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2009

Where the development of the municipality is headed


Indicators of Juruti Project

Development:

Development: Getulio Vargas Foundation Center for Sustainability Studies of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (GVces) General Supervision: Mario Monzoni Executive Supervision: Cecília Ferraz Staff: Allan Grabarz, Claudia Borges, Daniela Gomes Pinto, Denise Maranhão, Marcio Halla, Maria Rita Borba, Raquel Costa Support: Alcoa

Support:

Collaboration Center for Sustainability Studies of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (GVces): André Carvalho, Bel Brunharo, Rachel Biderman, Ricardo Barretto, Rogério Bento Follow-Up Group: Commercial and Business Association of Juruti (ACEJ), Association for the Disabled of Juruti (ADJ), Z-42 Fishing Colony, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Agency of the State of Pará (EMATER), Municipal Government Juruti, Rural Workers Union of Juruti (STTR) and Alcoa Center for Studies in Public Administration and Government of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (CEAPG): Peter Spink, Cibele Franzese, Fernando Burgos, Henrique Heidtmann, Milton Farias Other collaborators: Adriano Martins, Cordélia Coelho, Gabriela Francischinelli, Elineide Dolzane da Silva, Gladis Ribeiro, Josinaldo Aleixo, Kátia Correa, Lica Donaire, Ricardo Folhes, Sergio Oliveira, Silvana Macedo, Valdemar Paz Production Supervision: Daniela Gomes Pinto Art creation and direction: Marcelo Pliger Layout and infographics: Eduardo Asta, Kleber Bonjoan, Gisele Pungan Illustrations: Laurabeatriz (cover and pages. 6, 8, 32, 67, 68, 103, 104 and 125), Marcelo Pliger (other illustrations) Text: GVces staff (content) and Renato Essenfelder Abrahão Filho (boxes) Revision: José Genulino Moura Ribeiro Photos: GVces Translation: Barney Whiteoak Bird image taken from Folk Design from India, published by The Pepin Press, www.pepinpress.com


2009

Where the development of the municipality is headed


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t is with pleasure that we present the Indicators of Juruti, the result of a project developed by the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) in conjunction with the population of Juruti and the support of Alcoa. The origin of the project dates back to 2005, when Alcoa invited the FGV and the Brazilian Biodiversity Fund (Funbio) to present a proposal for a long-term local development model for Juruti, which at the time was embarking on a period of large-scale and profound changes to its very being, given the arrival of the company to set up a mining project in the region. The model that was presented, called “Sustainable Juruti”, is underpinned by four premises and a three-pronged intervention. The first premise is the broad and effective participation of society. The second assumes that the transformations caused by the installation of the bauxite mine in Juruti will spill over the municipal limits. The third, that these transformations will occur within a context of regional development. The fourth premise is the need for an ongoing internalization of sustainability inside the company. The three-pronged approach to intervention consists of the creation of a public space for social mobilization, the construction of indicators to monitor the social, environmental and economic transformations occurring in Juruti and the wider region, and the creation of a support fund for local development projects. In 2007, the FGV was asked by Alcoa to develop the monitoring indicators, while similar projects worked on the implementation of the model’s other two prongs. Bearing in mind the four premises of “Sustainable Juruti”, the FGV faced two important challenges: create the indicators assuring the broad and effective participation of the local society, and develop a methodology to define a territory for monitoring. This took two years of work, involving more than 500 representa-


