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z IndustrialAutomationAsia

Addressing Water Scarcity

Water Industry: High Value Automation

Interview: LKY Water Prize Winner May 2014

May 2014 MCI (P) 009/07/2013 | ISSN 0219/5615 | PPS 1561/06/2013 (022960) Pumps & Valves | Manufacturing Execution Systems | Process Measurement | Public Utilities - Water & Electricity Advertisement


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An Introduction To Lean Manufacturing

In production plants across the globe, lean manufacturing techniques are being utilised to meet increasing demands placed on manufacturers. Buyers now require quicker turnaround, better service, and higher quality — all at a competitive price. By Gannon O’Reilly, Faro Technologies




The Water Industry Challenge


Chemical Processing: Which Valves?

The operational challenge for water districts is to maintain adequate header pressures to meet the needs of customers, whilst not over-pressuring the lines. By Thomas Schaefer, Rockwell Automation

The pneumatic diaphragm valve plays an important role in the chemical processing industry, particularly in the production and handling of chemicals, and surface treatment. By Thomas Kuessner, Georg Fischer Rohrleitungssysteme



Achieving Real-Time Success In Manufacturing


Investing In Smart Water Networks For The Future


Case Study: Information Infrastructure For Smarter Decisions

Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) aid manufacturers in improving efficiency, agility and flexibility by introducing visibility and data into every step of the production process, in real time. By Craig Charlton, Epicor

Smart water networks improve the efficiency and security of water utilities, with increasing benefits as the demand for water increases into the future. By William Hoo, Schneider Electric


Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) solution allows water authority to develop engineering, operational, and business strategies for a drought-prone region. By Greg Howard, AspenTech



Selection Considerations For Temperature Controllers


Case Study: Fit For The Future

Selecting the correct controller for an application is an important process for fast, efficient and optimised results. By Temperature Engineering Department, Omega Engineering


Instead of proprietary systems that were used exclusively for controlling individual processes, open and standardised solutions are now emerging. How such a change can be implemented and what advantages it creates are presented in the example of a water utility company in Bremen, Germany. By Petra Geiss, Siemens

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Water Protection: Instrumentation, Monitoring And Control

Leaking or overfilled tanks can cause environmental problems, contaminate drinking water, and cost a company millions of dollars. Proper instrumentation, monitoring and control can prevent these problems. By Bill Sholette and Ricardo Chavez, Endress+Hauser



Green Building Technologies And Infrastructure

Green buildings and infrastructure play a critical role in meeting the challenges of 21st century urban living. By Augustine Quek



Solving The Water Problem


Water For A Nation

With climate change, weather extremes are severely affecting the availability of water sources. The right technology can help governments to overcome these challenges. By Lau Wee Pheng, Mitsubishi Electric Asia

IAA interviewed Harry Seah, CTO, PUB; Maurice Neo, MD, SIWW; and Mike Markus, GM, Orange County Water District (OCWD) on the water industry and the unique problems facing Singapore, together with thoughts on OCWD winning the 2014 LKY Water Prize. By Mark Johnston

INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION ASIA (IAA) is published 8 issues per year by Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd 1100 Lower Delta Road #02-05 EPL Building Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 • Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Website: Email:

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Solving Water Scarcity


Water Industry: High Value Automation

Scarcity represents a challenge for many developing regions of the world today. Finding a long term solution must ultimately involve addressing social, environmental and political issues. By Melvin Leong, Frost & Sullivan

Water companies are evolving. They are moving from a low revenue/low service model to a higher revenue/higher service model. Automation plays a key role in this process. By Phillip Vaughan, SAP


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Renewable Energy Asia 2014 Singapore International Water Week 2014

REGULARS Industry News

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CAN in Automation

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Solving Water Scarcity

Published By:

EASTERN TRADE MEDIA PTE LTD (A fully owned subsidiary of Eastern Holdings Ltd)


Kenneth Tan


Joson Ng


After two years, the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) is back. A new program and experiences await guests and exhibitors. Water, as a resource, is still a concern for Singapore, but significant strides have been taken in recent years towards solving water scarcity on the island. Since 2006, water and environment technologies have been considered a key growth sector for Singapore, with increased investment in R&D and the commercialisation of technology. Through the Environment and Water Programme Office (EWI), which manages the growth of Singapore’s water industry, the National Research Foundation (NSF) has committed to S$470 million (US$374 million) to promote R&D in the water sector. Singapore is on its way to becoming a global hydrohub, some may say its already achieved that aim. This effort is being spearheaded by EWI, which is an inter-agency office led by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) of Singapore. A cluster of 130 international and local water companies and 26 research centres currently exist on the island. PUB over the years has addressed Singapore’s water scarcity by building what is termed the ‘Four National Taps’, which comprises local catchment water, imported water, highly-purified reclaimed water known as NEWater, and desalinated water. One important focus area in water supply is water quality. There is a strong need for good and reliable on-line sensors and instrumentation to monitor water quality continuously. There has been research into developing one unit that uses fish activity as the sensor to detect changes in water quality. This is an early warning system where abnormal fish activity, eg: in terms of the swimming patterns indicates changes in water quality. Another instrument is the ‘Parasitometer’, which is used for the detection of cryptosporidium, which can cause diarrhoea in humans if present in drinking water. A stand-alone device using a breakthrough technology that has a high detection rate, it can pick out a single crypto oocyst out of a 10 litre drinking water sample. It therefore has high relevance for all utilities around the world to ensure safe drinking water. We will cover a broad range of topics on water throughout this issue of IAA, together with a preview for this year’s edition of SIWW and commentary by PUB representatives and the 2014 winner of the Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize.

Mark Johnston Assistant Editor

Mark Johnston


Sharifah Zainon


Peh Loon Chin


Derick Chia


Noorashikeen Binte Khamis


Talon Petty, Gannon O’Reilly, Thomas Schaefer, Thomas Kuessner, Craig Charlton, William Hoo, Greg Howard, Petra Geiss, Bill Sholette, Ricardo Chavez, Augustine Quek, Lau Wee Pheng, Melvin Leong, Phillip Vaughan EDITORIAL CONSULTANTS

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Industry Analyst

Alastair Ross Director, Codexx Associates Ltd




Kenneth Tan


Lum Kum Kuen



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INDUSTRY NEWS Singapore: Accenture and Siemens have completed the formation of a joint venture company called Omnetric Group. This joint venture will bring together Siemens’ smart grid products and solutions and Accenture’s management and technology consulting, systems integration and managedservices capabilities. It will provide utility companies with advanced smart grid solutions and services focused on data management and systems integration to improve energy efficiency, grid operations and reliability. These solutions will integrate operational technologies — such as distribution management and real-time grid operations — with IT systems, such as meter data management to support smart metering, demand response to manage energy consumption and virtual power plants to enable load management. This will provide utilities with an integrated view of their systems and data, and support advanced analysis and decision making. The group is

Patrizio Martorana, Iglesias, Italy

Accenture And Siemens Focused On Smart Grid Solutions

This joint venture will bring together Siemens’ smart grid products and solutions; Accenture’s management and technology consulting, systems integration and managed-services capabilities.

headquartered in Munich, Germany. Both companies have named Maikel van Verseveld, formerly MD of Accenture Smart Grid Services in Europe, Africa and Latin America, as the CEO of the group. Martin Runge, who

leads the Siemens Smart Grid Centre of Competence for Central and Eastern Europe, has been appointed as COO. Carsten Speckmann, formerly head of Supply Chain Management for Siemens Smart Grid has been appointed CFO.

Honeywell Earns Highest CMMI Rating For Software And Development Process Maturity Singapore: Honeywell Process Solutions (HPS) and Building Solutions (HBS) businesses have been appraised at Maturity Level 5 of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). About six percent of the more than 6,000 organisations with published appraisals results have achieved this status. CMMI is a process improvement appraisal framework administered by the CMMI Institute to determine the maturity of an organisation’s software and development processes. Avnet Services, based in Phoenix,

US, performed the appraisal of a variety of projects including the company‘s Experion Process Knowledge System, used in oil refineries and manufacturing facilities, and its Enterprise Buildings Integrator, used to bring together existing building systems, providing digital information and control across all building operational management systems. The company evaluated the projects over a two-week period and identified key strengths in systematic monitoring of the project

status. This resulted in sustained product integrity, interactions with stakeholders throughout the development process to ensure the understanding of business and product requirements, and early mitigation of technical risks that has improved development cycle time and product quality. “There are proven linkages between higher CMMI maturity and improved product development and business results,” said Rolf Reitzig, senior business unit director-software engineering for Avnet Services.

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Industry News

Abeo International And Aptean To Market Pivotal CRM In Southeast Asia And Emerging Regions Singapore: Abeo International, a provider of IT solutions and services and Aptean, a provider of enterprise application software, are to partner to provide Pivotal Point-Of-Sales (POS) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) services to Southeast Asia and emerging markets. Abeo international would serve as a channel partner for selling Aptean’s CRM solution. Through this partnership, clients from industries ranging from finance, real estate to marketing, healthcare and retail would be able to leverage on Aptean’s CRM experience and Abeo’s ability to customise CRM into their business processes in a cost-effective manner. Pivotal CRM is a full-featured CRM platform that has a flexible and customisable platform for organisations to reduce the cost and complexity of embedding functionality into business processes. It provides a range of solutions including sales force automation, marketing automation,

Gopal Varytharaju, COO, Abeo International speaking at the announcement of their partnership with Aptean.

service automation, partner automation, social and mobile CRM. These solutions enable companies to access multiple sources of data instantly, harness social media tools to track online presence and broadcast marketing messages to all communication channels as well as gain insights into relationships by analysing CRM data. Built on a Microsoft platform, Pivotal CRM enables

integration of content between emails and CRM and facilitates access to critical information anytime. As a Channel Partner for Aptean, Abeo International will be leveraging on the strengths of its subsidiary Electra and regional system integrator to provide more customisable pivotal CRM services to the SMEs in Southeast Asia and emerging markets.

National Instruments Opens First LabView Academy In Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: National Instruments (NI) has announced its partnership with Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) Vocational College to open the first LabView Academy in Vietnam as part of a continuing commitment to help raise the standards of engineering education in Vietnam. NI and HCMC Vocational College signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on March 25, 2014. A strategic partner of the Higher Engineering Education Alliance Program (HEEAP) in Vietnam, NI has been embarking on a series of initiatives that support the local academia in promoting innovative education. The NI LabView Academy

lab will feature experimental tools for research and teaching. Working with the faculty of HCMC Vocational College, the company will develop classroom curricula and handson exercises for students and researchers. The HCMC Vocational College is a public school established in 1999 under the Ministry of Labour, Vietnam. Over the past 20 years, the Government of Vietnam has been strengthening the quality of vocational education and training to support economic and social development. Since opening its office in Ho Chi Minh City in 2011, the company has grown its presence in the country

with customers in industries such as automotive, infrastructure, oil & gas, and electronics and semiconductor manufacturing. It is also an active partner of the academia and research community in Vietnam, providing technologies and training support under HEEAP, as well as through direct linkages with a number of tertiary institutions and research agencies. As part of HEEAP, the company has committed to provide increased access to software, hardware and training for eight engineering universities and technical vocational institutions that are members of the alliance. This includes training and certification courses in NI LabView.

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Fuji Electric Asia Pacific

Contributing to regional society through energy related business





Established since 1923, Fuji Electric group has made broad contributions to the world industrial and social infrastructure. Fuji Electric with its leading edge power electronics technology is in pursuit of developing and innovating energy technology. Fuji Electric Asia Pacific was established in 1989 as Fuji Electric's sales and marketing hub in South East Asia region. Fuji Electric Asia Pacific mainly focus on components, systems, power semiconductors and services in Singapore. As a specialist of energy creation, energy savings and energy management, Fuji Electric will continue to provide products and solutions to meet the needs of customers and society alike.

Fuji Electric Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd.

151 Lorong Chuan #02-01A New Tech Park Singapore 556741 Tel : (65) 6533 0014 Fax : (65) 6533 0021 Email : Website :

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Industry News

Röhm Opens Office In Singapore Singapore: Germany-based chucking tool manufacturer Röhm has opened an office in Singapore. The company started its operation on March 3, 2014 and spearheading it is Roberto Bencina, MD of Röhm Asia Pacific. According to him, the opening of the office is a strategic plan to be more engaged in the region of Asia Pacific. “We want to have more of the cake and I think it is the right time to be in Asia now,” he said before adding that the new operation will play a supporting role to the company’s distributor network in the country, forged some 35 years ago. In terms of technical service, Mr Bencina intends to “close the time gap.” He hopes in the future that they will be able to send out a technician immediately should the need arise. “We can be there in hours, rather than in weeks,” he said.

Roberto Bencina

Röhm is located at the German Centre

Finally, he revealed that the establishment of the office in Singapore is only a start. There are tentative plans to expand their operations in the country to include a warehouse to stock up on inventory and a technical/ sales centre to provide technical and

Industrial Automation Equipment To See Stronger Growth In 2014 Singapore: After two years of weak performance, the global market for Industrial Automation Equipment (IAE) is poised for stronger growth in 2014, aided by strengthening economies as well as technological innovations that will boost demand, according to a new report from IHS Technology. Worldwide revenue in 2014 for the IAE market will reach a projected US$185.3 billion, up seven percent from US$173 billion in 2013. This year marks the return of more vigorous activity after the industry managed only middling revenue increases of 1.2 and 3.4 percent in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Prior to those two years, expansion had been in the double digits in a heartening show of force after the recession. The healthy expansion is set to continue after this year, with industry takings forecast to hit US$225 billion by 2017. Motors and motor controls will be the largest segment in 2014, accounting for 40 percent of total IAE market revenue. Automation equipment is next with 31 percent, followed by power-transmission equipment with 29 percent. Among the global regions, Asia-Pacific will lead in growth, followed by the Americas, Japan, and then the collective Europe-Middle East-Africa (EMEA) region. EMEA, however, is projected to claim the largest share of revenue at US$61.5 billion, followed by Asia-Pacific, the Americas, and Japan.

sales support. He added that the company’s product range is divided into nine groups and they have every intention to bring the whole range to the region because of “the diversity of the need here.”

Tata Communications Expands Data Centre Footprint

The addition of new geographies means customers can now have a single vendor operation and contract for a secure, robust and scalable data centre network.

Singapore: Tata Communications has expanded its global data centre footprint by entering strategic partnerships with NextDC in Australia, Interxion in Germany and Austria, as well as Pacific Link Telecom (PLT) in Malaysia. These partnerships will enable the company to extend its current data centre offerings in these regions and to deliver a uniform customer experience across geographies. As businesses go global, the addition of new geographies means customers can now have a single vendor operation and contract for a secure, robust and scalable data centre network.

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Industry News

RS Components And Fairchild Semiconductor Enter Collaboration Singapore: RS Components (RS), the trading brand of Electrocomponents, a distributor of electronics and maintenance products, and Fairchild Semiconductor, a supplier of high performance power and mobile semiconductor solutions, have collaborated to create a set of complete reference designs for seven of Fairchild’s most popular evaluation boards. The collaboration between Fairchild and RS marks a milestone in the industry’s adoption of the open source hardware style. Through this collaboration, the

DesignSpark community of over 200,000 users has access to accurate and credible technical information from Fairchild, enabling faster design times. Consisting of full circuit schematics and PCB layouts in the industry’s standard DesignSpark PCB format, these evaluation boards are now readily accessible to every engineer for insertion as ready-made blocks — with full Bill Of Materials (BOM), prepopulated with ordering data-directly into their electronics designs.

Efacec Wins Contract With Carlsberg-Associated Brewery, Unicer Singapore: Efacec, a supplier of automated material handling solutions, has won a project to construct fullyautomated logistics facilities for Portuguese brewery Unicer, part of the Carlsberg group of companies. Valued at 15.5 million euros (US$21.3 million), the turnkey project involves the implementation of the company’s integrated solutions in several zones of Unicer’s distribution centre in Leca do Balio, Portugal. A key highlight of this project is in the customised design of the automated system, which raises productivity and affords cost savings for the Portuguese brewery. “This is one of our most relevant orders to date, and it incorporates a variety of components to form a comprehensive solution for the customer,” said João Oliveira e Sousa, MD, Efacec (Singapore). The large-scale project, which is expected to be completed by the end of 2014, is divided into several zones. This Efacec solution presents Unicer with a system that offers integration and coordination of all the

The customised design of the automated system raises productivity and affords cost savings for the Portuguese brewery.

post-production processes, from the production zone to the shipping area. With a high level of automation in every zone, processing errors are minimised while an improvement in productivity, efficiency, and a greater control of processes are achieved.

Emerson Adds Express Delivery Of Process Instruments Singapore: Continuing its investment and long term commitment to helping Asia Pacific customers improve plant maintenance, repair and automation operations, Emerson Process Management has shortened delivery time for standard process instruments under its Asia Pacific customer care program. The program, named ‘On Demand,’ is based on customer feedback that calls for stronger customer-supplier partnering. In response, the company invested in decreasing lead times on its instruments to address the most frequent and urgent customer problems. Standard Rosemount, Micro Motion and Rosemount Analytical instruments are offered with On Demand delivery to meet critical customer request dates. Delivery for the service is offered in China, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. When an order for the products is placed with the local sales office, customers will be offered delivery for the service. An online order tracking service has been put in place to enable customers to check the status of their orders. The program will be extended to more countries in Asia as it expands.

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Industry News

Singapore: Codenomicon, a vendor of proactive software security solutions, independently found and has been assisting to fix a serious Internet vulnerability dubbed ‘Heartbleed.’ The vulnerability has exposed 66 percent or more of the Internet to attack. By exposing the memory contents of a website’s server, the vulnerability potentially allows attackers to steal the most sensitive information such as private encryption keys, session cookies and passwords. The vulnerability is due to a bug created in 2012 in OpenSSL — a cryptographic library that is used to secure a major percentage of the Internet’s traffic. OpenSSL released an emergency patch for the bug along with a security advisory, and software companies have been moving quickly to implement the patch since it was

publicly revealed. The patch should quickly mediate the issue and eliminate future risks. However, since an exploitation would leave no trace of anything abnormal, it is impossible to track any actual attacks. Consumers are advised to follow service provider guidelines, given they have updated their OpenSSL to the new patched version and updated their encryption keys. In some cases, service providers may require you to change your password, particularly for more sensitive log-ins, such as financial institutions and ecommerce sites. The bug was named Heartbleed by Codenomicon because it occurs in OpenSSL’s implementation of the TLS/DTLS (transport layer security protocols) heartbeat extension. When it is exploited, it leads to the leak of

Guillermo Alvarez, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico

OpenSSL Bug May Have Exposed 66 Percent Of The Internet To Attack

By exposing the memory contents of a website’s server, the vulnerability potentially allows attackers to steal the most sensitive information such as private encryption keys, session cookies and passwords.

memory contents from the server to the client and from the client to the server. The same weakness also exists in the client-side implementations of OpenSSL.

