the surface of the screen. When a finger or other object breaks those beams, the X/Y coordinates are calculated and processed. These cost-effective touchscreens can also be used by workers with gloves and are relatively impervious to damage. Resistive touchscreen technology offers cost-effective, durable performance in e n v i ro n m e n t s w h e re equipment must stand up to contaminants and liquids, such as restaurants, factories, and Good HMI design is pleasing to the eye and allows medical environments. smooth effective interaction When touched, the with machines, such as this vending machine. conductive coating on the Chris, Shenzhen, China

technology has advantages and disadvantages related to the HMI system, equipment, and application.

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Nektarios Sylligardakis, Athens, Greece

Smooth interaction between a human and a machine is a characteristic of good design, machines should become an extension of its human controller.

screen makes electrical contact with the coating on the outer layer, the touch coordinates are registered by the controller to activate the on/off function. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) touch technology sends acoustic waves across a glass surface from one transducer to another positioned on an X/Y grid. The receiving transducer detects if a wave has been disrupted by touch and identifies its coordinates for conversion to an electrical signal. SAW serves well in outdoor and harsh environments because it can be activated by a heavy stylus or gloved fingers. Motion Control Motion control most often employs joystick technology for applications requiring macro control, such as controlling the bucket on a payloader, a robotic arm, or directional control for a piece of materials handling equipment, or pull mechanisms.

Connecting/Communicating With An HMI System Once you have established how your HMI will look, feel, and operate, you need to consider how the HMI will connect to and communicate with the core equipment or system under control. Typically, communication can be achieved through several approaches: hardwired connection, serial bus connection, or wireless connection. Hard-Wired Connections Conventional, hard wired systems are still used in many transportation and industrial legacy systems. Hard wired systems require no special tools and are simple, visible, and easy to understand, especially where the HMI interface controls a single machine. There are many drawbacks, including difficulty integrating changes or new features — new features require new wiring. Conventional wiring also requires more space due to the number of wires and the actual size of the wires and larger connectors due to higher pin counts.

Serial Bus Systems As equipment and control systems became more complex and data hungry, transmission of data became a critical issue. To facilitate faster data transmission rates, devices incorporated serial bus connections — especially in electronics, semiconductor, machining, industrial, process and transportation. A serial bus approach eliminated data transmission slowdowns due to cable length and delivered reliable, real-time operations and work-in-process feedback. Bus systems provide many advantages over hard wired connections, including easy addition of new functionality — typically through software — without adding or replacing hardware. Wiring is much simpler and more flexible with smaller cables and connectors allowing for more compact design, and easier hardware updating and relocation. Wireless Connections/Communications Industrial applications have employed wireless technologies over the last 20 or so years, primarily to take advantage of real-time data transmission, application mobility, and remote management capabilities. Interference, reliability, and security continue to present difficulties for wireless in the HMI universe.

Safety Considerations For HMI Systems design, safety considerations are a critical part of the system. Human error is a contributing factor in most accidents in high-risk environments. Clear presentation of alarms as well as the ability to report errors, are crucial elements in any HMI. In addition, emergency stop switches, generally referred to as E-Stops, ensure the safety of persons and machinery and provide consistent, predictable, failsafe control response. A wide range of electrical machinery must have these specialised switch controls for emergency shutdown to meet workplace safety and established international and domestic regulatory requirements.

International And US Standards For HMI Systems Key to the entire HMI System design cycle is a thorough knowledge of federal, industry, ergonomic, safety, and design standards. These include Human Engineering standards, such as MILSTD-1472F, which establishes human engineering design criteria for military systems, subsystems, equipment, and facilities; federal standards like those set by the Americans with Disabilities Act; and industry guidelines such as those from SEMI, the global semiconductor industry association, covering HMI for semiconductor manufacturing equipment. ENQUIRY NO. 7302 Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  39

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software & Networks

Cut Out The Crashes Machine simulation is the five-axis programmer’s constant companion. By Karlo Apro, multiaxis product manager, CNC Software

M

achine shops of all sizes are purchasing record numbers of five-axis CNC machines, and for a good reason. These machines enable singlesetup manufacturing strategies, which are much more productive than conventional machining using several pieces of equipment. Keeping manufacturing to one setup also eliminates stack-up errors and the resulting scrap. Also, many advanced, complex part designs are impossible to produce on anything but a five-axis machine. To quote those parts, shops must invest in the equipment, and as such, prices for reasonably accurate five-axis systems have dropped significantly. Along with the many opportunities five-axis machining creates, there are substantial risks. Five-axis CNC programs are geometrically more complex than three-axis programs, which can create more opportunities to damage cutting tools, toolholders, equipment and the part itself via a crash. For example, if a shop has put hundreds of hours into a complex piece made from a single

piece of stock, a crash would be extremely costly. On the other hand, time on a five-axis machine is far too valuable to be wasted by having operators hover over the machine as it cycles through its operations, to verify they are safe and correct. This is especially true for small runs. With so much to gain — and lose — various forms of machine simulation have become the fiveaxis CNC programmer’s constant companion. Simulation is the first line of defence against damage and lost productivity. It also gives the programmer additional tools to solve fixture design-formanufacturability challenges and make parts more productively. Manufacturers that have previously not used their CAM systems’ simulation capabilities often become converts as soon as they install their first five-axis machine. They are frequently surprised at the depth of simulation resources provided.

allow programmers to ascertain that the program they have written will perform cutting operations exactly as they had in mind when they wrote them.

Program Simulation

Beyond The Basics

High-end CAM software has builtin simulation capabilities that

Simulation may be used to e f f e c t i v e l y p ro v e o u t t h e

• Backplot simulation Almost every CAM programmer relies on on-backplotting — an on-screen geometrical ‘tracing’ of the contact point — to visualise tool movement through various CNC manufacturing operations. • Stock-removal simulation This type of simulation provides an accurate 3D visual representation of the amount of stock removed from a virtual workpiece at any stage of the cutting process. This representation may be colour-coded to indicate if material removal falls within the specification or it may automatically highlight areas where too much or too little material has been removed.

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manufacturing process for individual parts, as well as the whole manufacturing process cycle of a work cell, as parts move from machine to machine. • Finite element analysis FEA is not actually a CAM software feature but it is offered by some software vendors that create CAD models. Ideally, the CAD and CAM software are so tightly integrated that the design and manufacturing engineers can work back and forth with each other to concurrently modify and improve design elements and manufacturing strategies. • Surface finish inspection Inspecting critical surfaces via stock-removal simulation at high magnification provides an accurate visualisation of the surface finish that will be impar ted. Most nicks and scratches produced by awkward tool movements actually appear in a magnified simulation. • Chamfering visualisation Many five-axis parts are used in high-precision assemblies, and, therefore, must not have any cosmetic defects that can compromise the durability or performance of wear surfaces. For these parts, chamfering

may be used extensively to eliminate the need for costly secondary deburring operations. • Safe tool entries and exits Backplot simulation shows if a tool is getting dangerously close to or hitting impinging surfaces. It is possible to specify precise entry and exit curves during toolpath creation, but a manufacturer of aerospace parts takes this process one step further. The CAM software’s ‘save as geometry feature’ is used to turn the backplot into an exact representation of the problematic cut’s location. Then, geometry is added to allow for safe tool entry and exit at the beginning and end of the operation. This allows the navigation of a tool into and out of confined areas without damaging nearby surfaces.

Machine Simulation In the five-axis world, it is sometimes necessary not only to simulate the CAM software’s intermediate code, but also the G code, driving specific individual machines with unique kinematics. This higher level of verification, known as machine simulation, proves out machining strategies in a virtual five-axis environment that ensures part geometries, tools,

Simulation provides an accurate 3D visual representation of the amount of stock removal from a virtual workpiece at any stage of the cutting process.

fixtures and machine components will not interfere with each other during the cutting process. There are two varieties of machine simulation. The first takes the intermediate code (APT, NCI, CLS) generated by the CAM system prior to post-processing into G code for the machine’s control, and uses that code to drive a virtual replica of the specific five-axis machine. A small number of CAM developers have taken this approach, with some even refining it to the point where a separate, simplified stream of code is generated to drive the five-axis machine simulation process. T h e s e c o n d , e v e n m o re meticulous approach drives a precise virtual replica via the G code generated by a CAM system’s post-processor. This program allows the user to choose from a variety of machine and control options and effectively simulates any G code language. The good news is that either of these approaches will accurately simulate machine behaviour if an accurate model of the machine has been created and the simulation program has been properly configured. Correctly configuring a virtual replica and the simulation process requires an in-depth knowledge of the specific five-axis machine, simulation software and postprocessor. Setting up an effective machine simulation program can be time consuming and expensive, but it will protect a five-axis CNC machine investment and improve the manufacturing process. The alternative is to labouriously step through first-piece manufacturing operations sequentially at the machine, and wasting machine time and labour — unacceptable i n t o d a y ’s m a n u f a c t u r i n g environment. ENQUIRY NO. 7401

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instrumentation & Measurement

Christina B Castro, San Francisco, US

Industrial processes carry many risks, as such, functional safety standards are an effective way to manage risks and reduce the occurrence of faults in a system. By Lin Yew Chai, senior solutions consultant, Honeywell Process Solutions

Functional Safety Standards In

Safety Instrumentation I

ndustrial organisations must be good citizens when it comes to the safety and reliability of their operations. They are challenged with ensuring regulatory compliance and maintaining reliable and continuous plant processes — while still keeping operating costs down. However, industrial processes today involve innate risks due to the presence of gases, chemicals and other dangerous materials. Each year catastrophes in chemical and oil & gas industries account for millions of dollars of losses and more significantly the loss of lives.

a toxic agent or explosion could be hazardous to a population within a plant or the surrounding area. History holds a number of these well-documented industrial disasters, for example: 1

The Fuxin coal mine gas explosion in northeast China in February 2005 killed 203 people.

2

In China, at least 6,000 miners died in 2004 alone. No monetary estimate can be placed on fatality however, China’s premier has promised ¥3 billion (US$362 million) to ‘truly make coal mining safe’.