tives of local and regional institutions, a series of surveys, workshops and meetings to construct the indicators and collect the data, in addition to extensive bibliographical and field research to define the territory to be monitored. The “picture” we present in this book – and the ongoing monitoring of the development of Juruti – can be used in public spaces of political articulation, such as the municipal councils and the Sustainable Juruti Council (Conjus), as well as other participatory bodies, providing information on the transformations – both anticipated and undesired – taking place in Juruti. The indicators may also provide insight for and guide municipal, state and federal public policies, the investments of companies in the region, and the financial instruments placed at the disposal of the community, such as the Sustainable Juruti Fund (Funjus). Essentially, the indicators can help the population to understand the state of the main issues related to the development of the municipality, and to define and identify which priorities and paths to follow. Furthermore, we believe that, given the participative nature of their construction, the Indicators of Juruti are not only a tool for measuring development over time, but also an instrument of transformation and of continual learning and awareness for everyone. The indicators are an instrument under construction, that need to be streamlined over the years. Some important issues raised by the population of Juruti are not presented here, due to a lack of official data or organized records. A collective effort will be needed for the indicators to better cater to the expectations and needs of the municipality, since the quality of the results is inseparable from the capacity of the local population to appropriate the tool. Our primary hope is for the Indicators of Juruti to become a public asset, at the disposal and at the service of all Jurutian society.

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In the far west of the state of Parå, on the southern bank of the Amazon River, lies Juruti, a municipality that has experienced numerous transformations in the course of its history. It began as a Munduruku Indian village before attracting newcomers, other peoples, influences and cultures, and the population grew and the area was transformed. Over time, the landscape has seen an alteration, the town has lived through a number of economic cycles, such those driven by rosewood and jute, and since 2006 it has experienced yet another series of changes with the installation of Alcoa’s bauxite mine in the municipality. The town appears to be running in high gear, with its boats plying the rivers, its bustling commerce, busy roads, swarms of new people and ubiquitous construction and renovation work. The arrival of the company has brought more money, and

with it commerce has strengthened and new opportunities have emerged. However, security is now a problem, prices have increased and concerns are growing about the protection of the forests and rivers. Outside of town and on the floodplains, where the rivers and streams are a meeting point for bathing and conversation, and where agriculture, fishing and livestock farming provide a living for the local people, the changes are arriving more slowly, by road and by river, on vehicles and boats laden with goods, bringing in people and new things. This is Juruti, a municipality in transformation. There are hopes and uncertainties about what the future will hold. Expectations are for the recent changes to bring about the much-touted sustainable development to the region. But how exactly is Juruti developing? What course is Juruti on?


To answer these questions, the Getulio Vargas Foundation spent time getting to know the town and the rest of the municipality, talking to local people, staging workshops and meetings to hear from the Juritians themselves what they consider most important in monitoring the paths and directions taken, that is, the development of their municipality. Health, education, transport and security were some of the issues that the population identified as important to monitor over time. People who live in Juruti know full well what is happening in their municipality, as they see it on a daily basis. As a result, many answers came as no surprise, for example that traffic accidents are on the rise, that security is a growing concern, that there is more money

circulating in the town, and that more children are in school. However, to better understand what course Juruti is on, we unearthed more details about these and other issues. Some information we found in research institutes, other data in municipal government offices or local associations and institutions. We staged workshops especially to gauge people’s perceptions on certain issues. And, in spite of all our efforts, some information was impossible to obtain. Afterwards, we broke down all this data into small pieces, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. These pieces we call the Indicators of Juruti. When we put them together, they form a larger picture of the municipality that we present in this book.


The diversity of the fish that are caught indicates how well the fishing is going in Juruti. The increase in the number of business permits indicates a thriving economy. With these and other indicators, we have assembled this large “snapshot” of the municipality that you now hold in your hands. In order to register what the municipality was like before the recent transformations, we sought, whenever possible, information that preceded the installation of the bauxite mine. It is possible, therefore, to learn about some of the past and present history of the municipality. And, primarily, to discuss its future. Nevertheless, it is important to recall that the Indicators of Juruti are a means, not an end in itself. They serve as a “thermometer”, that is, they are a tool that on its own is no solution. This is why it is essential for them to be debated in local councils, schools and communi-

ties, and by institutions, governments and companies, so they can contribute to the planning of actions and investments in the municipality. This tool ought to be embraced by the population of Juruti, to guarantee its continuity. Moreover, as they are used, the Indicators of Juruti can and should be improved, with everyone’s participation. The ultimate purpose is to help the population understand the transformations they are experiencing, to evaluate the path they are on and to collectively set the right course: reinforcing the good actions that are being taken and, if necessary, adjusting the course of development. This project was constructed by the population of Juruti in conjunction with the Getulio Vargas Foundation and with the support of Alcoa. The result of the work is not just this book, but also an information system with all the indicators available for consultation on the internet.