C h i n a : Yo k o g a w a E l e c t r i c Corporation has announced that its subsidiary, Yokogawa China has received orders from Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) (Yanchang Petro) to supply the company’s control systems for two oil plant construction projects in China. Both of these plants will employ KBR’s Veba Combi-Cracking (VCC) process, an advanced technology that is capable of converting petroleum residues into high quality gasoline and diesel oil products. The first of these project orders is for Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group). Oil-coal New Technology Corporation, a Yanchang Petro subsidiary that is constructing a coal/ oil co-processing pilot plant. This plant will convert coal and refining residues into diesel oil and other high value-added products, and will

Leonardo Barbosa, Rio de janeiro, Brazil

Yokogawa Receives Orders From Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum

have an annual production capacity of 450,000 tonnes. The second order is for phase 1 of a project by Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Anyuan Chemical, also a Yanchang Petro subsidiary, that involves the construction of a coal tar hydrogenation plant. This plant will produce light and heavy paraffin oil from coal tar. When completed, this plant will have an annual production

capacity of one million tonnes, making it one of the largest plants of its type in China. Under the terms of its contract with Yanchang Petro, Yokogawa China will provide the Centum VP integrated control system for both projects as well as engineering and commissioning services. The two plants are scheduled to start operation in June 2014.

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Industry News

Omega Introduces Technical Reference Handbook For Southeast Asia US: Omega Engineering has introduced its Temperature, Pressure and Flow/ Level & pH Technical Reference Handbook for Southeast Asia. This handbook is comprised of over 450 pages featuring technical articles related to temperature, pressure and flow. The articles are comprised of charts, diagrams and tables for further instruction and explanation. There is also a glossary of terms printed in each section filled with many technical

terms and definitions. These technical articles focus on manufacturing, wireless devices, temperature measurement, thermocouples, RTDs, thermistors, probe response time, RTD case studies, fibre optics, infrared temperature measurement, calibration, pressure transducers, load cells, silicon transducers, liquid flow meters, chemical feed pumps, turbidity measurement and more.

Zebra Technologies To Acquire Enterprise Business from Motorola Solutions Illinois, US: Zebra Technologies and Motorola Solutions has announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement in which Zebra will acquire Motorola’s Enterprise business for US$3.45 billion in an all-cash transaction. The acquisition will be funded through a combination of cash on hand and new debt. The transaction, which was approved by the boards of directors of both companies, is subject to customary closing conditions including regulatory approvals. The transaction is expected to be completed by the end of 2014. Through this transaction, Zebra will enter the segment where Motorola’s Enterprise business competes and strengthen its position in key industries including retail, transportation & logistics, and manufacturing and serve approximately 95 percent of the Fortune 500.


Anders Gustafsson, CEO, Zebra Technologies

The business of both companies combined would have had pro-forma sales in 2013 of approximately US$3.5 billion. Approximately 4,500 employees are expected to join Zebra upon completing this transaction. Motorola Solutions will retain its iDEN product portfolio that was part of its Enterprise business and will continue its Government business, including its professional commercial radio product portfolio.

Applied Materials Receives Quality Supplier Award California, US: Applied Materials has been recognised as one of 18 companies receiving Intel Corporation’s Preferred Quality Supplier (PQS) award for their performance in 2013. Applied demonstrated its commitment across all critical focus areas on which Intel suppliers are measured: quality, cost, availability, technology, customer service, labour and ethics systems, and environmental sustainability. The company is recognised for their contributions in providing Intel with wafer fabrication capital equipment, mask capital equipment, fabrication automation software, and services, deemed essential to Intel’s success. The PQS award is part of Intel’s Supplier Continuous Quality Improvement (SCQI) program that encourages suppliers to strive for excellence and continuous improvement. To qualify for PQS status, suppliers must score 80 percent on a report card that assesses performance and ability to meet cost, quality, availability, technology, environmental, social and governance goals. Suppliers must also achieve 80 percent or greater on a challenging improvement plan and demonstrate solid quality and business systems.

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Industry News

HART Communication Foundation Introduces HART-IP Texas, US: The HART Communication Foundation introduces the newest HART Communication Protocol capability, HART-IP, which enables the HART Protocol to run over any IP-based connection. This capability supports intelligent device management for smart process instrumentation. It simplifies system integration by eliminating manual data mapping, enables large-scale plant-wide wireless sensor applications, and allows tight integration of field instruments to

Schlemmer Group Acquires Majority Stake In Injection Moulding Specialist

Enterprise Asset Management Systems. This capability connects to the plant networking infrastructure, enables enterprise-wide access to information, and provides fast access to measurement and device diagnostics. Using their existing network infrastructure users can now integrate intelligent device measurement and diagnostic information with their productivity, planning, historian or other applications anywhere in the world.

Finland: Kone has chosen Vodafone’s Machine-to-Machine (M2M) remote monitoring technology to create a diagnostics service to schedule proactive maintenance tasks. The service will help ensure the smooth running of the many thousands of lifts the company maintains around the world, while keeping downtime to a minimum. As a legacy of its operations across multiple countries, the company had acquired contracts with telecoms companies around the world that it wanted to replace with a single global provider agreement. Regulations stipulate that a lift cannot be used unless it has a working phone in case of an emergency; however, the organisation was experiencing delays in installation with fixed line operators, especially in new builds, and decided instead to opt for mobile communications technologies from Vodafone. A Vodafone M2M SIM card is embedded into each of the company’s lifts, enabling operational data to be sent and received wirelessly over its network, including daily update logs with data such as the

Copyright © KONE Corporation

Kone Chooses Vodafone To Take Maintenance To The Next Level

A Vodafone M2M SIM card is embedded into each of the Kone’s lifts, enabling operational data to be sent and received wirelessly over Vodafone’s network.

number of journeys and reports from microprocessors monitoring key components. That data is then compared with historical logs, enabling it to monitor trends and anticipate potential issues before they arise, in turn helping it plan maintenance schedules more effectively and improve service quality.

Germany: The Schlemmer G ro u p , w h i c h d e v e l o p s , produces and sells cable protection systems for automotive and industrial applications, has acquired a 75 percent stake as of April 2014, in Hoppe Kunststoffspritzerei und Formenbau in Mahlow near Berlin. Hoppe was founded in 1968 and currently employs 60 people. The company produces high precision thermoplastic injection-moulded parts — including multi-component products — as well as plasticmetal hybrids with inserts. As a supplier to the automotive and electrical industries with sales of €8.2 million (US$11.35 million) in 2013, it sells its products both in Germany and internationally. Production operations have so far exclusively been located at the Mahlow plant. On acquiring the stake, the group has grown, now comprising 20 companies and 23 manufacturing sites. In the course of the majority stake acquisition, the Schlemmer Group will be integrating the company’s entire product segment into its portfolio, leveraging the previously existing common ground in both companies’ product offering, as a large number of its components already fit the corresponding air & fluid systems.

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Lora Williams, North Andover, Massachusetts, US

Fieldbus Foundation Usability Initiative A usability initiative started by the Fieldbus Foundation is designed to enhance the ease of use of digital fieldbus networks. By Talon Petty, marketing specialist, Fieldbus Foundation

IN the 1980s, considerable effort went into developing a digital communication standard for field devices. In the midst of that effort, process control suppliers started work on their own proprietary digital communication standards. These multiple efforts resulted in a handful of competing protocols, none of which could work together. This limited the ability of end users to select ‘best-in-class’ devices for their automation applications. They were locked into proprietary systems, which forced processes to be designed around devices instead of devices being designed around required processes. In 1994, the Fieldbus Foundation developed open, non-proprietary specifications known as Foundation fieldbus. This technology was created as a replacement to the aging 4-20mA standard and to replace incompatible proprietary networks and systems with an open, fully integrated architecture for information integration and distributed, real-time control. Since those days, the process automation industry has experienced double-digit growth in the sales of products and services related to Foundation fieldbus. The technology remains a preferred choice for both new construction and plant retrofit projects. Despite the great success it has seen, there still exists a resistance to change from analogue 4-20mA to fully digital fieldbus networks. The reason is simple, yet complex. Some plant personnel resist change and view learning a ‘new’ way of doing things as a scary proposition. If that thought process is broken down further, one starts to discover a more complex issue. It is not the inherent change that is the problem; it is that users do not understand how to use these new

digital networks. Why can a digital device simply not just have its wires landed, be calibrated, and then start working?

What makes a phone, like the iphone, so popular, is its simplicity.

Usability The idea of a device ‘driver’ to make a device talk to a host system is foreign in their field of work. It is, however, commonplace in about every corner of the world — from personal computers to mobile devices in people’s pockets. So if it is so common, why is it so scary? The answer is a lack of usability. Usability is all about how easy, effective and pleasant features are for a human to use. Humans like simplicity; they prefer logical, orderly processes that are well defined and organised. In fact, usability by its very nature is about human interaction. It is about understanding a user — what they value, what are their needs, their abilities, and their limitations. Consider the Apple iPhone parable for a moment. The iPhone did not introduce anything particularly new or exciting to the mobile industry upon its release. Blackberry was already making cell phones that received business email with ease and just about every mobile manufacturer was integrating cameras into their phones so why was Apple such a game changer? The answer is simple. No really. That is the answer. Simple. Apple simplified the mobile experience for the user. The device was elegant, intuitive and downright easy to use. Key Objectives This is the intent of a usability initiative started by the

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Usability is all about how easy, effective and pleasant features are for a human to use.

Fieldbus Foundation — to make fieldbus easier than 4-20 mA. This effort has four key starting objectives designed to enhance the ease of use of digital fieldbus networks: Backwards Compatibility, Device Templates, Automated Device Replacement, and PV Interchangeability. Backwards Compatibility —This ‘future-proofing’ technique allows users to feel confident that in a replacement scenario of a field instrument with a different revision level, they will be able to maintain a minimum level of functionality within the device. While the user may not be able to take advantage of the latest feature enhancements of the new device, the backwards compatibility parameter will make it possible to operate the new instrument on the old device’s Device Description (DD). This is until the system can be updated with the latest DD file to take full advantage of the new instrument’s capabilities/ enhancements. Backwards compatibility is an important part of developing full device replacement automation in the future. The backwards compatibility specification and its associated conformance testing under ITK 6.1+ are available today. Device Templates — Further to the simplification of Foundation fieldbus, device templates help users configure their devices to their specific application

using a pre-defined set of values that come loaded in the device from the manufacturer. Foundation fieldbus also allows for multiple templates to be supported in each device, as such giving the user additional flexibility to choose between varying templates. Each template in Foundation fieldbus is identified by a label and can be filtered. Additionally, each template can contain local help information within the device. The goal of DD templates is to give individual users a basic foundation upon which to build a specific device configuration. From there, the user can decide if it is necessary to make additional configuration changes or if the standard template achieves all that is required for the application. The device templates specification is available today, and can be used for conformance testing under ITK 6.2+ (mid-2014) and Host Test Kit 3 (early 2014). Automated Device Replacement — Automation of device replacement allows the configuration in an existing field device to be restored in a newer version of that instrument without manual intervention. This ‘plug-and-play’ solution ensures features are consistent between different generations of devices without reengineering the host configuration or changing any element of the H1 network other than the new instrument. This results in greater predictability in fieldbus implementation, while reducing integration risks. PV Interchangeability — PV Interchangeability is the dream scenario for the ‘Saturday 3 am’ instrument failure that inevitably occurs during a blizzard. A user needs to quickly get the process back up and running with as little effort as possible. If he or she can at least get the primary value out of the instrument, then it is possible to run the process until Monday morning when the engineering department shows up and can configure all the enhanced features like advanced diagnostics, control in the field, and so on. Essentially, a user should be able to get the PV without a DD. By decoupling the PV from the DD, Foundation fieldbus maintains all the benefits of advanced capabilities while gaining the simplicity of traditional 4-20 mA signals. In fact, in many ways Foundation fieldbus will be easier than 4-20 mA because devices will not need to be ranged or calibrated before the operator has meaningful data. It is the best of both technologies wrapped into a single architecture. ENQUIRY NO. 3101 May 2014 | industrial automation asia  19

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INDUSTRY UPDATES Profibus And Profinet Technology Certification PI has standardised a training program to ensure the quality base for trained persons. Different modules are available starting from Profibus Installation to Profibus Specialist as well as Profinet Certified Engineer. To ensure the quality, every participant has to go through a theoretical and practical exam in order to receive the PI-Certification. The Certified Engineer Program is a globally accepted training program for Profibus and Profinet technology.

Profibus Certified Engineer The Profibus Certified Engineer is a four day training program. It delivers insights into Profibus technology. After training it is possible to design a Profibus network as well as troubleshooting the networks with the help of analyser tools. This class also

News App For PI PI (Profibus & Profinet International) will present its ‘Profinews’ news app at the 2014 edition of SPS/IPC/Drives. Profinews, the international newsletter of PI, has been available for years in an HTML version. It will now also be available as an app, and can be downloaded for Apple and Android devices. Users can use the app on either smartphones or tablets. With the app, users will receive upto-date information about PI and its technologies directly on their devices anytime anywhere in the world. Thanks to intuitive navigation and fast download times, readers can always catch up on the latest news quickly regardless of their location. A push notification service informs users automatically about important topics. Articles of interest can be shared directly with colleagues. In Tech Tips, readers will receive practical advice on the use of PI technologies from selected experts. ENQUIRY NO. 3103


gives an insight into the telegram, profiles, network messages, and so on.

Profinet Certified Engineer This training delivers technical know how about Profinet technology as well as the advantages of the technology towards process and factory automation. Profinet uses Industrial Ethernet which is still an unknown for a lot of people in, for example, cabling, security, and so on. Some of the major questions answered will be: what changes towards maintenance? What to do when you have trouble with these networks? How to design a Network? and so on. The Certification class will give more details on all these things and how Profinet fits into today’s automation tasks. There will be

Karsten Schneider, chairman of Profibus/Profinet International

hands on opportunities as well as technical lectures. In addition, Karsten Schneider, chairman of Profibus/Profinet International will be visiting Singapore to discuss all the new topics that are going on within the PI organisation. ENQUIRY NO. 3102

PI Technologies For Process Automation The technologies of PI form a strong backbone for the complete range of applications in process automation. All specifications and guidelines are developed from the outset based on the requirements of users of production and process automation systems alike. As such, in particular, these technologies can also handle hybrid applications in which not only continuous or batch applications can be covered but also discrete applications. In process automation, too, there are many discrete applications for which the same communication systems found in production automation are used. This is true, in particular, for many existing systems in the water and wastewater, food and beverage, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Profibus is the only fieldbus to fully handle both application areas for years,

and Profinet is on its way to doing so. With functions such as Configuration in Run (CiR), redundancy, time synchronisation, and time stamping (sequence of events) and the standardised proxy solution for integrating fieldbus systems of any type, an excellent basis already exists for establishing Profinet as the backbone of process automation. When the ‘PA Devices for Profi net’ Profile is complete, consistent use of Profinet from the field to the control system will be possible in non-hazardous areas. The requirements for hazardous areas will be met by integrating Profibus PA systems. There is a rapidly growing trend toward the use of Industrial Ethernet in process automation applications, even down to the field level.


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Newsdesk Standardised Sensor Profiles Support CANopen-Safety The CANopen profiles for encoders (CiA 406) and inclinometers (CiA 410) have been updated and released as version 4.0 and version 2.0 respectively. Both profiles specify safety-related sensor data and its mapping into Safety-Related Data Objects (SRDOs) as defined in CANopen-Safety (EN 50325-5). These specifications are the first ones standardising functional safety on the device profile level. The next one in the pipeline is the profile for drives and motion controllers (CiA 402 series). CANopen-Safety is supported by an increasing number of IEC 61131-3 programmable controllers. They are mainly applied in mobile machines. The released CANopen sensor profiles allow interoperability between encoders respectively inclinometers from different vendors. “The success story of the CANopen device profiles continues also for functional safety,” stated Holger Zeltwanger, MD, CiA. “The standardised device profiles simplifies system integration, and the machine builder can substitute a product more easily,” he added.

CAN FD Tech Day Japan


CANopen Electronic Device Description System designers use normal configuration tools to integrate devices in a CANopen network. Such tools require a machinereadable device description. In CANopen, there are two formats of Electronic Data Sheets (EDS): one is ASCII character based and the other uses XML. The ASCII format is specified in CiA 306-1, which has been updated recently. In addition, the CAN in Automation (CiA) users’ and manufacturers’ group has released the CiA 306-2 profile database specification. It is used to teach the CANopen conformance test tool to proof the implemented CANopen services and profile parameters. The profile database is a machine-readable CANopen object dictionary specification. The third part of this specification series (CiA 306-3) describes the network variable handling and the integration into programming tools. Network variables are used, for example, in controllers compliant with IEC 61131, also known as PLCopen. This part was originally in the CiA 405 specification, which has been withdrawn. Other CiA 405 content was moved to CiA 302-4 (network variables and process image) as well as CiA 314 (PLCopen function blocks for CANopen). ENQUIRY NO. 3106

Bosch and CAN in Automation (CiA) are jointly organising the CAN FD Tech Day Japan to be held at the Shinagawa Conference Centre in Tokyo on June 26, 2014. The one-day event will provide information about the CAN FD protocol and its applications in automotive and other industries. Some companies will use the opportunity to show their CAN FD demonstrators and products during the event. The presentations will be held in English and some of them in the Japanese language. Bosch engineers have developed the CAN FD (flexible data-rate) protocol in close cooperation with automotive OEMs (in particular General Motors) and other CAN experts. The successor of the CAN protocol was officially introduced during the 13th international CAN Conference (iCC) in March 2012. This technology day in Japan will update attendees on CAN FD standardisation, products and developments. The scheduled event addresses CAN users to learn more about the new protocol. Beside engineers, working with Bosch, speakers from CiA, Etas, General Motors, NXP, Vector, ST Microelectronics, and others will inform the participants in some more detail about implementations and applications. The program as well as the online registration form and other information can be found on CiA’s website. ENQUIRY NO. 3107

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A 2014 Industrial Ethernet System Comparison By ETG

Martin Rostan, executive director of the ETG, is author of the Industrial Ethernet system comparison.