3

The Esso gas plant explosion at Longford, Victoria, in September 1998 caused two fatalities, eight injuries and an estimated US$1.8 billion of property damage and consumer losses.

Why Safety Instrumented Systems? Risks prevail wherever people store, process or handle hazardous or toxic materials. In the process industries, these risks are compounded because of their potential to impact numerous people. A spill of 42  industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2013

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4

The Piper Alpha platform in the North Sea, where 167 oil workers died in 1988 when the production platform caught fire.

5

The costs of the Chernobyl Ukraine incident in 1986 and its ongoing effects are insurmountable in fatalities as well as property damage.

ENQUIRY NO. 640

Since a great potential for loss exists, a growing number of companies today are employing Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) specifically designed to protect personnel, equipment and the environment. SIS play an increasingly important role in many process plants, reducing the probability or the impact severity of an emergency event. Arguments like ‘we have never had a dangerous incident’ or ‘we have always done it this way, it will not happen to us’ are no longer acceptable. Companies must implement suitable safety standards. Companies which employ these systems clearly demonstrate that they adopt the best practice method for managing safety in their facility. Safety standards such as IEC61508, IEC61511 and

ISA-S84.01, set parameters for SIS and are creating more stringent safety requirements for process plants. Major companies and corporations in the US are starting to respond to these standards by implementing good safety engineering practices in alliance with the National Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) requirements. Despite the lack of clear-cut references to safety standards IEC61508 and IEC61511, safety regulatory bodies and governments are starting to recommend these standards in their major hazard facility guidelines as good engineering practice for their industries. While corporations should not make hasty major investments into a SIS or implement a system that is inadequate, ie: too narrow in scope for their process, it is good business practice for the directors of any corporation which own or operate a major hazard facility to demonstrate that safety in their plant is the top priority by adopting a SIS. The IEC standards describe a structured methodology to determine if you need a SIS and how to customise it for your particular plant. In the event

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instrumentation & Measurement

of a hazardous occurrence it can provide the highest level of safety for the workforce and process. When processes exceed or violate a dangerous level, a SIS commonly takes the process to a safe state and when conditions allow, enable the process to move forward in a safe manner. It instills a culture of prevention, not a post event ‘insurance claim’ mentality. While the main impetus is process safety, the SIS may also moderate consequences of an industrial hazard. It reduces serious environmental impact, diminishes the economic burden of property and equipment damage and plant downtime to the company. Insurance premiums are decreased and the company director’s exposure to claims of negligence is lessened if the SIS based on IEC61508 is adopted in their plant. Finally, reducing the risk of a catastrophic failure clearly demonstrates a company’s reliability to its customers.

Common Definitions Of A SIS The term ‘Safety Instrumented Systems’ can refer to many different definitions and applications, some of which can be confusing. Typical names in the industry are: • • • • • •

Safety Shutdown Systems Burner Management Systems [BMS] Critical Instrumentation Emergency Shutdown Systems [ESD] Safety Critical Systems Interlock Systems

Although the names and applications may differ, a common requirement can be found in most systems. They are designed to respond to the conditions of a plant that may be hazardous in themselves or if ignored could eventually cause a hazardous event. Industry standards refer to the safety system as a Safety Instrumented System [SIS].

philosophy. A SIL target cannot be taken lightly or determined from a ‘gut feeling’ of how dangerous a process plant is. Some companies are still unfamiliar with the term or process of assigning a SIL has shown that they inadvertently assign a SIL based on simply looking at a selection from the IEC61508 and IEC61511 standards. Careful consideration and planning will result in a truly accurate SIL determination. The results of poor SIL determination are: • An under specified design, resulting in inadequate process safety. • An over specified design, resulting in an unnecessary ‘belts and braces’ design, and over expense.

Process Sector Safety Standards It is generally understood that the manufactures of components for an SIS are required to design their hardware and software in accordance with the international IEC61508 standard. However, the SIS designers, integrators and users should follow the international industry specific IEC61511 standard. The question is still, do these standards apply to my process? Because there is a growing awareness in the process sector of IEC61508 and IEC61511 and because of the association with some regulatory authorities, the answer is ‘yes’. However, the process in question may already have the appropriate safe guards or layers of protection in place, alleviating the need to implement a SIS. This will only be determined through the implementation of some initial phases of the Safety Life-Cycle which include site assessment, competency assessment, Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) review and SIL assessment.

Safety Instrumented Systems Users of Standards

What Is Safety Integrity Level (SIL)? The buzzword in many industry sectors is SIL. What is SIL? Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is ‘the degree of confidence that can be placed in the reliability of the SIS to perform its intended safety function.’ SIL ratings between 1 and 4 are applied to safety functions depending on the risk determined during the SIL assessment process. SIL1 is the lowest reliability level while SIL4 is the highest. The level of reliability increases by a factor of 10 between each of the SIL ratings. The assignment of the SIL is a decision defined at a corporate level on the basis of the risk management

IEC 61508

IEC 61511

SIS Devices

SIS Applications

Design and manufacture of:

• Process plant design teams • Instrument engineers • Process control systems designers • System Integrators • Operating companies • Regulatory inspectors • Process safety managers

• Safety PLCs hardware • Embedded software • Sensors and actuators

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One or more of the following groups should be consulted in the planning of your safety system: 1

2 3 4 5 6

The safety system sponsor must have sufficient authority to drive the process and ensure decisions are consistent with the risk reduction strategy of the company and statutory authorities. Production and maintenance management. Operators. Maintenance technicians. Safety system equipment vendors. Experienced safety system implementers. Implementers can provide the following services for the team: a) Participate in risk assessments. b) Prepare the safety requirements specification. c) Perform instrumentation and control system hardware design. d) Perform and test all safety systems software. e) Independent verification and validation of the safety system. f) Help maintain the safety system through its life to ensure the integrity of the system is maintained.

Today’s plant operators are turning to experienced safety system implementers like Honeywell’s Safety System Ser vices, which help process industry sites maximise uptime and productivity while avoiding compliance issues, meeting safety standards and solving problems faster. The company’s approach is based on a Safety Lifecycle Management program, which develops the complete set of activities needed to determine safety requirements and implement effective solutions. Ultimately, by utilising expert safety services to help optimise SIS lifecycle performance, process safety and availability, plants can reduce interruptions and upsets to increase process uptime, maximise effective and efficient utilisation of safety assets while improving SIS integrity and availability, and decrease testing and maintenance requirements. They can also empower operators with actionable and reliable data and safety knowledge to drive greater productivity.

Davide Guglielmo, Albignasego, Italy

Where To Go From Here?

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It is critical to pay attention to the planning of your safety system. Good planning and engineering will result in a cost effective SIS that suits the requirements of the process, company or corporation. Taking shortcuts through the ‘Safety Life-Cycle’ to save money may result in serious consequences and long-term expense. It is well known that accidents do and will continue to happen in the process sector. As our awareness of IEC61508 and IEC61511 continues to grow and we strive to implement best industry practices, the process sector will be pacesetters when it comes to safety, plant reliability and the environment. Recent accidents at industrial facilities have focused attention on the international IEC 61511/ ISA-84.01 standard, which addresses the threat of hazardous plant operating conditions. However, not all process manufacturers fully understand the implications of today’s functional safety regulations — or have taken action to ensure compliance at their facilities. This is particularly true of large companies with dispersed global operations,as well as smaller firms with limited engineering resources. Additionally, ongoing updates to the ISA/IEC standard, coupled with government requirements for recurring safety system certifications and hazardous operations studies, complicate a regulatory compliance strategy.

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energy

Building Cost-Effective Wind-Turbine Generators T

he global appetite for renewable energy, combined with government legislation, is driving demand for wind turbines and wind farms worldwide. In addition, the advent of global warming, carbon footprint consciousness, energysecurity awareness and volatile fuel prices is also contributing to the explosive growth of wind-energy consumption, especially in Asia and North America. However, a wind-turbine manufacturer’s path for expansion into new markets is not without obstacles. Today’s challenges include establishing and managing an effective supply chain, identifying and complying with relevant standards, improving the safety of workers and equipment, and remaining competitive as customers demand shorter time-tomarket cycles. Additionally, the wind energy industry is also in aggressive pursuit to achieve ‘wind-grid parity’ — the point at which the cost of wind-generated electricity is equal or cheaper than fossil-fuel-generated electricity. Wind-turbine manufacturers can use Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE), the total lifecycle cost to build and operate a plant over a period of time, divided

Colin Brough, Dundee, Angus, UK

With an increasing appetite for cheap, clean sources of energy and an environmentally conscious populace, the need to design and build efficient, cost-effective renewable generation of energy, such as wind, is rising. By Corrie van Rensburg, process solutions manager, Southeast Asia, Rockwell Automation

by the total electricity produced by that plant, as a metric to compare the cost of generating wind power with other technologies.

Six Principles Described below are six leading principles for windturbine manufacturers who seek integrated safety, control, motion and vibration-monitoring solutions to maximise uptime and reliability, whilst protecting their capital investment: Establish A Global Supply Chain With Regional Experience Wind-Turbine Generator (WTG) manufacturers expanding operations in new markets may encounter several supply-chain challenges, including cost, inventory, and vendor-relationship management. A global supplier with broad industry experience can help implement a successful production-management system based on industry best practices, and is better poised to weather economic downturns and boom/bust cycles that can be detrimental to smaller suppliers that only focus on one or two industries.