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INITIAL RESEARCH AND PREPARATORY VISITS To construct the Indicators of Juruti, we at the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) first took a look at what was already available, in Brazil and around the world, in terms of development indicators. We then researched some of the data on Juruti found in official publications, namely on the number of inhabitants, the health of the population and some figures on the economy. Whenever possible, we picked data from the period immediately prior to the arrival of Alcoa to the region. This allowed for a preliminary diagnosis of the development of Juruti, which we call a “baseline”. Afterwards, the FGV’s proposed project was presented to the local population, in a series of preparatory visits – both inside and outside the town and in the floodplain areas – to hear opinions and define a strategy for the construction process. In these visits, we identified the primary institutions in Juruti and their representatives, the key public sector figures and also community leaders.

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THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE INDICATORS The indicators were developed based on workshops staged in Juruti, Santarém and Belém, on a broad public consultation and on a public meeting.

Workshops The workshops were attended by more than 140 people. In them, the participants were asked to reflect on “what is development” and “what to monitor” – what indicators could we use to keep track of the transformations in Juruti. They were also consulted about “where to monitor” – whether to keep track of development in Juruti alone or also the potential transformations in the wider region.

1st Workshop – Juruti – January 2008 • Participants: Juruti Leadership – 56 people from 25 institutions • Methodology: Construction from local reality • Issues and indicators: More than 30 major issues and 300 indicators and metrics were suggested, unprompted, by attendees • Territory: 10 municipalities proposed • Outcome: Creation of a Follow-Up Group

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2nd Workshop – Santarém – February 2008 • Participants: Regional Actors – 40 people from 24 institutions, in addition to three representatives from the Follow-Up Group • Methodology: Construction from regional viewpoint • Territory: 16 municipalities proposed

3rd Workshop – Belém – April 2008 • Participants: Academics, public institutions, Alcoa partners – 48 people from 25 institutions, in addition to five representatives from the Follow-Up Group • Methodology: Analysis of the results from Juruti and Santarém, from a more statewide point of view • Territory: 17 municipalities proposed

What is the Follow-Up Group Considering the need to strengthen the governance and transparency of our work, a “Follow-Up Group” was created, that met voluntarily every month to accompany and collaborate in the work of the FGV. The group was formed by representatives of the municipal government, the rural workers union, the fishing colony, the commercial association, the association for the disabled of Juruti and Alcoa.


Public consultation – evaluation, suggestions and setting priorities For two months, the results of the workshops were subjected to a broad public consultation, that is to say, for this period the indicators were available for evaluation and to gather suggestions, criticisms and commentary. To encourage everyone’s involvement and participation, we produced a booklet, staged mini-workshops in the rural communities and set up a website to gather suggestions on the internet. All this was backed up by an intense mobilization in the town and the surrounding rural area. Booklet · Production of the booklet titled “Where is the Development of Juruti Going?”, containing the issues and the questions that the population wanted to see answered · Written in plain language appropriate for the region, to raise understanding and facilitate access and involvement in the project Definition of the mobilization · Definition of the rural community clusters where the mini-workshops were to be held, in conjunction with the Follow-Up Group and local government representatives · Visit made to the 158 communities in the rural area and floodplains, with the support of community leaders and advisors, to present the project and extend invitations to the mini-workshops · Sectoral meetings were held in the urban area, to present the booklet and extend invitations to the public meeting · The booklet was distributed from various places in the town, as an invitation to the public meeting · Sectoral meetings were held in Santarém with representatives from social movements, to present the booklet