The Industrial Ethernet system is the core technology of modern control architectures and is important in influencing the overall performance and costs of a plant. The decision to use the correct Industrial Ethernet system hinges on a review of the technology as well as the strategic features. In order to provide best practice information for selecting the right system, the EtherCAT Technology Group (ETG) has released a system comparison guide. This document is intended to be detailed

and informative. In time for this year’s Hanover Fair, the ETG published a reviewed version of the Industrial Ethernet system comparison which is available for download on its website. The ETG document titled, ‘Industrial Ethernet Technologies: Overview and Comparison’ gives insight into today’s Industrial Ethernet technologies. Based on publicly accessible material and supplemented by detailed background information, it explains the technological principles of the different approaches and compares them among each other. Additionally, strategic criteria such as the distribution of the systems and their stability are displayed. All technologies covered in the document are supported by user organisations. The systems compared are Profinet, EtherNet/IP, CC-Link IE, SERCOS-III, Ethernet Powerlink, Modbus/ TCP, and EtherCAT. The author of the document, Martin Rostan, executive director of the EtherCAT

The systems compared are Profinet, EtherNet/ IP, CC-Link IE, SERCOSIII, Ethernet Powerlink, Modbus/TCP, and EtherCAT. Technology Group, explained: “The goal of the study is to enable readers to make their own educated decisions based on well-researched information. The feedback from our previous version was very positive — with the updated version, the latest technology developments are now factored in, too.”


ETG Website Revised In parallel to its marketing preparations for Hanover Fair 2014, the website run by the EtherCAT Technology Group (ETG) received a facelift. The changes focused on the publicly accessible information as well as the ETG member area sections of the website. The redesign of the site focused on enhancing the service for ETG members as well as those interested in EtherCAT and the ETG. The display of content is now clearer and better structured than before. “The different organisational activities of the ETG are very versatile and are developing


continuously. To guarantee a structured overview on all details, it was time for a general overhaul of different parts of our website,” explained Oliver Fels from ETG technology marketing who was responsible for this project. The central search function as well as the ‘download,’ ‘events,’ and ‘product’ sections of the website have been enhanced. Newly inserted filters help website visitors access content, documents and product information from ETG members even faster and more easily now.

Additionally, the visitors of the accesscontrolled ETG member area can find an optimised display of the developer’s forum and the knowledge base — the latter has also been expanded with new content to guarantee a more detailed and structured overview on EtherCAT technology. The implementation of the project took about six months. “Compared to the previous version of the website we now count many more downloads on our homepage than before,” said Mr Fels. ENQUIRY NO. 3109

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An Introduction To Lean Manufacturing

In production plants across the globe, lean manufacturing techniques are being utilised to meet increasing demands placed on manufacturers. Buyers now require quicker turnaround, better service, and higher quality — all at a competitive price. By Gannon O’Reilly, product marketing manager (Americas), Faro Technologies


hile the basic lean model was introduced more than 100 years ago, it has continued to evolve over time — from Henry Ford’s continuous assembly lines for the Ford Model T, to the concept of interchangeable parts used by Eli Whitney and Samuel Colt, to the Toyota Production System. These concepts, in addition to a multitude of others, have come together to formulate what we know today as lean manufacturing. The core idea behind lean manufacturing is maximising customer value while minimising waste, thereby achieving manufacturing excellence through the creation of more value with fewer resources. Waste is defined as an activity that does not add value to the product. Through the elimination of waste along the entire process, rather than at isolated points, companies are able to create processes that need less human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to produce high quality, lower cost products compared with traditional business systems.

environment while facing formidable competition, many manufacturers are proactively implementing lean principles to help eliminate waste and increase efficiencies rather than relying on processes and procedures that have been used in the past. In order to help guide companies through a lean transformation, Womack and Jones developed a five-step thought process detailed in their book, ‘Lean Thinking’. 1


Guiding Principles Of Lean Given the shift towards a customer centric


Specify Value: The first step in implementing lean thinking into manufacturing processes is to identify the value of a specific product from the customer’s perspective. Value can only be defined by the ultimate customer, and must be created by the producer. Identify The Value Stream: Identifying the entire value stream for each product will almost always reveal three types of actions along the value stream, including steps that create value, steps that create no value but are unavoidable with current technologies and production assets, and non-value adding steps that can be eliminated. Create Flow: Once value has been precisely May 2014 | industrial automation asia  23

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specified and the value stream for a specific product fully mapped, making work elements flow continuously with minimal queues with no rework or stoppages is the next step in a lean transformation. 4 Establish Pull: After wasteful steps have been removed, and flow has been established, the ability to deliver only what is wanted by the customer, and only when they want it, is the fourth principle of lean thinking — pull. Allowing customers to pull a product through the process is indicative of the organisation’s ability to be responsive to a customer’s needs. 5 Seek Perfection: As organisations bring their processes through the initial four principles, accurately specifying value, identifying the value stream and removing wasteful steps, creating flow, and letting customers pull value from the enterprise — the fifth principle, perfection becomes attainable. The five steps outlined by Womack and Jones represent a continuous cycle of improvement, and act as the foundation for the successful implementation of lean in a facility. While there is no such thing as a ‘perfect’ process, companies can constantly strive for perfection through the elimination of waste. In the Toyota Production System (TPS), developed by Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo, and Eiji Toyoda, one of the major precursors to lean manufacturing, the elimination of waste is one of the main objectives — even going so far as to identify seven different types of wastes, known as the ‘Seven Deadly Wastes’.

Eliminating the Seven Deadly Wastes The seven deadly wastes of manufacturing are activities that have been identified as nonvalue adding events or processes that hinder profitability in a company. All finished goods and batched inspections include the seven deadly wastes — however, being cognisant of this fact can help to eliminate the waste while achieving maximum efficiencies. Below are the seven deadly wastes and lean tools that can be implemented to counteract waste. 1 Waiting:

Time spent waiting on something, or someone to complete a task. Lean Tool: Design processes so that flow is continuous and there are minimal (or no) buffers between steps in production (Continuous Flow). 2 Motion: Any unnecessary movement of people that does not add value to the product or service. Lean Tool: Ensure that work areas are logically

Portable CMMs such as articulating arms and laser trackers have become critical components in the implementation of lean principles.

organised, ie: rather than having a worker walk 20 feet (6.1 metres) to pick up spare parts every half hour, minimise the distance to 5 feet (1.5 metres) to significantly reduce excess motion. 3 Overprocessing: Using more energy or activity than is needed to produce a product. Lean Tool: Look for potential simplifications to the manufacturing process, ie: instead of completing 100 percent inspections on parts that never fail, reduce the number of parts inspected to greatly reduce processing time. 4 Inventories/Queues: Excess product waiting to be processed. Lean Tool: Excess, or just-in-case inventory, can result in lost money/resources caused by storage. Aiming for just-in-time inventory reduces downtime associated with inventory problems. 5 Transportation: Unnecessary movement to get goods from one process to the next. Lean Tool: The transportation of goods or material can be risky — incurring damages or delays while in transit uses up resources. Effective planning can ensure that excess wastes in terms of moving do not occur. 6 Overpr oduction: Making more parts or information than is required. Lean Tool: Pacing material flow through production to match customer demand can help to minimise overproduction, and is more cost efficient in the long run. 7 Fixing Defects/Mistakes: Time spent repairing or reworking material or information.

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Lean Tool: The cost of fixing defects or mistakes is often cheaper the sooner it is found — for example, mistakes found at raw materials inspection may only cost US$10 to isolate and fix, whereas fixing a product at the work-in-progress stage may cost hundreds of dollars.

Portable CMMs And Lean Manufacturing Suitable for a variety of applications including 3D modelling, reverse engineering, alignment, machine installations, and rapid prototyping, portable CMMs such as articulating arms and laser trackers have become critical components in the implementation of lean principles. Providing companies with a way to help streamline inspection processes, create flow and eliminate deadly wastes in a lean manufacturing environment, portable CMMs enable companies to do more with less. One of the major elements of lean manufacturing is the concept of creating flow. By making work elements flow continuously with minimal queues and no rework or stoppages, a company is one step closer to reaching optimal levels of production. Creating

Through the elimination of waste and the creation of flow through the various processes, companies are able to eliminate costly scrap and rework while contributing to their bottom line.

flow through the implementation of portable CMMs on the line simultaneously eliminates two of the deadly wastes, waiting and transportation.

Summary In order to stay afloat in today’s competitive manufacturing environment, many companies have implemented lean manufacturing techniques to create more efficient workflows. Through the elimination of waste and the creation of flow through the various processes, companies are able to eliminate costly scrap and rework while contributing to their bottom line. ENQUIRY NO. 3201

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The operational challenge for water districts is to maintain adequate header pressures to meet the needs of customers, whilst not overpressuring the lines. By Thomas Schaefer, industry sales manager, Rockwell Automation

The Water Industry Challenge W

ater distribution systems are typically composed of an array of pumps ranging from those with Variable Frequency Drives (VFD), with fixed speeds, and with or without FlowControl Valves (FCV). Sometimes, multiple water sources or pumping stations and miles of distribution piping are present. For systems lacking header pressure controls, elevated pressures can cause higher leakage rates. In addition, sudden changes in pressure can inflict undue stress on aging piping systems, leading to higher incidence of link breaks and the resulting repair costs. However, the complexity of the systems deters operators from implementing header pressure controls. Also, like highway systems, water-distribution systems are seldom built to meet uncertain future requirements.

Advanced Control Application A complete control solution that addresses the aforementioned issue of maintaining sufficient header pressures to meet customer demands — without straining the lines — should involve: managing pump starts and stops to offset pressure spikes; and controlling the header pressure by manipulating control elements to match flow with demand. Also, it should involve monitoring multiple metering station pressures and continually driving the header pressure lower by utilising a top-level supervisory system, whilst ensuring minimum pressure constraints around the city. A parallel issue is the optimal selection of pumps and prediction-based balancing of water intake and daily demand. Since this is a hydraulic system, controlling header pressure during pump starts and stops is a high-speed control application. As many control

Water distribution systems are typically composed of an array of pumps ranging from those with Variable Frequency Drives (VFD), with fixed speeds, and with or without Flow-Control Valves (FCV).

elements are involved — VFD drive pumps, pumps with and without FCVs, and fixed-speed pumps — the control problem lends itself to multivariable process control techniques.

Model Predictive Control Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology is a widely recognised solution for complex multivariable process control applications. Unlike many MPC projects, hydraulic-pressure control requires a high-speed solution for one-second scans, or less. At these speeds, a fast MPC controller can react to pressure spikes and make compensating moves in control elements to offset the spikes. The MPC framework also provides appropriate rate-of-change limits to safeguard equipment. Likewise, continuous control of header pressure is a high-speed MPC problem; although here, the emphasis is more on the multivariable nature of the controls. MPC controllers can handle a wide range of control elements (VFDs and FCVs). The internal optimiser in the MPC can be configured to push FCVs as open as possible, whilst maintaining minimum VFD flow rates.

Pumps Selection Beyond control concerns is the importance of selecting the most efficient set of pumps for a given demand, minimising on/off starts, as well as coordinating operations of multiple pumping stations and water sources. In order to stabilise the water-treatment section, a demand prediction can be used to ‘balance’ daily intake needs with predicted water usage. These systems can be rapidly installed and will deliver all the benefits needed in public utility water distribution networks. ENQUIRY NO. 3301

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Chemical Processing:

Which Valves?

The pneumatic diaphragm valve plays an important role in the chemical processing industry, particularly in the production and handling of chemicals, and surface treatment. By Thomas Kuessner, product manager, Diaphragm Valves, Georg Fischer Rohrleitungssysteme


n the aggressive environment of a chemical plant, transporting chemicals imposes heavy demands on the individual components of its piping systems in terms of safety, economic efficiency and the maintenance effort required. The aim is to meet these challenges with a complete system solution that includes valves, pipes, fittings, the appropriate connecting technology, and an optimally adapted range of measurement and control technology. Correct installation of plant components is crucial in this respect. Because of their unique design and their inherent advantages, pneumatic diaphragm valves are especially important in such applications.

Focus Applications The main points of emphasis in the chemical processing industry are the production and handling of chemicals, and surface treatment. In these applications, pneumatic diaphragm valves play a decisive role. The new generation pneumatic diaphragm valves are used, for example, in the dosing and/or dilution of chemicals during chemical production. These processes demand highly specialised and safe working procedures, particularly in the case of aggressive chemicals. Small quantities of concentrated chemicals are dosed directly into the main pipe, while a static mixer ensures the correct degree of dilution.

The Advantages For the same expenditure of energy, and over the full dimensional range, the optimised flow geometry of the diaphragm valves improves flow rate by more than 50 percent over conventional diaphragm valves, on average. The pumps operating in the piping systems therefore require markedly less energy. The valve body achieves a virtually linear flow characteristic.

Pressure losses in individual valves are virtually disregarded in practice by some operators. Plants may incorporate large numbers of valves, however, so pressure losses in heavy pumping operations can add up to high costs. Losses have been halved by making changes in cross section, by soft rerouting, and by preventing turbulent flow and sharp edges at the sealing flange. Surface treatment, a complex area in the chemical industry, includes four steps: surface preparation, rinsing, galvanising and finishing. Corrosion is a very important matter in this connection. Diaphragm valves with a central plastic thread eliminate the risk of corrosion. The uniform thermal expansion of the plasticto-plastic joint prevents leakage: the re-torqueing that is frequently necessary with screwed diaphragm valves is made dispensable by the homogeneous expansion characteristic of this connection. For operators in the chemicals business, maximum product quality and process safety are indispensable, particularly because chemical media can be transported in a variety of concentrations and quantities. This demands one hundred percent compatibility of the material used with the characteristics of the chemicals concerned.

Overcoming Challenges The following criteria, among others, must be met in order to overcome the challenges imposed on a valve while it is metering out, mixing, filling and refilling chemicals: maximum corrosion protection; safe operation at fast switching cycles; reduced maintenance costs; simple but unrestricted highquality installations; energy-saving systems with optimised flow rate; linear control characteristics; and a wide diversity of materials to ensure a high degree of chemical stability. ENQUIRY NO. 3302

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Achieving Real-Time Success In Manufacturing

Michael & Christa Richert, Berlin, Germany

Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) aid manufacturers in improving efficiency, agility and flexibility by introducing visibility and data into every step of the production process, in real time. By Craig Charlton, senior VP Sales and GM, Asia Pacific, Epicor


echnology has transformed the way manufacturing processes are being carried out today. Long gone are the days where the process is only as simple as processing the orders given, ensuring that goods have arrived with the customer on time. Today, manufacturers are driven by lean methods, agility and flexibility to be more responsive in delivering what the customer wants at the lowest cost within the shortest time in order to stay competitive in the market place. The only way for manufacturers to gain that insight is to have more visibility and data into every step of the production process — in real time. Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) are one solution that can help manufacturers gain that insight.

The Benefits By capturing, displaying and archiving data on production metrics, it gives manufacturers a clearer perspective on the manufacturing processes and answers the following questions quickly and accurately: • What manual data collection and processing steps can be eliminated? 28

• What operational problems might be eliminated or improved by greater process synergy (incorrect labelling, quality issues, and so on)? • Where can improved management of complexity result in greater velocity and agility? • Where can improved visibility into operations yield greater customer service? This has resulted in MES providing a single point of truth when it comes to generating such data and eliminates the usual ‘blame and denial’ stage where different departments focus on tackling inefficiencies and discrepancies in data instead of strategising how to boost efficiency and revenue for the firm. The benefits behind investing a MES solution do not just stop there. With one integrated system, it makes it easier to share complete production data among various production processes. This is especially true for manufacturing firms that have multiple plants in many locations. A single integrated solution used by multiple sites provides common definitions and performance metrics that enable more straightfor ward performance comparisons. It subsequently makes it easier to replicate best practices at multiple facilities

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based on a single version of the truth, coupled with detailed work instructions. Also in this era where customer experience has played a prominent role in most industries, manufacturers are feeling the heat to adhere to customer demands within the fastest span of time. As such, manufacturers are striven to develop new or enhanced product offerings — making it essential for them to ensure that the production lines are able to withstand such demands and variations while not jeopardising quality. MES systems are designed to help address this issue, making it easier for manufacturers to increase product lines without the need to fund expensive and additional costs to fulfil this. This can be illustrated by Southco — a manufacturer of specialist latches and hinges from the UK. The company, which employs some 2,000 people across 20 manufacturing facilities and sales offices in the US, Europe and China, has always prided itself on being technology-driven. However, its production control activities had remained largely paper-based, with manual checks and tick-lists used to manage its production control

disciplines. While the company believed its products and efficiency were good, a culture of continual improvement prompted the company to evaluate automated process control systems to further hone its quality and productivity. The company’s initial deployment was in its injection moulding business in the UK. The system quickly revealed the true level of plant utilisation on the shop floor. The company was surprised to find that its Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) levels were running at 52 percent, a far cry from its target rate and significantly short of the levels reported by the manual control procedures. “We were able to see very quickly where problems were occurring,” said Tony Ryder, injection moulding manager, Southco. “In a simple example, we found that colour contamination was a significant issue, to the point where we were able to justify investment in a new hopper system to ensure that the production process was completely clean,” he commented. Even a drop of the wrong colour could mean that the latch for the glove compartment of a car would not match the manufacturer’s precise requirements,

To join us and become our partner, please contact Hiconics:

Tel: +86 10 5918 0113 Hiconics Drive Technology Co., Ltd.