1

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Additionally, WTG manufacturers partnering with a global supplier can leverage the supplier’s worldwide manufacturing facilities — utilising one point of contact for design, documentation management, global coordination of assembly, and consistent quality of wiring, assembly and testing. Most importantly, a global supplier’s distributor network could improve product availability and support. Outsource Electrical Control Panels Engineering the control panel is time consuming and incurs significant system costs for the WTG. One alternative to building control panels in house is for WTG manufacturers to retain the design and documentation responsibilities, but engage third-party panel builders to streamline the process. However, as business grows in new markets, working with multiple panel builders can become quite challenging — often resulting in the need for increased engineering and supply-chain resources to coordinate and monitor multiple Industrial Ethernet AD_NEWSCO_20120608Final-01.pdf 13-2-21 下午2:00would sources of supply. A more efficient1 approach

2

be to work with a single automation supplier that can design and build the entire panel — including all the control and power components — standardising component selection and panel design across many locations worldwide. A supplier with a testing/validation lab for environmental cycling and accelerated life testing gives a WTG manufacturer the opportunity to achieve the best possible control-panel design. This may lead to additional benefits such as reducing the panel size, selecting components that generate less heat, and/or designing an integratedsafety system that provides safe access to panels during operation. Design For High Availability And Reliability WTGs are used in extreme onshore and offshore environments; as such, a high level of availability and reliability of the distributed power generated is critical in both types of deployments. In addition, lowering the operating and maintenance costs during and after the warranty period is also essential. Finally, utilising off-the-shelf components with long life cycles

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energy

and helps machine builders get their equipment to market faster. Provide Compliance To International, Regional And Local Electrical And Safety Standards As WTG manufacturers expand operations globally, they must adhere to international, regional and local standards to ensure the safety of workers and equipment. However, by following appropriate international standards, WTG manufacturers can streamline production processes globally and gain access to customers worldwide. As an added bonus, incorporating these standards into the windturbine design process can boost productivity and profitability for both manufacturers and operators of wind turbines. International standards add two very important elements to the reliability of the machine’s safety function — time and risk — helping machine builders take advantage of a more methodical approach to safety-system design. Finally, international standards require WTG manufacturers to identify and document the potential hazards associated with machine operation and the risk levels present to users.

5

The construction of wind turbines is a process that requires precise handling and testing to ensure safety and compliance to national and international standards.

and leveraging a large network of global support with access to spare-parts inventory can help reduce system downtime if a problem occurs. Offshore wind turbines are increasingly used in a number of countries because these winds tend to flow at higher speeds than those onshore — allowing them to produce more electricity. However, much of this potential energy is near highly populated areas and energy-load centres, where energy costs are high and land-based winddevelopment opportunities are limited. Conduct A Standards And Safety Audit Safety is an essential element in WTG design and operation, so WTG manufacturers must consider protecting the large capital investment in a WTG. The diameter of wind turbine blades has widened significantly in recent years, and is now larger than the wingspan of a Boeing 747 jumbo jet — increasing the potential amount of wind energy each WTG is capable of producing. Therefore, uncontrollable, hazardous weather conditions, like high-wind speeds, create unique safety challenges for wind-turbine manufacturers. The turbine must be capable of stopping quickly and safely in the event of high-wind speeds to prevent it from tearing apart. In addition, WTG safety-system designers are challenged with a mix of high and low voltages, depending on the section of the WTG. Performing a safety audit before initiating controlsystem design helps engineers chart the course for an effective safe solution and evaluate risks early in the development process. This saves critical time

4

Integrate WTG Safety Into The ControlSystem Design To Reduce Complexity The evolution of safety standards and economic factors are driving the shift of safety systems from hardwired to contemporary, highly integrated configurations. Using an incorporated platform for safety and standard control eliminates the need for electromechanical or hardwired controls. The more designers integrate the standard and safety-control functions of a system, the better the opportunity to reduce equipment redundancies, improve productivity and minimise costs. This functionality reduces the number of unique components in use as part of the WTG control system, which, in turn, lowers inventory costs, as well as maintenance team-training requirements. End users also benefit from less waste, with fewer parts to maintain and replace throughout the WTG life cycle.

6

Conclusion Thanks to advancements in technology and the globalisation of safety standards, WTG manufacturers can expand into new markets and help customers improve worker safety and protect equipment and assets. By enlisting the help of global suppliers, WTG manufacturers can provide a smooth transition to new markets and continue growing as the windenergy industry expands. ENQUIRY NO. 7601

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G

lobal warming and climate changes from CO2 emissions of traditional energy sources, such as those powered by fossil fuels, have created huge markets for alternative power generation. Wind turbine energy has become a popular alternative to meet the fast growing energy demand. Unlike fossil fuels, which are a limited and diminishing resource, wind energy is limitless and readily available. Conversion of wind energy into utility grade AC power requires power electronics, such as rectifiers and inverters. In a high power generation system, galvanic insulation becomes very important to ensure the quality and reliability of the power generation. Fibre optic components offer protection by providing insulation from high-voltage glitches and unwanted signals in power electronic devices. Avago Technologies offers industrial fibre optic components for data-acquisition/control and isolation in the power generation market. Featuring performance in high insulation voltage and high immunity to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), these products can be installed to operate in close

proximity to power-carrying conduits which emit disruptive electrical interference. As the demand for renewable energy grows globally, wind turbine designs are becoming larger and larger. The company’s industrial fibre products offer a wide range of datarate and link lengths for many applications in this power generation market. Key applications for industrial fibre optic components in a wind turbine system include: • Power electronic gate driver for rectifiers and inverters • Control and communication boards • Turbine control units • Condition monitoring systems • Wind farm networking

Wind Turbine Power Generation Wind turbine power is used to convert kinetic energy into electrical energy through the use of a generator. As wind conditions vary, the electrical energy created from the generator needs to be converted for usability. A rectifier, inverter, transformer and filter are needed

Industrial Fibre Optics For Wind Applications

Tom, Chicago US

With a greater role for renewable energy, proper networking and communication between renewable sources is essential. For wind farm applications, fibre optic components represents an important element in offering protection and providing insulation from high-voltage glitches and unwanted signals in power electronic devices. By Alek Indra, Asia Pacific marketing manager, Avago

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energy

within the wind turbine for utility-grade AC power to be transmitted over long distances (Figure 1). A transformer is usually installed at the bottom of the tower to provide voltage conversion from the low voltage generated by the wind turbine, to medium/ high voltage for transmission.

Rectifier And Inverter

Figure 1: Wind turbine power generation block diagram.

Figure 2: IGBT gate driver block diagram.

The rectifier and inverter are key components in the wind turbine system. The rectifier converts noisy AC power to DC power, while the inverter converts DC power to clean and reliable AC power. The switching of these devices is usually controlled by a DSPembedded controller via a fibre optic link, to provide efficient and reliable switching control with high galvanic isolation capability. There are numerous rectifier and inverter control switches available: • Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) • Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) • Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor (IGCT) • Symmetrical Gate Commutated Thyristor (SGCT) • Emitter Turn Off Thyristor (ETO) Fibre optic components are commonly used to control a high voltage and current switching device, with reliable control and feedback signals (Figures 2 and 3).

Condition Monitoring System

Figure 3: ETO two-level voltage source converter phase leg block diagram.

Figure 4: Elements within a wind turbine nacelle requiring fibre communications.

Most modern wind turbines have intelligent features to monitor and control the system to accommodate varying wind conditions. For example, atmospheric sensors detect wind speed and direction. Other sensors monitor the condition and strength of the turbine’s parts to avoid run-to-failure. Wind turbines need to withstand extreme weather conditions, such as storms and lightning. In these conditions, it is important to ensure that the turbine’s monitoring system is designed to provide high voltage and current isolation. Fibre optics becomes a preferred choice of medium as it offers much higher voltage and current isolation properties compared to optocouplers and other similar components. In the nacelle of the wind turbine (Figure 4), short link distances using fibre optics can utilise Plastic Optical Fibre (POF) and the company’s HFBR-0500Z products. Designers can select from connectors with snap-in, latching, and screw-in designs. The company’s link subfamily allows field connector capabilities for POF and the associated connectors, allowing for field repairs, maintenance, and installation. Besides good isolation properties, these products provide good signal integrity as they are immune to EMI. They are suitable for monitoring system

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Wind Turbine And Wind Farm Networking

Figure 5: Wind farming configuration.

communications over long distances with reliable data transmission in high voltage/current applications. For greater ESD and EMI protection, metalised packaging should be used that provides good shielding. The SMA-styled connector also works well in areas with vibration and mechanical shocks.

Data collected from the condition monitoring systems, with the use of short-link POF fibre links in individual wind turbines, are typically multiplexed into Hardclad Silica (HCS) or multi-mode fibre cables. The longer link distances of HCS and multi-mode fibre may be needed if wind turbine towers are greater than 100 metres in height. Fibre cables are both robust, offer greater resistance to harsh environmental elements, and are lightweight. All of these are requirements for vertical cabling in wind turbine towers. Industry standard connectors like the ST/STthread and SMA are all available from the company. The HFBR-0400Z series operates over both HCS and multi-mode fibre, which offer greater bandwidth and link distance compared to the POF solution. These parts are commonly used in wind turbine towers and over long distance wind farm networks (Figure 5). ENQUIRY NO. 7602

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energy

Ultracapacitors For Wind Power Applications

U

ltracapacitors have been established as the energy storage medium of choice in wind systems. Enercon first commercially integrated them in 2006 for the purpose of pitch control and emergency power for the pitch control systems. Ultracapacitors proved superior to the incumbent battery systems by performing beyond the limitations of the batteries. In particular, ultracapacitors maintain a high level of performance in cold temperatures and have a very long cycle/calendar life while generally requiring no maintenance. A typical schematic is provided showing the location of the energy storage component (batteries or ultracapacitors) within a pitch control system. Capacitors could be placed at other schematic points in the system depending on specific design requirements and theory applied. The switched mode

Leo-setä, Flickr

Ultracapacitors used as energy storage in wind applications generate far better ROI than other energy storage mediums in all phases of a wind turbines life. By Bryce Gregory, senior field applications engineer, Ioxus

power supply ser ves as the charging circuit for the energy storage component. The energy storage subsequently powers the motor controllers aka inverter or VFD, which controls the pitch motor. One of these systems is required for each blade to make a complete pitch control system. For redundancy the systems remain isolated. Pitch control systems dynamically adjust blade position relative to wind speed in order to maximise efficiency for power generation as well as adjusts to minimise the effect of tower shadow. Additionally, this pitch control is a necessary safety feature for when wind speeds are too high or grid connection to the wind turbine is lost. In either case the pitch control adjusts the blade position to neutral; acting as a break for the turbine system. A reliable system for these emergency type situations is

paramount. Typically at least two functioning systems are required to bring a wind turbine to rest. While the power supply can be located as part of the rotating assembly or stationary inside the hub, the energy storage for reliability is often located in the rotating assembly. These requirements limit your choices of energy storage and the nature of ultracapacitors as light weight and nearly solid state devices make them a top choice. Heavier batteries require much more significant structure to support them in rotation as well as insulation to stave off the effects of cold. In cold weather climates the higher power capability of ultracapacitors compared to batteries, translates to faster response time for similarly designed systems. Other requirements include venting to remove hydrogen gas build up