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1 2 3

Mini-workshops in rural communities – July 2008

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5 6

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· Scope: 9 community clusters · Participants: 318 leaders from 95 rural communities from the rural area and floodplains · Methodology: A day’s work to reflect on what development means, what to monitor and what issues are most pressing (priority), with presentation and distribution of the booklet

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Community clusters 1 Recreio 2 São Benedito 3 São Pedro 4 Igarapé-Açu 5 Urucurana 6 Traíra 7 Batata 8 S. J. Laguinho 9 Sabina

Internet We set up a website to present the project and the proposed indicators, together with a tool to receive comments. We received over 90 contributions from across Brazil

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Completion of the process of defining the indicators The public meeting, in August 2008, wrapped up the process of defining the Indicators of Juruti, after the reception of contributions, adjustments and supplements to the proposed issues and indicators. • Participants: 180 people who represented 80 communities, social organizations, companies and the municipal government • Methodology: Presentation of the indicators, collection of contributions and setting priorities for the most important issues to be monitored


WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO MONITOR

As a result of the process to construct the indicators, more than 30 major issues were identiďŹ ed as items to be monitored in the development of Juruti.

PRIORITY ISSUES In the mini-workshops and the public meeting, the participants were also asked to identify the most pressing issues, that is, the priority issues to be monitored.

Education

Health

Transport Flora

Communication

Fish & Fishing

Agriculture & Livestock

Energy

Security

Water

Local Economy Conict

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FINAL STAGE DIAGNOSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF JURUTI AND SURROUNDING AREA

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Metrics and protocols – where and how to measure

Data collection – searching for information

Once the issues and the indicators to be monitored were defined, we sought information on how to measure – the metrics – and on where and how to find the data – the protocols. This took some months of research in official sources and, in Juruti, in local institutions.

For four months we collected information on Juruti, from official sources – publications and websites – and from municipal government departments, commercial associations, the Guardianship Council and other local institutions. Moreover, we staged five workshops to gather qualitative information on social engagement, fishing, agriculture and livestock farming, socio-environmental conflicts and infrastructure in the rural communities.

PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS Book To present the results, we produced this book containing all the data, with a special effort made to convey the information clearly and comprehensively.

Internet In addition to the book, an information system was set up with all the indicators and protocols – that is, where and how to collect each piece of information – for consultation on the internet, at the website www.fgv.br/ ces/juruti/sistema (portuguese only).


DEFINITION OF THE TERRITORY TO BE MONITORED Where to monitor In addition to constructing indicators to keep track of the development of Juruti, another challenge facing the FGV was to define “where to monitor”, that is, which other municipalities should also be monitored to identify potential changes resulting from the arrival of Alcoa to Juruti.

identify which municipalities exchange and interact with Juruti

Extensive research

• In 15 surrounding municipalities – Alenquer, Almeirim, Aveiro, Belterra, Curuá, Faro, Itaituba, Monte Alegre, Nhamundá, Óbidos, Oriximiná, Parintins, Prainha, Santarém and Terra Santa – together with more than 170 representatives from the municipal governments, unions, social movements, churches, commercial associations and the business community, among others, to learn which municipalities could feel the influence of the installation of Alcoa in Juruti, in the areas of health, security and economy, to name a few.

• In documents on the regional reality and on large-scale projects, to understand the dynamics that influence regional development

Definition of the territory

In view of this, we conducted extensive research and a meticulous analysis of the results in order to define the territory to be monitored.

• In Alcoa’s environmental licensing reports and studies in Juruti • In public policies for the region • In the workshops staged to construct the indicators – in Juruti, Santarém and Belém – to hear from the participants “where and what to monitor” besides Juruti • In Juruti itself, with residents and representatives of local institutions, in markets, at the port and other locations, to

Equipped with all this information, we evaluated and examined the results, and identified the municipalities that had either intensified their relations or initiated relations with Juruti since the arrival of the mining project and, therefore, needed to be monitored. We also selected the indicators to be used to monitor the development of these municipalities. The results are presented in this book and they may also be consulted on the information system on the internet.