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rendering an entire batch worthless, he explains. “The MES system gives us visibility we just did not have before,” Mr Ryder explains. “While we always had good quality control, what we did not have was statistical process control. Now we can track critical data like temperature and pressure and tune our manufacturing process to make sure that every part is good. The system gives us the ability to achieve high yield and complete consistency.” Mr Ryder admits that the company had underestimated the scale of potential impact of the software. Before deploying the system, the company‘s internal scrap was up as high as 15,00016,000 parts per million (PPM) some of which were unrecorded issues due to manual systems. Within just four months of using the MES, this ratio had shrunk four-fold. Now, the business has had several months with zero PPM. This also means that the company has a much stronger case when going back to its raw materials suppliers. Mr Ryder remarks: “We are now able to identify the root causes of any faults very quickly and with certainty. This allows us to avoid the costs and damage to our reputation of shipping faulty parts to our customers. It also means we can demand remedial action from suppliers because we can clearly show that our processes are not to blame.” In a nutshell, MES can provide manufacturers with the following benefits: • traceability — improved compliance and warranty management. • multiplant visibility — integrated traceability and common best practices. • reduced costs — labour and capital expenditure reductions. • labour tracking and ability to review efficiencies by work centre, operators, and equipment. • calculation and identification of production bottlenecks, with revision of both actual and whatif scenarios. • statistical process information on production batches and incoming raw materials.

Vendor Selection However, as much as the benefits of MES solutions seem promising, selecting the right vendor to deploy a MES solution should also be a carefully crafted process. You should always consider the following in order to make a smart MES selection and this is primarily linked to how well the solution maps to your business, technology and agility requirements. From a business perspective, it is important to know if the solution can help achieve your ROI and cost efficiency. With regards to technology, the IT division must work alongside the vendor to ensure

Alaa Hamed, Cairo, Egypt


Manufacturing Execution Systems are one solution that can help manufacturers introduce more visibility and data into every step of the production process, in real-time.

that it integrates well with your current systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution and other critical internal systems. As for the agility factor, the production and IT division needs to decide and ensure that the solution can adapt to the necessary changes in the production processes and in the business environment. Future product enhancements and innovations that might affect the production line need to be taken into consideration. The MES solution should have the flexibility to adhere to these changes. Going back to the example of Southco. The company assessed three different MES systems, before finally choosing a real-time production and process monitoring system from Epicor. “At first, we were looking primarily for a process control system,” explained Mr Ryder. “But, when we tested the three solutions, we saw a clear benefit in the Epicor approach because it combined production and process control in an integrated application, giving us the best of both worlds.” The payback for the business has been an important factor. “We have a savings calculator for the UK deployment which is showing a net gain of US$700,000 at the moment,” says Tobi Parker, manufacturing engineer, Southco. “That is a very significant return on our investment.” With actual OEE now nudging 85 percent, the company is getting more production from its equipment that it has been able to retire five old moulding machines without having to replace them. “We had been on the verge of buying two new machines, at a cost of around US$80,000 each, but we have not needed to. In fact, we have been able to give up floor

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space to a new assembly line,” Mr Parker notes. “This has to establish a partnership with the manufacturer is all thanks to the ability to see precisely what is going to ensure that they fulfil the requirements of the on, enabling us to maximise yield and productivity.” customer. They have to work with the customer to As for technology, the company has integrated develop and adapt to the software as their needs change its MES system to work with its ERP solution which which is of strong importance. To fully experience is being installed across multiple locations. “With and enjoy the benefits of the system, there has to our MES solution on the shop floor linked to our be a successful buy in across the company among ERP solution in the back office, we will be able to cut various departments. ENQUIRY NO. 3401 out most of the remaining paper-based controls,” Mr Parker explains. “Epicor will receive work orders from our ERP solution and send production reports directly to the planning office.” “We are also sending our engineering documents from our central, access controlled system directly to our MES solution, so that the latest revisions and instructions are CELEBRATE the football fiesta with Fluke always available to operators tools and SCORE FREE adidas products! using the Epicor consoles on the And, stand to win selected Football jerseys shop floor. This will help ensure with Fluke in the weekly draws!* that processes are always set up correctly,” he added. Also important, is the move away from paper. “We have removed 100 percent of our paper use where the system has been deployed,” Mr Parker notes. “This is a huge aid to accuracy, as well as efficiency and our drive to be environmentally responsible.” Fluke 381 Fluke 289 Fluke VT04 Fluke 568 Fluke 424D Clamp Meter Digital Visual IR Thermometer Laser Distance The benefits reaped from Multimeter Thermometer Meter investing in an MES solution are now clear and how in the SCORE A GIFT! With purchase of selected Fluke long run, it will aid business tools, you are entitled to redeem your FREE gifts and operations. However, it is instantly. also important to have clear communications and to come to SCORE A JERSEY! Simply acknowledge that a consensus on what the solution you “Score a Gift!” from your distributor and stand is meant to achieve. It does not a chance to win selected Football jerseys in” nd W involve just one party or what a re a mited h S in the weekly lucky draw. “ li of ners nt itled to Casing. the management wants but the e 5 0 w in 1 10 ntest a re e iPhonenow! k o c n F lu mor e operations and IT divisions edit io F ind out have to be agreeable on how MES can contribute to current Score more: production processes. IT also * Valid only in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam. Promotion period starts from 1 April to 15 July 2014. For more information on terms & conditions, please log on plays a crucial role in advising if to our website now. the organisation is ready for the MES solution and whether their Fluke South East Asia Pte Ltd current ERP solution or other Tel: +65-6799-5575 · Fax: +65-6799-5577 Email: · Website: critical systems can be easily integrated. Fluke. The Most Trusted Tools in the World. Lastly, the software vendor

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Smart water networks improve the efficiency and security of water utilities, with increasing benefits as the demand for water increases into the future. By William Hoo, VP, Industry Business, Schneider Electric

Investing In Smart Water Networks For The Future T

he first quarter of 2014 saw an unprecedented event happen in Singapore that became a hot topic amongst all Singaporeans. In fact, the same happened to neighbouring Malaysia as well, as both countries were hit by an extreme dry spell — with February 2014 being hailed as Singapore’s driest month in 150 years. But that incident, though unfortunate, highlighted the increasing importance of water management. With the population of Singapore expected to increase to 6.9 million by 2030, how will this small island, which is dependent on water resources from neighbouring Malaysia, ensure that there is enough for burgeoning use — not only for residential purposes but also commercial — in offices, the F&B industry, transportation and more? To be absolutely clear, this is not only a local issue, but one that will affect the entire world as well. As cities grow, their needs for fresh water will certainly grow in tandem, as this precious resource is used for human consumption as well as for industry and irrigation. Statistics show that fresh water needs will grow by 20 percent in mature economies and by 50 percent in new economies by 2025. What this means, for water utilities around the world, is that the distribution of water needs to be optimised 32

in order to reduce wastage. At the same time, due to the increased volume of water being managed, operational costs will increase. Similar to how the smart grid is revolutionising the distribution and utilisation of electricity, a smart water network has the same potential to optimise water distribution, while at the same time reducing operational and energy costs and speeding up the water cycle. So what is a smart water network? Well, what it does is to take advantage of the real-time data that is being generated by the various water distribution points — such as pumps, tanks, and valves — to automate process control and support real-time operations decisions as needed. This data is generated every time a utility gathers, treats, and distributes water. In short, each and every water management activity creates data that can reveal valuable network operations and business insights. The challenge in optimising water networks is how to transform this massive amount of data into meaningful information and transfer it quickly and accurately throughout the utility to all functions and departments that can use it, both within the utility and beyond the utility.

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Creating A Smart Water Network Now that we have touched on the benefits and defined what a smart water network is, let us outline how utilities can go about creating one. Here are some of the areas which utilities should take into consideration. Information: The large amount of data produced during water network operations presents a great opportunity for making smarter decisions about current processes. But how does a utility optimise today’s operations with today’s information? The answer lies in making the most of existing capabilities, through legacy information systems integration. Integration: By integrating existing systems, a utility can obtain much more information than if it considers its information tools as individual, isolated systems. This approach fortifies existing systems, ensures past and current investments in information technology, delivers the maximum return, and identifies the most critical areas for potential innovation. Innovation: A smart water network does not neglect tomorrow’s requirements to achieve today’s needs. A utility can consider its installed base as the starting point for planning future investments, evaluating current assets to identify gaps in both present and future information requirements. In short, utilities that effectively integrate current and new technology water management solutions will realise economy-of-scale returns, improving efficiency and effectiveness not only for the treatment and distribution functions, but also for planning and O&M coordination, customer service, and business office activities.

Finding The Right Solution Yet, even with the structural outline presented above, each utility in each country has a different, if not unique, set of challenges. For example, a water utility that has to pump water from hundreds of miles away and distribute it to a scattered population will most likely have different energy management concerns

— and information needs — than a utility that distributes by gravity to a concentrated population. That said, regardless of the management system a water utility chooses, the important thing to remember is that the system must be flexible and open in its architecture so as to integrate as much as possible with the technology base already installed in the utility, and accommodate extensions and system enhancements to meet future needs of the utility. It should also be able to work with wireless monitoring solutions, as water distribution points are increasingly located in remote environments. The benefits of integration are manifold. Most importantly, information from a well-integrated system is accurate, secure, and timely, and helps the utility as a whole make better decisions in less time. The crossdepartmental nature of the smart water network even allows the utility to take proactive actions in areas where it was not possible before, for example such as in the area of managing water leaks in real-time. Utilities operating with a smart water network will have reliable information that can help prevent leaks and expedite location and repair when they do occur, as such saving costs and water — arguably the more precious of the two — in the process. So how do utilities go about establishing a smart water network that serves their specific needs? One method is to employ a phased approach. First, prioritise issues across the organisation. Then, look at what systems are already in place and what can be done with those systems. Finally, decide what new investments are needed to complement these existing capabilities. As logical as this sounds, utilities too often proceed directly to the third phase, without first determining what the enterprise needs and if it is making the most of existing information management infrastructure. Take, for example, the above example of leak detection and response — most water utilities have a control system and a hydraulic model, but seldom or never link these two systems together for real-time leak management. Instead of investing in a wholly new solution, sometimes making the most of current assets can be the way forward.

In Conclusion In summary, the water utility that implements monitoring, control, and information management processes through a suite of modular, integrated solutions will not only see immediate improvements in operations efficiency and security, but also will continue to reap benefits as the demand for water increases along with population growth. Each and every water management activity creates data that can reveal valuable network operations and business insights.

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Case Study:

Information Infrastructure For Smarter Decisions Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) solution allows water authority to develop engineering, operational, and business strategies for a drought-prone region. By Greg Howard, VP, worldwide indirect channels, AspenTech


upplying water to 6.3 million customers in a drought-prone region is not an easy task. To secure water supplies during drought periods, a Spanish water authority needed to compile vast amounts of data from a variety of sources into one centralised location. Data was pulled from a large water and wastewater system including: 179 municipalities, 14 reservoirs, 7 hydroelectric power stations, 13 water treatment plants, 80 pumping stations, and a network of underground water and wastewater pipes. In total, data from more than 13,000 instruments spread over 1,300 individual sites needed to be collected, monitored, and controlled. Full data use would allow them to initiate drought mitigation scenarios, improve operational efficiencies, develop OEE and maintenance plans, and facilitate implementing business rules, such as consumption-based water pricing. AspenOne MES was selected because of its architecture and ability to interface with other data systems and software. Paramount in selecting this system were the architecture supporting ISA S-95, easy scalability, and the ability to convert raw data into valuable engineering, operational, and business needs.

Data For Planning The Water Network Data utilisation allows the water authority to implement drought mitigation strategies for a variety of scenarios. Proactive measures include combining the water infrastructure data with meteorological readings in an effort to model climate-change scenarios and their impact on the water cycle. Drought scenarios brought on by

depleting reservoirs, seasonal climate conditions, or as a result of a broken asset can now be viewed in real-time and acted upon quickly. Complex alarm notification strategies are also widely used. The alarm notifications are used in conjunction with historical data, individual asset data, and business data to ensure the correct response. For example, different alarms can be correlated with a common origin using asset relationships, historical records, and other data sources. Utilising the data as a business tool, the water authority can now implement a tariff based pricing strategy for its customers, whereby water prices during a drought season increase based on the amount consumed. The implementation of this sliding scale pricing structure has also brought social awareness to the general population with regard to water conservation practices.

Using Data For Operational Excellence The water authority has been able to improve its piping network by monitoring pressure and flow from point to point. Over a four year period, they have reduced leaks by four percent. Engineers have developed maintenance, energy, and OEE strategies which compare historical data to real-time operations. Viewing the water network from a macroscopic level affords them the ability to determine the most efficient use of capex spending, so that new infrastructure budgets are planned years in advance. Similarly, recycle and reuse strategies for wastewaters can now be modelled to ensure water supply keeps up with population demands. ENQUIRY NO. 3403

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Selection Considerations For Temperature Controllers Selecting the correct controller for an application is an important process for fast, efficient and optimised results. By Temperature Engineering Department, Omega Engineering

T 1 2 3 4


Type of input sensor (thermocouple, RTD, card, and temperature range). Placement of sensor. Control algorithm needed (on/off, proportional, PID, autotune PID). Type of output hardware required (electromechanical relay, SSR, analogue output signal). Additional outputs or requirements of system (display required of temperature and/ or setpoint, cooling outputs, alarms, limit, computer communication, and so on).

Placement Of The Sensor The type of input sensor will depend on the temperature range required, the resolution and accuracy of the measurement required, and how and where the sensor is to be mounted. The correct placement of the sensing element with respect to the work and heat source is of the utmost importance for good control. If all three can be located in close proximity, a high degree of accuracy, up to the limit of the controller, is relatively easy to achieve. However, if the heat source is located some distance from the work, widely different accuracies can be obtained just by locating the sensing element at various places between the heater and the work. Before selecting the location for the sensing element, determine whether the heat demand will be predominantly steady or variable. If the heat demand

Dora Pete, Nagytarcsa, Pest, Hungary

he basic function of a controller is to compare the actual temperature with its setpoint and produce an output that will maintain the setpoint. The controller is one part of the entire control system, and the whole system should be analysed in selecting the proper controller. The following items should be considered when selecting a controller.

is relatively steady, placement of the sensing element near the heat source will hold the temperature change at the work to a minimum. On the other hand, placing the sensing element near the work, when heat demand is variable, will enable it to more quickly sense a change in heat requirements. However, because of the increase in thermal lag between the heater and the sensing elements, more overshoot and undershoot can occur, causing a greater spread between maximum and minimum temperature. This spread can be reduced by selecting a PID controller. May 2014 | industrial automation asia  35

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The control algorithm (mode) refers to the method in which the controller attempts to restore system temperature to the desired level. The two most common methods are two-position (on-off) and proportioning (throttling) controls.

On/Off Control

Xavi Sanchez, Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain

On/off control has the simplest of control modes. It has a deadband (differential) expressed as a percentage of the input span. The setpoint is usually in the centre of the deadband. Therefore, if the input is 0 to 1,000 deg F (-17.8 to 538 deg C), the deadband is one percent and the setpoint is set at 500 deg F (260 deg C), the output will be full on when the temperature is 495 deg F (257 deg C) or below and will stay full on until the temperature reaches 505 deg F (263 deg C), at which time the output will be full off. It will stay full off until the temperature drops to 495 deg F (257 deg C). If the process has a fast rate of response, the cycling between 495 and 505 deg F (257 and 263 deg C) will be fast. The faster the rate of response of the process, the greater the overshoot and undershoot and the faster the cycling of the contactor when used as a final control element. On/off control is usually used where a precise control is not necessary, for example, in systems that cannot handle having the energy turned on and off frequently, where the mass of the system is so great that the temperature changes extremely slowly, or for a temperature alarm. One special type of on/off control used for an alarm is a limit controller. This controller uses a latching relay, which must be manually reset, and is used to shut down a process when a certain temperature is reached.

Temperature is an important variable to control, as stabilising it ensures a longer life-span and more reliable operations.

Proportional Controllers Proportional controls are designed to eliminate the cycling associated with on/off control. A proportional controller decreases the average power being supplied to the heater as the temperature approaches setpoint. This has the effect of slowing down the heater so that it will not overshoot the setpoint, but will approach the setpoint and maintain a stable temperature. This proportioning action can be accomplished by turning the output on and off for short intervals. This ‘time proportioning’ varies the ratio of ‘on’ time to ‘off’ time to control the temperature. The time period between two successive turnons is known as the ‘cycle time’ or ‘duty cycle.’ The proportioning action occurs within a ‘proportional band’ around the setpoint temperature. Outside this band, the controller functions as an on/off unit, with the output either fully on (below the band) or fully off (above the band). However, within the band, the output is turned on and off in the ratio of the measurement difference from the setpoint. At the setpoint (the midpoint of the proportional band), the output on/off ratio is 1:1, that is, the on-time and off-time are equal. If the temperature is further from the setpoint, the onand off-times vary in proportion to the temperature difference. If the temperature is below setpoint, the output will be on longer. If the temperature is too high, the output will be off longer.

Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative Control Mode (PID) This controller operates the same way a proportional controller does, except that the function of the trim adjustment is performed automatically by the integral function (automatic reset). As such, load changes are compensated for automatically and the temperature agrees with the setpoint under all operating conditions. Offset is eliminated. The derivative function (rate action) compensates for load changes which take place rapidly. An example is a travelling belt oven where the product is fed intermittently. When the product enters the oven, there is a sharp rise in the demand for heat, and when it stops, there is an excess of heat. Derivative action reduces the undershoot and overshoot of temperature under these conditions and prevents a bad product due to over or under curing. PID control provides more accurate and stable control than on/off or proportional controller types. It is best used in systems that have a relatively small mass and which react quickly to changes in energy added to the process. It is recommended in systems where the load changes often. The controller is

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Pawel Kryj, Nowy Sacz, Malopolskie, Poland

Temperature sensing and control is an important area within many industries, including the automotive industry.

expected to automatically compensate the amount of energy available or the mass to be controlled, due to frequent changes in setpoint. The proportional, integral and derivative terms must be ‘tuned,’ ie: adjusted to a particular process. This is done by trial and error. Some controllers called Autotune controllers attempt to adjust the PID parameters automatically.

Control Output Hardware The output hardware in a temperature controller may take one of several forms. Deciding on the type of control hardware to be used depends on the heater used and power available, the control algorithm chosen, and the hardware external to the controller that is available to handle the heater load. The most commonly used controller output hardware is as follows: Time Proportional or On/Off 1 Mechanical Relay 2 Triac (AC solid state relay) 3 DC Solid State Relay Driver (pulse) Analogue Proportional 1 4-20 mA DC 2 0-5 VDC or 0-10 VDC A time proportional output applies power to the load for a percentage of a fixed cycle time. For example, with a 10 second cycle time, if the controller output were set for 60 percent, the relay would be energised (closed, power applied) for six seconds, and de-energised (open, no power applied) for four seconds. The electromechanical relay is generally the most economical output type, and is usually chosen on systems with cycle times greater than 10 seconds and relatively small loads.

Choose an AC solid state relay or DC voltage pulse to drive an external SSR with reliability, since they contain no moving parts. They are also recommended for processes requiring short cycle times. External solid state relays may require an AC or DC control signal. An amplitude proportional output is usually an analogue voltage (0 to 5 VDC) or current (4 to 20 mA). The output level from this output type is also set by the controller. If the output were set at 60 percent, the output level would be 60 percent of 5 V, or 3 V. With a 4 to 20 mA output (a 16 mA span), 60 percent is equal to (0.6 x 16) + 4, or 13.6 mA. These controllers are usually used with SCR power controllers or proportioning valves. The types of hardware available, external to the controller, to allow it to handle the load, are as follows: 1 2 3 4 5

Mechanical Contactor AC controlled solid state relay DC controlled solid state relay Zero crossover SCR power controller Phase angle fired SCR power controller

Mechanical contactors are external relays, which can be used when a higher amperage that can be handled by the relay in the controller is required, or for some three-phase systems. They are not recommended for cycle times shorter than 15 seconds. Solid state relays have the advantage over mechanical contactors, in that they have no moving parts, and as such can be used with short cycle times. The shorter the cycle time, the less dead lag and the better the control. The ‘switching’ takes place at the zero voltage crossover point of the AC cycle; as such, no appreciable electrical noise is generated. An AC controlled solid state relay is used with either a mechanical relay or triac output from the controller, and is available for currents up to 90 amps at voltages of up to 480 VAC. DC solid state relays are used with DC solid state driver (pulse) outputs. The ‘turn on’ signal can be from 3 to 32 VDC and models are available to control up to 90 amps at up to 480 VAC. Zero crossover SCR power controllers are used to control single or three-phase power for even larger loads. They can be used for currents up to 200 amps at 480 volts. A 4-20 mA DC control signal is usually required from the controller. The zero crossover SCR power controllers convert the analogue output signal to a time proportional signal with a cycle time of about two seconds or less, and also provide switching at the zero crossover point to avoid generating electrical noise. ENQUIRY NO. 3501

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part from climatic and socio-economic changes, large sections of the German water industry are being affected by the change from administrative forms regulated by public law to private-sector corporations. These requirements demand a corresponding adaptation of working structures, concepts, and automation solutions. In the City of Bremen, Germany, most of these challenges have been met with farsightedness and modernisation measures. The major projects under taken by the water utility company, hanseWasser Bremen, illustrates how wastewater treatment companies can prepare themselves for the future. On the introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive or its implementation in national law at the latest — in Germany, for example, with the Federal Water Act of 2009 — the collection, removal,

treatment and discharge of wastewater has merged into one complete system. This presents new tasks and challenges for the local wastewater treatment companies: previously separate areas must now be merged, and this applies not only to the individual specialist departments and their employees, but also for the automation infrastructure. Instead of proprietary systems that were used exclusively for controlling individual processes, open and standardised solutions are now emerging. To ensure comprehensive monitoring and control, these include the special constructions for handling rainwater, transport pipelines or pumping stations. The paradigm shift caused by the introduction of such a system for wastewater removal and treatment imposes particular demands on those planning, implementing and using the system.

Case Study:

Fit For The Future

Copyright hanseWasser

Instead of proprietary systems that were used exclusively for controlling individual processes, open and standardised solutions are now emerging. How such a change can be implemented and what advantages it creates are presented in the example of a water utility company in Bremen, Germany. By Petra Geiss, senior marketing manager, Siemens

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Copyright hanseWasser

Safely under control: The Farge wastewater treatment plant can be operated and monitored not only in this local operator station, but also from the main control room about 20 kilometres away.

Information is everything: On the operator consoles in Seehausen, all relevant data for the safe operation of the entire wastewater network in Bremen is clearly displayed.

Multiple Systems Put The Brakes On Performance

The kliEN climate protection and energy efficiency project, launched for this purpose, will pursue an integrated approach that will introduce a culture of environmental protection to be supported by every employee in the company. This project is aimed at the whole company, but wastewater treatment assumes a special role due to its energy-intensive processes. The aim is to achieve autonomous operation from an energy viewpoint in the Seehausen wastewater treatment plant, as well as improving energy efficiency at Farge. The expectations for the new instrumentation and control equipment, which were to support the achievement of these goals, were correspondingly high.

Every day of the year the water utility company in Bremen ensures that the wastewater from the city is removed and treated. To do this it operates a network of sewers with a total length of 2,300 km, over 270 wastewater removal systems, and two large sewage treatment plants wherein about 51 million cubic metres of wastewater from Bremen and surrounding communities as well as from industrial customers are treated each year. The wide variety of tasks involved in these individual infrastructure components is matched by inhomogeneity of the automation and control systems. A detailed presentation of the Electronic Measurement, Control and Regulation landscape (EMSR) in 2006 clearly showed the urgent need for action: due to the growth of structures, no fewer than nine different control systems were in use. A number of the automation components in use had already been earmarked for discontinuation by the manufacturer, while others awaited the same fate in the near future. Bottlenecks in the supply of spare parts and lack of manufacturer support represented just one problematical area. Inadequate functionality prevented further optimisation of processes, and the integration of additional wastewater treatment and removal systems was impossible. Also, the expense with regard to the know-how transfer resulting from the different operating philosophies was excessive. The operators therefore decided to establish uniform standards throughout the company, to optimise the operation and to integrate all individual components into an open and flexible control system. In addition, the modernisation of the control technology was to help achieve the environmental targets set by the water utility company. These targets were that by 2015, the business should be CO2 neutral, and not only because of financial compensation for the CO2 emissions, but also by raising energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies.

Integrated Approach A simple listing of the control systems, automation components and communication standards used, illustrated the scale of the conversion work. Apart from standardising the instrumentation and control infrastructure, there was also a wish to link all external systems, to renew the automation technology extensively, and to renovate several plant sections of both sewage works at Farge and Seehausen. Despite all the challenges faced in respect of planning and implementation, JĂśrn Haber-Quebe, project manager, hanseWasser, and his team stayed focused on the main objective: the continuous removal and treatment of wastewater. When it came to choosing a control system, five systems were shortlisted. In accordance with a recommendation from an independent assessor, Simatic PCS 7 from Siemens emerged as the choice, due to its scope of functionality, the integration of its configuration, and its economy over the entire life cycle. The widespread use of this system guaranteed the company a broad selection of specialised third-party companies for the service and support tasks in the years to come. Even for the invitation to bid, the project was divided into several parts and individual steps. In May 2014 | industrial automation asia  39

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In the control centre, which is manned around the clock, all the flows of wastewater are constantly monitored and controlled. Apart from levels in the pump sumps at all control structures, storm water overflow basins and pumping stations, twelve rainfall meters distributed around the city of Bremen provide the basic data for a variety of operating modes. Many of them run automatically and, by intelligently damming the flow, for example, they control an even flow of wastewater into the water treatment plants, despite wide fluctuations of volume according to the time of day. Furthermore, programs control the purification processes according to pollution load, wastewater volume and so on. In the case of local rainfall events, the expertise of the operators who manually distribute the rainfall volumes in the sewer network, is still sought after. Thanks to intelligent functions and the new control system, a wizard system that is yet to be integrated will offer suggestions to the operators regarding the action to be taken in the case of certain weather scenarios.

Optimum Basis For Greater Efficiency

Down to the smallest detail: With the plant identification systems introduced throughout the company, even plug connections can be explicitly assigned.

the first subproject, the central infrastructure for the integration of the 270 external systems was created. At the same time, the future configuration standards were specified in the form of a master data library and the logging and archiving functions were extended in accordance with technical Bulletin M260 of the German Association for Waste Industry, Wastewater and Refuse (DWA) concerning the field of wastewater removal. In addition, the control and automation technology in the Farge sewage works and in more than 70 outlying plants was modernised. The second sub-project, which was awarded to Bilfinger GreyLogix — a company that specialises in the configuration and automation of plants from the energy and supply sector — focused on the Seehausen wastewater treatment plant. Following modernisation measures, it has become the control hub of the company in Bremen and as such the nerve centre in the complex wastewater management of the city. Every kind of data from all the automation devices in the wastewater removal plants and from the water treatment converges here on two redundant pairs of servers and is visualised on a dozen operator consoles.

The extension of the data basis and the density of information achieved by renewing the EMSR technology also has a positive effect on the aspects of energy efficiency, process optimisation and fault management. The Simatic PCS 7 process control system, for example, is used for achieving the CO2 neutrality which has been set as a corporate target. To this end, several universal measuring devices have been installed in Bremen that collect the data on energy flows and consumption. Together with the effective performance data provided by the latest drives, the consumption data is recorded, standardised, archived, and visualised by means of corresponding faceplates. The editing of the data makes the energy balance transparent, and a specific identification of characteristic values, including production data, permits a soundly-based statement to be made about energy efficiency and the CO2 balance. In addition to this new-found transparency, the Simocode motor management ensures reduced energy consumption for all new plant units. The process control system library provides standardised motor and graphic modules for the control or the operator control and monitoring of the drives. Because of the simple parameterisation by means of the graphic modules, it was possible to implement demand-based motor operating characteristics without any programming effort. As the aeration tanks require less oxygen during the night due to the lower pollution load, for example, the air

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The Key To Success As the company had learnt — from years of operating several systems in parallel in Bremen — what it costs in time and money in terms of support, training, spare parts, and so on, the topic of standardisation ran like a common thread through all areas of the project. From the outset, Mr Haber-Quebe brought all departments on board, in order to jointly introduce a plant identification system that was applicable throughout the company. At the same time, integrated signal identifiers based on the VGB standards — the guidelines of the European technical association for power and heat generation — have been defined and introduced. The process control system that was implemented supported this process. With the aid of function blocks from the standard system’s library, a majority of the process engineering tasks in Bremen could be covered by modular software functions including graphic and message blocks. The advantage of using modules created and system-tested according to the recommendations of the user association of automation technology in process industries (Namur) and the specifications of Profibus & Profinet International was reflected in reduced engineering costs and shorter commissioning times. Only 10 additional special modules had to be designed. In the future this high level of standardisation will not only permit smooth system updates, but also the fast and simple expansion of the system, for example, the integration of additional sensors or motors. A standardised operating philosophy across all plant sections of the company includes the monitoring and operation of distributed special structures. Thanks to standardised telecontrol technology and the integration of web-based technologies based on TCP/IP protocols this is also possible. For the transmission of operating states of these outlying systems via GPRS, the TCP/IP Web Connector 3xCom from Baade M2M-Solutions is used. This replaces expensive dedicated lines and permits the economical monitoring and control over both local and wide areas by means of packetoriented data transmission in GSM networks. By the end of 2012, it was possible to complete large sections of this six-year project. ENQUIRY NO. 3502


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supply is automatically reduced by a corresponding amount. Because of the new measurement and control technology, the tanks are aerated on a zoned basis. Since the aeration fans by nature are among the major users of energy in wastewater treatment plants. This and other measures make a significant contribution to energy saving.

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Leaking or overfilled tanks can cause environmental problems, contaminate drinking water, and cost a company millions of dollars. Proper instrumentation, monitoring and control can prevent these problems. By Bill Sholette, level products business manager and Ricardo Chavez, solutions business manager, Endress+Hauser

Water Protection:

Instrumentation, Monitoring And Control E

vents in West Virginia, US have shown that our water supply is in jeopardy of contamination from leaks or overfills of storage and processing tanks at chemical, petroleum, water/wastewater and similar facilities. In Charleston, West Virginia, a tank containing 4-methylcyclohexane methanol leaked, causing contamination of the Elk River. The Elk River provides over 300,000 people with drinking water. These people were without tap water for at least five days. The total effect of the spill may not be known for months or even years. The company that owned the storage facility where the tank leaked — Freedom Industries — is now facing at least 31 lawsuits, along with state and federal investigations. As a result, Freedom Industries filed for bankruptcy.

In the wake of this incident, it is clear that additional scrutiny will be coming to chemical storage facilities, along with reviews of existing regulations. But with a few precautions and a relatively minor investment, this event could have been identified early on, and action could have been taken to mitigate the leak and its destructive aftereffects. Instrumentation exists that will monitor the contents of a vessel and provide an alarm in the event of a leak or overfill event. These products have been used for years and are well established and reliable. Figure 1 shows typical instrumentation for monitoring tank levels to prevent overfills and leaks.

The Instruments Each instrument has a specific function for keeping the contents inside the tank:

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Instrument 1 High Level Overfill Prevention Switch. This switch is installed to indicate when the liquid in the tank reaches a dangerously high condition. It is often called a high-high level switch, as it is mounted above the high level switch used to indicate the normal stop fill point of the tank. If the high level switch fails, the high-high level switch is there to prevent the tank from overfilling. These switches typically include a way to function test the switch to ensure its integrity. Because they are mounted above the Figure 1: Properly specified, installed and maintained instrumentation will warn of possible spills and overfills, giving operators plenty of time to react. normal maximum fill point, they can be in service for years without ever ‘seeing’ liquid in the tank. Because of In far too many tanks, this type of switch is the only this, the ability to test the switch on a periodic basis protection against spills. This is unacceptable. Additional to verify its function is critical. spill and overfill detection methods are needed.

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Figure 2: Tank monitoring HMI software displays the output of each tank in a tank farm and checks for indications of leaks or overfilling.

Instrument 2 Radar Level Gauge. A radar level gauge continuously monitors level in the tank. It is extremely important that the level gauge be very accurate to detect leaks, spillage or overfills. A high degree of accuracy is needed to provide an indication if the level decreases when the liquid in the tank is not actively being transferred or pumped out. If the level starts to decrease during inactivity, it would indicate a leak in the tank and the monitoring system would then provide an alarm. Because of these operating parameters, accuracy needs to be measured in fractions of millimetres. Radar level gauges can provide accuracy of 0.5 millimetres, sufficient for detecting even minor leaks. The radar level gauge also acts as a backup to the high-high level switch. Instrument 3 Temperature Sensor. It is important to measure temperature of the liquid in the tank. This is because the volume of most chemicals expands or contracts with changes in temperature. Without compensation, these changes in volume will look like changes in level when, in fact, the actual contents of the tank have not changed. Again, accuracy of the temperature measurement is very important, in this case to provide proper compensation. Temperature sensors with multiple measurement points and accuracy of 0.1 deg C are required for this application. Instrument 4 External Level Switch. This level switch is mounted inside the retention dike to indicate if a liquid is accumulating. The level switch needs to be able to detect any liquid that is present. Even rainwater accumulating after a storm should be detected as it is necessary to remove this water to maintain the appropriate volume of the dike. Essentially, any accumulation of liquid within the dike, be it water or a chemical, requires a response. As such, switches that will reliably indicate the

Figure 3: Web server capability lets engineers and operators monitor tanks and receive alarms on a mobile device.

presence of any liquid, such as tuning forks, are best suited for this application. Instrument 5 Tank Side Monitor. The tank side monitor performs corrected-volume calculations using the output from the temperature probe and the signal from the radar transmitter to determine the height of the material in the tank. It also provides intrinsically safe loop power to the level gauge and the temperature transmitter, reads data from all connected devices, and displays the values of each instrument. Instrument 6 PC-based Monitoring Software. This is a typical PC-based HMI software package (Figure 2) that displays the output of each tank in a tank farm as well as volume calculations. Such software packages are available from several suppliers. These software packages typically have web server capability built-in, so an operator or engineer can quickly and easily access tank information from any PC or handheld device via a browser. The software also monitors tank level and can react to any level change. The software should have a feature that allows an inactive tank to be ‘locked down.’ If the level in a locked down tank drops, it would indicate a leak, and the software would produce an alarm. As with all alarms and events, this information can be pushed out to users via an Ethernet link so that information registers on the appropriate device such as a PC, a tablet or a smartphone (Figure 3). Instrument 7 Receiver Tester. As described in (1) above, it is critical to test high-high and external level switches to ensure they are functioning properly. Although many level switches have continuous self-checking to monitor their health, the receiver tester allows an operator to test the switch manually via a pushbutton.

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The tester can detect a short circuit, an interruption in the signal line to the measuring sensor, vibrator corrosion in the sensor, or a defect in the input circuit. As a backup to the main automation system, the tester also includes relays to provide an output to an alarm and/or a control function such as a diversion valve to prevent overfilling.




With an instrumentation and monitoring system as described above, spills and leaks are detected at multiple levels — with tank monitors, HMI software and receiver testers providing redundancy. The events in Charleston, West Virginia make it clear that chemical storage tanks need to be secure, and that spills and leaks must be prevented where possible. This should extend to all industries that store chemicals which could contaminate water supplies. These industries include chemical, oil and gas, water and waste water, foundries and any other industries where toxic chemicals are stored. In the petroleum industry, the American Petroleum Institute (API) has recommended practices for

preventing and responding to spills (API2350 recommended practices for above ground storage tanks). In the chemical industry, most facilities that manufacture chemicals are required to have a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) plan in place. Unfortunately, because the facility in West Virginia only stored chemicals and did not manufacture them, it was not required to have the site inspections and permits that a manufacturing facility would require. Lack of these requirements and the failure of the owners to provide proper level monitoring led to the incident, which was serious enough to bankrupt the company. Proper instrumentation for monitoring storage vessels can prevent spills and identify leaks. Where these incidents cannot be prevented, it is critical that they are quickly identified, and that a response plan is in place to mitigate damage and environmental impact. Outfitting tanks with overfill prevention switches and tank monitoring instruments will provide the security that is needed to prevent catastrophes.

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Green Building G Technologies And Infrastructure

reen buildings and infrastructure reduces environmental impacts in many ways, including energy efficient, low-impact materials, reduced waste and CO2 emissions and water savings. Being environmentally friendly is no longer a fad, with strong business drivers for the use of green technologies. The increasing cost of water and wastewater services for example, is pushing developers and building managers to reduce operating costs by adopting watersaving designs and features into buildings and its surroundings. Such practices would usually result in a decrease in energy costs as well, as a significant amount of energy is associated with moving and heating/cooling water. As such, water efficiency can help in both financial costs savings and meeting environmental sustainability goals for buildings. Wa t e r u s a g e f o r m o s t properties includes air and equipment cooling, hot water systems, indoor consumption and irrigation systems. According to Singapore Public Utilities Board, more than 50 percent of water use in commercial building is in cooling systems. Therefore, automation of cooling systems becomes central to a building’s environmental footprint.

Green buildings and infrastructure play a critical role in meeting the challenges of 21st century urban living. By Augustine Quek

patkisha, Czech Republic

Chiller Cooling A building’s cooling system typically consists of chillers, pumps, analogue/digital temperature sensors, condenser and cooling coils. The temperature sensors measure the chilled water supply and return lines, and this information is feedback to sequence chillers to on or off to chill the chilled water supply. The chilled water is then circulated to one or more cooling coils located in air handling units, fan-coils, or induction units. Capacity control

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in a chilled water system is usually achieved through modulation of water flow through the coils; as such, multiple coils may be ser ved from a single chiller without compromising control of any individual unit. Chillers may operate using either vapour compression or absorption. Vapour compression chillers may utilise reciprocating, centrifugal, screw, or rotary compressor configurations. R e c i p ro c a t i n g c h i l l e r s a re commonly used for capacities below 200 tonnes; centrifugal chillers are normally used to provide higher capacities; rotary and screw chillers are less commonly used, but are not rare.

Condenser Water System

cool water by cooling towers. To maintain a constant condenser water supply to the chillers, v a r i a b l e s p e e d d r i v e s a re commonly used on the cooling tower fans to control temperature. Proper cooling tower temperature assures the proper refrigerant head pressure in the chillers. This temperature is measured by temperature sensors in the condenser water supply and return lines. The installation and integration of variable frequency drives can lower the energy consumption

of the building’s circulation pumps significantly by lowering the frequency of the electricity provided to the motor. Efficient drift eliminators can also be used to restrict the drift loss of cooling tower recirculating water. The drift eliminators control unnecessary loss of water and help reduce the nuisance of water spraying near the tower.

The Metering Another technology is Automated Meter Reading (AMR). This technology provides automated


Chillers are usually supplied

The planning for various water uses within a building is increasingly becoming a high priority.

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Caroline Koolschijn, Kampen, Overijssel, Netherlands

Dirk Kratzenberg, Waldems, Hessen, Germany


Accurate and reliable metering is an important component in managing water usage.

collection of consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water meters and transfers that data to a central database for control, troubleshooting, and analysis. Such real-time information allows better control and consumption of water. AMR technologies include handheld, mobile and network technologies based on telephony platforms (wired and wireless), Radio Frequency (RF), or powerline transmission. With automated metering in every building and household, a smart water network can be formed. Smart water networks help reduce unnecessary water losses, increase reliability and improve operational efficiency, and smart water meters are a key component of these networks. When linked to a Building Management System (BMS), water consumption can be monitored and controlled, where a sudden increase in water consumption would indicate the possibility of a water leakage. Such technologies are becoming increasingly important for leak detection, pressure management and water quality monitoring. As such, the installed base of advanced and smart water meters is expected to reach more

Green building design can also include alternative energy sources, such as solar cells situated on the roof.

than 153 million worldwide by 2022, according to a recent report from Navigant Research. A global company that operates a major pharmaceutical plant in Singapore has integrated its Building Automation System (BAS) into its water purification system. The integration enabled plant maintenance personnel to monitor the water purification system from any BAS workstation in the plant. Critical alarm points are transferred to all of the operator stations of the plant information system so operators can be properly notified.

Green Roofs And Plantings The ideal sustainable development preserves and restores habitats that are vital for sustaining life, with being a net producer and exporter of resources, materials, energy and water rather than being a net consumer. This benefits urban areas where precipitation is collected for domestic usage in addition to treated potable water supply from the utility provider. Green roofs are a way of collecting, storing and using rainwater, making buildings part of the hydrological cycle. Depending on the thickness of the various layers of the soil, a green roof is able to filter out heavy metals and

nutrients present in rainwater. Green roofs retain rainwater on the roof through the various layers and they also reduce the peak discharge flow rate into the stormwater drainage system. The ability to absorb and retain rainfall reduces the immediate discharge, effectively reducing the risks of flash flooding. Through the photosynthesis process, plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere, as such improving air quality. Automatic controllers in the irrigation system can be used to control the water flow through the various zones according to a preset schedule. Additional savings can be made by automatically turning off the irrigation system during rainy days through the use of rain sensors. These sensors activate and switches off the water supply when rain wets the hygroscopic discs inside. Installing a soil sensor also has a similar effect by preventing the controller from activating the irrigation system when sufficient moisture is detected in the soil. It determines the soil moisture content by measuring the impedance of the soil between the two sensor pads. A prime example is Singapore’s Marina Barrage, with its iconic

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Green Roof, a large rooftop garden which uses one hundred percent recycled plastics and eco-friendly drainage cells, and acts as natural heat insulation for the building. A rainwater collection system harnesses rainwater to meet irrigation requirements, and waterefficient fixtures such as waterless urinals and water-efficient taps are installed at restrooms in Marina Barrage to effectively reduce water consumption. Another example is United World College South-East Asia (UWCSEA) east campus in Tampines. The building reduces water consumption by capturing rainwater using a football-field sized section of one roof together with a special student garden as a natural filter, before recycling for non-potable use. Another unique design feature is its pipeline ductwork has no right angled bends, enabling higher efficiency in conveying water with less energy. Therefore, modern buildings can now incorporate green roofs, water-efficient fixtures and fittings, drought-resistant plants that maximise the decorative appeal of the façade, and reuse o f c a p t u re d r a i n w a t e r f o r landscape irrigation, while achieving zero stormwater runoff during small storms.

technologies and strategies are often the most overlooked aspects of a whole-building design strategy. However, the planning for various water uses within a building is increasingly becoming a high priority. As industry continues to expand and the world’s supply of non-

renewable resources slowly grows rarer and more expensive, green construction becomes more than an environmentally friendly option. It becomes a necessary step in how we live our lives. ENQUIRY NO. 3601

Direct water consumption within buildings can be reduced by simply using fixtures and fittings. Selecting low-flow sink taps and bathtub faucets, showerheads and toilets can reduce indoor water use by 30-40 percent. Constant flow regulators in taps can reduce and maintain a constant flow rate regardless of pressure. These devices work by means of a selfadjusting opening which varies with the water pressure, therefore reducing wastage due to excessive pressure or flow rate. Wa t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n


Indoor Water Consumption

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With climate change, weather extremes are severely affecting the availability of water sources. The right technology can help governments to overcome these challenges. By Lau Wee Pheng, regional product manager, Mitsubishi Electric Asia

Solving The Water Problem W

ater is the vital resource that sustains all life on the planet. With each passing year however, waste from mining, industrial and other human-initiated activities continue to pollute dwindling supplies. Besides this, climate change is another factor that threatens the sustainability of water sources.

Too Much & Too Little Floods have been increasing around the world and are likely to persist in time to come. In August last year, CNN reported that 37 million residents in China’s northeast provinces were affected by massive flood waters. This catastrophe left scores dead and missing, and was described by a local newspaper as the worst in half a century. More recently, The Guardian said in a news article in March this year, that the damage caused by the ‘wettest winter in England for 250 years’ amounted to at least £1 billion (US$1.66 billion). The average annual losses across the European Union has 50

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been €4.5 billion (US$6.17 billion), but will increase to €23 billion a year by 2050. Reuters also reported similar findings, where extreme floods in Europe that are happening once every 50 years, could rise in frequency to one in 30 years. Extreme damage could also see a trend from once every 16 years, to once every 10 years. With global warming, the severity and frequency of droughts is also expected to continue its upward trend. In Asia, a decision was made by Malaysia to perform cloud seeding across four states — Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca and Johore, according to Channel News Asia. This was after weeks of dry weather leading up to March this year, that resulted in the enforcement of water rationing. The Bangkok Post also stated that the drought — which affected Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia — threatened to increase the cost of food, reduce economic growth and disrupt water supply in the Southeast Asian region. In response to the longer-

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Investing In The Future This long-term planning signals the need for other countries and regions, to also take active steps and put in place technologies that can safeguard their water assets. Water from sources such as reservoirs, rivers and lakes can be tapped for drinking. To ensure that it is safe for consumption however, the water needs to undergo proper processing. This begins with the pump station, which draws water from man-made or natural sources and transports it to the treatment plant. The FRF800 family of inverters, from Mitsubishi Electric, can perform this while achieving energy savings of up to 60 percent. This is made possible with the use of Optimum Excitation Control (OEC) technology. The next stage is initial screening, where the flocculation process is required to remove suspended particles. This is also where the murkiness and discolouration of water is cleared up. Flocculants or flocculating agents are chemicals that are required in the process to cause the ‘clumping’ of solids in a liquid, and that facilitate their removal from water/wastewater. It is necessary to ensure that the correct quantities of flocculants are used, so as to maintain the right tolerances in the process. The need for reliable system operation necessitates the use of controllers with dual redundant architecture. This allows greater fault tolerance in the system and ensures that the system continues to run, even in the event of component failure. By improving system resilience, downtime is therefore minimised.

Saving Energy In the filtration and sedimentation stage, pumps are utilised to move water through filtration systems. Here again, inverters help to minimise energy use. Mechanical systems that are needed for taking out sedimentation sludge can also be integrated into the system. As filters need to be back-flushed, pump control can be put into place for this purpose. To manage these processes, Programmable Logic


term problem, Singapore has plans to triple its wastewater recycling capabilities while raising desalination capacity by nearly 10 times. This should satisfy 80 percent of water demand in the year 2060.

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Saleem Taqvi, New Delhi, Delhi, India


By lowering the costs of production and raising productivity in plants, savings can be achieved and passed down to consumers. With global warming, the severity and frequency of droughts is expected to continue its upward trend. Countries and regions need to take active steps and put in place technologies that can safeguard their water assets.

Controllers (PLCs) such as the iQ-R coupled with Graphical Operator Terminal (GOT) Human-Machine Interface (HMI) touchscreens, can be deployed for localised control or at the central control station. Disinfection forms the last stage of the water purification process and ensures that the end product is fit for human consumption. Since this is a vital process, it requires failsafe redundancy mechanisms to be put in place. For this purpose, a reliable and robust controller system that can deliver the required level of reliability is needed. To reduce downtime and increase operational productivity, data sent by local stations is used to carry out real-time processing and centralised logging activities. In this manner, the necessary tolerances for flocculants in the water can be consistently monitored on a perpetual basis. Redundant network architecture like the CC-Link IE with 1Gbps-fast data communication and high bandwidth, enables each local metering station to communicate effectively with the central controller system. High bandwidth allows large amounts of data to be communicated simultaneously. Stability in communication without transmission delays is achieved, as this high-speed industrial network technology adopts a token passing protocol for data transmission control. Each controller sends data through the network only when it has the token (the latter grants a device the permission to transmit). Once transmission is finished, the token is passed to the next device in the network.

Energy Generation Energy devices (such as power meters and inverters) can be monitored, analysed and implemented efficiently and cost effectively, by using the CC-Link open-architecture network.

With the growing hunger for electric power, technology needs to be harnessed to produce this resource efficiently. By lowering the costs of production and raising productivity in plants, savings can be achieved and passed down to consumers. A particular water treatment plant performs the desalination and demineralisation of seawater, besides treating wastewater. Processed water is also supplied to a nearby power station to cool the turbines that are used for electricity generation. The energy produced is supplied to the local community. Water has to be first transported — with the help of pumps — from a river mouth near the coast, located one kilometre away. To oversee the operation, a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed. Its purpose is to control and monitor the: 1 Operation of the pumps 2 Transporting of water from


source to treatment

Since the control room is separated from the pumps by a distance of a few kilometres, leasedline infrastructure is used to transmit information between the two locations. It is also possible to communicate via other mediums such as fibre optics, UHF, 2.4Ghz wireless outdoor or 3G data mobile technology. PLCs or remote Input/Output (I/O) stations are installed along the line to monitor and control devices (such as flow meters, analysers and valves) that are found along the pipeline.

Operational Reliability Network redundancy offered by CC-Link IE ring topology ensures system uptime and the treatment

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plant’s reliability in operation. Monitoring and control can be performed from a central location, allowing faster response times and better management of human resources. As there are separate systems involved (eg: PLC, SCADA), the usual practice would have been to deploy a number of engineers, with each being tasked to perform the commissioning of his corresponding system. Using Process Control Object (PCO) technology however, only one engineer was required. This served to lower the cost for the client, while effectively fulfilling the requirements of the project. Given that the processes (ie: water desalination, demineralisation; wastewater treatment) were designed using PCO, the knowledge and skill sets for administering each of the systems is similar. This has allowed human resources to be shared across the board. For example, engineers from the desalination process can be deployed to troubleshoot problems in the wastewater treatment process.

Planning Ahead Operators at water treatment plants have the daily task of forecasting water demand. Variables such as weather and temperature conditions have to be considered. Staff also have to schedule the operation times of the pump that transfers water from treatment plants to reservoirs. The problem with this approach is that human operators have different opinions, levels of experience and expertise, which inevitably result in subjective forecasts being made. A water supply planning system can overcome this by creating a water supply plan. The operator first revises the operation plan for the pump, based on the demand forecast. He first selects the ‘Water Supply Plan’ option from the interface menu. After this, the operational condition of the water supply pump is set. This is achieved by choosing between the ‘Prioritise Cost’, ‘Prioritise Smoothing’ and ‘Equalise Cost and Smoothing’ options. A new operation plan is then created and sent to the SCADA system. The operation plan, pumps and reservoir supply level can be monitored through the screen.




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Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) is the global platform for water stakeholders to address water challenges, share practical solutions and showcase latest water technologies. Understand how sustainable water management is essential for liveable cities and shape the future of water and cities at SIWW 2014, the world’s only integrated event on water and urban sustainability. Be part of a whole suite of activities focused on business, networking and innovative solutions.

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Water For A Nation IAA interviewed Harry Seah, CTO, PUB; Maurice Neo, MD, SIWW; and Mike Markus, GM, Orange County Water District (OCWD) on the water industry and the unique problems facing Singapore, together with thoughts on OCWD winning the 2014 LKY Water Prize. By Mark Johnston


ingapore is a densely populated island city state with more than five million people in a land area of about 710 sq km and no natural aquifers, which makes water resource management a challenge. “Driven by a vision of what it takes to be sustainable in water, we have been investing in research and technology, and have adopted an integrated approach to water management, developing a robust and diversified water supply system,” remarked Harry Seah, CTO of PUB. “We recognise the importance of game-changing technologies in the water industry, as well as the need for a common platform for stakeholders from across the water industry to come together and share innovative solutions, thereby speeding up the learning process for countries around the world,” he added. The Singapore government has incorporated the industry into its national growth plan. T h e E n v i ro n m e n t & Wa t e r Industr y Programme Office (EWI) was therefore established in 2006 to promote research

Maurice Neo

and development in the field, grow the industry and position Singapore as a global R&D base for environment and water solutions. As EWI’s key initiative to showcase the capabilities of the Singapore water industry, the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) was established giving Singapore a global platform for the sharing and co-creation of water solutions. SIWW was designed to provide opportunities for government and municipal leaders from around the world to explore solutions to their cities’ water challenges and technical solutions to improve liveability. It also aims to assist scientists, researchers and companies in the commercialisation of technologies and showcase these technologies to local and national governments looking for innovative water solutions to address their challenges.

Water Technologies T h e re a re m a n y a v a i l a b l e technologies that can be leveraged for the management and purification of water

Jim Kutzle, OCWD

Harry Seah

OCWD’s Wastewater Recycling System for Indirect Potable Reuse.

resources. In terms of improving the quality of water, Mr Seah stated: “There is a strong need for good and reliable on-line sensors and instrumentation to monitor water quality continuously. We are developing one unit which uses fish activity as the sensor to detect changes in water quality. This is an early warning system where abnormal fish activity, for example, in terms of the swimming patterns indicates changes in water quality.” Another instrument is the ‘Parasitometer’, “which is used for the detection of cryptosporidium, which can cause diarrhoea in humans if present in drinking water. A stand-alone device using a breakthrough technology that

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With the opening of the Tuaspring desalination plant, it is estimated that desalinated water can meet up to 25 percent of Singapore’s current water demand. These sources are more resilient against drought or dry spells, as evidenced during the recent 27day dry spell in Singapore during February and early March. “During that period, we ran our NEWater and desalination plants at nearfull capacity and also injected NEWater into our reservoirs to keep the water supply situation stable,” commented Mr Seah. On the importance of R&D, Mr Seah remarked: “We have to always look at new, innovative ways to contain the rising costs of treating and producing water, to help keep water supply both sustainable and affordable. In Singapore, one focus area of R&D is on reducing energy consumption. These include projects to demonstrate the use of electrochemical technology to desalinate seawater using half the energy.” Expanding on this Mr Seah stated: “Some exciting R&D in this area is based on biomimicry or mimicking the biological processes by which mangrove plants and euryhaline fish extract seawater using negligible amounts of energy. Another research area is biomimetics, where aquaporins are embedded on membranes. These proteins are nature’s way of shuttling water in and out of cells while blocking out salts.”

Water Challenges With no natural aquifers and limited size and land area, water resource management is a challenge in Singapore. In the 60s and 70s, Singapore faced all the problems of rapid urbanisation — polluted rivers, water shortages and widespread flooding. Today, the island is able to produce the water that its industries and population requires.

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has a high detection rate, it can pick out a single crypto oocyst out of a 10 litre drinking water sample. It therefore has high relevance for all utilities around the world to ensure safe drinking water,” added Mr Seah. In terms of technology already in use, Singapore employs a water supply strategy known as the ‘Four National Taps’. These four taps include water from local catchment, imported water, NEWater and desalinated water. “Our approach to water management can be distilled into three principles that will continue to guide our future plans to ensure an adequate supply of water: to capture every drop of rain that falls on Singapore; to collect every drop of used water; and to recycle every drop of water more than once,” stated Mr Seah. “ We h a v e b e e n m a k i n g major investments to build up and diversify our water supply sources in order to strengthen our water security. This led to the introduction of NEWater and desalinated water into our water supply in the last decade, which supplements our local catchment and imported water,” he added. N E Wa t e r i s h i g h - g r a d e re c l a i m e d w a t e r p ro d u c e d from treated used water that is further purified using advanced membrane technologies (microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection), making the water ultra-clean and safe to drink. According to Mr Seah It can currently meet up to 30 percent of Singapore’s water demand. In terms of desalinated water, Mr Seah remarked: “Desalinated water has been a part of our water supply since 2005, with the opening of Singapore’s first desalination plant. A second and larger desalination plant, the Tuaspring desalination plant, was opened in September 2013.”

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“By investing in water technology and adopting an integrated approach to water management in the last 50 years, we have developed a diversified and sustainable water supply system. In particular, NEWater and desalinated water, which were introduced into our water supply in the last decade, are results of these investments,” remarked Maurice Neo, MD, SIWW It is important to recognise the benefits of exploiting the energy-water-waste nexus, and tap on it as a resource. These resources are intimately linked — the production of energy requires a significant amount of water; and the production of potable and industrial water also necessitates energy consumption. Both the production of energy and water also produces a significant amount of waste in the form of sludge, brine and waste heat. In addition, waste disposal is becoming more challenging especially in Singapore where there is land constraints. As energy prices climb and water becomes an increasingly scarce and valuable resource, there is a need to re-think the way water, waste and energy are managed, and look for solutions that utilise this waste — sludge, waste heat, as a resource. As Mr Seah added: “Colocating utilities (power stations, refuse incineration plants, water reclamation plants, seawater desal plants and NEWater plants and possibly, some energy and water intensive industries) could be the concept of the future to achieve the lowest energy, water and waste footprint.” Technology is also evolving to allow us to harness synergies in this water-energy-waste nexus, and “Singapore is taking steps to encourage and work with companies and research institutes to develop such technologies,” remarked Mr Seah.

Steve Crise, Courtesy of American Water Works Association (AWWA)


Reverse Osmosis Trains of the Groundwater Replenishment System.

The Little Red Dot Singapore has been put on the map in many ways, in regards to water, by its innovation and management of water, yes, but more boldly by hosting the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW). “Very early on, we recognised the need for a common platform for stakeholders from across the water industry to come together and share innovative solutions, to speed up the learning process for countries around the world. SIWW is a platform to bring together the world’s thought leaders to share and co-create water solutions in anticipation of change and the challenges we face,” stated Mr Neo. The environment and water industry has been identified as a key growth area in Singapore, wit h the Environment and Water Industr y Programme Office (EWI) set up in 2006 to spearhead this growth. EWI, led by the PUB and involving partner agencies including EDB, SPRING, IE Singapore, aims to promote research and development in the field, grow the industry and position Singapore as a global

R&D base for environment and water solutions. “With a funding of S$470 million (US$374 million) from the National Research Foundation (NRF), the EWI is well poised to meet its objective: growing Singapore into a global hydrohub for leadingedge technologies and furthering Singapore’s vibrant research community,” commented Mr Neo, before adding: “The water sector alone should see its valueadded contribution to the GDP rise from S$500 million in 2003 to S$1.7 billion in 2015. Jobs for this sector are expected to double to about 11,000, and will largely comprise of professional and skilled positions.” Today, Singapore is recognised as a global hydrohub with over 130 water companies and 26 research centres in a vibrant water industry ecosystem. Singapore has been at the forefront of environmental innovation and was an early adopter of solutions such as NEWater (wastewater reclamation) and the Deep Tunnel Sewerage System. “Leveraging Singapore’s role as a global hub and marketplace

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Mike Markus, GM, OCWD will accept the LKY Water Prize at this year’s Singapore International Water Week on OCWD’s behalf.

for sustainable solutions, SIWW plays a critical role in this strategy. This event brings together government, industry, international organisations and academia, all of whom have a vested interest in water sustainability. Through events l i k e Te c h X c h a n g e a n d t h e H y d ro p re n e u r P ro g r a m m e , it connects water technology startups with potential investors and funding schemes, promoting the commercialisation of new technologies. Water Expo and Business Forums also seek to provide an ideal platform to match buyers to sellers in the water sector,” added Mr Neo.

Orange County Water District T h e O r a n g e C o u n t y Wa t e r District (OCWD) manages a large groundwater basin in central northern orange county, which provides approximately 70 percent of the total water demands for nearly 2.4 million people. At the 2014 edition of SIWW the OCWD will be awarded the Lee Kuan Yew (LKY) Water Prize for its work in groundwater management and water reclamation using advanced

water reuse technologies, as well as its achievements in public policy and community outreach. “Originally in the 1970s we created a facility here on our site in Orange County to provide recycled water as a source of supply to the groundwater basin. In fact, we really created the first NEWater type facility that used reverse osmosis to treat used water, and that was really quite pioneering at that period of time,” stated Mike Markus, GM, OCWD. “We were looking to increasing that facility and decided to expand it in the late 1990s and so created a new project called the groundwater replenishment system, which provided 265,000 cubic metres per day NEWater that we then used as a supply for our groundwater basin,” he added. This is the same NEWater that is often talked about in Singapore. As Mr Markus explained: “Our advanced purification process consists of taking the secondary effluent used water and then rushing it through microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis and then UV light with hydrogen peroxide,” before adding a final step: “The advanced oxidation step, which removes any low weight molecular organic material that may remain in the water after the reverse osmosis process. OCWD was a pioneer in this field, and probably one of the first in the world to utilise that specific type of treatment to treat used water.” On his thoughts on why he believes OCWD was ultimately awarded the LKY Water Prize, he remarked: “I believe we were awarded the LKY Water Prize because of the total body of work from OCWD. We were created back in 1933, and certainly in the early years the groundwater basin was tremendously depleted. What we were able to do is manage that groundwater basin, in essence

bring it back to life to what it is now, a dependable source of water supply for Orange County.” Done through investment, and “through improving our infrastructure and recharge facilities, and in investing in recycled water as a source of supply to the basin, and also in developing stormwater capture projects,” he explained. OCWD has pioneered all the elements that are relevant for the successful implementation of water reuse and groundwater management, including the application of water treatment technologies for treating used water, artificial groundwater recharge, groundwater monitoring, groundwater modelling, pollution p re v e n t i o n , w a t e r q u a l i t y management and public outreach. The facility is currently expanding from 265,000 cubic metres today to about 380,000 cubic metres per day. That expansion is will be completed in the first quarter of 2015, with a further expansion planned that will take the facility from 380,000 cubic metres per day to 500,000 cubic metres per day. “We are already looking at potentially designing that final phase to get us to 500,000 cubic metres per day and that could be done realistically within the next 4 to 5 years,” added Mr Markus. In terms of the future of the industry and the direction OCWD will take over the next 10 years, Mr Markus remarked: “I think actually where we are leaning towards, industry wise, over the next 10 years is going towards what is referred to as direct potable reuse, in other words, not requiring a groundwater basin or a surface reservoir but able to go directly into a pipeline and ultimately to the water distribution network.” ENQUIRY NO. 3702

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Solving Water Scarcity


ater scarcity is one of the biggest challenges that many developing countries in many regions of the world face today. The problem is multi-faceted, often resulting from social, environmental and political issues. Social issues may stem from cultural habits such as water wastage and inefficient irrigation techniques; environmental issues stem from degradation of water bodies such as rivers and seas; and political issues are often the bottleneck in the legislation of water friendly policies and construction of much needed sanitation infrastructures. The importance of potable water is further highlighted by the efforts of many international bodies to regulate and encourage developing nations to adopt a water-friendly framework and processes. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been a strong proponent of this effort, with the inauguration of the Asia Pacific Water Summit in Japan in 2007 and backing of numerous infrastructural projects and initiatives across Asia-Pacific. In recent years, some countries in Asia-Pacific have succeeded in propelling water issues into the national development agenda and have made

Karl-Erik Bennion, St. George, UT, US

Scarcity represents a challenge for many developing regions of the world today. Finding a long term solution must ultimately involve addressing social, environmental and political issues. By Melvin Leong, research manager, Energy & Environment Practice, Frost & Sullivan. progress with reforms and investments. For example, in 2011, China announced its Number One Decree (an annual policy paper that details the central government’s policy priorities) that committed the government’s aim to double the annual investment in the water sector, reaching CNY4 trillion (US$608 billion) by 2020. Such commitment will focus on addressing the country’s growing water scarcity, degradation of water resources, and water quality, and vulnerability to floods. In 2012, China set its performance targets for industry, irrigation and water quality, supported by institutional measures to drive increased water security as a base for a sustainable economy.

Regional Limiting Factors For Water Development The rate of water developments in China with the rest of Asia-Pacific is mutually exclusive. However, it is often difficult to resist comparisons; if a developing giant such as China has been successful in moving up the water security ladder, why are not many developing nations in this region taking apparent and similar measures? In many instances,

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Zsuzsanna Kilian, Budapest, Hungary

other developing countries are compounded with multi-dimensional issues such as poverty, and sluggish economies. Developing countries understand that the provision of water and sanitation is one of the fundamental infrastructures to eradicate poverty and catalyse the economy. However, as mentioned, water issues have become a multi-faceted matter that involves many socio-economic and political aspects, and these are challenges faced by many developing countries. Social: In many of these Asian developing nations, water has been taken for granted for generations, due to poor farming practices and careless water use. As an example, organic and inorganic waste is deliberately dumped into water bodies, resulting in the degradation of the water quality. Furthermore, heavily subsidised water bills rarely discourage people from excessive water use and wastage. Economic: Developing countries are often the bases where international manufacturing and production companies leverage on tax incentives and low labour costs to set up bases. These foreign investments are the lifeline to the economies of developing countries in Asia-Pacific. However, in many instances, byproducts and wastewater from industrial entities, both local and foreign, are often not treated and disposed effectively, as such elevating the risk of pollution of water bodies. Even if the right laws and treatment processes are in place, poor public administration and enforcement pose as a challenge.

The importance of potable water is further highlighted by the efforts of many international bodies to regulate and encourage developing nations to adopt a water-friendly framework and processes.

Political: Governments are the prime market drivers on water policies. Nonetheless, in developing nations with weak governance, such policies are often ill-planned and constrained by inefficiencies in enforcement, and administration. For example, in countries such as Laos and Myanmar, high bureaucracy is often cited as one of the largest barriers for foreign companies to enter the market. Nevertheless, Myanmar has been liberating its foreign relation and investment policies in recent years, and this has contributed to the increasing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Myanmar. In 2013, up to 40 percent of total FDI was directed towards the hydropower sector, and it would be expected that other sectors such as water and wastewater treatment would gain traction.

Identify Key Factors Before a water company enters these emerging territories, extensive preparation should be done with regards to the three aspects mentioned above; social, economic and political. One must be able to discern the reasons for a country’s position in the water market in order to formulate effective market entry strategies. There are numerous instances that foreign companies (economic) face resistance and challenges from the local community (social). For instance, an international bottled beverage company had to close several bottling plants in India when their establishments pose threats, in terms of extensive water use, to the livelihood of the local agricultural communities. In such scenario, the rights of the local communities triumphed over the corporate entities. For developing nations in which the government is a key market driver, companies must establish goodwill and build connections over time to win big projects. This is especially important when both local and central government officials are often the

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Vivek Chugh, Goa, India

Developing countries understand that the provision of water and sanitation is one of the fundamental infrastructures to eradicate poverty and catalyse the economy. key decision makers in awarding tenders for multimillion dollar projects. While the matter of building connections has gained a notorious reputation, due to unethical practices, there are many other orthodox methods as well. To circumvent the lengthy process, many companies opt to enter into a Joint Venture (JV) or to acquire a local subsidiary to make market entry smoother. For example, in 2013, the Korean Water Resources Corporation (K-Water) and the Filipino conglomerate San Miguel Corporation (SMC) announced a joint venture for the development and operation of the 246-MW Angat hydropower project. Although K-Water was declared the winner for the bid in 2010, the South Korean company collaborates with SMC in 2013, under required circumstances, before Angat work begins. Sebastian Danon, Buenos Aires, Argentina

In many developing nations in Asia, water has been taken for granted for generations, due to poor farming practices and careless water use.

For developing nations in which the government is a key market driver, companies must establish goodwill and build connections over time to win big projects.

Another entry method increasingly being used by foreign companies looking to enter new markets is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). While CSR has been a primary tool in the past to enhance the corporate image of a company that is already present in the market, it is now used as a marketing tool to enter new markets and expand geographical footprint. Sufficient and meaningful CSRs, when conducted at the right channels, can mitigate risks of social challenges such as the case faced by the bottled water company in India.

Entering the Market Developing markets in Asia-Pacific are often characterised by unstable political climates, vague business rules and the lack of transparency in terms of legislation. As such, foreign market participants may not always have absolute clarity on the workings in these markets. Entering the markets unsighted is not an option. There are several options that foreign companies may embark on. Joint Venture: A JV is preferable for foreign companies that intend to partner with a local player that has the expertise and networks to enable smooth entry. In many instances, JVs are usually required as a regulatory compliance for national projects that involve foreign market participants. In addition, JV partners usually have synergistic traits that allow both companies to rope each other’s strengths. For example, a high-tech water treatment company may partner with a well-established distributor to gain access to their retail networks in the country. For the distributor, gaining a new product line may position them to have a better

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competitive edge. However, JVs often present its own set of challenges such as conflict management and contractual disputes. Developing countries such as Laos encourages JVs as the land-locked country needs technical expertise and investments in the water market. Laos is already an investment target for regional companies such as DKLS Industries, a Malaysian company that entered into a JV with a Laotian state-owned enterprise to upgrade and operate one of its water treatment and supply networks. Acquisition: Foreign companies may want to consider acquiring a local market participant to leverage on their existing market footprints and build market presence. Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are not new, but it is prevalent in recent years as it becomes a common mode of market entry, and value chain consolidation in the water market. In 2011, M&A bids of water companies accounted approximately US$12.7 billion in 55 deals, as compared to about US$900 million in 40 deals in 2010. In Asia-Pacific, there are numerous Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the water market that have grown into the US$20 million valuation range, and these SMEs have become very attractive for global market participants to acquire. More M&A transactions are expected to happen in forthcoming years in the water market. Risks are often associated with the acquirers’ financial competency, return of investments, and local business and financial laws, but the real challenge lies on the obtainment of holistic and precise market intelligence. Consor tium: This option allows companies to form an alliance/group to increase their bargaining power and complement skill sets that could be offered in the water market. Consortiums are frequently used by SMEs, especially for large-scale government projects, as these SMEs have the right technical expertise but may not be in the position to tender (largely due to various pre-qualification criteria).

possess social, economic, and political challenges in various proportions, and such bearings may limit the interest of foreign market participants. Most emerging markets have governments that possess protectionist policies, which would require some form of collaboration with local market participants or local state-owned entities. Ventures into these markets need careful market investigation and consideration as these markets, while they provide many opportunities, carry potential risks and business distress. For instance, controversies emerged from the Xayaburi Dam project in Southeast Asia’s Mekong River that involve cross-border interests of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. A consortium of South Korean companies faces legal challenges in Thailand when it won the bid for a flood mitigation project. Nonetheless, there are success stories that can be emulated. The Philippines’ Manila Water entered the Vietnamese water market since 2011, and recently bought a stake of a Vietnam water utility company in 2013. Additionally, opportunities are likely to arise from the implementation of Cambodia’s national policy and strategic plan for green growth 2013-2030. ENQUIRY NO. 3801 SG-944-WZM links 83x110_SG-944-WZM links 83x110 11.09.13 10:19 Seite 1

the-chain Moving energy made easy

Emerging markets in Asia-Pacific present lucrative business opportunities for many foreign companies across the water market value chain. While organisations such as the ADB play an important role in providing financial assistances in emerging markets such as Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, more private participation is encouraged in their water markets. Market participants are already eyeing emerging water markets but it is not surprising that many chose to employ the wait-and-see attitude, or are intimidated by unreported missteps. These emerging markets

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Water Industry:

Jason Antony, Vancouver, BC, Canada

High Value Automation Water companies are evolving. They are moving from a low revenue/low service model to a higher revenue/higher service model. Automation plays a key role in this process. By Phillip Vaughan, director for utilities industry, SAP (Asia Pacific & Japan)


n the past, water companies have sometimes been stymied by politicians and bureaucrats lacking the will to tackle the problem of nonrevenue water. This is changing. One example are moves to privatisation. Malaysia and the Philippines have done this. In Japan too, this pattern is emerging, for example Osaka Waterworks is going to a private model. At the heart of these arrangements is a fundamental agreement with the water company. You will get paid for your service, but you have to provide a good service. What is a good service? There are four areas of focus: 1 Optimising the water supply chain. 2 Managing water treatment plants efficiently. 3 Building intelligence into the water network. 4 Managing customers effectively and providing a better experience for them. Success in these depends on a number of things like a professional labour force, and a work culture that seeks to constantly change and evolve. Success also depends on the ability to effectively manage and utilise all the available data. This requires managing large volumes of telemetry data, combining data from various sources, including support for spatial data, and doing it all in real-time. We have seen in recent years a rapid growth in Operational Technologies (OT). These are specialised systems overlaying intelligent management on the water network and they have grown up in isolation of the business IT systems in a company.

Now the challenge is to bring data from IT and OT systems together to provide: integrated analytics and transactions on joined data sources; preparedness for natural disasters and restoration efforts; ensuring a reliable water network at a reduced cost and enables a repository for water data, sensor data, and events.

IT-OT Integration As we build smarter networks, the need to bring these worlds together becomes paramount. Yet companies report that it is difficult. Why? It is because the challenge looks different from each perspective. At the organisational level we have IT teams and IT culture compared to the OT world with control room teams and a control room culture. The applications and systems also look different. A water company’s OT landscape is made of telemetry systems: SCADA, RTU’s and smart meters. The IT landscape includes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Computer Information Systems (CIS), Order Management Systems (OMS), and Mobile. At the network infrastructure layer, OT often deals with microwave transmission, whereas IT will look at standard IT network infrastructure. For these two teams each has to answer the same questions: Is the integration topic understood? Is there a desire to integrate, which is shared by both parties? Is it technically possible to integrate? Is there any funding; and who pays and who will execute? Is it in a strategy, plan, or timeline? To bridge these challenges, water companies look to leverage the large amount of available data in real-time. Recently the introduction of in-memory

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technologies means the storage capacities and processing power is available if the data is there. For this to proceed, the IT and OT alignment must occur first. Today most water companies have some level of integration between operational systems and business systems, but this does not imply that it has necessarily been done in a strategic, well-structured manner. In most cases it is probably the opposite, where it takes the form of limited and narrow in scope projects. It can be an organisational challenge to bring these worlds together. Two groups must join and assess what convergence exists, they must create alignment and look for potential integration opportunities. Operational technology teams can ride on and benefit from IT practices around software governance, security management and software life cycle management. IT groups can look for opportunities for alignment and integration, and especially to allow for business systems to leverage equipment data in real-time. The benefits of these approaches are enhancement of current business processes; access to better information for decision support; reduced technology procurement costs; and a shared set of standards and platforms.

Cyber Security

Miguel Ugalde, Mexico, DF, Mexico

A cyber security attack is one area deserving a more embracing approach. The US Department of Homeland Security found that disgruntled current and former utility-sector employees have successfully used their insider knowledge to damage facilities and disrupt site operations. Outsiders have attempted to solicit utility-sector employees to obtain specific information about utility infrastructure site operations and facilities, which could be useful in conducting physical and cyber-attacks.

Outsiders have attempted to solicit utility-sector employees to obtain specific information about utility infrastructure site operations and facilities, which could be useful in conducting physical and cyber-attacks.

Utility companies including water companies often separately manage their IT resources, their physical access systems and their control systems. Working in silos is costly and less efficient. Unfortunately companies organised in this way respond to threats in this way, ie: in silos, but this is not the way attackers operate. Bridging the gaps across silos is the only way to have a holistic security solution and mitigate blended threats.

The First Steps There are two broader problems that cause a disconnection between traditional IT and their OT counterparts. Firstly, operational data is not accessible or not immediately available to business processes and secondly, there is usually no unified data repository, and no real-time analysis. Operations managers are often challenged by large amounts of historical and real-time sensor data. This data is obtained from assets right across the water supply chain. There can be an absence of analytic tools that are powerful enough to analyse and optimise maintenance schedules and predict critical system failures. On an aging infrastructure it can be difficult to maintain high asset reliability and reduce maintenance costs, both of which are required to provide higher levels of customer satisfaction. To achieve an advanced decision support environment, it is required that the data flow be in real-time; all field data and business transaction data should be consolidated onto one single real-time data platform. This will provide a single repository for reports, dashboards, advanced analytics and free exploration.

Towards The Enterprise The problem of IT-OT integration follows a familiar pattern in technology evolution. An isolated technology develops for a specific market. Increasingly the offering becomes more sophisticated as customers demand more. This often replicates functionality that more general products provide. For example, a telemetry system builds a capability for advanced analytics and reporting, but these improvements tend to be proprietary in nature. In time, consumers demand standardisation and plug-and-play options. Ultimately, we are working toward a singular enterprise platform that can be seamlessly extended by adding various components and modules. As we all know, the world never stands still. New specialist systems will emerge and we will always be left with an integration challenge.


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Energy Opportunities For Southeast Asia

RENEWABLE energy is expected to grow at a rate of 9.1 percent among ASEAN member states by 2030. The goal of the ASEAN plan of action for energy cooperation is to increase renewable energy usage by 15 percent.

Renewable Energy Asia & Entech Pollutec Asia Renewable Energy Asia & Entech Pollutec Asia will take place at the Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre (BITEC), between June 4-7, 2014. These events will feature oil professionals from 30 countries. Opportunities will exist to meet with buyers from 50 nations. The exhibition features a display of renewable energy and environmental technology. It will also stage presentations and conferences on renewable energy by experts in their field. There will be six national pavilions, including Germany, Singapore, Japan, China, Taiwan and South Korea, with over 100 seminars and presentations from companies, academics,

and researchers. The 10th International Renewable Energy Asia Conference (REA 2014) will provide a forum for participants to share knowledge and experience in policy formulation, and technology and market developments. The conference and opening ceremony will be presided over by the minister of energy, who will also deliver a keynote address. Keynote lectures by three prominent experts will cover: smart grid: a vision of smart electricity/energy supply f o r A S E A N ; s m a r t P V: P V deployment in ASEAN and its role in the region’s energy future; and smart community-based energy systems: from dreams to reality. Local and international speakers are invited to make presentations in four parallel sessions, covering: smart design for zero energy buildings; PV and wind power; smart technologies and management for community based energy systems; sustainable bioenergy.

Concurrent Events Boilex Asia and Pumps & Valves Asia will be taking place concurrently with Renewable Energy Asia and Entech Pollutec Asia. The addition of these events will enable companies in the important industrial sectors to make the most of opportunities that are rapidly developing in the ASEAN region. They aim to provide much of the essential hardware that enables renewable energy systems to operate efficiently and economically. ‘Boilex Asia’ and ‘Pumps and Valves Asia’ will provide a platform to showcase technology and innovations that offer business opportunities for companies to expand their market presence in ASEAN. Showcasing boiler technology and specialised hardware, with over 200 companies from 30 countries expected to attend the exhibitions. There will be six national p a v i l i o n s , f r o m G e r m a n y, Singapore, Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea, with 19,000 buyers from 45 countries. June 4 - 7, 2014 BITEC Bangkok, Thailand ENQUIRY NO. 3901

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The Region’s Premier Exhibition on

Renewable Energy, Environmental, Boiler, Pressure Vessel

Pumps, Valves Technology ENQUIRY NO. 704

UBM Asia (Thailand) Co Ltd T. +66 2642 6911 E-mail:

F. +66 2642 6919-20


THE World Economic Forum classified a water crisis as the third global risk of highest concern in 2014. Subsequently, in March 2014, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued a report warning of the impact of extreme climate events, such as heat waves, droughts and floods, on water, food supply and infrastructure. Beyond the physical and climate changes, water utilities around the world face challenges to meet the needs of growing cities, economies and industries. These include increasing water demand, rapid urbanisation, ageing infrastructure and rising energy costs, amongst others. These changes and challenges mean that the world is thirsty for effective, innovative solutions. There is tremendous opportunity to synchronise our effor ts, pool resources and share best practices across the public and private sectors to catalyse the development of these solutions.

The Water Ecosystem Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) is a global platform to share and co-create innovative water solutions. The whole spectrum of the water ecosystem will come together at this show,

Images: Singapore International Water Week

Guests and exhibitors are given the opportunity to network and create new business opportunities.

Singapore International Water Week 2014

Interesting discussions unfold at the Water Leaders’ Summit.

including policymakers, R&D, engineering, manufacturing, venture capitalists, large industrial water users and academic and scientific experts. This event gives them the opportunity to share and expand business opportunities, showcase the latest water technologies, share best practices, and develop and co-create innovative solutions. In line with global water industr y trends and opportunities, this year’s show will feature discussions on four themes, namely: Municipal Water, Industrial Water, Integrated CityEnvironment-Water, and Future of Water. The show’s flagship programmes include: • The Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize • Water Leaders Summit

• Water Convention • Water Expo • Industrial Water Solutions Forum • Business Forums • TechXchange • Hydro-gen • Co-located Events Some of the notable speakers and delegates expected at SIWW 2014 include: • Angel Gurría, secretar ygeneral of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). • Benedito Braga, president of the World Water Council. • Chen Lei, minister for Water Resources, China. • HE Rashid Ahmed Mohammed Bin Fahad, minister of

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Environment and Water, United Arab Emirates. • Jean-Louis Chaussade, CEO, Suez Environnement. • Kirsten Brosbøl, minister for the Environment, Denmark. • Melanie Schultz van Haegen, Dutch minister of Infrastructure and the Environment.

Exhibits are designed to appeal to guests.

Key Focus Areas This year, the show will renew its focus on the industrial water sector, which ranks second in global water consumption, accounting for about 25 percent of global water demand. In Singapore, industrial water demand is expected to double within the next 50 years. Issues such as water efficiency in the manufacturing sectors will be looked at, and it will be seen how improving water use can actually help companies achieve productivity and savings. Some of these discussions have already kicked off at the Jurong Island Industrial Forum held in January this year. Another area of focus is talent development. How do we make the water industr y

m o re a t t r a c t i v e t o y o u n g professionals? Who will provide the solutions in our cities of the future? Globally, the water industry is seeing a lack of new blood and an aging workforce. The inaugural Hydrogen programme, aims to nurture the next generation of water

organise the second edition of the Aquarius Programme, which aims to develop the next wave of water business leaders through a four-day leadership programme. T h i s y e a r ’s e v e n t w i l l also continue to promote the commercialisation of water technologies. For example,

Interactive exhibits provide a dynamic learning environment for exploring water technologies.

leaders, develop entrepreneurial water talents and facilitate interactive dialogue on water issues. One of the key initiatives is the HydroPreneur Programme (HPP), a dynamic nine-week entrepreneurship training and development programme for aspiring global talents with innovative water solutions, with the 10 best teams presenting on HydroPitch Day at SIWW. Another new initiative under Hydrogen is the Young Water Leaders Summit, which will facilitate interactive dialogue and networking among young professionals, industry leaders and other water practitioners. Selected participants will represent the young water leaders at the Water Leaders Summit. The event will also

this year’s TechXchange will see 12 local and international companies pitching technologies to a panel of international investors and buyers. These 12 companies will also be exhibiting their technologies at the inaugural Innovations Pavilion at Water Expo. The sixth Singapore International Water Week will be held from June 1-5, 2014, in conjunction with the World Cities Summit and CleanEnviro Summit Singapore, at the Sands Expo & Convention Centre at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore. June 1-5, 2014 Sands Expo & Convention Centre Singapore ENQUIRY NO. 3902 May 2014 | industrial automation asia  67

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PRODUCTS & SERVICES ABB: Distributed Control System

Balluff: Light Grid

ABB has announced version 6 of its Distributed Control System (DCS), System 800xA. This DCS is known for delivering productivity through consolidating process, electrical, safety, and telecoms in one system and providing the operator control room environment featuring the Extended Operator Workplace. This sixth generation release, commonly called 800xA v6, is not only for new projects but has been specially developed to support upgrades of older DCS systems running on unsupported operating systems such as Microsoft XP. This version provides customers with a more secure automation environment that lowers the total cost of ownership, while providing opportunities to improve productivity.

Balluff has developed a high-resolution light grid for optical object detection with a width of 50 mm and a range of up to two metres. Consisting of a transmitter with a red light laser and a receiver, the device works completely self-sufficiently, without additional accessories such as PC or special software. All settings can be made via a display in the receiver. The resolution of 0.01 mm opens up many application possibilities. In addition, the emitter and receiver are encased in a rugged industrial housing and can be aligned using the live graphic display on the integrated multi-function display.



Autodesk: Digital Prototyping

FCI: Power Connector

Autodesk has unveiled a Digital Prototyping software, geared for manufacturers, that is designed to deliver affordable access to the company’s complete portfolio of solutions. The 2015 Autodesk Manufacturing design suites are comprised of Autodesk Product Design Suite (PrDS), Autodesk Factory Design Suite (FDS), data management offerings and a simulation and software portfolio. These design suites are available in several editions including Standard (FDS only), Ultimate and Premium (FDS and PrDS). Both Suites include an enhanced version of Autodesk Inventor, which brings impactful additions to the 3D modelling environment, while also delivering a strong package of customer-requested productivity improvements.

The PwrBlade+ power connector, from FCI, has completed its long-term reliability tests when cross-mated with the TE Connectivity Multi-Beam XLE connector series. All tests were performed by Contech Research, an independent reliability test lab. This product is a modular AC/DC power distribution connector designed for PCB and cable mounted applications. The connector builds on the PwrBlade connector’s technology, with enhancements to achieve improved current rating performance and reduced power loss. It is rated up to 75A per power contact, without exceeding a 30 deg C temperature rise in still air.




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Flexim: Clamp-On Flowmeters

Honeywell: Flowmeter

The Flexus F705 and G705 ultrasonic liquid and gas clampon flowmeters, from Flexim, allow for a precise bi-directional, dynamic flow measurement of volume and mass flow rates of virtually any gaseous and liquid media — even at wet gas applications (up to a liquid volume fraction of five percent) or liquid media carrying high contents of solids. With the transmitter being ATEX, IECEx Zone 2 and FM Class I, Div. 2 certified — transducers for ATEX, IECEX Zone 1 and FM Class I, Div. 1 are available — it is also suited for hazardous areas. Moreover, with its stainless steel enclosure (316L/1.4404) it is corrosion resistant and especially suited for applications offshore.

Honeywell has released an ultrasonic flowmeter designed to help natural gas producers improve efficiency by accurately tracking the movement of gas through pipelines. The USM GT400 Ultrasonic Flowmeter helps to reduce the amount of effort needed to maintain pipeline metering, which is especially critical today given the skills shortage many oil and gas companies are facing as veteran engineers retire. Compliant with CEESmaRT technology — a secure, cloudbased solution for condition-based monitoring — the device provides stability during flow perturbations thanks to its directpath technology with six measuring paths on three levels.



HMS: Embedded Communications

Moxa: Communications Solution

The Anybus CompactCom 40-series, from HMS, has been introduced to the market. The existing Anybus CompactCom 30-series (based on the Anybus NP30 network processor) has been installed in millions of automation devices and systems around the world and is tailored for general purpose automation such as AC drives, weigh scales, valves, barcode scanners, sensors, HMIs, and so on. The 40-series is based on Anybus NP40 network processor and is suitable for high-end industrial applications that require fieldbus or real-time Ethernet connectivity. Offering close to ‘zero delay’ between devices and real-time networks, the 40-series is suited for high-performance applications such as servo drive systems, which require fast network cycles and synchronisation capabilities.

The OnCell G3111/G3151-HSPA series, from Moxa, is a 3G communication solution suitable for a variety of cellular industrial applications. This series offers the 3G Gateway solution. Designed to meet industrial-grade standards, these products can withstand harsh environments and are suitable for mission-critical tasks for wireless applications. In addition, the company’s GuaranLink technology and Central Manager Software offer stable cellular connectivity and make it easy to configure, manage, and monitor remote devices on a private network over the Internet.



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Omega: Temperature Data Logger

Renishaw: Optical Encoder

The six channel handheld temperature data logger, the RDXL6SD, from Omega, displays maximum, minimum, average and standard deviation and also displays temperature difference between any two channels. This CE compliant product features a touch screen, scheduled and manual logging start/stop, an alarm indication for each channel and a 2-channel temperature chart. This product is suited for process manufacturing and automotive industries.

The Atom, from Renishaw, is a non-contact optical linear and rotary incremental encoder system that combines miniaturisation with dirt immunity, signal stability and reliability. The encoder achieves its performance as a consequence of a design which avoids the many compromises traditionally associated with miniaturised encoders. The optical encoder is available in sizes as small as 6.8 mm x 12.7 mm x 20.5 mm, uses filtering optics with Auto Gain Control (AGC) and Auto Offset Control (AOC). This technology is found in the company’s TONiC incremental encoder range and provides good signal stability and dirt immunity.



Panduit: Integrated Network

Schneider Electric: Power Meter

The integrated network zone system, from Panduit, enables network communications between the control room and manufacturing floor within an industrial facility. Available in three base configurations, the systems are integrated with an Allen-Bradley Stratix industrial Ethernet switch for fast deployment. The active equipment is deployed with network structured cabling and cable management according to best practices and industry installation guidelines. Systems also include Allen-Bradley uninterruptible power supplies installed behind a touch-safe protective cover, and are UL certified.

The PowerLogic PM5000 series power meter, from Schneider Electric, is an addition to the PowerLogic portfolio of power and energy meters and is engineered on a compact and affordable platform. A range of models cover the full spectrum of commercial and industrial applications, within a wide range of budgets. These meters are compliant with IEC 61557-12 and IEC 62053-22 metering standards: PM5100 and PM5300 models are class 0.5S while PM5500 models are class 0.2S. Each meter in the series offers combinations of features intended to complement the requirements of energy cost management applications.

Zone System



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Calendar Of Events 2014 May 15 – 18 Intermach 2014 BITEC Bangkok, Thailand UBM Asia (Thailand) Co Ltd Email: Web:

21 – 23 Indo Renergy Expo & Forum 2014 Grand City Convex Surabaya, Indonesia PT. Napindo Media Ashatama Email: Web:

21 – 24 Metaltech 2014 Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Trade Link ITE Sdn Bhd Email: Web:

jun 1 – 5 Singapore International Water Week 2014 Sands Expo & Convention Centre Singapore Singapore International Water Week Pte Ltd Email: Web:

4 – 7 Renewable Energy Asia 2014 BITEC Bangkok, Thailand UBM Asia Email: Web:

11 – 14 Propak Asia 2014

10 – 12 HVAC Asia 2014

BITEC Bangkok, Thailand International Expo Management Pte Ltd (IEM) Email: Web:

Sands Expo and Convention Centre Singapore Informa Exhibitions Email: Web:

17 – 20 CommunicAsia 2014

17 – 19 Electric & Power Vietnam 2014

Marina Bay Sands Singapore Singapore Exhibition Services Email: Web:

Saigon Exhibition & Convention Centre (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Hong Kong Exhibition Services Email: Web:

23 – 25 SCM Logistics & Manufacturing World 2014

17 – 19 Industrial Automation Vietnam 2014

Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre Singapore Terrapinn Pte Ltd Email: Web: scm-logistics-and-manufacturing-world/

17 – 19 Green Build Asia 2014

jul 8 – 11 MTA Vietnam 2014 Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Singapore Exhibition Services Pte Ltd Email: Web:

aug 27 – 30 MTT Malaysia Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ECMI Email: Web:


Saigon Exhibition & Convention Centre (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Hong Kong Exhibition Services Email: Web:

Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia UBM Email: Web:

oct 9 – 11 Metalex Vietnam 2014 Saigon Exhibition & Convention Centre (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Reed Tradex Email: Web:

nov 4 – 8 Industrial Automation Show Shanghai New International Expo Centre Shanghai, China Hannover Fairs International Email: Web:

9 – 11 Medical Manufacturing Asia Suntec Convention & Exhibition Centre Singapore Messe Duesseldorf Asia Email: Web:

To be considered for inclusion in the Calendar of Events, send details of event (name, date, venue, organiser contact) to: The Editor IAA Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd. 1100 Lower Delta Road, EPL Building, #02-05, Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Email:

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