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from cycling the batteries as well as protection from moisture and management systems to maximise their life. The requirements of ultracapacitors are simple by comparison. They require some protection from moisture, some ver y inexpensive balancing circuitry and a designed charge (float) voltage that will maximise their life. The transition from battery to ultracapacitor based designs has contributed to improved economics for wind farm operation. Ultracapacitors are capable of long operational life exceeding 10 years. Additionally, the ultracapacitors require no maintenance and the state of health is easily ascertained. Batteries on the other hand have life times typically ½ to ⅓ that of ultracapacitors depending on the environmental conditions. End of life is less predictable and frequent maintenance is required. These economics are even more amplified when considering offshore wind installations. T h e e x t re m e c o n d i t i o n s presented by offshore wind turbines have proven the value/ ROI of ultracapacitors as the energy storage systems of choice. In the North Atlantic where maintenance is difficult and costly and temperatures reach extreme

lows for long periods of time; ultracapacitors provide years of unmaintained security and reliability. Providing energy for the largest pitch control systems on the planet (6MW turbines are typically only located off shore because of their extreme size [200m diameter rotors]).

Power Conditioning Energy storage can also be beneficial as an interface between the wind farm and the electrical grid. As the contribution of wind power to the electrical grid increases, the grid becomes more susceptible to voltage fluctuations associated with rapid wind speed changes. Wind speed changes of up to 10 percent in a couple of seconds are common. An Electronic Shock Absorber (ESA) can minimise the effects of these changes on the power quality coming from the wind turbines or wind farm. The ESA acts as an interface between the wind farm bus and the utility grid. Ultracapacitors are contained within an outbuilding or trailer near the wind farm, providing the energy storage component for the voltage smoothing interface. Depending on the size of the farm, this concept can also be applied to the wind turbines itself. Rather than a

Current Transformers 3 Phase

12.47 kV

Utility Grid

Windfarm Bus

Optional

Std HELCO Cutouts

ESA Transformer

Potential Transformers

Std. Pad mount 500 KVA Delta / Grd WYE Taps - +/-2.5%, +/-5%

Grd WYE / Grd WYE 7200 : 120

12.47 kV : 480 3 Phase

ESA Trailer

ESA Single Line Diagram

Phone

single interface between the wind farm bus and the utility grid, each individual turbine can provide voltage buffering or smoothing to the grid. As in the pitch control application, ultracapacitors can provide superior economics in the ESA application because of their ability to perform over a wider range of temperatures than batteries, their significantly higher efficiency relative to batteries for short term energy storage, and their vastly longer cycle life. Ultracapacitors have extremely low ESR, allowing them to be efficiently charged and discharged very rapidly. They also do not need to be kept at a minimum voltage in order to maximise their life. Ultracapacitors are perfectly suited to be kept at any voltage at or below their rated voltage for extended periods of time, allowing them to be flexible to the needs presented by the environment on a wind farm. Their efficiency and wide temperature range minimises the need for auxiliary t e m p e r a t u re c o n t ro l s a n d their ability to function over a wide voltage range reduces or eliminates management systems that add cost, complexity and inefficiency to the ESA systems.

Conclusion Ultracapacitors used as energy storage in wind applications generate far better ROI than other energy storage mediums in all phases of a wind turbines life. They offer a simple design with predictable operation and very little support architecture. They are lightweight, have wider temperature range than batteries and no hydrogen venting is required. They are also easy to use with no maintenance required and reliable operation with a long life of 10 years or more. ENQUIRY NO. 7603 Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  53

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energy

Wind power is a clean energy source that can be implemented in a way that is compatible with the existing environment. Determining the best site for a wind turbine has to take many factors into consideration, including wind turbine performance, health and safety, and the surrounding environment. By Steve McMahon, VP sales & marketing, GM EMEA, Orenda Energy Solutions

Improve Performance And Mitigate Risk F

or the small-medium wind market, defined as land-based turbines rated to generate 5kW–100kW of power, Orenda believes that it is responsible to locate turbines in rural areas. This provides the greatest opportunity to maximise wind turbine performance in a manner that is low-impact and meets local siting regulations. The following details wind turbine siting considerations that are applicable to the smallmedium wind market.

Wind Turbine Performance Suitable wind conditions are a primary consideration for any proposed wind turbine site. The ideal location has steady wind at a moderate speed (>5 m/s average) with low turbulence. Although it is not necessary to find a perfect site, optimal locations include shorelines, smooth hills, plateaus, or any high area of land with minimal obstructions. The large buildings that occupy urban areas create turbulent wind conditions that are unsuitable for horizontal axis wind turbine installations. Even when an appropriate open space can be located, ongoing commercial and residential development make it

Mark Thompson, UK

Rural Siting Of Wind Turbines:

risky to plan an urban wind turbine installation. In rural areas, trees and individual buildings can obstruct wind flow and create turbulence, but these factors are more stable and typically easy to plan around with the additional space provided by rural locations. Trees can also be beneficial in selecting a wind turbine site: consistent deformities in trees can be a great indication of long-term wind patterns. Specifically, the Griggs-Putnam Index of Deformity is an empirical method which estimates prevailing wind speed by examining the growth pattern of trees at a particular site.

Health And Safety Accidents can happen in any industry, and although severe incidents are rare, the wind industry is no exception. In the UK, 1,500 incidents were reported over five years, most of which were minor and did not result in injury — none of the incidents recorded involved an injury to a member of the public. The majority of injuries are caused by occupational hazards not unique to the wind industry; falls, confined spaces, electrical, fire, and other similar hazards experienced by workers occur in green

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industries as well as in traditional industries. There have been rare cases where wind turbine failures have resulted in fires, parts falling to the ground, or ice dropping from blades. These incidents decrease with new wind turbine technologies, but as a safety precaution, it is important for wind turbines to be located in low human footfall traffic areas. It is not only responsible to do this — most jurisdictions have setback requirements that dictate how close a turbine can be to roads and residences. It is much easier to meet these obligations in rural areas. Advanced wind turbine technologies help decrease risk to workers and the public. Computerised control systems allow turbines to track key safety information, including wind speed and direction, temperatures, cable twist, hydrostatic brake condition and generator RPM. The following technologies are also used to minimise health and safety risk: hydraulic towers that allow maintenance to be performed at ground level, braking systems that use seven levels of redundancy to control the turbines under high-speed wind conditions, and

built-in lightning rods that reduce dangers from severe weather. Combined with siting wind turbines in rural locations, these technologies mitigate the majority of health and safety risks.

Environmental Concerns By creating clean energy that does not produce harmful emissions or hazardous waste, wind projects contribute to creating a healthier environment for both humans and wildlife. The primary environmental concerns — wildlife safety, visual and sound impacts, and space requirements for construction and maintenance — can be overcome by taking the time to develop a low-impact site plan. Wildlife Bird and bat collisions with wind turbines can occur, but the extent of bird and bat fatalities varies widely by facility and region. Buildings, cars and cats contribute to significantly more bird deaths than wind turbines. Overall, wind turbines are responsible for less than 0.01 percent of bird deaths caused by humans and pets.

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ENQUIRY NO. 643

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energy

Source/Activity

Indicative noise level dB (A)

Threshold of hearing Rural night-time background Quiet bedroom Wind farm at 350m

0 20-40 35 35-45

Car at 40mph at 100m

55

Busy general office

60

Truck at 30mph at 100m

65

Pneumatic drill at 7m

95

Jet aircraft at 250m

105

Threshold of pain

140

Source: The Scottish Office, Environment Department, Planning Advice Note, PAN 45, Annes A: Wind Power, A.27, Renewable Energy Technologies, August 1994

In the early days of wind turbine facilities, some projects were developed in poor locations with little consideration for wildlife impacts. For example, an early wind facility in Altamont, California was built along a major bird migration corridor and has more raptor (bird of prey) fatalities than any other wind facility. Avoiding bird and bat migration corridors is a simple step that can be taken to mitigate the risk of bird and bat fatalities. Newer turbines have different structural components that may also contribute to lower rates of bird and bat fatalities, such as monopole towers instead of lattice towers that provide more places for birds to perch. In 2007, the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative released a Mitigation Toolbox that provides guidance, including siting suggestions, for wind developers to reduce the impact on birds and bats. Many jurisdictions also have their own requirements with steps for developers to take to protect wildlife. Visual And Sound Impacts The appearance of wind turbine installations is subjective; opinions will vary depending on the personality of the individual. However, shadow flicker is a specific occurrence that happens when the blades of a turbine pass in front of the sun to create a repetitive shadow. The frequency and extent of shadow flicker will depend on the region, with areas of lower latitudes and higher sun angles experiencing less shadow flicker. It is most problematic for individuals when it occurs through the window of a building. Shadow flicker can be determined with computer models prior to wind turbine installation, and one of the easiest solutions is to use an appropriate setback distance from residences that would otherwise be affected. Vegetative screens, such as an area

of rapidly growing trees, can also be used. These mitigation measures are easily implemented in rural locations where wind turbine locations are more flexible. In terms of sound, wind turbines are generally quiet. No sound produced by wind turbines results in hearing loss or any other risk to human health. For some people in close proximity to a wind turbine, it may be annoying if a ‘whooshing’ sound — caused by air passing by the blades — is audible. For this reason, it is important to include sound considerations in a siting assessment. Wind direction, weather conditions and sound barriers can all impact audibility. Most mechanical sounds of modern turbines have been greatly reduced with soundproofing techniques. As with visual considerations, mitigation measures to reduce sound impacts are easier to accommodate in rural areas where more space is available. Space Requirements Wind turbines from some manufacturers require access roads to be built so cranes can be used to assemble the tower, and after the turbine is installed, cranes may also be used to lower and raise the tower during routine servicing and maintenance. Orenda turbines use a hydraulic tower system that allows the turbine to be lowered and raised without large equipment; no additional roads are required. Many jurisdictions have requirements for a fence to be placed around the base of a wind turbine, but other than this space, land can be used for agricultural purposes right up to the base of a wind turbine.

Summary There are many siting considerations to be made during the initial stages of a wind turbine project, including wind conditions, health and safety, wildlife concerns, visual and sound impacts, and space requirements. A rural location provides more opportunities to maximise the environmental benefits in a low-impact manner, while providing for optimal wind resource. Fitting into the small wind segment, Orenda turbines are rated to generate 50kW of power at a wind speed of 10 m/s. The hydraulic tower, extensive safety features and warranty reserve on these turbines make them suited for rural landowners, including agricultural farmers and small-scale wind farm developers. ENQUIRY NO. 7604

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ENQUIRY NO. 641

641 Sick.indd 1

9/19/13 10:17:21 AM


A Smarter Approach To Extracting Natural Resources Data is the industry’s untapped resource. By David Haake, Global Industry Solutions Executive, Chemicals and Petroleum Industries, IBM

I

t is no exaggeration to say that the business of identifying and extracting natural resources — including oil, gas, minerals, metals, fibres and wood — is critical to modern life on this planet. These raw and base materials make up our homes and buildings, power our transportation systems, and are found in nearly every product bought or sold. So it is no wonder that as the global population continues to grow — up to 10 billion by 2050 — demand for these natural resources will rise. This is why it is essential that the industry of natural resource and base materials extraction is as effective and productive as possible. Commodity producers are the foundation of a fantastically complex, global supply chain. But they often operate in hostile, remote environments, subject to dangerous weather, patchwork infrastructure and tough regulatory conditions. Downtime can take the form of breakdowns, a missing spare part, an employee injury or inclement weather. These common disruptions can slow production and, of course, threaten profitability. And the impact of these supply interruptions can be felt across

58

Magnus von Koeller, Frankfurt, Germany

sector spotlight

dozens of adjacent industries as well. Should these disruptions be sufficiently severe, they can threaten entire economies. At times, it all seems so fragile. But it does not have to be this way. If production decision makers could better predict events that increase the risk of unplanned shutdowns and take immediate action to either avert or prepare for a disruption, negative impacts could be minimised. The commodity producer would be able to optimise operations to grow revenue, satisfy customers, raise operational efficiency and drive production. They can maximise uptime, deployment and utilisation of assets — whether in mines, fields, forests, machinery or transportation networks. Natural, human, and technological systems can be harmonised to meet peak production capacities. IBM believes information technology assets are underutilised in the natural resources industries. IT assets may hold the key for solving many of the significant challenges organisations confront on a daily basis. And we are not alone in this belief. Some of the most forward-thinking leaders in the industry are examining new ways to harness technology,

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data, analytics, mobility and instrumentation. These innovations can deliver greater recoveries and higher product yield, improved efficiency, better human and environmental safety, and more efficient global supply chains. Today, these companies are looking to new technologies and processes to: • Instrument critical assets to access information on the status of machines or operations, and analyse the information to improve outcomes, efficacy and performance. • Integrate asset, production, customer and operational data to gain new insights and provide production and performance reporting, key performance indicators and production calculations. • Establish remote command centres with visualisation and virtualisation technologies, enabling knowledge workers to live and work remotely while supporting global operations. • Leverage location awareness technologies to monitor and track assets and people, and improve worker safety. • Harness event triggers and alerts to monitor production facilities, warn of shutdowns and breakages, and perform condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. • Integrate information from production systems with planning and customer systems to provide a holistic view of the business for improved collaboration, coordinated decision-making and increased organisational agility.

Mark Morgan, Port of Spain

These opportunities are helping natural resource companies face and solve some of their most pressing and immediate challenges. And we believe it is this type of insight and decision-making that is required to meet the growing demand for natural resources, and help build a smarter planet.

Following the correct protocol when working in mines is important for health and safety reasons.

Supporting Four Key Imperatives Can Help Your Business Succeed Deep within the operations of many extraction companies

is a different kind of natural resource with tremendous value: data. These information assets can yield a wealth of insights, help improve yields and increase profits. By exploring data stores, natural resource companies can turn complexity into a competitive advantage. As some executives have already discovered, embracing and managing that data can help make their decisions simpler and their businesses smarter. IBM has found there are four imperatives facing natural resource companies as they seek to navigate today’s complex environment.

Optimise Production Operations Today, organisations must optimise production operations throughout the natural resource value chain and improve the return on their investments. They can improve visibility and control of their resources, fields, workforces and production through the instrumentation, integration and analysis of their core data assets. This includes using geophysical modeling and processing to understand opportunities, integrating operations for better analysis and realtime monitoring, and automating and optimising manufacturing processes. The opportunity to establish remote operations and virtual command centres that enable knowledge workers to monitor and control operations in the field from afar is profound. In addition, new information, technology and processes can make the supply chain more intelligent and capable of performing more efficiently, including improving demand planning, production planning, forecasting, manufacturing, inventory, distribution and customer fulfillment. For example, Nippon Steel Corporation needed to improve its business process efficiency, shorten planning time and develop plans for the optimal utilisation of raw steel coils in parts production. To do this, the company implemented advanced mathematical models to simulate complex scheduling and manufacturing scenarios, providing planners with data to support strategic decisionmaking. Now managers perform ‘what-if’ analyses on multiple alternative models, changing the way planning decisions are made and boosting the company’s capacity to adapt its processes to customer demand. The company has automated planning activities also. Blank layouts can be calculated for three months of anticipated orders in 15 minutes, a task that would have been impossible to complete manually. And, they have reduced utilisation loss of galvanised steel sheets by at least two percent, generating annual savings of as much as US$1 million. Oct/Nov 2013 | industrial automation asia  59

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sector spotlight

Bastien Dechaumet

with the right skills in the right location for the right price. This results in more productivity and collaboration, especially as companies manage attrition of their experienced workforce. New competencies such as employee learning and enablement, knowledge sharing, collaboration, workforce performance and talent analytics are key to this imperative. For example, a leading global energy company improved operations of its Leveraging knowledge across an organisation is critical for improving work efficiency and reducing intelligent oilfield program safety and reliability issues. Enterprises can improve their ability to recruit and maintain workforces with the right skills in the right location for the right price. by establishing a remote operations centre, optimising c o re b u s i n e s s p ro c e s s e s Improve Asset Management around this model, and implementing knowledge Natural resources companies need to reduce planned sharing and collaboration technologies. The result and unplanned asset shutdowns in order to maximise was a network of collaborative environments for asset utilisation and production. Commodity faster, safer decision-making. companies can improve the utilisation, uptime, maintenance, security and lifetime of their key Enhance Environmental Performance assets, including properties, fields, wells, machines, And Employee Safety transportation, tools, facilities and technology. Key N a t u r a l re s o u rc e s c o m p a n i e s n e e d t o b e opportunity areas for improved asset management responsible for their employees, the environment that companies should explore include the and their communities. With growing concern management of capital projects, enterprise asset over worker and population safety, environmental management, condition based maintenance, realperformance and the effects of disasters and time asset tracking and turnaround optimisation. spills, a responsible approach has become a For example, one global energy company employs a key differentiator in the market and even a ‘design one, build many’ asset management approach competitive advantage. to developing new fields. With exploration of one There is a significant opportunity to apply new of its newest and most promising developments technology, practices and processes to improve completed and full production on the horizon, this performance in these areas. New competencies that global oil company needed to ensure that the pieces commodity producers should pursue include location were in place to keep production levels high and awareness and safety, regulatory management, down-time low. This also meant adapting to a number integrated risk management, carbon management of local operational challenges. and integrated water management. The company implemented an integrated asset For example, steel production plants can be management solution, based on adapted best dangerous facilities, especially around the blast practices in work management, stock management and furnace. One major global steel manufacturer sought procurement from other regions, bringing improved to improve employee safety in their plants with efficiency to new and important oilfield development real-time employee location monitoring. Their opportunities. The result was significant production solution automatically detects and responds to efficiency gains, lower costs and improved safety. potential accidents such as falls using real-time sensor data. Employees now wear Radio Frequency Integrate The Global Workforce IDentification (RFID) tags to coordinate location data Leveraging knowledge across an organisation is with emergency staff to shorten response times.The critical for improving work efficiency and reducing company has identified competency and capability safety and reliability issues. Enterprises can improve areas that can help natural resource enterprises meet their ability to recruit and maintain workforces these four industry imperatives. 60  industrial automation asia | Oct/Nov 2013

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Innovation

Analytics And Optimisation

Innovation, as always, is a fundamental driver within natural resource industries. New exploration technologies have improved geospatial modeling and seismic imaging to find remote fields and new mines. New mathematical algorithms and modeling ideas enhance recovery and extraction techniques. Companies should look to infuse new ideas and approaches into the business, leveraging computational geosciences, integrated operations, high performance computing and streaming analytics. For example, Repsol’s decision to expand its primary, land-based properties into the Gulf of Mexico and offshore Brazil reflected its need to replenish declining reserves. To find substantial reserves, the company recognised that its best options lay farther offshore in fields difficult to both find and produce. However, by optimising advanced seismic information and utilising new technologies, it increased its offshore drill success rate to 50 percent — against an industry average of 20 percent.

Collecting and managing data is one thing. But applying analytics and optimisation capabilities to that data enables natural resources companies to make better production decisions that ultimately increase recovery rates, extend the life of mines and fields, and reduce environmental risks. Predictive analytics capabilities fill in the gap between data and action by drawing reliable conclusions about current conditions and future events in such areas as asset management. Analytics can also be used to help optimise natural resource recovery through modeling and implementation of systemic changes that lead to actionable insights. For example, one global mining company is turning complexity into an advantage. They are adopting analytics and optimisation capabilities to identify the best portfolio of contracts to offer each client, define the best volume for each type of product and analyse which mines or combination of mines to produce. In addition, they are using the data to synchronise production operations across the entire supply chain, from mines, ore processing, rails, ports and transportation to the client’s front door.

Data is becoming the most valuable resource in the industry. It is continually generated from facility, field, forest and mine operations. Smart companies are integrating this information — both within their business and across their ecosystems — to better manage operations and collaborate with business partners. Companies should seek to integrate systems to help simplify their complex IT environments and improve the visibility, flexibility and collaboration required for effective operations and decision-making. When economic turmoil caused an abrupt drop in demand for steel products, a Chinese iron and steel producer saw its profits turn into losses. To compete in the volatile economic environment, the company needed to better integrate external information with respect to fluctuating prices and market conditions with internal production and capacity information to improve steel production efficiency, revenue and profitability. By integrating this information and with the help of powerful analytical capabilities, this company turned economic volatility into opportunity, enabling them to predict market movements and price fluctuations — and make more profitable decisions. The company reached ¥200 million (US$2.014 million) in profit by pursuing three major business opportunities uncovered by advanced market analysis. It reduced operational management costs by 20 percent by improving the quality and speed of decision-making.

ENQUIRY NO. 7701

Up for

loads The-spool – the modular alternative to cable drums: ensures correct length and tension by integrated retaining spring. Allowing uninterrupted guidance of data, energy and fluids up to 14m. No slip ring. No draw wire guides. NEW: reinforced HD pull-back system and motor coupling for higher f i l l i n g loads.

®

ENQUIRY NO. 635

Information Management

igus® Singapore Pte Ltd TEL: +65 6487 1411 FAX: +65 6487 1511 15 Shaw Road, #03-02 Email: info@igus.com.sg Singapore 367953

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features

Power Management

cclark395

in a Power Hungry World

T

he International Energy Outlook 2013 projects that world energy consumption levels will grow by 56 percent by 2040 to 820 quadrillion British Thermal Units even as we battle with climate change, urbanisation and diminishing energy sources. Rising prosperity in Asian economies like India and China are set to cause a spike in the amounts of energy consumed by the transportation, industrial and agricultural sectors across the region as we work towards powering more cars, more machinery, and producing more consumables. I n re s p o n s e t o t o d a y ’s unprecedented energy demands, oil and gas companies around the world are exploring deeper and newer frontiers to satisfy the world’s demand for energy — this has resulted in higher capital expenditure investments by

companies as they work towards ensuring that their machinery can cope with operations in harsher and more hazardous environments. These complex operations also add risk to both the people involved in the Exploration and Production (E&P) processes as well as potential profits.

Keeping It Optimised, Yet Affordable E&P activities do come at a price but oil and gas firms can look towards keeping operating costs affordable by looking to optimise critical systems, reduce downtime, and simplifying installation and maintenance processes by investing in customised electrical, hydraulics and filtration solutions that provide a reliable and efficient supply of power. Purpose designed energy audits should be carried out to help identify wasteful energy

Addressing oil & gas exploration and production challenges with technology. By Gardiner Henderson, global director, Oil & Gas, Eaton

consumption patterns and analyse areas where energy savings can be achieved. Durable fittings, cable glands and hoses can be installed to help ensure that critical systems remain operational. Downtime can also be greatly reduced with the installation of circuit protection systems for both circuit breakers and fuses that protect motors and electrical distribution equipment. Time and money spent on installation and maintenance can be minimised with the use of LED lighting solutions, liquid/gas separators that offer better unit operation and customised integrated power assemblies. One highly successful example of where customised solutions helped to optimise performance was the construction of the Dow/ Saudi Aramco integrated chemical facility which was built in a single phase. Customised motor control fittings, power distribution systems and engineering services have allowed the Sadara chemical company’s world scale integrated complex to enjoy enhanced reliability in terms of operability.

Ensuring Stable Operations Through Automation Oil and gas companies depend on being able to operate around the clock when needed in order to ensure profitability.

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Operators can stay ‘one step ahead’ of their operational systems with the aid of wireless and electronic instrumentation that allow for remote monitoring and troubleshooting. Power management software for example not only helps manage energy costs but also troubleshoots quality problems remotely, in difficult to reach sites. As operators move into more remote and harsh environments for exploration, there is a greater need to have the assurance that all E&P systems are fully functional even in extreme conditions. Solutions like a hose condition monitoring system help to detect symptoms of hose failure and notify the user early which allows the operator to schedule timely maintenance, resulting in reduced downtime.

Additionally, metal cladding helps to extend component and system lifelines by offering protection against corrosion from rough environmental conditions including salt spray.

Protecting People And Profit Manpower risks are quite high in the E&P sector but a lot of these risks can be mitigated with the right technological solutions. Risks encountered during deep sea production can be greatly reduced with explosion-proof enclosures that protect people and equipment from flammable gases, vapors and dusts that could get ignited by arcs, sparks and heat. Operators can also ensure people safety by looking to prevent arc flash in high risk environments.

Companies like Valero refinery have chosen to retrofit both new and existing equipment with arcresistant motor controls to ensure that their people, equipment and refining facility would be safe from arc flash hazards. E&P companies and operators will continue to face new challenges as they look seawards in search of oil and gas resources to meet rising demands and grapple with declining onshore production. However, there is also the reassurance that with improved technological safety systems, components and services, operators can look towards minimising their risk and optimising their investments to meet the diversified needs of the sector. ENQUIRY NO. 7801

Power Monitor

The device measures and visualises all relevant characteristics with high accuracy. Detail: Precise measurement of current, voltage, power, power factor, apparent and reactive power at each connected phase and in the total line. www.weidmuller.com.sg

Let‘s connect.

ENQUIRY NO. 645

Measure and record the electrical characteristics of machines and systems

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features

Case Study:

Setting New Standards A 30,000 A power supply unit sets new performance and energy efficiency standards. Contributed by David Chia, MD, Beckhoff Automation

A

ixcon Power Systems is known for specialising in control technology for power electronics. Since the company was established in 1994, its engineers have been developing high-performance power supply units for welding plants in metal working applications and for microwave equipment in the semiconductor industry. In addition to developing and producing power electronics, it also manufactures complete systems, eg: for longitudinal seam welding of composite pipes. The company, which is based in Stolberg, Germany, has been

using automation technology from Beckhoff right from the start. Initially, DOS-based IP 65 Panel PCs with S2000 software were used in conjunction with the company’s Lightbus as the fieldbus system. After years of continuous innovation, these have long since been superseded by modern Industrial Control Cabinet PCs of the C69xx series, Control Panels with CP-Link 3 for the operator interface and TwinCAT as the PLC and motion control software platform. EtherCAT, which can integrate all automation components including I/Os and Servo Drives, is used as the system-wide fieldbus.

Power Supply For Controlled Heating Of Titanium Sections Aixcon is currently working on the development and production of a power supply system for a ‘hot stretcher,’ which has been a challenge in every respect. A hot stretcher is a type of plant in which titanium sections are machined and formed under the influence of heat, without impairing their material characteristics. To this end the sections are fixed in the hot stretcher, heated based on an exactly defined temperature curve, formed (turned and drawn) and then cooled. The specifications must be adhered to precisely; otherwise,

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Innovative Automation And Operating Concept The specifications for automation and operation of this plant are demanding: • Development, parameterisation and archiving of the recipes (current curves) in a database • Archiving of the actual process data (quality verification) • Set value generation for the current source controllers • Real-time transfer of the set values from the PLC to the controllers • Fast online visualisation of the process • Platform-independent visualisation of the process and production data for iPad and iPhone These requirements were solved and implemented with an automation and operating concept, based on the following components: • Database server • TwinCAT PLC on a C6920 Industrial PC

• EtherCAT and EtherCAT I/O terminals for transferring the set values and remaining process data • CP6202 Panel PC with CPLink 3 for visualisation of the online process information at the machine • Web server for the database server and TwinCAT PLC server • Web-based, platformindependent visualisation created with Java Script

High-Performance PC Control, Innovative Visualisation The TwinCAT PLC generates the set values for the process based on the recipes stored on the database server. EtherCAT is used for transferring the values to the Aixcon controller boards and for logging the signals, temperatures and states that are relevant for system control and monitoring. Each panel has an EtherCAT I/O station. Online visualisation of the whole process takes place directly at the plant via a CP-Link 3 client. This technology replaces the previous image transfer via DVI with an interference-free, simple to install and cost-effective Ethernet cable. In addition, this offers several optional features. For example, up to nine clients with different resolutions, display sizes and content can be connected. At the hot stretcher the CP-Link 3 technology is used, at the other end of the large machine a further panel can be positioned for special diagnostic purposes. The recipes for current and temperature curves, section types, and so on are managed on the database server. The database server also deals with archiving and processing of relevant process and production data. The whole plant operation is web-based. This means it is totally platform-independent and can be run via a Windows PC, Linux, Apple, iPad or iPhone.

ENQUIRY NO. 630

the properties of titanium, such as strength, thickness and ductility, would be impaired. Electricity is used for heating the material in a hot stretcher based on defined temperature profiles. To heat a titanium section with a length of around 4 m and a cross-section of around 50 sq cm to 620 deg C in 60 seconds requires an electrical current of around 17,320 A. Aixcon’s task was to develop and produce such a powerful current source. The dimensions of this ‘power supply unit’ are impressive: Three control cabinet panels are capable of delivering an total of 30,000 A. Each panel has 10 power units, each with its own controller and rectifier for three power transistors with 333 A each. The system uses a 480 V/400 A 3-phase power supply.

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features

have access to the database and the recipes. Quality-relevant data can be archived and the diagnostic data can be accessed via the database server. Mobile devices such as iPads, iPhones or remote client PCs are routed via the Internet through VPN. They can access the web server of the database computer directly via Java Script for displaying the required data. In the same way as the system control can access the database, the reverse route is also available: For example, the production manager can not only view the production data stored in the database, it is also possible to visualise current process values such as currents, temperatures or diagnostic plant data, eg: on an iPad.

Overview of the hardware architecture.

Increased Efficiency Results In Improved Savings Potential

The whole plant operation is web-based. This means it is totally platform-independent and can optionally be run via a Windows PC, Linux, Apple, iPad or iPhone.

The database and TwinCAT PLC form the centrepiece of the process control systems. Like the visualisation, this communication is also based on Java Script. The components required for this purpose are the respective web servers and the script DLLs. For the TwinCAT PLC these are Internet Information Server (IIS) integrated in Windows and the ADS script DLLs for accessing the TwinCAT PLC variables. The main operator panel is a

Windows-enabled CP6202 Panel PC that is installed directly at the plant. These days, all browsers support Java, which means that no further software is required, and the browser integrated in the operating system can be used as a framework for visualisation. The operator terminal is connected directly with the TwinCAT PLC via CP-Link 3 and Ethernet and is mainly used for fast online visualisation of process data. In addition, authorised operators

“The current source we developed sets new standards in terms of performance, controllability and energy efficiency,” said Karl Swiontek, MD, Aixcon. “For example, the single-phase AC power source used in the past was only around 60 percent efficient. We were able to increase efficiency to an impressive 98 percent. This is not only better for the environment, it also offers real savings potential. For many years, PC-based control technology from Beckhoff has been helping us realise such projects with many individual requirements. High-performance controllers and high-speed EtherCAT enable us to develop and implement optimised control and process engineering. The wide range of available I/O interfaces make the Beckhoff system truly open and has enabled us to develop a platformand vendor-independent control platform to the delight of our end customers.” ENQUIRY NO. 7802

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23 – 24 April 2014 Level 4, Suntec Singapore www.terrapinn.com/rfidasiaiaaspex

2014

Showcase your leading RFID products and solutions to real buyers! “You get to see the uses of RFID from a different perspective which is actually very informative, and have sparked ideas that I probably wouldn’t have got otherwise!” Melbourne Library Service, Australia

“This is a good show up for us and we get a lot of leads and prospects in this show!” Silicon Craft Technology Co Ltd, Thailand

“RFID World Asia is one of the biggest shows around and we have been participating for many years. I think it is important that we are here this year as well!” Bartronics, Singapore

RFID World Asia puts the spotlight on leading RFID solutions providers who want to do business with organisations looking to improve supply chain efficiency, increase productivity, minimise theft and improve customer service, through the adoption of RFID technologies. The event brings together senior decision makers from industries such as Manufacturing, Retail, Transport, Oil & Gas, Pharmaceutical and other stakeholders who want to learn and source for the latest and best technologies in RFID. If you would like to capture the attention of over 7,000 attendees from Asia with your latest RFID solutions, RFID World Asia is the platform for your customer acquisition strategy. Here are just some lead-generation opportunities for you to heighten your profile:

Exhibition Booth

Networking Opportunities

1-2-1 Partnering ENQUIRY NO. 642

Standard Conference

From hosting a private networking event at the exhibition to 1-2-1 partnering opportunities, there are various ways for you to be involved. Contact Ms. Melissa Ang at Melissa.ang@terrapinn.com or +65 6322 2756 for the latest participation options.

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eBOOK EXCLUSIVE

Energy efficiency is becoming more important in today’s data centres. The data centre being an important element in any organisation’s overall green enterprise strategy. By Peter Halliday, head of Solutions & Services Portfolio, (Middle East/Africa/Asia-Pacific) Building Technologies Division, Infrastructure & Cities Sector, Siemens

A Leap Towards

A Greener Data Centre D

ata centres are coming under increased scrutiny for their voracious energy appetite. Internally, efforts to increase efficiency are desired for cost savings, but corporate responsibility and a consciousness to minimise environmental impact is becoming an equally prominent business driver. However, reducing the overall energy footprint and cost typically requires greater insight into the data centre operations than most IT organisations currently possess. Establishing a ‘Green IT’ culture in an organisation can be a difficult and at times, may be looked at as an unnatural change. However, there are tools coming into the market today that can aid in a smooth transition and help improve the uptake of this new paradigm. Among the most successful solutions is approaching energy efficiency and cost savings from both the infrastructure and asset management perspective. This encompasses the entire data centre lifecycle, including concept, design, management and optimisation.

Going Green In this article, we discuss the Do’s and Don’ts

eBook Exclusive OctNov2013.indd 26

that data centre operators should adopt from an infrastructure and asset management perspective, for optimal energy consumption, resulting in a greener footprint. 1 Leverage on a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) software system A PLM software system provides immediate access to the knowledge that data centre operators need to make the right business decisions. This information equips them to design, build and support the data centre products, and to manage all the data throughout the product lifecycle from a centralised point of control. Having a single, synchronised source of gathered data coupled with a data model would allow various business units, such as IT and facility management, to work collaboratively. Additionally, a centralised system allows the tracking and validation of the approval hierarchy from concept through design, engineering, and build stages of the product lifecycle. A few solutions providers have created a data centrespecific PLM software system, known as Data Centre Infrastructure Management (DCIM) to effectively bridge the IT and facility management operations.

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The DCIM market is still in its early phases but is expected to grow in the near term. 2 Capitalise on advanced virtual design techniques to visualise and prototype desired capabilities and consequences of proposed changes With the increasing awareness of the consequences of uncontrolled carbon dioxide emissions on public health and welfare, the demand for managing emissions is growing in the general public as well as government legislation. The data centre operators too are looking at opportunities to proactively address these concerns. They need a virtual model with the ability to simulate varying environment options. This allows them to analyse and optimise the data centre’s design for maximum energy efficiency and effectively visualise the consequences of proposed changes.

Establish airflow and cooling planning strategies using simulations based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) CFD allows data centre operators to quickly compare various means to eliminate data centre hot spots, such as virtual server movement, blanking scenarios, the addition or removal of perforated titles, and the trial of ducting systems. With hot spots eliminated before construction begins, the IT team can then evaluate whether the set point temperature can be raised without creating new hot spots. As a result, they can plan their data centre cooling environment and consumption in advance. Additionally, CFD simulations can reveal air recirculation conditions and hot/cold air mixing areas, which the IT team can resolve by testing virtual, incremental changes, such as moving titles or adding baffling until recirculation and mixing is removed. Simulation data management allows the visualisation of the link between a product, model and analysis. Such a database speeds up future simulations by reducing the time to find and re-use data, allowing the automation of CFD model creation. 3

4 Implement cost-effective cooling systems that ensure optimal performance On average, cooling requirements account for more than 30 percent of a data centre’s energy consumption. With the ability to build in thermal management capabilities in the data centre infrastructure, operations, expansion or retirement, energy consumption and costs are effectively controlled. Additionally, such features would allow operators to manage and predict temperature and its impact on server performance, especially temperature-sensitive equipment, such as data storage systems. The ability to increase the computer room air conditioner set point temperature by just one degree would shave three percent or more off the data centre’s annual electricity bill. 5 Develop a monitoring and control system that aids in energy consumption pattern-mapping Downtime caused by poor energy management can be eliminated by proactive corrections which are enabled by greater visibility into conditions such as hot spots, blocked airflows, and failed or poorly designed cooling systems. This is facilitated by a centralised point of information collation on energy consumption patterns as operators will be able to capture and report on the required information for an efficient performance-control system. Additionally, with Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), an industry-benchmarking metric that indicates the energy efficiency of data centres, operators need an accurate, reliable method to track and report the indicators that make up the metric.

In Conclusion With servers running 24X7 under tightly controlled environmental conditions and often not at full capacity, data centres are among the world’s largest consumers of energy. Singapore’s information technology regulator, the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) estimates that energy consumption accounts for more than 50 percent of the operating expenditure in a typical data centre in Singapore. Environmental groups estimate that data centres consume about 1.5 to 2 percent of global electricity demand, which is growing at an annual rate of 12 percent. In order for today’s data centres to be sustainable, both economically and environmentally, disjointed energy measures are insufficient. There needs to be an integrated approach towards data centre infrastructure management that spans across IT and facility management in order for genuine energy optimisation to be realised.

CFD simulations can reveal air recirculation conditions and hot/cold air mixing areas

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products & services Adlink: Motion Controllers

Aspen Technology: Software

The AMP-204C/AMP-208C DSP-based 4/8-axis advanced pulse-train motion controllers from Adlink Technology enables high pulse output and encoder input frequency up to 6.5 MHz and 20 MHz respectively. Leveraging the company’s Softmotion technology and easy-to-use utility, the controller offers application-oriented motion functionality, reducing development time and costs up to 25 percent, while maintaining throughput and accuracy with at least 10 percent growth.

The V8.3 release of aspenONE software from Aspen Technology is now available. This release includes new functionality in Aspen HYSYS software, such as, Acid Gas Cleaning to model gas sweetening units, and Pressure Safety Valve Sizing integrated from the acquisition of PSVPlus, which allows process engineers to size pressure safety valves as an integral part of the overall process design for the first time. Both Acid Gas Cleaning and Pressure Safety Valve Sizing are included in Aspen HYSYS in a single modeling environment with intuitive workflows. These new capabilities enable users to optimise upstream, midstream and refining processes faster and to produce inherently safer designs.

Enquiry no. 7901

Aerotech: X-Y Linear Motor

Contrinex:

Aerotech has introduced a X-Y linear motor stage with geometric and dynamic performance for applications where straightness and flatness are critical. The PlanarDL series includes nine different travel and performance configurations to support such diverse uses as surface profilometry and highspeed scribing of semiconductor and LED wafers. With anti-creep crossed-roller bearings, precisionmachined surfaces and linear motors driving through the axes’ centre-of-stiffness, the stages deliver straightness to ±0.4 µm and flatness to ±1 µm. Structural elements are optimised for high dynamics and stiffness.

The ECO inductive sensors by Contrinex provide money-saving solutions, long life expectancy, fast detection and vibration resistance, which are suited for machine builders, material handling conveyor and storage systems, wind power and textile industries. The high switching frequencies are the fastest switching in class. In addition, the series is manufactured by Swiss sensor specialists, providing protection against short circuits, voltage surges, polarity reversal and current overload. Thanks to the company’s ASIC technology, the product offers long sensor life expectancy and highly repeatable results.

Stage

Enquiry no. 7902 68

Enquiry no. 7903

ECO Inductive Sensors

Enquiry no. 7904

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products & Services

Datamax-O’Neil: Portable

E2S: Electronic Bell

An updated version of the Apex portable printer series from Datamax-O’Neil has been released that is Bluetooth compatible with Apple iOS 5.0 and 6.0 iPhones, iPads and iPod Touch products. The printer is now available as an Apple certified MFi printing solution to meet the growing trend of B2B applications that utilise Apple iOS devices. This series of printers come equipped with a D-O Toolkit that will help users adapt the printers into their enterprise environment.

E2S has further extended its ATEX Approved BEx explosion proof range of sounders with the introduction of the Belltronic, which faithfully replicates the sound of the traditional electromechanical bell. Bells are still widely used throughout the world, although the reliability, performance, maintenance and running costs of electromechanical warning devices have become an increasing concern. With a maximum output level of 107 dB @ 1m, the device surpasses the performance and effectiveness of the outdated electromechanical device it replaces.

Printers

Enquiry no. 7905

Enquiry no. 7907

EPlan: CAE Software

Faro: Laser Probe

Version 2.3 of the Eplan Platform, which has been available for download since mid-August, is characterised by standardised and largely automated engineering across a consistent database. There is support for new standard-compliant designations based on EN 81346 and the safety values focused VDMA 66413 exchange format. The central administration of phasedout items and a new search function for system settings are additional new features of the CAE software to allow interdisciplinary cooperation and configuration.

The ScanArm ES is the latest advancement in Faro’s Laser Line scanning sensors, featuring Enhanced Scanning Technology (EST). EST is the combination of multiple hardware and software improvements designed to boost performance by improving the ability to scan challenging surfaces. Materials with dark or reflective optical qualities can now be scanned with less effort and without the need for sprays or surface coatings. The product is suited for product development, inspection, and quality control and offers capabilities such as point cloud comparison with CAD, rapid prototyping, reverse engineering, and 3D modeling.

Enquiry no. 7906

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products & Services

Fluke: Three-Phase Electrical

Steinbichler Optotechnik: Sensors

Energy Logger

For 3D Digitalisation

The Fluke 1730 ThreePhase Energy Logger is designed to be an intuitive, easy-to-use tool with professional-level energy data gathering capabilities. It enables a broader category of multidisciplinary maintenance professionals to confidently gather energy data, while the accompanying Energy Analyse software scales from the analysis and reporting needs of the facility manager to the advanced analytical requirements of electrical engineers. The compact energy logger conducts key measurements of voltage, current, power, and power factor to identify areas of energy waste. All measured values are logged automatically and can be reviewed during logging. Common setup errors are rectified, through re-engineered cables, digital check and auto-correct of all connections, and an on-screen wizard for interval setup.

Steinbichler Optotechnik has developed the Comet 6 16M sensor for 3D digitalisation. The concept of the sensor is based on a modular structure with the tried-and-tested single-camera technology so that the measurement field size can be quickly adapted to the measuring task at hand. The compact sensor design and handling system guarantee maximum user friendliness and ergonomic operation. The sensor can be adjusted easily, precisely and quickly — allowing the user to operate the system intuitively and conveniently.

Enquiry no. 7909

Enquiry no. 7911

ifm electronic: Touch-Screen

STMicroelectronics: Bipolar

ifm electronic offers an industrial IP64 panel PC, specifically designed for when setting and observing object recognition and identification systems. It enables full parameter setting of the products as well as continuous process visualisation. Providing optimal control for machine operators. This industrially compatible computer is equipped with a 12.1” touch-screen with a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels. Windows XP Embedded has been installed as the operating system, besides the company’s user software, for the vision sensors. The interfaces available to the user are WLAN, USB 2.0, Gbit LAN, CAN-BUS, RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485.

The STMicroelectronics 3STL2540 combines the cost and silicon-area efficiencies of a bipolar transistor with energy efficiency similar to MOSFETs of comparable rating, giving designers a spacesaving solution for cost-conscious power-management applications and DC-DC converters. The device is a -40V/-5A PNP transistor capable of full saturation with maximum voltage drop of 200 mV at 10 mA base current. It can achieve an equivalent on-resistance of 90mΩ, which is close to the performance of comparable super logic-level MOSFETs. At the heart of this new device, the company’s double-metal planar base island technology enables the device to maintain consistently high current gain (hFE) of at least 100 over a wide output-voltage range from 0.2 to 10V and a temperature range from -30 deg C to 150 deg C.

Display

Enquiry no. 7910

Power Transistor

Enquiry no. 7912

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Calendar Of Events 2013/14 oct

5 – 9 Industrial Automation Show 2013 Shanghai New International Expo Centre Shanghai, China Hannover Milano Fairs Shanghai Ltd Email: ias@hmf-china.com Web: www.industrial-automation-show.com

13 – 15 Oil & Gas Indonesia 2013 Jakarta International Expo Jakarta, Indonesia PT Pamerindo Indonesia Web: http://www.pamerindo.com/events/6

dec 4 – 6 Oil & Gas Vietnam 2013

13 – 16 Electronic Asia 2013 Hong Kong Convention & Exhibition Centre Hong Kong Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC) Email: hktdc@hktdc.org Web: http://www.hktdc.com

21 – 23 Biomalaysia 2013 Persada Johor International Convention Centre Johor, Malaysia Protemp Exhibitions Sdn Bhd Email: karendass@protempgroup.com Web: http://www.biomalaysia.com.my/

28 – 1 Nov Singapore International Energy Week Marina Bay Sands Singapore Energy Market Authority Email: ema_siew@ema.gov.sg Web: www.siew.sg

30 – Nov 1 EP Shanghai/Electrical Shanghai 2013 Shanghai World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center Shanghai, PR China China Electrical Council Email: power@adsale.com.hk Web: www.epchinashow.com

nov 5 – 9 China International Industry Fair 2013 Shanghai New International Expo Centre Shanghai, China Shanghai World Expo (Group) Co Ltd Email: ciif@shanghaiexpogroup.com Web: www.ciif-expo.com

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Indoor Sports Complex Vung Tau City, Vietnam Fireworks Vietnam Email: viet@asiafireworks.com Web: http://www.oilgasvietnam.com/

4 – 6 Semicon Japan 2013 Makuhari Messe Chiba, Japan Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) Email: jeventinfo@semi.org Web: http://www.semiconjapan.org/

4 – 7 Manufacturing Indonesia 2013 Jakarta International Expo Kemayoran Jakarta, Indonesia PT Pamerindo Indonesia Email: info@pamerindo.com Web: www.pamerindo.com

Feb 1 – 3 India Automation Technology Fair (IATF) Bombay Exhibition Center Mumbai, India Messe Munich International Email: tarun.marwah@mmi-india.in Web: http://www.iatf.in/

Mar 3 – 5 SIAF Guangzhou China Import and Export Fair Complex Guangzhou, China Guangzhou Guangya Messe Frankfurt Email: sps@china.messefrankfurt.com Web: http://www.siaf-china.com/english/

4 – 6 Propak Vietnam 2014 Saigon Exhibition & Convention Centre (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Bangkok Exhibition Services Ltd (BES) Email: arayabhorn@besallworld.com Web: http://www.propakvietnam.com/

4 – 7 Korea Vision Show 2014 Coex Center Seoul, South Korea Korean Vision Show Association Email: mintkiss@coex.co.kr Web: http://automationworld.biz

19 – 22 Inatronics 2014 JIExpo Kemayoran Jakarta, Indonesia PT Global Expo Management (GEM Indonesia) Email: info@gem-indonesia.com Web: www.inatronics-exhibition.net/

apr 1 – 3 MTA Hanoi 2014 International Centre For Exhibition (I.C.E) Hanoi, Vietnam Singapore Exhibition Services Pte Ltd Email: mta@sesallworld.com Web: www.mtahanoi.com/

7 – 11 Hannover Messe 2014 Deutsche Messe Hannover, Germany Deutsche Messe AG Email: info@messe.de Web: www.hannovermesse.de/home

12 – 14 Semicon Korea 2014 Coex Center Seoul, South Korea Email: semiconkorea@semi.org Web: http://www.semiconkorea.org To be considered for inclusion in the Calendar of Events, send details of event (name, date, venue, organiser contact) to: The Editor IAA Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd. 1100 Lower Delta Road, EPL Building, #02-05, Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Email: iaa@epl.com.sg

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i n d e x ADVERTISER

PAGE NO

ENQ NO

ABB PTE LTD

IFC

629

ADVANTECH CO SINGAPORE PTE LTD

27

637

APACER

13

644

BELDEN SINGAPORE PTE LTD

47

638

CONTRINEX (S.E.A) PTE LTD

37

636

EXXON MOBIL ASIA PACIFIC

5

602

FLUKE SOUTH EAST ASIA PTE LTD

55

643

FUJI ELECTRIC ASIA PACIFIC PTE LTD

7

632

HIOKI SINGAPORE PTE LTD

3

647

honeywell pte ltd

11

459

ICP DAS CO LTD

65

630

IFM ELECTRONICS PTE LTD

33

631

IGUS SINGAPORE PTE LTD

45/61

634/635

Mitsubishi Electric Asia PTE Ltd

OBC

632

RS COMPONENT

9

639

SICK PTE LTD

57

641

SPECTRIS PTE LTD – RED LION CONTROLS

51

633

TERRAPINN (RFID WORLD ASIA 2014)

67

642

TKR MANUFACTURING (M) SDN BHD

43

640

WEIDMULLER PTE LTD

63

645

YASKAWA ELECTRIC (SINGAPORE) PTE LTD

1

579

ZEBRA TECHNOLOGIES ASIA PACIFIC

15

646

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IAA Oct Nov 2013  

Industrial Automation Asia

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