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Parรก Parรก

BRAZIL BRAZIL


iná ná rixim ximi MunicM ipuan liitcyipoafliO ty of Ori

Lake Lake Piraruacá Piraruacá

Lake Uruã Lake Uruã

Lake Poção Lake Poção Grande Grande

un dá un dá

FaroFaro Nhamundá Nhamundá

Lake Bom Lake Bom Jardim Jardim

Juruti Juruti m

m a ha Nh fN o of ty i y l t ipa ipali c nic Mu Muni

ty of Óbidos ali

Terra Santa Terra Santa

ty of Óbidos ali

Mu M nic un ip icip

Village of Castanhal Village of Castanhal Village of Tabatinga Village of Tabatinga

Lake Lake Tureré Tureré Lake Lake Madabá Madabá

Village of Muirapinima Village of Muirapinima

Capiranga Base Base Capiranga

er r iv ive R n nR azoazo m A Am Parintins Parintins

20 km

Each of these Each of these squares covers squares covers 400400 km2km or2 or 40,000 40,000 hectares hectares

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Mu nic ipa lity of P Mu nic ari nti ipa ns lity of P ari nti ns

20 km

Mu nic ipa lity Mu of nic Sa ipa nt aré lity m of Sa nt aré m

u ur Mam u ur

Mam

Ri R ve iv r er

20 km 20 km

SeeSee this map on on a larger this map a larger scale on on thethe following pages scale following pages

eiro o of Av Aveir ality ality of ip ic n ip Mu Munic

What is is What shown on on shown thisthis map map

Municipality of Juruti Municipality of Juruti Communities Communities Villages Villages

Municipal capital Municipal capital Alcoa basebase Alcoa

Paved roads Paved roads Unpaved roads Unpaved roads Railroad Railroad Rivers and streams Rivers and streams

Port Port Airport/airstrip Airport/airstrip

NorthNorth


What is shown on these maps

This region of the municipality is enlarged in the map below

Municipality of Juruti Communities Villages Municipal capital Alcoa base Paved roads Unpaved roads Railroad Rivers and streams

North

Port Airport/airstrip

Lake Grande

Amazon River Santa Rita

Jangada

Juruti

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Cristo Rei Laguinho Santa Maria

Santana Araçá Branco Santa Rosa São José

Vera Cruz

Lake Poção Grande

Araçá Branco Baixo

São São Jerônimo Nsa. Sra. do Carmo Luiz Portugal Vila Nova Lago Preto Sto. Antônio Paraíso São Areial I do Salé Benedito Betânia Piedade Areial II Bom que Dói São João Areial III Sta. Terezinha da Mataria Salmoura Village of Castanhal Jararaca Justina Araçá Preto Nsa. Sra. da Conceição São Manoel Espanha São Paulo São Pedro Village of Tabatinga Igarapé-Açu Rio Jordão Sta. Rita de Cássia Mariá Betânia Mata Limpa Chaves Cacimba Nova União Diamantino Urucurana De Pedreira Ferrugem Café Torrado Alemanha Valha-me Deus Castanhal Grande Traíra I Boa Vista Nova Vida Paraíso Uxituba Terra Preta São Braz Esperança Traíra III Bela Vista Nova Aliança São Raimundo Núcleo Raifran São Mariano do Oriente Sto. Hilário Capelinha Nova Jerusalém da Raiz Nova Monte Sinai Nova Mocambo Jabuti Bem Longe Monte Muria Macaiani Ingracia Bela Vista Sta. Madalena Maravilha Cipó Capitão Surval São Raimundo Mentai Juruti-Açu Village of Muirapinima Monte Sinai Batata Açaí Germana Prudente Alto Alegre Açailandia Capiranga Pompom Fé em Deus

Pau-D’Arco

Galiléia Recordação

Da Ordem

Jauari

Capiranga Base

Tauari São Raimundo do Aruã

Rio Verde

São Francisco do Aruã Mu nic ipa lity of Sa nt aré m

s

Close-up of northern Juruti

Novo Paraíso do Aruã


Chaves Valha-me deus

Detalhe da região sul de Close-up Jurutiof southern Juruti

Rio Jordão

Nova União De Pedreira

Diamantino Alemanha Alemanha

Essa This região regionUxituba of Nova Aliança Núcleo Raifran dothe município municipality Capelinha Nova Monte está is enlarged ampliada inSina Nova Mocambo Monte Muria Macaiani Ingracia nothe mapa map below Maravilha Sta. Madelena

Café Torrado Esperança

São Braz

Capitão Surval Juruti-Açu Vila Muirapinima Monte Sinai Acai Germana Prudente Acailandia

São Rdo. do

Sto. Hilário Jabuti Cipó

Caipiranga Pompom Fé em Deus

Pau D’Arco

Jauari

Base Caipiranga

Norte North

Galiléia

Betel Santa Maria São Francisco do Barro Santa Maria Santo Antônio do Muritiba São José do Laguinho Colônia Santa Luzia São João do Laguinho São Pedro da Nova Olinda

São Sebastião do Curuá São Mateus da Quebrinha

São João Batista do Arauá

Jardim do Senhor

Mu nic ipa lity of Sa nt aré

m

São João do Curuá

Boa Vista de Sabina Lírio do Vale

Sabina Deus Proverá Nossa Senhora de

Lourdes

Monte Eresi Mocambo do Mamuru

Monte Ararate

Jaratuba

Samaúma Monte Carmelo

Guaramutaba Mirizal Maria Cuã

f lity o icipa Mun

o Aveir

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Charts help us perceive quantities, just as we can identify which of these two ďŹ sh is larger:

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There are basically three types of charts. See how they work on the next page.


BAR Bar charts are good for comparing quantities. The length of the bar indicates the quantity, so a taller bar means a larger quantity.

Imagine three friends who want to compare who has the most coins in their pockets. They place the coins on a table like this:

They have coins of equal value, so they place them in piles. This makes it easy to see who has the biggest pile:

Paul

A bar chart follows the same principle as the pile of coins. The size of the bar indicates its value:

NUMBER OF COINS 10 5

Peter

John

Peter Paul

John

4

Peter Paul

John

LINE

NUMBER OF SANDALS SOLD

The more the line rises, the greater the variation from one month to the next:

NUMBER OF SANDALS SOLD

Ja nu ar Fe y br ua ry M ar ch A pr il M ay

NUMBER OF SANDALS SOLD

When the salesman draws a line connecting the tops of the bars, the evolution is easier to see:

Ja nu ar Fe y br ua ry M ar ch A pr il M ay

A salesman wants to know how many sandals he sells each month, so he creates a bar chart:

Ja nu ar Fe y br ua ry M ar ch A pr il M ay

Line charts help us see how quantities evolve over time. If the line goes up, this means that the quantity has increased. If the line goes down, it signals that the quantity has decreased over the period.

PIE Pie charts are good for showing parts of a whole, which is why we use them when we are dealing with percentages.

A cook bakes a cake to be cut into 100 slices for 100 guests.

If the cook counted the guests who liked or did not like the cake, it would look like this: Liked

Did not eat

The chart is like a cake divided into 100 pieces. This is why we use it to show percentages: Liked

20 slices 50 slices

30 slices

Did not like

Did not eat 20%

50% 30%

Did not like

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The Indicators of Juruti will now be presented on the following pages. The information was collected up until 2008, with the exception of a small amount of data collected in 2009. In other words, this is in general a picture of Juruti in 2008. The information is organized into three sections, 28 topics, 78 indicators and 158 metrics. In the first section, Environment, we present data on the dynamics of land occupation, mineral resources, water, air & climate, fauna, flora, envi-

ronmental services, fish & fishing, and agriculture & livestock. In Humans and Society, data is presented on population, education, health, social vulnerability, security, culture, sport & leisure, labor, employment & income, social participation and socioenvironmental conflicts. Finally, in Economy and Infrastructure, we address the local economy, public finances, energy, sewage, garbage, housing, transport, communication, private investment and financial services.


Land cover and use

The urban area increased 120%

TYPES OF LAND COVER AND USE (1)

VARIATION

In hectares

Decreased Increased 2000/2001

2008

283.60 622,096.93 75,533.75 22,672.62 109,117.95 1.80

Urbanized area Forest Forest-fallow Small-scale family farming Water Cloud Mining (2)

626.45 617,754.48 76,989.93 24,196.07 110,139.72 0 2007

Areas allocated for mineral exploration Areas under rehabilitation after mineral exploration

LEARN MORE

2008

33 0

0 0

(2)

In addition to the bauxite exploration areas, which are monitored by the indicators, the Juruti Mines’s industrial installations occupy an area of approximately 400 hectares, of which 82 hectares comprises the port, 293 hectares the beneficiation plant and 25 hectares the railroad.

34 WHAT IS THIS?

• Cloud: areas of the satellite image covered by cloud, making it impossible to identify the type of land cover and use.

• Forest: formed by primary vegetation or secondary vegetation in an advanced stage of regeneration. • Forest-fallow: secondary vegetation in initial or intermediary stages of regeneration in areas either used for farming, logging and livestock, or burned.

• Small-scale family farming: areas on which small-scale family farming is practiced.

• Areas of mineral exploration: refers to the areas being mined, that is, the land where the earth is being removed for mineral extraction. • Areas under rehabilitation: refers to the reforestation and restoration after mineral exploration

• Water: rivers, channels, streams and lakes.

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Treatment and interpretation of satellite images – 2000/2001 and 2008

(2) Source: Alcoa

n/a: information not available


DEFORESTED AREA (1) In %

Pará Juruti

17.17

17.82

18.23

18.68

19.13

16.44 15.54 14.86

12.91 12.72

13.03

13.10

13.15

13.26

13.33

2005

2006

13.41

13.55

ENVIRONMENT

12.34

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2007

(1) Source: National Institute of Space Research (INPE) – Program to Calculate the Deforestation of the Amazon (PRODES) Note: The data refer to the percentage of the accumulated deforested area vs the total area of the municipality/state

2008

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Territorial planning LAND PLANNING IN THE REGION AND THE BENEFICIARIES (1) By category, in 2008

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10

11

TERRA SANTA

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What is shown on this map

7 Municipal Capital NHAMUNDÁ

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2

Conservation Unit

5

State Glebe Lands Indigenous lands

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Curumucuri Glebe Land

Communities Municipal boundary

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PARINTINS r ive nR azo m A

1

JURUTI

3

Nova Olinda Glebe Land SANTARÉM

36

AndiráMaraú Indigenous Lands

Nova Olinda II Glebe Land

Mamuru Glebe Land

Tapajós Arapiuns Extractivist Reserve

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

PAE Juruti Velho PAE Valha-me Deus PA Vila Amazônia PAE Balaio PAE Salé PAE Lago Grande PAE Paraná Dona Rosa PAE Cacoal Grande PAE Cachoeiry PAE Paru PAE Santa Rita do Juruti PA Socó I PA Nova Esperança

North

Area inside Category

Name

SETTLEMENT PROJECT (PA)

PA Vila Amazônia PA Socó I PA Nova Esperança PAE Juruti Velho PAE Valha-me Deus PAE Balaio PAE Lago Grande PAE Santa Rita do Juruti PAE Paraná Dona Rosa PAE Salé PAE Cacoal Grande PAE Cachoeiry PAE Paru Andirá-Maraú Indigenous Land Tapajós Arapiuns Extractivist Reserve

AGRO-EXTRACTIVIST SETTLEMENT PROJECT (PAE)

INDIGENOUS LANDS (TI) CONSERVATION UNITS (UC)

Size

85,049 ha 23,539 ha 3,562 ha 96,317 ha 4,889 ha 18,571 ha 282,200 ha 12,299 ha 22,727 ha 33,133 ha 9,727 ha 38,971 ha 15,385 ha 788,528 ha 647,610 ha

Juruti Beneficiaries

0 23,539 ha 3,562 ha 96,317 ha 4,889 ha 18,571 ha 0 12,299 ha 22,727 ha 33,133 ha 0 0 0 0 0

n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

(1) Source: Treatment of satellite images (FGV) based on data from the National Indian Foundation (Funai), the National Settlement and Agrarian Reform Institute (INCRA) and the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Institute (IBAMA) n/a: information not avaliable


AREAS ALLOCATED FOR THE PURPOSES OF REGULARIZING LAND TENURE (1) In 2008

Curumucuri Glebe Land Nova Olinda II Glebe Land Nova Olinda Glebe Land Mamuru Glebe Land

IMPLEMENTATION OF MASTER PLAN In 2008, it was not possible to identify ways to evaluate the implementation of the Master Plan in Juruti

Size

Area inside Juruti

261,270 ha 472,316 ha 175,196 ha 290,909 ha

246,482 ha 191,088 ha 2,907 ha 0

Urban expansion and illegal land occupation (2) According to a report from CEC Engenharia evaluating the Master Plan between 2006 and 2008, the urban population increased by 50% and the rate of urban expansion was 110%, that is, it more than doubled. The population increase has resulted in a densification of neighborhoods, the settlement of peripheral zones and the illegal occupation of areas deficient in infrastructure. Illegal land occupation began in 2006, in the Lago do Jará Protected Zone and in four other glebe lands on the urban perimeter and on private land. In May 2008, new occupations occurred in the urban area.

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Treatment of satellite images based on data from the Land Institute of Pará (ITERPA) (2) Source: Report on the Tracking and Evaluation of Results – Urban Planning Program for the Town of Juruti - CEC Engenharia/Alcoa Note: The evaluation used satellite images from 2005, before the arrival of Alcoa, and two images from 2007 and 2008, which showed the illegal occupations that occurred between 2006 and 2008

ENVIRONMENT

Area

37


Mineral deposits PROSPECTING PERMITS (2) The records available on the website of the National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM) only contain information from 2008 onwards. There are no records of mineral prospecting permits in Juruti in 2008.

MINERAL DEPOSITS AND THEIR LOCATION (1) Until 2009 Al

Deposits of bauxite/aluminum

Al Al Al Al

JURUTI

38

Licensing and inspection AUTHORIZATIONS, PERMITS AND LICENSES FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION (3)

1 operating license 5 installation licenses 1 authorization to function 2 permits

9

2 preliminary licenses

1 operating license 1 installation license

1 permit

2

2 1

0

0

0

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

n/a 2005

2006

2007

2008

INSPECTIONS OF MINERAL EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES (3)(4) In 2008

Inspection agency

SEMMA

Type of inspection

2 Mineral exploration 2 Thermoelectric plant 1 Landfill

Inspection agency

SEMA

Type of inspection

9

(1) Source: Mineral Resources Research Agency (CPRM) Note: Information refers to mineral deposits up until 2009 (2) Source: National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM) (3) Source: State Environment Department (SEMA) of Pará (4) Source: Municipal Environment Department (SEMMA) – Municipal Government of Juruti n/a: information not avaliable


WHAT IS THIS? CFEM is calculated from the mineral product sale value, after sales taxes and transport and insurance expenses are deducted. When a sale is not made because the mineral product is consumed, processed or used by the same mining company, the value considered for the purposes of calculating the CFEM is the sum of the direct and indirect costs arising up until the moment that the mineral product is used. For aluminum ore, the rate is 3%.

MINING CONCESSIONS (1) The National Department of Mineral Production’s records of mining concessions for mineral exploration are available since the year 2000. In Juruti, concessions were only identified in 2006. Three mining concessions (nos. 370, 371 and 372) for aluminum ore were granted to the company OMNIA MINÉRIOS (Alcoa). PRODUCTION AND SALE OF THE MAIN MINERAL RESOURCES (2) