Page 1

The Asian Growth Engine

Creating An Even Surface

Beyond The Extra Mile

The Future Of OSB Panels

Furniture Design And Manufacturing Asia Established Since 1986


Welcome to visit our booth:

Feb 10-14,2012, Indiawood 2012. HALL 1 – 1UL E510, BIEC, Banglore, India.


Mar 27-30,2012, Interzum Guangzhou 2012. HALL 15.1 – D01, Pazhou Complex, Guangzhou, China.


Innovation has been in our genes since 1873 F 012 r. 2 ion WM Ma ibit

. g E xh –15 12. Int. Beijin a , n i e Ch entr ll E2, C Ha h C 0 8 ot Bo



Even today, after more than 130 years, one thing above all drives us when we build complete lines for the wood panel industry: the development of concepts and technologies which not only satisfy but also delight our clients. To reduce material and energy costs, to boost productivity, or to ease the burden on the environment with intelligent solutions, for example. This is what we live for – now and in the future.


Furniture Design And Manufacturing Asia Established Since 1986

Contents january/february 2012 • VOL. 24 NO. 1

30 Extreme Durability With Boron Nitride

High speed cutting in the absence of cooling agent places considerable strain on a cutting tool’s wear life. Boron nitride composite can offer enhanced durability with the versatility of achieving low tool angles required for efficient cutting of different wood species. By Marcin Zbiec, Warsaw University of Life Sciences

34 Market Outlook 2012 18 US & European Headwinds Cloud Recovery

The global softwood lumber market lost much momentum as a result of the euro debt crisis and US housing market slump. Growth is expected to slow significantly in America and Europe, but demand in Japan and China is expected to remain high. By Russ Taylor, president, and Alice Palmer, consultant, Wood Markets Group

22 Moderate Growth Ahead

After a better than expected 2011, growth is expected to continue, but at a more moderate pace in 2012. The development of the secondary manufacturing market in the ASEAN region will hold the key to sustained growth. By Ingo Bette, marketing director, VDMA

34 Veneer — Everlasting Beauty


26 Coating For Better Endurance

The application of thin coatings on cutting tools can modify their physical and chemical properties, increasing their durability which will in turn reduce the amount of downtime for replacement or repair. By Bogdan Warcholinski and Adam Gilewicz, Koszalin University of Technology


2 FDM Asia

Jan/feb 2012 |


38 Automated Wood

The marriage of automation solutions and woodworking processes is nothing new. Nevertheless, there is room for more possibilities. By Shahnawaz Abdul Hamid


24 The Asian Growth Engine

The year 2011 has been one of mixed performance, members from the Singapore Furniture Industries Council, Ernie Koh, executive director of Richin Furniture, Kenny Koh, MD of Star Funiture, and Phua Boon Huat, manager of HTL International Holdings shared their views with FDM Asia on the importance of the Asian market and the challenges ahead.

Veneer offers flexibility in design with its ability to be pressed onto flat and uneven surfaces. In addition, it is a good environmental choice, saving on materials by making products look like they are made of solid wood or rare wood species. By Shiv Kumar Shet, assistant general manager, Woodtech Consultants



Contents january/february 2012 • VOL. 24 NO. 1

Furniture Design, Hardware & Fittings




Today’s office environment is one of mobility and flexibility. Office furniture design must evolve with this shift in perception to provide ergonomic solutions that cater to modern demands. By Michael O’Neill, senior director of workplace research, Knoll

The Future Of OSB Panels

High linear expansion and thickness swell limits the application of oriented strand board (OSB) panels despite their huge potential. Developments in production technology and treatment are hoping to change that. By Zeki Candan and Turgay Akbulut, Istanbul University



46 Between Wood &

Stone: 2012 Laminate Flooring Trends

The year 2012 will see bold flooring designs with complexity in texture made possible with novel surface treatment technologies such as Embossed In Register and digital printing. By Karin Dullweber, the Association of European Producers of Laminate Flooring


Holistic Ergonomics For Evolving Nature Of Work

Beyond The Extra Mile

The current model of awarding credits for sourcing materials locally may not depict a product’s environmental impact accurately. With the introduction of environmental product declaration requirements, full life cycle assessment becomes the natural next step. By Helen Goodland, principal, Brantwood Consulting Partnership

Regulars 06 Editorial 08 Industry News 70 Calendar Of Events 71 Product Highlights 72a Enquiry Form 72b Subscription Form

72 Page

Events & Exhibitions Exhibition Review: 60 Vietnamwood

Established in 1986, FDM Asia, formerly Asia Pacific Forest/Timber Industries, is a business magazine on sawmilling, woodworking, woodbased panels and furniture manufacturing. The Publisher reserves the right to accept or reject all editorial or advertising material and assumes no responsibility for the return of unsolicited artwork or manuscripts. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the magazine, in whole or in part, is prohibited without the prior written consent, not unreasonably withheld, of the publisher. Reprints of articles appearing in previous issues of the magazine are available on request, subject to a minimum quantity. The views expressed in this journal are not necessarily those of the Publisher and while every attempt will be made to ensure the accuracy



and authenticity of information appearing in the magazine, the Publisher accepts no liability for damages caused by misinterpretation of information, expressed or implied, within the pages of the magazine. All correspondence regarding editorial, editorial contributions or editorial content should be directed to the Editor. The magazine is available on subscription in Singapore at S$126.00 (GST applicable) per annum by surface mail. Subscription by airmail to readers in Asia Pacific costs S$160 per annum; Europe and the Americas, S$230 per annum. For further details, refer to the subscription card found within the pages of each issue. For more subscription information, please fax to: (65) 6379 2806 or email:

FDM Asia is published eight times a year (printed 2nd week of issue month) by


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Exhibition Preview: 61 MIFF 2012 62 IFFS/AFS 2012 64 WMF 2012 66 Domotex Asia/Chinafloor 68 Interzum Guangzhou

Creating An Even Surface

The lack of quality wood raw materials means that a lot of money is spent on surface processing before coating. Prepress additives can save cost by providing an even panel surface without additional treatment. By Klaus Meinert, manager of technology, research and development, Brav-O-Tech

advertisers’ enquiry numbers.

Jan/feb 2012 |

The Academy TheChinese Chinese Academy of of Forestry Forestry

MICA (P) NO. 041/11/2011 • PPS 1204/06/2012 (022758) • ISSN 0219-2284

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Top technology for virtually isobaric operation.


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High Road After The Bump



managing director

Kenneth Tan


Tjut Rostina

assistant editor

Wong Tsz Hin

editorial assistant

Lena Chin

senior graphic designer

he year 2012 may prove to be a pivotal year for the woodworking industry with increasing demand for wood materials and furniture, closer inspection on certification programmes and continued growth of the Asian markets. US housing starts, which have been in a slump since 2009, are expected to show some vitality this year. It is no longer a question of whether recovery will happen, but when it will begin. This coupled with the soft landing of the property market in China and reconstruction efforts in Japan ensures that there will be demand for wood raw materials as well as furniture products. As the world gains a deeper understanding of the true meaning of being green, more questions are being raised on whether products justify their environmental claims. Countries are stepping up their efforts to confirm that products are properly monitored and certified at different stages of manufacturing to satisfy various requirements before being introduced into the market. On the other hand, research groups are studying the criteria of existing certification programmes to verify whether they perform carbon footprint tracking and inspect environmental impact at both micro and macro levels. Asia’s domestic consumption of wood and wood products is expected to continue its growth. It will be no surprise if domestic demand takes a larger share of the overall production volume. This is particularly true for China, which has steadily moved away from being a sole secondary processing centre. Emerging markets such as Indonesia and India will offer opportunities for industry players looking for potential investment. After the minor hiccup suffered towards the end of 2011 as a result of the global economic uncertainty, the year ahead should carry on the upward momentum. The recovery of the US market and sustained development of growing markets in Asia will offer much optimism for the new year. With that in mind, let us look forward to a successful 2012.

Agness Ng

advertising sales manager

Sim Eric

business manager (China)

Ding Yongmei

assistant business manager (China)

Yumi Gui

senior circulation executive

Brenda Tan


Adam Gilewicz Alice Palmer Bogdan Warcholinski Ernie Koh Håkan Ekström Helen Goodland Ingo Bette Karin Dullweber Klaus Meinert Kenny Koh Marcin Zbiec Michael O’Neill Phua Boon Huat Russ Taylor Shahnawaz Abdul Hamid Shiv Kumar Shet Turgay Akbulut Zeki Candan

Executive Board chairman

Stephen Tay

group executive director

Happy New Year!

Kenneth Tan

financial controller

Robbin Lim



Trade Media Pte Ltd an Eastern Holdings Ltd company

Wong Tsz Hin

6 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

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Industry News



AHEC Launched 3rd Indonesian Furniture Design Competition Jakarta, Indonesia: The American Hardwood Export Council

distinguishing it from tropical hardwoods. As last year, there

(AHEC) has launched the 3rd Indonesian Furniture Design

is no category for student entries.

Competition (IFDC).

Jurors consist of professional designers and practitioner of

The competition, which will run from December 2011 to

the furniture industry, including Michael Buckley (director, Word

May 2012, is themed ‘Credenza’ or sideboard. Professional

Hardwoods), Lea Aviliani Aziz, Prieyo Pratomo (ASMINDO), Dwight

designers will have to design a credenza using American

S Kiswandono (PIKA) and Egbert Pos. Jushua M Simanjuntak

hardwood which offers choice in various colours and grains,

will act as the chief juror. The criteria to be assessed will be creativity, originality, functionality and marketability. Three prize categories, aesthetic, functional and innovative, will be awarded along with the overall winner. Category winners will receive 15 million rupiah (US$1,650) and the overall winner will get 20 million rupiah in cash money. “The interest of Indonesian designers in designing innovative furniture made of American hardwood is very high. In the 2nd IFDC, the number of participants increased by 200 percent compared to the previous competition,” said John Chan, regional director of AHEC, “with creative and innovative interior design, Indonesian designers can compete in the tight competition of international furniture market.” Based on export data, Indonesia is the second largest market in South East Asia for American hardwood.

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian company APP Timber has become PEFC International’s first Asian company in its membership. Headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, the company specialises in the supply of imported timber-

Eric Molina, San Francisco, US

APP Timber Becomes PEFC’s First Asian Member company provides a range of wood products to the domestic building industry and export service of Asianmade products to overseas buyers. Under the forest certification programme, international stakeholder

related products for the Asian timber

membership is open to entities


operating in two or more countries,

The company sells logs, sawn

or legally registered as international

timber, components and veneers,

organisations. Companies, organisations

and provides consultation services to

and associations whose principles

Asian manufacturers. Customers are

and objectives are supportive of the

mainly producing furniture, flooring,

programme are welcome to apply.

doors and other products which are

International stakeholder members

predominantly exported to the US,

have the same rights and obligations

Europe and Japan. In addition, the

as all other PEFC members.

8 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

Industry News

Taiwan Wants Forest Certification To Boost Self Sufficiency

way, and chain of custody for wood or paper product manufacturers, which proves that the manufacturing process is being monitored and all wood comes

Taipei, Taiwan: At an exhibition held by

prohibition of logging. Forest certification

Taiwan’s Forestry Bureau to promote forest

is a way to evaluate wood or paper

At present, 111 companies in Taiwan

certification, director of the Taiwan Forest

products that come from certain forests,

have gained certification from the council

Certification Development Association, Chiou

by providing a seal of approval to notify

and seven from the certification programme,

Chyi-rong, said that forest certification can

customers that the product was developed

but all of them are for the chain of custody

help the region to improve self sufficiency

in accordance with strict environmental


of wood resources.

and social standards.

from legal wood suppliers.

Taiwan does not have its own forest

The event was held at Huahan 1914

Forest certification could prevent timber

certification standards, but the association

Creative Park in Taipei to educate the public

trespass — the unapproved cutting of trees

is working with wood suppliers and the

on the internationally recognised certification

and removal of timber — because increasing

Forestry Bureau to set up a mechanism.

mechanisms and how consumers can

consumer demand for certification can

The forestry industry in Taiwan is about

support a sustainable environment by

create a powerful incentive for retailers

99 percent reliant on imported wood. If a

purchasing certified wood products.

and manufacturers to seek out good

thorough evaluation of the planted forests in

wood suppliers.

Taiwan was done with the forest certification

The activity promoted the concept that forests are recyclable and sustainable

There are also two types of certification

mechanisms set up, the self-sufficiency

resources and that reasonable and effective

— forest management, which proves a

rate of wood and paper resources could

management are key, rather than the total

forest is being managed in a sustainable

increase to about 25 percent.

firefly EXIMIO


Setting new StandardS in Spark detection

VIsIt us At WMFAIr Beijing, CHINA / Booth E2C63

WWW.FIrEFly.sE | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012



Industry News

Vietnam Expects Record Export Turnover in 2011 Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam: Vietnam’s domestic wood processing sector is expecting a record export turnover of US$3.9 billion in 2011, in spite of concerns over the quiet market amid the global economic turbulence, and high production costs and lending interest rates, according to a report by Saigon Times Online. Figures from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has shown that wood export turnover in 2011 till November topped US$3.5 billion, up 15 percent when compared to the same period in 2010. The US, which accounts for a third of the total export volume, remains the country’s largest wood importer. Nguyen Ton Quyen, chairman of the Vietnam Timber and Forest Product Association, said that wood export

has surpassed the US$1 billion mark, surpassing China’s figures and placing Vietnam in the position of US’s largest wood exporter. In the ten-month period, China’s wood exports to the US totalled US$700 million.

turnover is expected to top US$3.9 billion in 2011, which is

According to the Ministry of Industry and Trade’s

US$500 million higher than the figure recorded in 2010.

American Market Agency, two US wood processors are

Japan, which trails only the US, Europe and China on

eying the establishment of plants in Vietnam. Despite

the list of largest importers, has posted the highest growth

the rising export value, many exporters said the high

in wood imports from Vietnam.

production cost remains the biggest problem of the

As for the US, according to the association, wood export turnover to this market in the year 2011 till October

industry, preventing companies from achieving their targeted profits.

Michigan, US: US furniture maker Herman Miller has announced the results for its second quarter ended December 2011. The company reported

Eric Chan, Los Angeles, US

Herman Miller Sees Strong Sales In Asia-Pacific Sales within Herman Miller’s North American reporting segment of US$321.7 million were up 4.6 percent from the prior year. New orders in the

net sales in the quarter

second quarter totalled

of US$445.6 million, an

US$306.2 million, reflecting

increase of 8.1 percent

a decrease of 13 percent

from the same quarter of

from the same period last

fiscal 2011.

fiscal year.

Net sales were up 4.7

International operations

percent sequentially, after

were again a highlight this

adjusting for the extra week of operations included in the first

quarter, led by sales and order strength in the UK and Asia-Pacific

quarter of this fiscal year. New orders of US$440 million in the

region. The non-North American business segment reported net

second quarter were 4.7 percent lower on a year-on-year basis.

sales of US$87.5 million for the quarter. This represents a 20.4

Adjusting for the extra week, orders in the second quarter were

percent increase from the year ago period. New orders were

down 1.6 percent from the level reported in the first quarter

also strong in the quarter, totalling US$92.1 million, an increase

of this fiscal year.

of 25.4 percent from the second quarter of fiscal 2011.

10 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |



TARGET! Meeting Your Business Needs! When the numbers have to count, FDM Asia will help you meet your business targets. 1 and ONLY BPA-audited woodworking publication in the Asia Pacific region 25,000 potential buyers and business partners are waiting to see your products & services. Advertorial, eMail Blast, Loose Inserts, Print, Exhibition or eMedia, we customise programmes tailored to suit your business needs and marketing budget Furniture Design And Manufacturing Asia Established Since 1986


Going East:

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Poised Against Moist

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Industry News

Nordson Reports Record Results In 2011 Ohio, US: Nordson reported record fourth quarter and full year results for the fiscal year ended October 2011. Sales for the quarter were US$331 million, an increase of 14 percent over the fourth quarter of the prior year. This sales improvement included an eight percent increase in organic volume and a three percent increase from acquisitions, with the remainder coming from positive currency translation effects. Fourth quarter operating profit and net income increased over the same period a year ago to US$79 million and US$55 million, respectively Sales for the full fiscal year of 2011 grew to US$1.2 billion, an increase of 18 percent over the previous year. Growth consisted of a 15 percent increase in organic volume, and a three percent increase from favourable currency translation. Growth related to the first year effect of acquisitions, less sales associated with divested product lines in 2010, was less than one percent. Operating profit for the year was US$316 million, net income was US$222 million and diluted earnings per share were US$3.25, all full year records for the company. Excluding one-time items in both years, full year diluted earnings per share improved by 41 percent over the prior year. For the first quarter of fiscal 2012, sales are expected to be in the range of US$270 million to US$281 million. This sales outlook indicates growth will be in the range of flat to up four percent compared to the first quarter a year ago.

Roy Luck

Ameresco Receives Final Acceptance On US$795 Million Biomass Contract Framingham, US: Ameresco, an energy efficiency and renewable energy company, announced that it has received its final acceptance certificate from the US Department of Energy for the completion of construction of the Savannah river site biomass cogeneration facility installed under the US$795 million energy savings performance contract awarded to the company in 2009. The 20MW, 34 acre, renewable energy facility is on-schedule to provide the necessary process steam to the site as well as provide approximately 30 percent of power for the site once

and oil-fired boilers at the site, the renewable energy facility is

fully operational in 2012.

designed to reduce carbon emissions annually by 100,000 tonnes

The biomass cogeneration facility is expected to generate

and save an estimated 1.4 billion gallons of water a year.

US$944 million of energy, water, operations and maintenance

The facilities will convert 325,000 tonnes of fuel per year,

savings during its 19 year plant performance agreement, while

including local forest residue and wood chips, into 20MW of

generating up to half of the necessary energy to power the 300

clean power. The plant is expected to yield at least US$34 million

sq mile facility. By replacing an inefficient coal powerhouse

in utility cost-savings during its first year of operations.

12 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

Industry News

GreCon Wins Award In Russia

Eumabois Adds New Member & Exhibitions

Hannover, Germany: GreCon has been awarded the

Valencia, Spain: The European Federation of Woodworking

innovation prize at Woodex 2011 in Russia for their

Machinery Manufacturers (Eumabois) announced the admission

temperature and gas pressure measurement during hot

of the Ukraine Woodworking Machinery Association (UWMA)

pressing with wireless sensor technology.

as its regular member.

The company’s Contilog is a small chip, placed inside

The announcement was made at the annual general meeting

a wood-based mat before it runs through the hot press,

of the federation held in Valencia, Spain. The UWMA was

which measures relevant product parameters such as gas

created in September 2008 and was granted observer status at

pressure and temperature. After the press cycle is completed,

the penultimate general assembly in 2009. Its inclusion means

the data will be extracted wirelessly and transmitted to a

that the federation currently has 14 national associations as its

terminal unit. The data will provide the basis for analysing


and if necessary, optimising the pressing operation. The collected data reveals information about the hardening of the resin inside the mat and allows for an

At the same event, two exhibitions, Holz-Handwerk in Nurnberg, Germany, and Internationale Holzmesse in Klagenfurt, Austria, were added to the exhibition calendar of the federation.

improvement of the press programme for every selected

Despite moderate recovery in 2010 and early 2011, the industry

recipe. The starter package consists of a bundle of sensors

has yet to return to pre-crisis level. According to the federation,

and a tablet-PC with a touch screen that will enable operators

of the seven billion euros (US$9.13 billion) turnover achieved by

to implement various measurements independently.

the global technology trade in 2010, as much as 56.2 percent


was generated by member companies of the federation. | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Industry News

Södra Timber To Invest In Automatic Sorting Facility Växjö, Sweden: Södra Timber is to invest in an automatic

manually. These investments will give the sawmill a major

sorting facility on the trimmer at the company’s site in

facelift with a view to enhancing efficiency. They will also

Kinda. This installation will take place in 2012 to ensure

make the sawmill more competitive, allowing it to utilise raw

optimised sawing of pine from the company’s eastern

materials more efficiently and improve quality sorting.

timber sources.

The Kinda site is undergoing a transformation into a

The board has already given its support to a development

pure pine sawmill. Up until now, the sawmill has worked

plan concerning a transition to pure pine production at the

with half spruce and half pine. Only pine will be processed

site. Funding has initially been granted for sawn timber

at the mill as of the start of 2012. The company perceives a

stacking, an automatic edger, sorting unseasoned boards

need and an opportunity to make the most of the better pine

and an expansion of boiler capacity.

timber in the area. The sawmill will be producing 225,000

The final element of the development plan, namely the

cubic metres of pine per year.

new automatic sorting facility, has now been approved.

This investment means that the company will now have

Automatic sorting means that image processing will be used

two specialised pine sawmills, Kinda and Unnefors, for

in the sorting of timber, which would be otherwise carried out

handling quality timber.

PEFC Predicted Forest Products To Drive Green Economy Geneva, Switzerland: PEFC recognised the importance of forest

Representatives from private sector consortiums including

products in the world’s shift towards a green economy at its

the World Business Council for Sustainable Development,

annual stakeholder dialogue held in Montreux, Switzerland,

the Sustainability Consortium, and consulting firms such as

in November, 2011.

Quantis and BioIntelligence Services presented a wide range

The event attracted almost 100 stakeholders from different

of emerging initiatives, collaborations and techniques. By

parts of the world to hear a line up of international speakers

incorporating tools like life cycle analysis (LCA), and carbon


or water footprinting, companies are better placed to make wellinformed decisions during product design and production phases. “For forest certification to stay relevant, we need to understand all the different ambitions companies have towards integrating sustainable supply, production and consumption,” commented Ben Gunneberg, PEFC International. “The sourcing of sustainable forest products is an essential part on a wide range of subjects including life cycle assessment,

of exercising corporate responsibility, but we need to ensure

carbon footprint, forestry standards, and innovative forest

such actions are rewarded within the tools companies are

products and services. The dialogue sought to address a

utilising to measure and mitigate their sustainability impact.

disconnection between those concerned and invested in

Moreover, we need to position forest issues as overarching to

implementing sustainable forest management, and many

many sustainability issues, through forests’ provision of multiple

users of that same fibre who are rather pre-occupied with

values and benefits to society. We need to find new means for

a broader range of sustainability issues spanning water,

communicating this, and the momentum behind establishing

carbon, health, social justice and natural resources.

a green economy may offer such opportunity.”

14 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |



MACHINE? report, 29 July, 2011: The president of Foxconn, Terry Gou, said

1. Machines have less error, much less than humans.

HUGE COSTS! Good news?

the company will import One Million

2. More efficient.

robots for their production line in three

3. Easy to control. In all directions.

MACHINERY CO., LTD in China has

years. Even though it costs a lot, the

Here is a woodworking example:

developed a new machine which can

company can get the money back in

A round wood, with diameter of

deal with this problem.

five years. Foxconn is a big production plant

50-270mm, need to be cut into small slates. How will you deal with it?

in China that produces iPhones and has

Conventionally, use a band saw

1.2 million employees. Why did they

machine to cut it into small slats. How

still do this? Here are some reasons as

many cubic meters can it output in a

stated by SOHU:

day? Let us suppose 100 cubic meters of 270mm diameter round wood needs to be cut in a day. With a traditional band saw

A company called RUIMA

Name of the machine: Round Log Multi-rip Saw Machine. It can cut round wood into pieces all at once with the same conditions as above. Cutting 100 cubic meters of wood into slats in one day will need: 1. 4 sets of Round Log Multi-rip Saw Machine, 2. 8 New workers,

machine, two workers can cut 10 cubic

3. Small yard.

meters (I think they will be tired to

What’s more! It can cut with


accurate sizes as required with all

Cutting 100 cubic meters of wood into slats in one day will need: 1. 10 sets of band saw machine,

knives concealed. No danger of getting hurt! Are you the Foxconn of the

2. 20 skilled workers,

woodworking industry? If so, it is time

3. A large yard.

to change!


Address: No. 1 Show Room, Lunjiao Woodworking Machinery City, Xibian, Guangzhu Road, Licun, Lunjiao, Shunde Dist. Guangdong, China Tel: +86-186-5828-7911 Fax: +86-757-8034-5399 E-mail:


FMC China 2012 Furniture Manufacturing & Supply China Concurrently with FMC Premium 2012, Furniture China 2012 11 – 14 September 2012, Shanghai World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center An Export-Oriented Platform for Woodworking Machinery, Furniture Components & Raw Materials 850 Exhibitors

71,000 Sqm

35,000 Trade Buyers

FMC China 2012 with Enlarged Space and Improved Services “Furniture Manufacturing & Supply China 2012” (FMC China 2012), “FMC Premium 2012” and the first ever “FFC 2012” will staged at the Shanghai World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center (SWEECC) from 11 to 14 September, concurrently with “Furniture China 2012” at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre (SNIEC). In 2011, the FMC exhibition was staged at the Shanghai World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center (SWEECC) for the first time and got a great success. FMC attracted nearly 745 domestic and overseas exhibitors from 40 countries and regions, and 30,327 trade buyers from 30 provinces and 111 countries

and regions. 4,521 overseas visitors came to China for the FMC exhibition, which was an increase of 12% compared to last year. The quantity and quality of visitors has improved significantly. FMC China 2012 will use 4 Halls of SWEECC. Cabinet & Wardrobe Fittings/Furniture Lightings will be added as a new exhibit category. The total exhibition area will be 71,000 sqm and FMC China 2012 is expected to attract 850 exhibitors and 35,000 trade buyers. The category of FMC China 2012 is more professional. Four halls are located on three floors of SWEECC.


Hall 2 - First Floor (17,000 sq m) - FMC Premium - Office Furniture Supplies & Gas Spring / Furniture Coatings & Chemicals Hall 3 - Second Floor (17,000 sq m) Furniture Raw Materials & Components Area with Six Theme Sections - Furniture Hardware & Fittings - Furniture Inspection, Design & Services - Furniture Panels & Surface Deco - Cabinet & Wardrobe Fittings / Furniture Lightings - Furniture Fabric & Leather - Upholstery Furniture Components & Supplies Hall 4 – Underground Floor (12,000 sq m) - Furniture Fabric Exhibition

In 2012, the service will be improved. For example, the shuttle bus between the two exhibition sites will depart every five minutes. The dining area at FMC China 2012 will be enlarged to hold more people. Route guidance will be arranged at Exit 1 / 4 of Metro Line 7 / 8 at Yaohua Road Station. As people become more familiar with the new exhibition hall, and the organizer makes the concerns of visitors and services top priorities, it is believed that FMC China will become truly successful, independent and export-oriented platform. Upholstered furniture is a new star in the furniture industry. Because of its stylish, comfortable, energy-saving features, upholstered furniture attracts the attention of people. Therefore, the related “Furniture Fabric Exhibition 2012 (FFC 2012)” under FMC fair has been presented to all of the visitors in 2012.

For further enquiries, please contact: Shanghai UBM Sinoexpo International Exhibition Co. Ltd Tel: 86-21-64371178 • Fax: 86-21-61154988 • Email: • Website:


Hall 1 - First Floor (25,000 sq m) The largest hall without any columns in Asia - Woodworking Machinery & Tools

Market Outlook 2012

US & European

Phoenix Wolf-Ray, British Columbia, Canada

Headwinds Cloud Recovery

The global softwood lumber market lost much momentum as a result of the euro debt crisis and US housing market slump. Growth is expected to slow significantly in America and Europe, but demand in Japan and China is expected to remain high. By Russ Taylor, president, and Alice Palmer, consultant, Wood Markets Group


he global softwood lumber market made some gains in 2011, achieving a four percent increase in global consumption following a six percent increase in 2010 after hitting the bottom in 2009. However, the foundation of a recovery appears to be slipping as the European debt crisis emerges, and as the US housing market slump continues without any real direction. Against this background are rebuilding activities in Japan following the devastating earthquake and tsunami, and very strong (albeit slowing) growth in China. The hope for a return to stronger global lumber consumption is being constrained by stalled activity in the major consuming markets of the US and Europe, with weak prospects for growth and an underlying worry about

18 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

an economic recession in Europe (and possibly in the US). These are not the fundamentals required for a healthy lumber market. Now, it is uncertain when a return to more favourable markets can be expected, and it appears that may not occur until later in 2013 or even 2014.

Global Economy Following the recession of 2009, the global economy expanded in 2010 and into the first quarter of 2011, and then slowed abruptly in the second quarter. Major global issues and risks, include rising inflation, higher commodity prices, political uncertainty in the US regarding debt reduction, sovereign debt uncertainty in several countries in the eurozone, and the continued recovery following the March 2011 Japanese

Market Outlook 2012 to drop to a more traditional level of 2–2.5 million units before new construction picks up significantly. • The ‘shadow inventory’ of houses in (or soon to enter) foreclosure is presently estimated at 1.6–1.7 units. • US home prices will need to bottom out so that they can move higher; this will enable homebuyers to regain confidence, and allow house sales to begin moving again. Ken Harper

earthquake and tsunami. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has forecasted global GDP growth of four percent in both 2011 and 2012, but this now seems optimistic. In the US, growth has been slow throughout 2011, although Q3 came in at a surprising 2.1 percent. High levels of unemployment, foreclosures and ‘underwater’ mortgages have continued, and in some instances even intensified. With these multiple headwinds, the US economy is not expected to make a pronounced recovery until 2013. Emerging economies, particularly in Asia, have recovered from the 2009 recession and are showing growth rates much stronger than those of the developed economies. This trend is expected to continue despite the effects of reduced trade with Europe and North America.

North American Demand US housing starts are expected to end the year slightly below the 587,000 units started in 2010 and well below the estimated underlying longer-term demand of 1.5–1.6 million units. It is this prolonged housing slump that has stalled lumber industry recovery. In contrast, Canada's housing market has been relatively stable, dipping in 2009 and recovering most of its lost ground in 2010. It lumber consumption has hence also been healthier. A number of key indicators can be observed for signs that the US housing market may be turning: • Inventories of new and existing homes for sale in the US have slowly crept lower to about 6.5 and 8.5 months’ supply respectively, down from a peak of 10–12 months; this figure needs to retreat even further to a more normal four months’ inventory. • Similarly, the absolute number of unsold US housing units has been stubbornly slow to decline, holding at 3.7 million (both new and existing homes). It will need

• The number of vacant homeowner-occupied and rental housing units is about three million above the historical trend and rising. This number will need to fall sharply before builders are motivated to begin building. • The rate of household formations is now about a third of what it was during the market boom of 2000–2007. This low rate of household formations is at the heart of the slow housing recovery, and it will need to recover to more normal levels (for example, about 1.2 million per year) before the demand for housing normalises. • Improved employment prospects will be key to an improved housing market, as adults currently living ‘doubled up’ will be able to form separate households only when they have real jobs. Hence, a return to more historical levels of unemployment (for example, six to seven percent versus the current nine percent) will signify that a housing market improvement is on the way.


North American Supply

Emerging economies, particularly in Asia, are showing growth rates much stronger than that of the developed economies.

Following the 42 percent decline between 2005 and 2009, US softwood lumber production improved 5.5 percent in 2010 to 24.9 billion board feet and is forecast to grow an additional 5.4 percent in 2011 before accelerating in 2012 and beyond. This should occur more quickly in the South, given both its plentiful timber supply and the abundance of mills that could start up reasonably quickly; this is as opposed to West Coast mills, which are being outbid for logs by Chinese buyers. | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Market Outlook 2012

John Lloyd, Washington, US

Canada’s softwood lumber production will also rebound over the next four to five years until the full impact of the mountain pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia (BC) finally reduces the timber harvest and lumber production. Other timber-supply constraints, including the drop in the annual allowable harvest in Quebec and the pending impact of the mountain pine beetle in the Prairie provinces, will force the lowering of Canadian lumber output in the current decade. Consequently, the market share of Canadian lumber in the US will start to drop slightly over the forecast period, and more dramatically in the second half of the decade. Canadian lumber production is forecast to increase only 1.1 percent in 2011 and 7.3 percent in 2012.

Greece and Italy) continue to sag as a result of the euro debt crisis. Consequently, chronic overcapacity continues to plague the European sawmill sector. Germany seems to be the only stable market, but it is being chased by exporters from all over Europe. Facing increased competition in a stagnant market, European shippers tried to diversify their products to markets other than the US and Japan (which for many years had been the most important export destinations). North Africa and the Middle East have emerged as major export destinations for European shippers over the last few years, with over 9.6 million cubic metres of exports sold in those regions in 2010. However, the political situation in North Africa (Egypt, Libya and Tunisia) has become unstable, negatively impacting exports. In 2011, sawn softwood output in Europe is expected to increase by only one percent over 2010. The outlook is for a small increase (2.5 percent) in European lumber output in 2012.


During the last few years, China has emerged as a huge market for export.

Export opportunities and proactive efforts to process dead, standing, beetle-killed timber (mainly in BC but also in Alberta) have enabled Western Canada to increase its production at a faster rate than Eastern Canada. An arbitration case currently before the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) involves the US government claiming that the BC provincial government underpriced stumpage (the harvesting rights to Crown timber) on large volumes of mountain pine beetle-attacked and killed timber that had been harvested in the province. A final ruling by the LCIA is not anticipated until early in 2012. For the North American market, China’s voracious appetite for logs and lumber has become a new wild card, along with currency and freight rates, and has the potential to influence the supply/demand balance in North America and other global markets in 2012 and beyond.

Europe The overall European wood products market improved in 2011, but many countries (such as Spain, Ireland, and now

20 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

Russia has almost 20 percent of global forest growing stock and is producing some ten percent of the world’s sawnwood products. Due to the uncertainties related to forest law, institutional reform and export-duty policies, foreign investments in sawmilling capacities have been postponed. Consequently, the core of the Russian sawmill industry is still characterized by local single-mill companies using mainly old assets. However, there are at least a dozen modern sawmills that have been built in the last six to eight years by both foreign and Russian investors. Russian lumber production is estimated to be 8.5 percent higher in 2011 than 2010. The bulk of this increase in output is tied to rising Russian exports to China. The recent announcement that Russia will join the World Trade Organization leads the way for more change in Russia. While there is some scepticism that Russia will initiate its acceptance promptly, reportedly the move will eventually lead to lower log export taxes, with quotas in place for parts of the year. A lower log export tax is not good for Russia’s domestic sawmills, as they will have to compete for logs that could be destined to export markets at higher prices (or bearing lower export taxes).

Japan New residential housing starts have steadily eroded in Japan due to demographics and the real estate market, moving from 1.3 million in 2006 to only 788,000 in 2009 (-40 percent). In

Market Outlook 2012 2010, housing starts rebounded to 813,000 units. Now, with the rebuilding from the earthquake/tsunami, housing starts will likely be slightly higher in 2011, and see a healthy increase in 2012 as the rebuilding effort get underway. Japanese imports of lumber have declined steadily — from a peak of 12.6 million cubic metres in 1997 to 5.8 million cubic metres in 2009 (-54 percent), but were higher in 2010 (6.6 million cubic metres), with 2011 expected to be about 10 percent higher.

China During the last several years, China’s softwood log and lumber imports have increased spectacularly, and the list of supplying countries has recorded big changes and huge growth in the years since 2007 (the year of implementation of the Russian log export tax schedule). Currently, Russia remains the largest softwood log supplier to China, but the supply volume has decreased from 21 million cubic metres in 2007 to only 13 million cubic metres in 2010. This gap in log supply has been filled by softwood logs from New Zealand, the US, Canada and Australia. After a few

years of promotion and adaptation (as well as price preference), radiata pine logs from New Zealand, and softwood logs from the US and Canada, have already been accepted in China at a record rate. Meanwhile, softwood lumber imported from Canada has also replaced Russian softwood lumber as the largest supplier to the Chinese market. According to China Customs statistics, total imports reached 9.4 million cubic metres in softwood lumber for 2010, representing an increase of 47.8 percent versus 2009. During the first nine months of 2011, Chinese imports of softwood lumber were up over 50 percent from the same period in 2010. However, an overbuilt housing market, coupled with a credit freeze, have caused a huge buildup in inventories of logs and lumber throughout China, and now backed up on the docks in origin ports. While it will likely take at least three to four months to achieve a balanced inventory position in China, the outlook is still very positive, with consumption levels expected to be 15 percent higher in 2012. FDM

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Market Outlook 2012


Growth Ahead

After a better than expected 2011, growth is expected to continue, but at a more moderate pace in 2012. The development of the secondary manufacturing market in the ASEAN region will hold the key to sustained growth. By Ingo Bette, marketing director, VDMA


ollowing a brisk 2010, the industry succeeded in stabilising its position in 2011, and benefited from strong continued growth through the year. Turnover by German woodworking machinery manufacturers, which increased by an average of 13 percent in 2010, has risen again by at least 14 percent in 2011. Back in spring of last year, VDMA, the German Woodworking Machinery Association, was expecting growth to be in the region of seven percent. The association is currently working on the assumption that turnover will increase by a few percentage points in 2012. Despite the current uncertainty, growth is expected to continue in the year ahead.

Varying Trends In Different Sectors The growth in turnover at companies which supply machinery for primary manufacturing was well above the industry average. Turnover at some companies was up by as much as 50 percent following record order intake during the previous year. In many cases, the current backlog will keep manufacturers running at full capacity for up to a year. The expectations are somewhat more subdued in the sawmill machinery sector. The growing trend towards wood-based materials rather than solid wood may be one reason behind this. Turnover by suppliers that target the secondary manufacturing sector was up significantly in 2010, which naturally raises the yardstick in a year-on-year comparison. Nevertheless, the upward trend particularly in the domestic market and in countries close to the German border is very encouraging.

22 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

Overall, the order intake rate has slowed since summer of 2011. There has been a noticeable increase in customer uncertainty. The high volatility in order intake since the 2008 crisis is one indication of that unease. One good month is followed by a bad one, making it virtually impossible to generate reliable forecasts.

Exports Up By Nearly A Quarter Exports of German woodworking machinery rose by 23 percent in the first three quarters of 2011 to roughly â‚Ź1.4 billion (US$1.88 billion). Nearly all segments reported growth. Turnover performance was particularly strong at companies that directly service the wood-based materials industry. The main stimulus came from South America (+138 percent), Southeast Asia (+71 percent), the rest of Europe including Turkey, Switzerland and Russia (+53 percent) and North America (+45 percent). Only the EU27 (-0.8 percent), which is the most important market, along with less significant regions such as the Middle East (-0.9 percent) and South Asia (-3.4 percent) failed to meet expectations. Suppliers of machinery to the wood-

Market Outlook 2012 based materials industry were the strongest performers in South America and Southeast Asia. Europe including Russia and Turkey is by far the largest export market for German woodworking machinery (57 percent) followed by Asia (27 percent) and America (14 percent). Exports are now evenly split between North and South America (seven percent each). It is interesting to note that 58 percent of all exports now go to emerging markets compared to only 42 percent which go to the industrialised nations and developed markets. This trend has accelerated in recent years. Looking at the country breakdown, China was still by far the largest export market for German woodworking machinery in 2011. At €169 million, it is well ahead of the countries which come second and third in ranking, namely Russia (€120 million) and Turkey (€114 million). The US market was surprisingly bouyant (+42 percent). Whether this is an initial indication that furniture production is being repatriated from Asia, something which the Boston Consulting Group expects to happen starting in 2015, remains to be seen. Demand in Switzerland is also strong. The favourable exchange rate is working to the advantage of German manufacturers. China, Russia and France were the largest export markets for companies which supply machinery for the secondary manufacturing sector that includes the furniture and construction materials industries.

Upswing In Southeast Asia There was a surge in demand for German woodworking machinery from the ASEAN countries during 2011. A number of large projects pushed the volume of exports to the region

above the €100 million mark during the first three quarters, a 71 percent increase. Roughly 80 percent of German exports are destined for the wood-based materials industry. Half of these deliveries went to Thailand (€50 million). Vietnam was next on the list with €41 million euros. In contrast, German exports for the downstream manufacturing industry are down so far this year. It is important to keep in mind however that German manufacturers in this segment service the region primarily from their manufacturing base in China. These deliveries do not appear in German export statistics. The high level of machinery deliveries will not be sustainable in 2012. However, German manufacturers are hoping to increase sales in the secondary manufacturing market. Expansion of panel production capacity should stimulate demand in downstream manufacturing. That is a very realistic possibility, because a sharp increase in costs in the Chinese furniture industry has significantly improved the competitiveness of the ASEAN countries.

Outlook For 2012 The effects which the debt and banking crisis in Europe and North America will have on the industry remain an unknown. These external factors are currently overlaid on normal cyclical demand fluctuations. From today’s vantage point, the overall situation in the industry should remain positive over the coming months. Companies in the project business with its characteristically long execution cycles have an order backlog which will carry them well into next year. It is harder to predict how suppliers of standard machinery will fare. Looking at the geographic breakdown, demand in the German-speaking region should remain robust. Eastern Europe and Russia will also make a contribution to good business performance over the coming year. How the markets will evolve in Western and Southern Europe looks less certain. In addition, signs of a slowdown are already evident in Asia and South America. Growth remains a possibility, albeit at a more moderate rate than in recent years. Many market players are working on the assumption that investment in some segments of the market over the past two years has significantly outstripped demand. The companies are well prepared for the eventuality of a worldwide economic slowdown. They have all learned lessons from 2008 and have adapted their business plans, so that they will be able to react faster to volatility which is part of life in the industry. Overall, 2012 is expected to be a difficult year, but on the whole the industry should continue FDM to make progress. ENQUIRY NO. 1003 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Market Outlook 2012



The year 2011 has been one of mixed performance, members from the Singapore Furniture Industries Council, Ernie Koh, executive director of Richin Furniture, Kenny Koh, MD of Star Funiture, and Phua Boon Huat, manager of HTL International Holdings shared their views with FDM Asia on the importance of the Asian market and the challenges ahead.

Growth Engine 1

How was the market performance for 2011? The global economy for 2011 was a mixed scorecard and it has proven to be a challenging year for the global furniture industry in terms of overall market performance. However, Singapore showed great resilience amid the uncertainty, with nearly all industries witnessing considerable growth. The Singapore furniture industry made significant headway as we grew eight percent from SG$4.69 billion (US$3.6 billion) to SG$5.08 billion, exceeding the global furniture industry growth projection of 5 percent. Today, Singapore commands nearly one percent of the global furniture trade and we are on track to hit our target of 1.5 percent market share by 2015. This is a testament to the foresight amongst industry players to pursue domestic as well as international expansion, leveraging the strength of Singapore’s reputation for quality and sound business practices. Amid the global slowdown, the Singapore Furniture Industries Council (SFIC) carried out business development missions to key markets, such as India and China to create opportunities for Singapore’s furniture industry. These high-growth markets are the engines driving Asia’s economic recovery and will be instrumental in delivering growth opportunities for enterprising furniture companies.

24 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

Kenny Koh


Ernie Koh

Did the results of 2011 match expectations? Singapore’s furniture industry, comprising over 1,700 companies that employ nearly 17,000 workers, demonstrated its adaptability and rallied from the downturn. Despite the rapidly changing market conditions, promising sentiments and results were reported through the various programmes that SFIC had organised throughout the year of 2011. For example, the International Furniture Fair Singapore / 28th ASEAN Furniture Show (IFFS/AFS), Deco Asia 2011 and Hospitality Asia 2011 attracted a total of 20,873 visitors from 112 countries, recording a 20.8 percent increase from the last edition. Spot orders to the tune of US$289 million were transacted at the fair, up from US$270 million last year. Followon sales from the fair are expected to reach US$3.02 billion. Singapore furniture manufacturers have gained their competitive advantages against its neighbouring competitors, with

Phua Boon Huat

commercial presence in more than 16 countries across the globe. The council has also been successful in promoting the formation of industry clusters exemplified by the Singapore Furniture Industry Park in Kunshan, China.

3 How would the current economic situation affect the Asian furniture industry? On the international stage, recent developments have cast a new wave of uncertainty for the global economy, especially with the turn of events unfolding in Europe and the US. As such, it has also inevitably induced pressure to our local players in facing the new challenges that have presented themselves. The current economic situation has weakened global purchasing power, particularly from Europe. Furniture, whose demand is elastic for a nonessential commodity, will be impacted. Furthermore, with the appreciation of the Asian currency, it has strengthened against the US dollar and Euro — the

Market Outlook 2012 two main currencies widely used in the foreign exchange market might dampen the demand for Asian furniture export to the West in the short run. However, with Asia as the main driving engine of growth for the furniture industry, the long-term economic impact on Asia will not be too severely affected.


What are the challenges that Asian furniture manufacturers will likely face in the near future? The set of challenges that lie ahead consist mainly of macro-economic variables such as rising transportation costs and the ever-changing legal and political environment of different target markets. In addition to combating the rising cost of raw materials and higher wages, Asian furniture manufacturers would have to supply furniture at a more affordable price amid weaker global purchasing power without comprising the quality of goods.

set of situational pressure, as the Asian market is starkly different from the West in terms of furniture designs, market sizes and business practices.

5 How should manufacturers prepare themselves for these challenges? Manufacturers are recommended to review their current cost structure and invest both time and money into initiatives that will enhance productivity in their manufacturing processes. These will reap significant positive

creativity and development in order to differentiate themselves from the competitors. In today’s dynamic market conditions, furniture companies should keep abreast with the different social, political and economic markets. High flexibility and adaptability to the market forces will help furniture companies establish an integrative framework to allow room for reaction time.

6 What are the emerging trends in terms of furniture design that will become prominent in 2012? There is an increasing demand towards integrated furniture designs that combine both functionality and visual appeal. Consumers are progressively becoming more receptive towards furniture products with contemporary, clean and simple designs created from eco-friendly materials.


The Asian furniture manufacturers will likely change their market focus from the West (Europe and US) to the emerging markets of Asia like China, Indonesia and Korea as manufacturers are finding it more and more challenging to increase their presence in the West. However, this will also present a different

results when the global economic scene recovers. For example, securing long-term logistics contracts to curb inflationary transportation cost. The Asian furniture market seeks high level of product variety in terms of their design aspects. This would be an opportune time to look into product

What is the forecast for the industry in 2012? 2012 will be a challenging year for the furniture industry where industry players will need to increase their competitiveness in order to remain in the business. Affordable products that are designfocused and innovative will continue to set themselves from the rest of the pack and drive the global demand for FDM such differentiating products. ENQUIRY NO. 1004 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012



Kevin Walsh, Bicester, UK

Coating For Better Endurance

The application of thin coatings on cutting tools can modify their physical and chemical properties, increasing their durability which will in turn reduce the amount of downtime for replacement or repair. By Bogdan Warcholinski and Adam Gilewicz, Koszalin University of Technology


ood is an important raw material used in applications such as construction, furniture, heating, transport and packaging. The huge popularity of wood as a raw material is due to its specific properties and aesthetic qualities. Wood processing plants and furniture manufacturers tend to move towards increasing production, reducing the time per unit of product and improving the quality of manufactured items to lower the unit cost of production. Rising energy prices and increasing environmental requirements have inspire companies to invest in modern systems for woodworking, invent devices to evaluate the quality of wood, and design new processing technologies and tools. Manufacturers of wood products need to tailor the type of tools and machining parameters to a workpiece. Species

26 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

of hardwood, such as oak, ash, hornbeam, ebony and pink lapacho, require completely different tools to softwood species, such as spruce, pine, larch. The structure and chemical composition of wood species, including quantity of minerals and resin significantly affect this choice. One of the factors determining the cost and product quality is the selection of tools that are relevant to the type and processing parameters of the material. Downtime associated with tool replacement generates losses — longer tool life will lower production costs. Searching for stable and relatively cheap tools is therefore extremely important. Wood is a hygroscopic material and heterogeneous in terms of mechanical and chemical properties, this places high demands on the tools used for processing. The high


Technologies To Improve Wear Resistance The development of tool material is towards a combination of high hardness and high toughness, and the improvement of their mechanical, tribological and thermophysical properties. These will increase the durability of the cutting tools. There are two main groups of technologies that can be used to improve the wear resistance of tools. The first includes methods for improving the tool’s mechanical properties, such as heat or thermo-chemical treatment. Heat treatment can give tools the desired mechanical, physical

and chemical properties by changing the structure, while thermo-chemical treatment can enrich a target element, such as carbon, nitrogen, aluminium, chromium or silicon, or a combination of elements in the surface layer of the alloy. The aim of these treatments is to give the surface layer specific physical properties, mainly resistance to abrasion, and chemical properties, such as resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. The quality of the tool is improved by applying heat treatment to obtain the desired hardness of the blade, the appropriate fine-grained structure of steel and toughness. Thermo-chemical treatment, especially nitriding, has a beneficial effect on the performance characteristics of tools. Studies have indicated an increase in wear resistance of nitrided tools for woodworking. Depending on the type of technology used, this increase can be as high as 100 percent. The second group of technologies includes working surface modification techniques through the application of coatings with special properties. Among these coating methods are chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD).


cutting speed, feed rate and dry environment without the use of cutting oils like in metalworking favour the formation of high temperature on the edge of the tool. Modification of the tool may include a number of areas: - modification of tool material (such as heat or thermochemical treatment), - modification of tool geometry, - modification of working surfaces of the tool (for example, wear resistant thin film). | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Focus Chemical Vapour Deposition CVD allows deposition of coatings through gaseous chemical reactions. Coating deposition process occurs at atmospheric pressure or slightly lower and at a high temperature of 7001100 deg C. The advantage of this method is the possibility of coating deposition with a thickness of tens of micrometres that is well adhered to the substrate. The need for the disposal of residues from the working atmosphere and the high temperature requirement, often much higher than the tempering temperature of the steel substrates, are some disadvantages that limit the adoption of this technique.

Physical Vapour Deposition PVD allows the deposition of coatings in gaseous state through physical reactions. Application of coating takes place at relatively low temperatures of 100-400 deg C in vacuum environment. The nature of the substrate-coating combination is purely adhesive and largely depends on the purity of the substrate surface. PVD coatings increase resistance to abrasion tool and for cutting tools, result in better drainage chip, protection against oxidation on tool surface, formation of a thermal barrier to limit the growths on the knife’s edge and reduction of friction. The use of PVD coatings on the surfaces of working tools increases its durability and reduces associated downtime for replacement. Increase in cutting speed is an additional benefit of this method.

Tools are designed to perform within a specific range of feed speeds. These parameters themselves cannot be changed. The only way to enhance the performance of a tool is to modify the processing technology and treatment to accommodate the operational capabilities of modern machines. The temperature on a knife’s edge at high-speed cutting often exceeds 700 deg C. Study conducted by Rech on the flow of heat from coatings to titanium tools and research by Kusiak on chromium nitrate coatings on woodworking tools have shown a reduction in total heat flux transferred. The use of coatings may therefore be possible to increase both the feed speed and tool life.

Thin Coatings For Woodworking Tools Coated tools are not commonly used in the woodworking and furniture industry. In recent years, there has been significant progress in material technology for the modification of tools used to process wood and wood-based products. This includes the deposition of thin layers of carbide, oxide or nitride of titanium, chromium or aluminium, both as single-

Reasons For Thin Coatings Among the many factors, the most important motivations for the use of thin hard coatings on tools are technological and economically driven. Extension of durability reduces downtime necessary for changing or replacing tools and lowers the possibility of errors by the operator. The aim of applying coatings on tools is to reduce friction, extend durability, lower energy consumption, and improve the quality of the machined surface. Reduced cutting forces lower a tool’s temperature during processing and directly increase its durability. Improper tools or machining parameters lead to premature and irreversible destruction of the tools, as well as inadequate workpiece surface quality. Cutting properties of tools are improved to increase productivity over a diverse range of workpiece materials. In the case of machining, productivity is a measure of the cutting speed and feed rate adopted to achieve a certain quality of the products. The development of machine tool design enables the achievement of high feed speed for the machining of wood materials.

28 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

Comparison of abrasion after machining pinewood for about 77 km.

Focus layer and multilayer coatings on the working surface of steel and cemented carbide tools. At the moment, the possibility of using polycrystalline diamond coatings and diamond-like carbon are being explored. Under Poland’s Innovative Economy Operational Programme, approved by the European Commission, research on ‘hybrid technologies for woodworking tool modification’ is currently being conducted. The aim of this project is to develop surface treatment technology of high speed steel woodworking tools that is superior over unmodified tools, with similar durability to unmodified carbide tools at lower market prices. There are four parts to the project, three of which involves the design and formulation of coatings using titanium, chromium and carbon as the main ingredient. The fourth component is on the ionic nitriding of tools for woodworking. So far, coatings based on chromium demonstrate good functional properties. They are characterised by high adhesion to the substrate and relatively low surface roughness, depending on the parameters of the deposition process. Adhesion, hardness and wear rate of coatings increase as

their structure change from monolayer to multilayer. Carbon addition to chromium nitride coatings causes reduction of friction forces and lower coefficient of friction and wear rate. Coatings, in addition to improving tool life, also show a beneficial effect on the quality of the machined wood surface. Application of coatings on tools can reduce a workpiece’s surface roughness. Benefits of the application of hard protective coatings are apparent both from the tool and machined material surface point of view: - improves tool life by several times — reduction of production costs associated with new tools and servicing old ones, - reduces energy consumption, - reduces carbon dioxide emission, - improves of the quality of machined surface, - increases the parameters of machining, - enhances the capability of machining without cutting FDM fluid or with a minimum amount of coolant. ENQUIRY NO. 1101



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Extreme Durability With Boron Nitride


n the furniture industry, wood and wood-based materials are the most important elements because of the quantity being used and the increasing demand on the quality of final products. A relative soft material like particleboard can cause extensive wear of tools due to the high strength of cellulose fibres and more importantly, the crystalline structure of resins, which typically contain urea-formaldehyde. The wearing of tools may become more severe if the particleboard has been contaminated with minerals or contains increased resin load to

30 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

compensate for the poor quality of chips used and accommodate the more stringent restrictions on formaldehyde emission. Another problem is the high temperature at the cutting edge, especially when cooling is impossible. While in operation, the temperature of a tool can reach over 800 deg C. These factors motivate the constant development of tools to meet growing demands from new machine materials. Limited tool life can induce losses, due to servicing, replacement and unexpected downtime. In order to

John Loo, Sunnyvale, US

High speed cutting in the absence of cooling agent places considerable strain on a cutting tool’s wear life. Boron nitride composite can offer enhanced durability with the versatility of achieving low tool angles required for efficient cutting of different wood species. By Marcin Zbiec, Warsaw University of Life Sciences

reduce such losses, machining of particleboards is now performed almost exclusively with polycrystalline diamond tools. For high quality cut in wood and wood-based materials, tools must be extremely sharp, with edge radius of not exceeding five micrometres.

Tool Angle Requirement In addition, the rake angle must be relatively high, resulting in low tool angle not exceeding 55 deg. Harder tool materials though, would require higher tool angles to prevent cutting edge cracking. They are usually made

Focus Si in the milling of chipboard. However, this type of composite did not display significant Si3N4 improvement over standard SiC tungsten carbide tools. Later tests, performed in the nineties with mixed composites C3N4 _ N of aluminium oxide with titanium BN carbide and aluminium oxide with silicon carbide showed C (diamond) significant gain of up to 70 B BCN_ times over classic tungsten B4C carbide tools. With high tool Tetrahedron of superhard material setups. angle of 70 deg, they are not entirely suitable for wood machining. composites consist of boron-carbonnitrogen-aluminium-silicon, boron-carbonnitrogen-silicon and boron-nitrogenTesting On Superhard silicon combinations, based on regular Materials boron nitride with titanium aluminium In recent years, a few types of superhard carbide, silicon carbide and silicon materials (Vickers hardness exceeding nitride as binders. 20 GPa) were investigated. Test


with a tool angle of 65-95 deg, which is far from optimal. With these facts in mind, more work will need to be done in this field, especially with wood-based materials causing unusually high wear rates and the lack of tools with low tool angle that are capable of machining them. One of the hardest cutting materials is ceramic with covalence of covalenceionic bond. The significance is that tools made of this material are capable of machining at high speeds that far exceed the speeds of metal cutting. Ceramic tools have been tested in wood applications since the late seventies. Tests with cermetal based on aluminium oxide proved unfruitful. In the late eighties, some reasonable results were obtained with a mixture of aluminium oxide and titanium carbon | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Stephanie Watson, Brighton, UK


Sample composite before and after grinding.

After unsuccessful initial trials with some of these materials, the most promising setup of cubic boron nitride with silicon nitride composite was highlighted for further study. Over 80 samples were made and they were pressed into the form of classic cutter blanks and fitted into regular cutterheads after grinding and adaptation. For comparison purposes, both cubic boron nitride-silicon nitride and hardmetal tools were sharpened to achieve a tool angle of 60 deg, which would be suitable for the machining of harder wood composites. The manufactured tools were tested for wear through simple milling of chipboards (regular edging). Special single layer chipboards with more precise parameters were made for the testing to avoid potential problems in structural variables and possible contamination of market boards. Both the hardmetal and the boron nitride based tools demonstrated exceptional wear resistance against the boards. After two km of milling, tested composites displayed no visible signs of

32 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

wear. In order to obtain quantitative data for analysis, the chipboards with ureaformaldehyde resin were contaminated with four percent electrocorundum. This helped to speed up the wear process and simulate extreme mineral contamination.

Cutting Edge Recession Observation Whole wear testing was performed on a specially customised stand built on

a tenoner with force, temperature and power consumption sensors installed. One of the easiest tool wear degree determination methods is through the simple measurement of the linear cutting edge recession in the plane perpendicular to the cutting plane. This measurement is performed using optical tool microscope. In industrial practice, it is assumed that for hard to machine materials, tool replacement should occur when cutting edge recession reaches 50 micrometres. During the measurement, two levels of cutting edge were compared, in worn and unused (sharp) areas.

Aluminium oxide particles to be mixed into chipboard's binders.

Focus Test results show almost no difference in force, temperature and power consumption both between the proposed composite and regular hardmetal tools, and between two tested machined materials. The differences were in fact marginally when compared to typical machine construction redundancy or thermal and mechanical properties of tools and machined materials.

Extreme Durability Durability tests, on the other hand, show completely different results. The durability of the tools is almost incomparable. In terms of tool wear ratio corresponding to running board length or cutting distance, the tool wear of the hardmetal and boron nitride composite tools were essentially stable, ranging from the initial 169 to 221 times at intermediate

Structure of proposed cubic boron nitride-silicon nitride composite.

41 micrometres edge recession before reaching a finally ratio of 202. These figures suggest that the changing or sharpening of machine tools need not be performed on a daily basis, but only twice a year.

The most important advantage of cubic boron nitride-silicon nitride composite based cutters is the preservation of low tool angles. This makes it a suitable material for making tools catered to different wood materials, such as softwoods, which require a lower optimal tool angle of 45 deg. The result is an ultimate woodworking tool that is versatile and extremely durable. So far, experimental results have looked promising, with good durability and machining parameters. More work and research in areas such as manufacturing process and chemical treatment will need to be done before such cutting tools can be put into production. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1102



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VeneerEverlasting Beauty Veneer offers flexibility in design with its ability to be pressed onto flat and uneven surfaces. In addition, it is a good environmental choice, saving on materials by making products look like they are made of solid wood or rare wood species. By Shiv Kumar Shet, assistant general manager, Woodtech Consultants


ood veneer is a very thin sheet of wood of less than three mm in thickness, which when glued or pressed onto the base panel, can give an excellent appearance. Thin veneer sheet is normally removed from a log that has been loaded onto a lathe. Special tools will peel off the thin layer which has been carefully process-altered. These layers are then applied on less expensive wood-based panels like plywood boards, particleboards and medium density fibreboard, which can be used to manufacture flooring, kitchen cabinets, parquetry or marquetry. The usage is unlimited and depending on the requirements, veneers are chosen. Normally logs from trees like birch, maple, oak and cherry can be used to make veneers. Some rare species like the Brazilian rosewood and the eucalyptus are used as well.

Production Prior to the extraction of veneers, the following procedures are executed to achieve the best possible results in the final

34 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

product. The production of wood veneers can be observed as follows:

• Preparation Logs are carefully selected as per batch requirement, cut into required lengths and debarked, before being stocked up for the next process.

• Soaking The wood logs, or the flitch as they are often called, are then soaked in hot water or are subjected to steaming in a huge steam container. This process is also called the cooking process. It enables the softening of the wood fibres within the logs and allows stronger bonds to be formed among them to facilitate slicing. This is a critical process and care must be taken to enable a continuous cut of long sheets of veneer, which is only possible when procedures are followed properly during the soaking and steaming processes. Since veneer is very thin

Jacques, Cape Town, South Africa

Focus (approximately 1.8 mm), the wooden logs have to be neatly cut and trimmed at the edges to achieve bigger sheets.

• Cutting/Slicing The logs are loaded on to the veneer machine or a lathe, which holds them on both ends and spins. A long flat blade is attached onto the tool and when in contact with the logs, produces a thin veneer peel off the logs. The resulting sheets are carefully removed and stored by stacking them one over another. At this point, the veneer is in a wet state.

• Drying The stacked veneers are then put onto a drying unit, more likely a hot press. The sheets are loaded on to the platens and pressed between two hot platens to dry them up. At the same time, this will keep them flat and stretched. The sheets of veneer are then treated with different agents, such as stains and sealants, as required. When many layers of veneer are glued over one another, a plyboard is produced.

• Grading/Sizing/Clipping Most veneers undergo the clipping process where the edges are straightened, defects are sorted out and the pieces stacked into piles of 10, 16, 32, etc.


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Logs are held at both ends while a long flat blade peels thin veneer off.

In earlier days, defects were manually or visually sorted out and those that do not pass the quality assessment will be pulled out to be reprocessed or scrapped. Technology has since taken over this process and an electronic measuring machine or gadget is commonly used to automatically sort out different grades with the resulting data being fed into a computer.

Types Of Veneers Veneers can generally be classified into three types: shop– sawn, raw wood veneers and backed veneers. These are the most commonly used variations for furniture or other applications.

sheet is backed with phenolic or paper. These are sometimes used in special or industrial applications. For furniture product, paper backed veneers are the conventional choice as they offer the flexibility to achieve different thickness requirements. Paper backed veneers are typically found in 4’ x 8’ sheets. If a much bigger spread is required, individual sheets are placed side by side to achieve the required dimensions.

Unique Selling Points

They are usually removed from logs with simple band saws and are thicker than mill-sawn veneers.

The art of veneering was introduced to the market due to its various advantages over solid lumber. The beauty of veneer cannot be overlooked and by using the right set of tools, veneer can give exotic looks to cabinets and other furniture that will mesmerise consumers. Veneer has some distinctive advantages compared to other similar layering materials. Some of them are as follows:

• Raw Wood Veneers

• Practicality

These are normally removed from rare species or wood flitch and is the most common and widely used veneer. They can be easily applied onto boards with cold glue, clamping methods or a vacuum press on flat or profiled surfaces.

When working on curved profiles in furniture, veneers can be an excellent choice for layering due to its ability to be pressed or glued onto different shapes and sizes. Sometimes, veneers can be indispensible for particular projects and offers unlimited options for usage.

• Shop Sawn Veneers

• Backed Veneers These are not commonly used but have an advantage of being available in fairly large and convenient shapes and sizes. They are called backed veneers because the veneer

36 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

• Stability Some woods that feature aesthetic grain structures are prone to warping and react to heat and other processes involved in

Pedro Ribeiro Simões, Lisboa, Portugal

Focus • Availability Some rare wood species are difficult to find, making it expensive to make furniture out of these materials. By slicing a wood log into veneer, the size of the ‘face’ material can be increased by over 4000 percent. With veneer, more furniture can be made to look like they are produced with rare wood species. In addition, considering global warming issues, veneers can be an excellent choice to have furniture resemble solid wood products when in actual fact engineered panels are used instead. This will reduce the number of trees used.

• Aesthetics Veneer can be applied to curved surfaces for aesthetic effects.

the layup procedures. When they are sliced off into veneer sheets, wood grain movement is controlled by the substrate or glue, making them more workable. Some of the most unfriendly wood burls can be converted into thin or thick veneer sheets to produce stunning furniture pieces.

Veneer sheets can be used in combination side by side to create a kaleidoscopic effect. This allows the imprint of different patterns or a succession of symmetrical patterns according to the imagination of the designer. The flexibility in design not only has the potential of increasing sales, but also gives consumers more options to choose from. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1103

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n recent years the woodworking industry has become dependent on industrial automation solutions, given the growing demands to produce at high standards of quality and quantity. The use of robots and intelligent software in sensor-controlled surroundings is now a common sight in many woodworking factories, perhaps making them no different from other industries such as metalworking and supply chain logistics. Nevertheless, these solutions still require a certain amount of customisation before they can be fully functional in a woodworking environment. Most automation solutions cover the entire process associated with

the manufacture of wood products, from logging to palletting, storage and shipping. These solutions range from mobile hydraulic systems to three-axis or five-axis machining centres to industrial PCs, I/O and fieldbus components. The entire system is devised to allow wood product manufacturers to meet market requirements in offering highly flexible product ranges with maximum throughput. A quick glance at today’s sawmill technology illustrates how pervasive the use of automation solutions in woodworking is. To speedily turn fallen trees into manufacture-ready timber, sawmills use programmable logic

controllers (PLCs) for log merchandising and sorting. Cutting equipment, board edgers and optimised profilers are also controlled via PLCs.

Lowers Cost In The Long Run Perhaps no reason for the implementation of industrial automation solutions is more attractive than the lowering of manufacturing cost in the long term. This is especially the case in repetitive tasks such as drilling, which have traditionally been performed by factory workers along the production line. For instance, the use of automatic drilling machines lessens the manpower

Automated Wood

Jordanhill School D&T Dept

The marriage of automation solutions and woodworking processes is nothing new. Nevertheless, there is room for more possibilities. By Shahnawaz Abdul Hamid

38 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

needed in creating single dowel holes or lines of holes when working on individual wood panels, effectively reducing a company’s wage burden. In addition, the higher work performance of these automatic drilling machines, in terms of hole positioning accuracy and manufacturing speed, make them a more plausible solution in meeting customers’ needs. Apart from automatic drilling machines, automatic profiling and window machines can also be used to lower manpower costs. These machines are typically employed to manufacture the various components that go into making a wooden window: frames, sash bars and glazing bars. These automatic machines also result in greater uniformity in the final product, making for tighter quality control.

Luciano Burtini, Canada


Automation solutions in woodworking cover the entire process, right from logging.

Such woodworking machines require an industrial PC-based control system to be effectively integrated into the factory’s operations. The intelligent

computer network available today helps to monitor and minimise any waste during the manufacturing process, while checking its own energy efficiency. This

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Nick Hubbard

Technology process of checking and rectification will become crucial, as the manufacturing sector attempts to improve its carbon footprint and put into place solutions for waste management. This is especially pertinent in woodworking, which uses most of its raw materials from already dwindling forest sources.

Glued Boards, Roof Trusses Made Faster

40 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

The AutoEyeTruss system determines the type of butt joint in the truss, allowing it to accurately position the nail plate.

replaced time-consuming manual work. Instead of having several workers perform a series of tasks: positioning the clamping devices, laying out the timbers, positioning and fixing the nail plates and stacking the finished roof trusses; the AutoEyeTruss system does just about everything automatically. Joel-Lillaby, Sweden

Besides the lower labour cost, another plus point for the use of automation is the speed at which production can be achieved, keeping woodworking relevant in a world where time-tomanufacture is an important industry parameter. No longer do wood product manufacturers have to contend with the apparent lack of technology available to help them perform their jobs quicker and better. Two woodworking case studies illustrate the considerable ease that ensues as a result of the innovative use of automation: the production of glued boards and roof trusses. With a continuous press line that glues, presses and cuts boards for the furniture industry, automation companies such as Obel-P automation have managed to produce glued boards at a speed of seven metres per minute. Furthermore, the company feeds wood bars of different widths, in the process ensuring the efficient use of wood raw material and preventing machining too close to the glued joint when cutting the finished boards to size. An EtherCAT network connects the PC to the control cabinets and the individual components throughout the process. This allows for speedy communication between decentralised control cabinets and the central controller, making the pressing line three times faster compared to conventional PLCs. For the manufacture of roof trusses, Swedish company Randek AB employs a fully-automated process that has

The entire process only requires manual handling at the beginning when two operators lay out the building timber on the machine. The timber is then placed against stop pucks on a puck table. Its joints are automatically fixed with corrugated nails using a nailing bridge. In addition, the timber is marked with production data by an ink-jet printer. The following stage sees the roof truss transported to the press which picks the appropriate nail plates from the correct container and feeds them to the press. The press also determines the type of butt joint in the roof truss design, allowing it to accurately position the nail plate. The pressing force adapts automatically to the plate’s size and timber’s thickness, improving on the final result. The butt joints that are fixed with nail plates to the roof truss are then transported to quality control for inspections before being automatically stacked and loaded for shipping. The AutoEyeTruss system is controlled via CAD software, with CAD files containing all the data for the roof truss being produced. This allows for greater flexibility with regards to designs and a shorter set-up time. A production unit requires approximately half a minute to adjust the clamping table as the stop pucks move into position automatically, much improved over the time taken during manual production.

A Robotic Future

Robots in woodworking promise to make light work of many previously difficult manual tasks.

Given that automation solutions are well and truly a common sight in the woodworking industry, the examples cited so far are but the tip of the iceberg. Even robots, once solely found in ‘expensive’ sectors such as aviation and automotive, are now being put to work in the woodworking industry, in materials handling, packing and palletting, painting and coating, and sanding, polishing and finishing.

Contrary to what most people may think, these robots have been programmed to be extremely delicate when handling products. This is important in woodworking, given the lower compressive strength of most timber. Given this, it is natural that most robots are experienced in handling and packing of wood panels, handling flat pack furniture, doors and door frames, window frames, flooring and other wooden construction materials. Painting and coating wood panels using manual labour is not an easy process, and has often resulted in uneven coats. Using robots to apply paints and coats can result in greater coat thickness uniformity, while reducing overspray, which leads to higher material consumption. Even sanding and polishing are woodworking processes that can be achieved by robots, with accompanying

Robert Linder, US

Technology software to help robot arms adapt to the various surfaces and consistency of wood. As with the previous case studies, the use of robots reduces the need for skilled labour, allowing factories to work round-the-clock and accrue greater savings over time. The ability to take on jobs in dusty, hot and hazardous environments also indicates that workplace health and safety can be improved dramatically. The use of automation in woodworking, while not new, has plenty of potential. In fact, it may be just what the industry needs to remain competitive and relevant, in a manufacturing world fraught with FDM all kinds of challenges.

With the use of automation, woodworking factories like this will soon be but a distant memory.


The Altendorf WA 8:

The benchmark for quality.

Altendorf WA 8 NT with non-tilting saw unit and manual rise/fall adjustment of the main saw blade.

Altendorf WA 8 TE with motorised rise/fall and tilt adjustment of the main saw blade.

Since Altendorf was established in 1906, the company has repeatedly set new standards. Now you can experience this for yourself with the Altendorf WA 8. It makes light work of everything from simple but precise squaring cuts through to complex angles, and is ergonomical and easy to use. With a level of quality all its own, the WA 8 lives up to the promise of the international market leader.

Altendorf WA 8 X with motorised rise/fall and tilt adjustment of the main saw blade and motorised adjustment of the rip fence.

F E AT U R E S Sliding table length 2,000, 2,600, 3,000 or 3,200 mm Cutting width 1,000 or 1,300 mm Cutting height max. 100, 125 mm


Altendorf WA 8 T with manual rise/fall and tilt adjustment of the main saw blade.

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10.02.11 10:17 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012



The Future Of Jessica Sheridan, New York, US

OSB Panels

High linear expansion and thickness swell limits the application of oriented strand board (OSB) panels despite their huge potential. Developments in production technology and treatment are hoping to change that. By Zeki Candan and Turgay Akbulut, Istanbul University


riented strand board (OSB) panels are an engineered, mat-formed panel products made of wood strands, flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter, round wood logs and bonded with an exterior-type resin under heat and pressure. OSB panels consist of layered mats. Exterior or surface layers are composed of strands aligned in the longitudinal panel direction; inner-layers consist of crossly or randomly aligned strands. The panels can be manufactured from a wide range of fast-growing species and from relatively small trees. The production process utilises a maximum amount of wood fibre from each tree that is harvested, and because the process is highly automated, the yield of finished product is very high. The panels are structural wood composites used as an alternative to plywood panels in building construction. They can be used in packing, flooring, underlayment, roofing, and sheathing. When compared to plywood, OSB has a major

42 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

limitation — high linear expansion and thickness swell. With respect to strength, OSB panels have lower strength values than plywood panels. Studies have been conducted to enhance OSB’s physical, mechanical, thermal, fire performance, and biological durability properties.

Impact Of Declining Housing Start Structural panel producers in North America had their lowest production capacity utilisation in twenty-twenty five years. It was 66 percent in plywood industry and 53 percent in OSB industry. Housing sector in United States of America continued its decline in 2009. Housing value was 987,000 in 2008, whereas the value was 604,000 in 2009. Canadian housing industry declined about 30 percent in 2009. Reduction in the housing had a significant effect on the structural wood composite panels market. Effect of the sharp decline in new housing construction starts is more obvious when considering OSB panels and

Panels plywood panels individually. European OSB consumption decreased in the beginning of the global economic crisis in 2007. Domestic production and consumption of OSB were at extraordinary lower levels in 2008. European OSB production increased in 2009. Production of 13 European OSB mills increased to 4.1 million cubic metres during 2009 from 3.7 million cubic metres in 2008. Russia imported 197.000 cubic metres OSB panels in 2009. This value is two-third of the value recorded in 2008. Due to global economic crisis, house construction decreased in 2009 so OSB panel consumption decreased as well. Raw material prices and availability for wood composite panels industry were conversely affected by the biofuel industry both in North America and Europe. California, US, has an accepted formaldehyde emission standard for wood based panels limits emission at 0.09 ppm. This is the toughest formaldehyde emission standard in the world. Plywood panel production is projected to increase from 71 million cubic metres in 2010 to 84 million cubic metres in 2015, and OSB from 18 million cubic metres to 28 million cubic metres respectively. By 2015, North Asia will be producing 54 percent of the world’s plywood panels, down marginally from 56 percent in 2010, and North America will be producing 77 percent of the OSB panels. Structural wood-based composites which are OSB, plywood, oriented strand lumber (OSL), and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) have been slowly replacing the use of solid wood in many structural applications Studies have indicated that OSB panels could be subjected to rain and other water resources and this leads to swelling in thickness direction throughout the construction of the houses. Swelling increases the surface roughness of panels and could cause misalignment of flooring products in thickness directions.

Performance Properties


Plywood and OSB panels have similar properties in consideration of decreasing the dimensional stability and anisotropy of the wood, but raw material, manufacturing process and mechanical properties are varied. One of the unfavourable performance properties of OSB panels compared to plywood is lower dimensional stability. To enhance this property, it is necessary to decrease the water adsorption of the wood material and release the stress imposed during the hot-pressing process. Some studies have evaluated a method which can do this in a single step: thermal treatment after the consolidation of the panel. Thermal modification is one important technique to enhance dimensional stability of wood and wood-based composites. Surface wettability characteristics of wood-based composite panels are important properties. Thermal modification affects | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012



Research On Enhancement Processes

Joe Cheng, Washington, US

Wood-based composite panel manufacturers could benefit from the extraction of hemicellulose from the raw materials. OSB manufacturers have also potential advantages for bioethanol production because they already use wood strands. Studies have been performed to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of polymethylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) bonded OSB panels made from hot water extracted red maple wood strands. The influences of hot water extraction on physical and chemical properties of OSB wood strands have also been studied.

Thermal modification can affect surface wettability of OSB panels.

Hemicelluloses extraction process and resin type can affect the dimensional stability of oriented strand composites. It was discovered that hot water extraction process could be effectively used to produce aspen oriented strand composites bonded with phenol formaldehyde or pMDI resin with enhanced dimensional stability. OSB panels can also be post-thermal treated to enhance their mechanical properties. Treated panels demonstrate higher mechanical values compared to untreated boards, except for modulus of elasticity (MOE) in parallel axis. On the other hand, the treatment slightly decreased the MOE and stress at proportional limit, both in perpendicular axis. However, the treatment improved dimensional stability. It was stated that dimensional stability of the treated OSB

44 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

was improved at the lower resin level but could not reach the maximum value required by the Canadian Standard. Biological test results showed that post-thermal treated OSB panels exposed to pycnoporus sanguineus reduced mass loss from 39 to 50 percent while for gloeophyllum trabeum the reduction was from 40 to 49 percent. It was recommended that a temperature of 190 deg C and time of 720 second should be used to improve dimensional stability and biological resistance of OSB panels without causing a significant reduction in the mechanical performance.

Ryo Chijiiwa, California, US

surface wettability. There is an intimate relationship between surface roughness and surface wettability. Studies on the influences of thermal modification on surface wettability and surface roughness of OSB panels have shown that the thermal modification improved the surface roughness of the treated OSB panels compared with the control panels. It was also indicated that the modified panels had higher contact angle than those of the control panels and the modification resulted in a poorer wettability property.

FRT Veneers & Lignin Resin In order to examine the dimensional stability performance of OSB panels faced with fire retardant treated (FRT) veneers, beech veneer sheets were treated with monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), lime water (LW), and a borax/ boric acid (BX/BA). It was stated that facing veneers impregnated with the chemicals had significant effects on the linear expansion (LE) properties of the OSB panels. It was found that the lowest LE value was obtained from the panels faced with MAP treated veneers, while the highest LE value was acquired in the panels faced with BX/BA treated veneers. Thickness swell (TS) values of the composites were affected by the impregnation process of the veneer sheets. It was also concluded that the panels faced with LW treated veneers had the highest TS values, while the panels faced with MAP treated veneers had the lowest TS. Lignol Energy of Canada developed a lignin-based hybrid resin system, a deviation from its existing products, that can be used in the manufacturing of OSB panels. FPInnovations, a forest products research institute, conducted trials of this resin which contains renewable components blended with pMDI. It was reported that OSB panels containing the resin are able to meet or exceed the Canadian and US standards. The hybrid lignin resin is a technological breakthrough that offers OSB panels manufacturers a novel resin from renewable material content for the core layer of OSB. It was also stated that this resin is low cost, environmentally friendly and high FDM performance. ENQUIRY NO. 1301

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Surfaces & Flooring

Between Wood & Stone:

2012 Laminate Flooring Trends The year 2012 will see bold flooring designs with complexity in texture made possible with novel surface treatment technologies such as Embossed In Register and digital printing. By Karin Dullweber, the Association of European Producers of Laminate Flooring

46 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |


ine is a pale wood — or so we thought. Nowadays, it can be found in medium shades of brown with subtle white effects. Elm is an expressive wood in dark beige tones, but these days, it can be found in darker tones with reddish brown effects. Laminate flooring in 2012 will reflect a never-seen-before variety of extreme surface finishing styles that allows the creation of the most unique designs. They all have in common an absolute authenticity of haptics and colour effects, which often makes the flooring appears more interesting and lifelike than the actual wood they were modelled after.

Surfaces & Flooring Unlimited Possibility With Wood This is in no way limited to wooden decors, but is applicable to stone designs as well. The development is made possible by novel surface treatment techniques such as Embossed In Register. Coloured, bleached, etched, whitewashed, oiled or waxed — there is a large range of possibilities to décor variations. The goal is to give surfaces that little something extra and in the process, increase the quality of the decor and laminate flooring. Against this backdrop, stone decors, which have been far less popular than wooden ones in the past, are set to receive a lot of attention in 2012. Slate, marble or granite — they all stand out due to their natural designs and expressive textures, which create exquisite designs on the floor. Textured surfaces are also a key term for wood. Along with the all-rounder, oak, softwoods, such as pine, lark and elm, in particular, will be in the limelight in with altered colours and modified designs. The design extremes are also applied to formats. Countryhouse plank, with or without a V-joint, remains fashionable, however, long and narrow planks are gaining popularity as well. The trend is moving toward decors with a consistent pattern direction, which creates a particularly homogenous and elegant appearance on the floor. Three-strip planks are

also regaining popularity, but reflect a completely different perspective than before.

Matte Or High Gloss? As for tile designs, large and rectangular formats are preferred, which create a spacious effect in larger areas. The new surfaces do not only polarise in terms of format, but also in their degree of glossiness. Completely matte or high gloss is the current topic of interest. Elm wood with modified colours, in a matte oiled design may become the trendsetter of the year. Does it have what it takes to replace oak? Metal and textile decors are another area that will set the pace for design trends of the year ahead. They come in large square or rectangular tile formats that are perfectly suited for places such as loft apartments or offices. Full advantage of the versatility of metal designs is taken with zinc, chrome and copper tones with partially artificial wear effects. Textile decors are shown in many different grey tones, which are particularly striking in combination with white furniture. The popular black and white theme of the interior design world remains current. Other creative decors impress with geometric or floral designs in strong pink, neon green, blue, black and white. All these complexity in design are made possible by modern digital printing technology. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1401 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Surfaces & Flooring

Creating An

Even Surface I

Peter Alfred Hess, US

n recent years, due to pressure from ever-increasing cost, particleboard and fibreboard research has focused on developments in areas such as raw material efficiency, minimising densities, minimising binder content and maximising productivity. These are particularly important with today’s increased international competition. In the analysis of the cost structure of a wood-based panel in the decorative sector, the associated costs relating to the manufacturing and application of a decorative surface should not be underestimated. There are ongoing efforts to reduce paper weight and resination of decorative surfaces to lower overall cost. Besides the optimisation of coating paper in short-cycle presses, direct printing with lacquer and digital printing technologies have also been introduced. Direct printing is a popular choice for large-scale mass production, especially in the high-density

48 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

The lack of quality wood raw materials means that a lot of money is spent on surface processing before coating. Prepress additives can save cost by providing an even panel surface without additional treatment. By Klaus Meinert, manager of technology, research and development, Brav-O-Tech

Sarah Ackerman, San Francisco, US

Surfaces & Flooring Parameters That Affects Quality There are some technological challenges that must be met in order to make cheap and good decorative panels. Although it is difficult to achieve the desired implementation during daily operations, these parameters should be kept in mind nevertheless:

1. Mix Of Wood Species Mix of wood species can be useful, but should be as uniform as possible.

fibreboard and flooring sectors, while digital printing is becoming fast realised as a design option for small and medium enterprises. All these developments share a common motivation — the desire to satisfy the growing demands on surface quality of wood-based panels by producing high quality and technically perfect decorative surfaces.

2. Proportion Of Recycled Wood The proportion of recycled wood should not be too big, with the allowable ratio depending on the type of panel (particleboard/ medium-density fibreboard/high-density fibreboard). Other important parameters include the quality of raw materials and the technology used for cleaning before chipping or refining.

3. Cleaning/Screening Of The Raw Material This is important for all variations of raw materials. In praxis, there are often problems with mineral compounds in the


Direct printing is becoming a popular choice and is applicable to the flooring sector. | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Surfaces & Flooring the proportion of the surface layer and the sanding allowance, enabling huge cost savings.

surface material. This is often the biggest influence when processing the panels with tools. Sanding quality can be compromised if the content of mineral compounds in panel surface is too high, which can induce additional stress on the sanding belt.

9. Quality & Cleanliness Of The Surfaces Press/ Press Belts

4. Quality Of Chipping Or Refining

Similar to the reproducible accuracy of forming, this affects surface quality and can be optimised to reduce cost.

The quality of chipping or refining has a direct influence on particle or fibre geometry. In the chipping process, it is very important to have the right set up of cutting tools and machines with quality knives. In the refining process, additional factors, such as the duration of stay of the chips, temperature and pressure of the boiler, and geometry of the refiner discs, come into play.

10. Humidity Profile Of The Chip Or Fibre Mat Sufficient humidity in the surface layer aids plastification of the surface during pressing. The end result will be a smooth and even surface of a high quality.

11. Pressure & Temperature Profile During Press Pressure and temperature during press affects the surface quality just like humidity does. There are a lot of theoretical and practical suggestions to optimise these factors. It is best to develop specific practical values for individual mills based on theoretical values. The parameters mentioned are not isolated, but often correlate and interact with each other. The goal is to enhance surface quality as much as possible while keeping production costs to a minimum. This in practice is not easy to achieve.

Surface Requirements 5. Particle Size (Especially Surface Layer Chips) In order to ensure an accurate level and have less variations in particle sizes, especially for the surface layer material, it is important to have good screening and select the right mesh size. Optimisation of the sifting process also helps avoid contamination of minerals or large particles.

In order to identify potential areas for optimisation and to implement them, it is essential to keep in mind the quality requirements of wood-based panel surfaces:

1. Defined Roughness The Ra value, in accordance with ISO 4287-1997, should be between one to five microns.

2. Good Lacquer/Ink Acceptance 6. Proportion Of Surface Layer One of the biggest manufacturing dilemmas in the manufacturing of chipboards is the proportion of the surface layer. Having a thick surface layer will increase cost and density, while insufficient thickness will affect the surface quality of finish. This parameter also determines the sanding quality that can be realised.

7. Binder Content Quantity and quality is crucial in terms of binder content. ‘Quality’ refers to the quality of resin distribution, while the quantity use will have a direct impact on manufacturing costs.

8. Reproducible Accuracy Of Longitudinal & Transverse Forming If this can be controlled adequately, it is possible to optimise

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A low surface tension is assumed to allow a good spreading of liquid cover. Matching polarities are also important for good spreading and covering. Furthermore, a balance between absorption and adsorption must be struck.

3. Basis For Lower Resin Layer Thicknesses With Minimal Steps For Application The surface should be as homogeneous as possible (wood, particle geometry). There should be no defects, such as holes, fibre knots, local areas of over-sanding, resin spots, sanding marks, dirt and foreign substances. It will be helpful to attain the smallest achievable thickness, which is the lowest possible thickness tolerance. Thickness tolerance will determine the maximum sanding allowance. It is also necessary, on a mechanical basis, to ensure sufficient surface density. The target is to achieve a specific density profile.

Surfaces & Flooring 4. Sufficient Adhesion (Even Under Mechanical Stress) The capillary effect (mechanical ‘anchor’) is necessary for sufficient absorption. This means that the surface should not be totally closed. The polarities are also important for sufficient adhesion of the liquid cover material or the resin from the melamine film. The availability of wood raw materials has been a constant discussion. In places like Central Europe, the competition for wood resources in terms of quantity and quality has forced manufacturers to accept ‘suboptimal’ assortments. If the addition of these assortments is not as uniform as technologically necessary, it will often lead to negative influences on board surface properties. This may create defects, such as a localised area of absorption of the liquid coating medium (absorption resin spot), which can only be detected in the last stages of refinement, resulting in a qualitative downgrading of an otherwise expensive product (in terms of manufacturing costs). This is how the idea of using surface-active additives as an aid to achieve some of the target properties mentioned earlier independently from the individual factors or production or to improve overall quality came about.

Surface-Active Additives


It is possible to apply a surface-active product before press on the chip or fibre mat. Additives should be applied on the product near the entrance of the press to retain it on the surface of the mat before pressing. During the pressing process, the substance is embedded onto the surface structure and activated for the subsequent coating. The carrier medium, water, is used to match the targeted surface moisture. Panels which will not be sanded after pressing will benefit the most from this. Before additives can be applied, it is necessary that in the pressing process, the realisable thickness tolerance is low enough such that additional calibration is not needed. This can be supported by cleaning effect from a component of the steel belt. In addition, it must be ensured that the maximum density profile is kept as close as possible to the surface (0.10.2 mm) in order to produce a mechanically stable base. Surface additives have the potential to save the costs required for pre-press treatment by providing a coatable and ‘standardised’ surface without additional processing. From past experience, savings of up to 50 percent of the first coating medium (filler and primer) with qualitatively similar or better print results can be achieved. Another big incentive is the minimising of rejects or devaluation of products as a result of the standardisation of the surface before finishing. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1402 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Furniture Design, Hardware & Fittings


Ergonomics Michael Duxbury

For Evolving Nature of Work

Today’s office environment is one of mobility and flexibility. Office furniture design must evolve with this shift in perception to provide ergonomic solutions that cater to modern demands. By Michael O’Neill, senior director of workplace research, Knoll


ffice ergonomics’ has been practiced for decades, with a focus on the individual in their workspace. However, in recent years, it has failed to evolve along with the increasingly collaborative nature of work, and its variety of workspace types and locations.

Traditional Ergonomics Ergonomics is defined as improving the fit between people and their immediate environment. The field of ergonomics was originally called ‘human factors’ and began in World War II when engineers and psychologists began to examine soldiers’ physical and mental capabilities.

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Engineers studied body size, reach and strength to make weapons easier to handle (ease of using the standard issue rifle). Psychologists studied how pilots gather and process information when operating complex aircraft (to improve layout of instrument panels and reduce accidents). Over the ensuing years, the practice of ‘human factors’ broadened considerably. The field is now more commonly known as ‘ergonomics’, but represents several schools of thought. Engineering ergonomics focuses on body size, physical capabilities (also known as ‘anthropometrics’) to improve the fit between people and the office workspace. Typically trained as an engineer or in health and safety, an engineering ergonomist

Majority of work today is 'knowledge work' which is highly collaborative and social.

who works with office environments can develop workstation design specifications or training on how to use seating or work tools to minimise injury. The engineering approach is limited because it does not consider the ‘mental’ part of work — decision-making, work process, and similar issues. Cognitive ergonomics seeks to optimise the fit between technology, job tasks, and people’s mental capabilities. Cognitive ergonomists are usually trained in psychology, and focus on ‘job design’ issues (as opposed to physical, workspace design) — developing job tasks that address issues such as mental work load, decision making and work processes. Cognitive ergonomics is limited because it does not consider the physical context of work. For 25 years, these two traditions have dominated the practice of office ergonomics. The scope of concern has largely been limited to individual computer work in the primary office workspace with a desired outcome of reducing discomfort or preventing injury, or increasing individual work efficiency. Both approaches narrowly focus on the ‘micro’ work environment — the immediate space around the worker and computer. And in practice, both approaches operate in isolation from the other.

New Opportunities For Office Ergonomics The majority of work today is ‘knowledge work’ in which people work with intangible work materials, and in many cases the output of this work is also intangible. The nature of this work is highly collaborative and social; and work now happens in a wide range of locations, with almost half of all work occurring outside the primary workspace. Further, two recent studies found that even when employees are at their desk, the average amount of time spent on the computer is only about 2.5 hours per day. Therefore, there is a disconnection between the limited breadth of issues that office ergonomics currently addresses, and the broader direction in which office work is evolving. If we focus on only a fractional part of office work (individual discomfort and posture during interaction with a computer), we risk missing many opportunities to enhance the well-being and performance of office workers.

As the concept of ‘office work’ broadens, the practice of office ergonomics must evolve to embrace a holistic perspective. A ‘holistic’ approach to office ergonomics not only integrates the engineering and cognitive perspectives, but also expands the range of issues and workspaces addressed by the ergonomist. This broader range of issues includes informal and formal collaboration, the social aspect of work, learning and mentoring, group productivity and other concerns of today’s interactive knowledge work. As well, holistic ergonomics is applied to the design of a much wider range of workspaces beyond the individual workstation: the large scale interior work environment, and the planning and furnishing of all individual and group spaces and their adjacencies. Using the holistic ergonomic approach, ergonomists should expand the scope of their influence to better support social interaction and group work, and correspondingly, the scope of space from the individual workstation (micro environment) to the large scale interior workspace (macro environment).

Macro Setting Holistic ergonomics includes planning at the macro workplace level. Workspace planning is a process that is used to

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David Wall, London, UK

Furniture Design, Hardware & Fittings PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement for Forest Certification | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012 FDM_85x110mm_PEFC.indd 1


20/12/2011 21:55

Peter Alfred Hess, US

Furniture Design, Hardware & Fittings envision the overall layout of workspaces within the facility or floor plan. The general emphasis is to plan for the greatest flexibility of the interior space and, thus, provide employees with the greatest choice in selecting a space that meets their immediate needs: i. Start by determining the space requirements for work zones. • Create the right number, and appropriate mix of work zones. Each zone could include individual or shared workstations, huddle rooms, project rooms, etc. • Within each zone, define the location, size and density of each type of workspace. ii. Use the space to support interaction, optimise workflow, and communicate social cues. • Reduce the overall horizon height of the walls and furnishings to increase visual access and ease accessibility to other locations and resources. • Provide the right variety of horizon heights to support the work in each work zone: low horizons support collaboration and mid-height panels assist focused work. • An open line of sight to co-workers provides important social cues that can minimize interruptions by offering insight as to when someone is available for interaction.

Micro Setting Holistic ergonomics considers work needs at the micro workspace level. Supporting the increasingly interactive nature of work starts with creating adaptable workspaces that improve employee control: i. The workspace should be adaptable, serving multiple functions. • A highly adaptable workspace could use freestanding furniture elements that can be shifted and moved in response to the individual or collaborative work at hand. ii. Workspace furnishings and elements should be adjustable. • After observing the range of tasks and interactions occurring within the workstation, ensure the technology and work tools are arranged in a way that supports the flow of work tasks. • Specify furnishings and technology that can be adjusted or moved by the worker — worksurface height, chair, monitor arm, storage elements, etc.

Workspace should be planned for the greatest flexibility.

iii. Support casual interaction in or near the primary workspace. • The workspace should permit quick, informal meetings (visitor seating, collaborative worksurfaces, marker boards, etc). Ideally, this interaction should be supported either within the workstation or a few steps away. For instance, an adjustable monitor arm allows several people to view a screen. iv. Seating should support frequent shifts across a wide range of postures. • Recognise that people constantly change position and posture — to stay comfortable as they conduct individual work tasks, and also to transition between individual work and interacting with others. Consequently the seating used in offices must be able to adapt and follow the associated postural changes. • The ability to move with and support the user while they make these postural changes without requiring the user to adjust controls is an important function, especially since postural changes occur frequently. Holistic ergonomics provides the inspiration for healthy and productive workspace solutions. Good ergonomics can benefit the organisation in two ways: through traditional ergonomics goals of reducing the risk of injury to people, and through the holistic perspective — creating workplaces that enhance the performance of people and organizations by supporting the fluidity and collaborative nature of knowledge work today and in the future. The holistic approach elevates the typical view of office ergonomics from protecting the organisation from risk (from injuries or accidents) to a function that recognises broader organisational and business issues and responds with successful workplace solutions. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1501

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John Lloyd, Washington, US

Wood & Sustainability

Beyond The

Extra Mile

The current model of awarding credits for sourcing materials locally may not depict a product’s environmental impact accurately. With the introduction of environmental product declaration requirements, full life cycle assessment becomes the natural next step. By Helen Goodland, principal, Brantwood Consulting Partnership


lacing special emphasis on the use of local materials is a popular approach to reducing the environmental impacts of wood products. Regional Materials credits are two fairly straight-forward points to be won in LEED by sourcing materials from within 500 miles of the site. However, the reality is more complex and it is not safe to assume that the pursuit of this credit will reduce the environmental impact of a product. The primary impacts of transportation are the fossil fuels used in conveyance and the associated greenhouse gas (GHG)

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emissions. But it is simplistic to consider these impacts independently from what is being transported and why. The first factor to consider is the weight of the material and how much is needed. Concrete is extremely heavy and a great deal is required for constructing a wall or floor compared to a flooring made out of wood. As a result, more products can be made from one tonne of wood than one tonne of concrete. Second, while it may seem somewhat counterintuitive, transportation impacts are not necessarily a function of distance. Mode of transportation matters a lot.

A product travelling a long distance in a highly efficient mode may have a smaller environmental footprint than a product with fewer miles to travel in an inefficient carrier.

Transport Efficiency LEED sets out transportation efficiencies as follows: shipping by truck (2,127 KJ/ tonne-km) is over six times worse than rail (373 KJ/tonne-km) and over 15 times worse than ship (138 KJ/tonne-km). So shipping one tonne of wood from Vancouver to Asia is roughly the same energy-wise as driving one tonne of steel from Vancouver to Calgary (973 km) in a truck. A report by Forintek on Japan’s Woodmiles system corroborates the same principle, maintaining that one km of truck travel is equivalent to 31.9  km of ocean travel on a bulk carrier. The report, which is concerned with the transport of lumber from Canada to Japan, states that instead of doubling Japan’s self-sufficiency in logs, a faster

Wood & Sustainability Product’s Carbon Footprint The UK is the first to have a Publicly Available Specification — PAS 2050 — for assessing carbon footprint of individual products. This methodology brings together all carbon impacts (transportation, raw material extraction, manufacture, etc). ‘Carbon Footprint of Four Canadian Wood Products Delivered to the UK as per PAS 2050 Methodology’, a study prepared by the Athena Institute and FP Innovations assessed four wood products from British Columbia that are of interest to the UK market. Despite being transported more than approximately 16,000 km, all four Canadian products represent a net carbon sink upon delivery in the UK. Using transportation as a metric of environmental impact is clearly limited. The solution is for wood products to be assessed using a life cycle impact assessment methodology. This process analyses total environmental impacts of all materials and energy flows, either as input or output, over the life of a product from raw material to end-of-life disposal or rebirth as a new product. Increasingly, some companies (such as Interface carpet), industries (such as the British Columbia Forestry industry) and countries (such as France), are looking to life cycle analysis (LCA) as a standard method (defined by ISO 14040) with which to assess and report environmental impacts. Because energy consumption has a direct economic impact on product selection, advocates use transportation as a proxy for other environmental impacts. The manufacture and shipping of materials also impact air emissions (smog, global warming, human health, ozone depletion), water emissions (acidification, eutrophication of lakes and oceans, aquatic hypoxia), land emissions (depletion of biological services, ecosystem degradation), etc. Today, these impacts can be assessed in a rigorous


way to attain the same carbon dioxide reduction would be to shift some of Japan’s imports from Canadian logs to Canadian sawn lumber, which is less dense and lighter to transport. Preference for shipping by road is particular to North America where gasoline prices are lower than competing transportation options. However this may change. As pricing of carbon emissions takes hold, other modes may become more affordable. In British Columbia, a carbon tax is already in place adding CA$0.0585 (US$0.0573) to a litre of gas. Shipping by other less carbon intensive modes (such as rail or ship) will become increasingly competitive, as the impacts associated with energy production are monetised and factored into costs. Most importantly, the interplay of all the environmental impacts of materials need to be considered in totality and objectively assessed. Unlike in Europe, there are no regulations in Canada which require accountability from product manufacturers for the environmental impacts of raw-material extraction, production, transportation, etc. The magnitude of these impacts can be significant and building materials are particularly problematic. Large amounts of energy are required for the manufacture of most common construction materials such as glass with an embodied energy of 37,550 MJ per cubic metres, steel (251,200 MJ per cubic metres) and aluminium (515,700 MJ per cubic metres). High embodied energy also results in significant carbon emissions. For example, one tonne of carbon is emitted for every tonne of cement produced. By comparison, trees absorb carbon during their lives, resulting in many wood products being effectively carbon neutral. So, the very significant carbon footprint of locally available concrete (which would contribute to LEED Regional Materials points) may net out worse than low carbon wood from further away (which may not). | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Wood & Sustainability

Assessment Tools

Keith Tyler, Washington, US

Tools such as BEES provide quick, graphical comparisons of products Athena’s spreadsheet-based application, EcoCalculator comes pre-loaded with a wide range of envelope and structural assemblies for a series of North American climate zones. It also factors in the various transportation options applicable for specific urban centres. It is remarkably easy to use and free to download. Athena’s Impact Estimator is a leading proprietary system and can assess whole buildings with data that can be easily inputted from drawings and/or bills of quantity. All of these systems will enable the full range of impacts to be considered, not just transportation.

on the UK Green Guide ratings for the specification. The Green Guide is an accredited environmental rating scheme for buildings and contains more than 1500 specifications used in various types of building. It is a good example of a practical tool where materials and components are arranged on an elemental basis so that designers and specifiers can compare and select from comparable systems or materials as they compile their specification.  Across nine building element categories (walls, windows, roofs, landscaping, etc),

Authorities are establishing systems to evaluate the environment impact of buildings.

Compared to their international counterparts, North American green building rating systems have been slow to adopt LCA methodology. While the US Green Building Council is currently running a pilot LEED credit for LCA analyses of building structure and envelope using Eco-Calculator, BREEAM (from the UK) has already established a protocol for documenting the use of materials with a low environmental impact over the full life cycle of the building. Credits are achieved based

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the guide provides an extensive catalogue of building specifications covering most common building materials. The data is set out as an A+ to E ranking system, where A+ represents the best environmental performance/ least environmental impact, and E the worst environmental performance/most environmental impact. Building Research Establishment (BRE) also provides a summary environmental rating. For example, a Canadian cedar weatherboarding, breather membrane,

plywood (temperate EN 636-2) sheathing, timber frame with insulation, vapour control layer, plasterboard on battens, paint receives a A+ rating compared Bruce Fingerhood, Oregon, US

and systematic way using internationally accepted LCA assessment tools.

to an extruded aluminium curtain wall with three transoms per floor, laminated sealed glass unit, coated aluminium spandrel panel with pentane blown PUR/PIR insulation which receives a C rating. The guide rating covers 13 separate issues including climate change, water extraction, mineral resource extraction, stratospheric ozone depletion, fossil fuel depletion, and more. By evaluating the performance of materials and building systems against these specific environmental impacts, which have also been ranked on an A+ to E basis, it is possible for the specifier to select specifications on the basis of personal or organisational preferences or priorities, or take decisions based on the performance of a material against a particular environmental impact. This methodology shows that transportation impacts alone become insignificant when impacts form industrial practices are factored in.

Environmental Product Declaration In order to provide the data necessary to conduct a life-cycle analysis of a product, manufacturers must first provide data about materials and products via an environmental product declaration (EPD). EPDs are created following

Wood & Sustainability


a standardised (ISO 14025) format for communicating the environmental performance which is applicable worldwide. An EPD includes information about the environmental impacts associated with a product, such as raw material acquisition; energy use and efficiency; content of materials and chemical substances; emissions to air, soil, and water; and waste generation. Under Loi Grenelle 2, France now requires EPDs to be in place for a host of product categories ranging from cosmetics to furniture.

justify the development of several design alternatives for the purposes of objective comparison. Nevertheless, at a time when demands on natural resources from human activity (2.7 global hectares per capita required to serve current needs) already exceeds the capacity of the global productive ecosystem capacity (1.8 global hectares per capita) by about 50 percent, it is more important than ever to ensure that choices are made to create a positive outcome. Therefore, instilling life-cycle assessment thinking at the macro level is an easy first step that offers immediate benefits. In the early design phases, a full product analysis can help with basic questions like those about design choices.

In later phases, product-to-product comparisons can help fine-tune a product’s environmental performance. For example, being familiar with the relative embodied energy values for commonly used materials can broaden the palette of material options. Lifecycle assessment also offers valuable indicators, which assist in the efficient allocation of limited dollars to the most critical and practically attainable strategies for achieving the highest product performance. Clearly, mainstream adoption of LCA will only happen when product manufacturers are motivated either by regulations or by market demand for this information. However, with so many accessible tools available, LCA thinking can start today and can inform designs from schematic stage forward. FDM


One km of truck travel is equivalent to 31.9 km of ocean travel on a bulk carrier.


This data is located in large life cycle inventory databases around the world (customised to specific geographic areas) which are accessed by the various software tools. The primary barrier to mainstream adaption of LCA in product specification is willingness of manufacturers to publish data about their products. For some, the information is proprietary, for others there is disagreement about what should be included and how materials are to be assessed. At the end of the day, as specifiers increasingly seek to understand the impacts for their choices, pressure to provide EPDs will increase. It is true that today rigorous lifecycle assessment methods require significant time and financial resources. For specifiers, it is often difficult to | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Exhibition Review

Vietnam International Woodworking Industry Fair 2011

October 12 – 15, 2011 Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


he 9th edition of Vietnam International Woodworking Industry Fair was held from October 12-15, 2011, at Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The show featured nearly 500 booths covering 12,500 sq m of floor space, with 260 international exhibitors from 19 countries, including Austria, Belgium, China, Demark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, US and Israel. A total of 10,062 registered visitors and buyers attended the fair. The exhibition reached a milestone this year with the most number of endorsements from international woodworking and furniture related industries and associations. It was supported by the European Federation of Woodworking Machinery Manufacturers (EUMABOIS), German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Taiwan Woodworking Machinery Association (TWMA), and American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC).

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As part of the Vietnamese-German Forestry Programme, many initiatives are being carried out in order to improve the efficiency and sustainability of forest management and forest industries in Vietnam. Along with this partnership, the German pavilion hosted 23 companies showcasing advanced woodworking technology and automation solutions. Vietnam’s furniture and wood processing industries have expanded rapidly in the past few years, becoming one of the biggest wood furniture exporters in the world. US hardwood imports to the country reached US$150 million in 2010, ranking it number one in Southeast Asia and making it the second biggest global importer. The trade fair is scheduled to return from September FDM 25-28, 2013, at the same venue.


Exhibition Preview

Malaysian International Furniture Fair (MIFF) 2012


he 18th annual Malaysian International Furniture Fair (MIFF) will take place from March 6-10, 2012 in Malaysia’s capital city, Kuala Lumpur. The event will be spread over 75,000 sq m of floor space from two locations, Putra World Trade Centre and Matrade Exhibition & Convention Centre, with convenient 10-minute free shuttle services provided between the venues. Despite worries over the global economic outlook, buyers can expect to browse through a range of new products and designs from Malaysian and regional furniture makers. The trade show is expected to feature around 500 exhibitors and attract 20,000 visitors from 140 countries.

March 6 – 10, 2012 Putra World Trade Centre and Matrade Exhibition & Convention Centre, Malaysia Since its conception in 1995, the exhibition has grown to become an important gateway for Malaysian furniture, accounting to nearly a third of exports annually. In recent years, Malaysia furniture manufacturers have begun using alternatives such as imported American hardwood, composites and eco-friendly materials to add variety to the dominant array of local wood-derived furniture. The fair posted a record turnover of US$778 million in 2011, with office and dining furniture segments among the strong performers. Over half of the 6,500 overseas buyers from 140 countries that attended last year’s edition came from ASEAN countries (21.4 percent), Europe (14.5 percent), Far East (13.4 percent), Middle East (11.9 percent) and Africa (9.9 percent). The Ideation Award will also return, providing a platform for young designers from Malaysia to showcase their creations. The theme for this year’s competition is ‘My Favourite Chair’. So far, 10 finalists have been selected and prototypes of their works will be on display during the show. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1702 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Exhibition Preview

IFFS/AFS 2012 March 9 – 12, 2012 • Singapore Expo, Singapore


he International Furniture Fair Singapore 2012/29th ASEAN Furniture Show (IFFS/AFS) will be held concurrently with Deco Asia 2012 and Hospitality Asia 2012 from March 9-12, 2012, at the Singapore Expo. The trilogy of shows will occupy 70,000 sq m of floor space, spanning over six exhibition halls. In 2011, the show saw a record 20,873 visitors from 112 countries, and closed an estimated total of US$289 million in spot orders and US$3.02 billion in follow-on sales. This year, the fair will continue to feature a comprehensive range of furniture, with design as a leading focus. A new conference segment, Hospitality.Design.Furniture Converge Asia 2012 will be premiering at the exhibition, providing international delegates with a conducive platform to network and learn about the industry in a knowledge-driven setting. In addition, the event will also feature numerous other design initiatives under a brand new complementary platform, SingaPlural, the inaugural Singapore Furniture Design Week. It encompasses a series of seminars, exhibits, designers’ exchange forums and a design trail that aim to provide a platform for local talents to display their works and exchange ideas with renowned international designers.

Annual design initiatives such as D’Space, PLATFORM, Furniture Design Award, and Furniture Design Forum will make their return. Out in the streets of Singapore’s city centre, local and global visitors can participate in the Design Trail to view multiple satellite exhibitions at various high traffic areas in the Singapore city centre. Design*Scape will offer an opportunity to see a group of companies in one location where different brands will be on show from international, commercial and residential accessories brands to emerging local labels. In order to develop an understanding of furniture design with reference to the environment and its sustainability, and to produce an incentive and explorative design that speaks the ‘Green & Eco’ language, installation competition, Design-LargerThan-Life, was created with the theme of ‘Love, Think, Design, Green’. Five finalists have been selected and the winner will be decided by public voting. FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1703

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Exhibition Preview


he 14th International Exhibition on Woodworking Machinery and Furniture Manufacturing Equipment (WMF 2012) and the 14th International Exhibition on Furniture Accessories, Materials and Wood Products (FAM 2012) will be held at New China International Exhibition Center (NCIEC), Beijing, China from March 12-15, 2012. Total exhibiting area of the shows is expected to reach 60,000 sq m

2 1 0 2 F M W March 12 – 15, 2012

• Beijing, China

with more than 600 exhibitors from 14 countries and regions collaborating with seven pavilions to showcase the latest material, machinery and equipment to the professional buyers of the woodworking industry. Exhibits include logs, panel board, hardware, semi-finished wood products, chemicals, decoration materials, furniture accessories, materials, wood processing machinery, furniture manufacturing machinery, panel manufacturing machinery, knives and blades, machinery accessories, hand tools, grinder, measuring equipment, materials handling equipment, building construction, interior decorations, and integrated software. Urbanisation has brought opportunities to the door industry. According to statistics, the average annual growth of the door industry in China is 25 percent. In 2010, the value of the industry was over RMB70 billion (US$11 billion) and its total output value accounted for

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7.5 percent of the output value of the forestry industry in China. ‘China’s 12th Five-Year Plan’ mentioned that in the next five years (2011-2015), 36 million indemnificatory houses will be built in China. Although the real estate market is facing difficulties, industry players expect that the total area of urban housing will reach 28.03 trillion in 2020, increasing 102 billion sq m every year. In the meantime, 81 million sq m of building will undergo renovation every year and 50 percent of the residential area

will be demolished and reconstructed in the next 20 years. This great market demand will help drive the development of the wooden door industry. The exhibitions are co-organised by China National Forestry Machinery Association, China Forestry Group Corporation and China Building Decoration Association, as well as supported by the European Federation of Woodworking Machinery Manufacturers (EUMABOIS). FDM ENQUIRY NO. 1704



IFFS unveils the inaugural edition of SingaPlural, which represents a celebration of design elements in the city, taking the form of a creative and inspirational journey with a unique design trail. From 9-11 March 2012, SingaPlural will feature bite-sized tours around key design hotspots in the city centre to showcase local furniture design talent. Held in conjunction with IFFS/AFS, SingaPlural will be open to both trade visitors and the public. Debuting for the first time alongside IFFS/AFS, the Hospitality.Design.Furniture. CONVERGE ASIA 2012 is a conference that brings you an unprecedented platform to discover and gain insights into the latest hospitality design trends, innovations and tap on new markets. For bookings and more information, please visit


A subsidiary of:

Supported by:

Endorsed by:

Held in:

Official publication:

Organised by: International Furniture Fair Singapore Pte Ltd E: | Photo of chair courtesy of Air Division, Singapore



Exhibition Preview

Domotex Asia/ Chinafloor


omotex Asia/Chinafloor will be back for its 14th installment from March 27-29, 2012 at the Shanghai New International Expo (SNIEC) in Shanghai, China, poised to showcase the latest products in flooring manufacturing and applications. The show covers the entire flooring industry supply chain and its major application fields, injecting innovations into this rapidly changing industry. This year’s edition will encompass 11 halls with a gross floor space of 126,500 sq m, making it the largest floor covering event in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2011, the event attracted 1,058 exhibiting companies and 39,343 trade visitors from around the world. China is evolving from being the largest producer of flooring in the world to also the largest consumer and this creates new opportunities for domestic manufacturers and the global flooring industry. While the floor covering trade show is seeing strong growth in its resilient and hand-made carpet segments, wood and laminate flooring will remain the signature products at the event. Visitors will enjoy an improved show layout in 2012. Carpets and rugs will be moved to halls W1 to W4, while resilient will be located in halls W4 and W5 with an easy

66 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

March 27 – 29, 2012 Shanghai New International Expo Center, China

access through the North Entrance Hall. Wood, laminate, bamboo and cork will be located in halls E1 to E6. Floortech, dedicated to wood flooring manufacturing technologies, will be in hall E3. Two product demonstration areas will offer exhibitors venues in which to showcase their installation or cleaning products in front of live audiences. Comfort and catering areas will offer exhibitors and visitors a relaxing yet business focused time at the show. The exhibition will run simultaneously with the China Building Construction Expo, which will feature green building products, technology and design. This will bring together the flooring industry with representatives of the real estate, architecture, interior design and construction engineering sectors, creating a unique networking opportunity. Pakistan and Turkey have announced that they will install country pavilions to showcase their hand-made carpets. New education programmes include events for sports and leisure flooring, hospitals, and an enhanced demo area for installation products. FDM



Exhibition Preview

Interzum Guangzhou Guangzhou, China March 27 – 30, 2012 •


nterzum Guangzhou/ CIFM, Asia's woodworking machinery, furniture production and interior design trade fair, will open from March 27-30, 2012, at the China Import and Export Fair Complex (Pazhou) in Guangzhou. The show will be co-located with the China International Furniture Fair (CIFF). One of the new developments in 2012 is the relocation of the raw materials and components zone to area C of the venue while the international zone will continue to strengthen on the four main product categories: materials and equipment for upholstery and bedding; hardware/components/fittings; wood products/adhesives; and materials and equipment for interior design. The machinery zone will remain on the first floor of Area B. In 2011, the fair played host to 1,023 manufacturers and suppliers from 30 countries and regions. A total of 50,514 registered buyers attended the event, marking a 16 percent increase over 2010. This year’s edition is projected to feature more than 1,000 furniture manufacturers from around the world over 110,000 sq m of floor space. The show expects to welcome over 50,000 local and overseas buyers.

68 FDM Asia  Jan/feb 2012 |

The year 2012 will see the debut participation of national groups from Turkey and Spain, bringing with them advanced European furniture production technology and products. Longtime group exhibitors — the German, Italian and US pavilions will each see a bigger turnout of participating companies. Based on the annual World Furniture Outlook 2011 report released by Milan-based research and consulting firm CSIL, the increase in demand for furniture products from over 70 countries and regions worldwide is expected to reach 3.3 percent; China, Italy, Germany and Poland were the largest exporters in terms of volume in 2010. It is estimated that global trading volume will grow from US$102 billion to US$107 billion. Industry experts have expressed their optimism in the China furniture production market as import and export figures registered a marked increase since the second half of 2010. The current trend also sees numerous established family-owned enterprises from developed nations setting up production plants in China, further spurring the growth of this industry. At the same time, local demand remains strong for FDM re-imported goods. ENQUIRY NO. 1706


Calendar of Events January 16-22: IMM Cologne 2012 Cologne International Expocentre Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 0 1805 91 3131 Fax: +49 0 221 821 99 1180 Email: Website:


Fax: +606 951 3112 Email: Website:

Fax: +86 21 61956099 Email: Website:

9-12: IFFS 2012

27-30: Interzum Guangzhou

Singapore Expo Singapore Tel: +65 6569 6988 Fax: +65 6569 9939 Email: Website:

Pazhou Complex Guangzhou, China Tel: +86 20 8755 2468-12 Fax: +86 20 8755 2970 Email: Website:

11-14 IFMAC


1-3: AIFF 2012 Sydney Exhibition Centre Sydney, Australia Tel: +613 9654 7773 Fax: +613 9654 5596 Email: Website:

Jakarta International Expo Jakarta, Indonesia Tel: +886 2 2595 4212 Fax: +886 2 2595 5726 Email: Website:

10-14: IndiaWood 2012 Bangalore International Exhibition Centre Bangalore, India Tel: +91 80 4250 5000 Fax: +91 80 2554 2258 Email: Website:

March 6-10: MIFF 2012 Putra World Trade Centre & Matrade Exhibition & Convention Centre Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +603 9282 2888 Fax: +603 9286 1551 Email: Website:

7-11: EFE 2012 Malaysia Agro Exposition Park Serdang Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +606 952 4545 To be considered for inclusion in the Calendar of Events, send details of event (name, date, venue, organiser contact) to: The Editor FDM Asia Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd 1100 Lower Delta Road EPL Building #02-05 Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 • Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Email: Kindly indicate the events you are interested in and fax the sheet/s along with your details in the Product Enquiry Page to (65) 6379 2806 or enquire online at

12-15: WMF 2012 China International Exhibition Center Beijing, China Tel: +852 2516 3382/3348 Fax: +852 2516 5024 Email: Website:

14-18: TIFF 2012 Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre Bangkok, Thailand Tel: +66 0 2507 8363/61/64 Fax: +66 0 2547 4281/4266 Email: Website:

18-21: CIFF 2012 China Import & Export Fair Complex Guangzhou, China Tel: +020 8912 8062 Fax: +020 8912 8298-103 Email: Website:

27-29: Domotex Asia/China Floor Shanghai New International Expo Centre Shanghai, China Tel: +86 21 61956088

3-5: Dubaiwood Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center Dubai Tel: +9714 2829 299 Fax: +9714 2828 767 Email: Website:

20-24: Technodomus 2012 Rimini Expo Center Rimini, Italy Tel: +39 0541/744 759 Fax: +39 0541/744 751 Email: Website:

May 8-12: Xylexpo 2012 Milan Fairgrounds Milan, Italy Tel: +39 02 8921 0200 Fax: +39 02 8259 009 Email: Website:

9: Global Softwood Log & Lumber Conference Hyatt Regency Hotel Vancouver, Canada Tel: +1 604 801 5996 Fax: +1 604 801 5997 Email: Website:

*All details subject to change without notice. Please check with organisers for updates.

Product highlights Fullerpower: End Matching Machine

Jeffer: CNC Machine

Fullerpower’s end matching machine is a stable, economical, well-designed and constructed solution for end matching timber, especially for tenoning and mortising flooring ends or finger shaping. The machine features a compact design and offer capacity to handle the largest of boards. It’s rigid and reliable build helps overcome end matching problems when using hardwood. Wood pieces are fed into the machine automatically via rubber top rollers and pneumatic side and top pressure devices. Optional motor driven infeed and outfeed converyors can be attached if required.

The ASG-800ER CNC cutter offers automatic electrode trimming with compensation. Full CNC servo controlled axes ensure high precision and reliability. Workpiece is adjusted inside the machine using dual servo controlled tooth push mechanism. The fine erosion circuit allows roughness up to 0.2μ Ra. The machine features automatic saw blade tip edge detection and electrode thickness detection to provide refined operations. The erosion oscillation mode allows better surface finish while dual extinguisher loop offer enhanced safety considerations. The machine is able to support both graphite and copper electrodes.


ITAC: Interlocking Cross Laminate Timber Unlike other solid wood panel systems, the interlock cross laminate timber (ICLT) developed by the University of Utah’s Integrated Technology in Architecture Center (ITAC) utilises no fasteners or adhesives. The ICLT is a cost competitive technology for three to nine storey commercial structures, replacing concrete and steel construction, reducing ecological footprint, and increasing indoor air quality of future buildings. Instead of using glue or stainless steel fasteners, pieces are jointed using tongue and groove joints for end-to-end connection, and dovetail joints for crossing pieces. They can be dissembled at the end of life to be repurposed in the building supply chain. ENQUIRY NO. P182


LexJet: Transportable Graphic The Infinium is a print medium with laminate and adhesive built into one conformable material that can be applied to any surface, including irregular and unusual surfaces, using heat, water or a primer. When applied, the film conforms to the structure and becomes part of the material. It can be used to create custom full colour photographic quality images for a variety of decorative applications. The portable graphic is manufactured with water-based chemistries making it a sustainable material that contains no volatile organic compounds and is PVC-free. The material is compatible with most commonly used post-print processes, including laser cutting, routing and thermoforming without distorting the graphic.

ENQUIRY NO. P184 | FDM ASIA  Jan/feb 2012


Advertising Index Enquiry No

Advertisers / Agency

Page No


American Hardwood Export Council IFC


American Lumber Co

289 Baillie Lumber Co


324 China Foma (Group) Co Ltd


308 Dieffenbacher GmbH Maschinen - und Anlagenbau


310 DunHua Yalian Machine Co Ltd


313 Dalian Northern International Exhibition Co Ltd


306 E-Chain Machinery Industrial Co Ltd



Fulpow Industrial Corp



Firefly AB



Holywood Industrial Corp



Huntsman (Belgium) BVBA IBC

264 Internet Wood Glue Co Ltd


305 International Furniture Fair Singapore Ltd (IFFS 2012)



Jeffer Machinery Co Ltd



Kanefusa Corporation



Koelnmesse Co Ltd (Interzum Guangzhou 2012)




Koelnmesse Pte Ltd (FurniPro Asia 2012)



Kingdecor (Zhejiang) Co Ltd


323 P.T Wahana Kemalaniaga Makmur (IFMAC 2012)


312 PEFC


307 Qingdao Friend Woodworking Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd


309 Rimini Fiera SpA (Technodomus 2012)


261 Siempelkamp Maschinen - und Anlagenbau GmbH & Co KG


284 Shanghai Qiulin Machinery Co Ltd


298 Thermwood India


319 Tong Fong Cutters Co Ltd


321 Taihao Woodworking Machinery Co Ltd


316 Taihao Woodworking Machinery Co Ltd

327 UBM Sinoexpo Ltd (FMC China 2012)

314 UBM Sinoexpo Ltd (FMC China 2012) OBC


320 Wen Chih Machinery Industrial Co Ltd


226 Wilhelm Altendorf GmbH & Co KG Machinenbau



59 16/17

VNU Exhibitions Asia (Domotex Asia/ChinaFloor)


Advertisers with e-Brochures

This quick reference guide is provided as an additional service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or ommission.

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FDM JanFeb 2012  

Furniture Design & Manufacturing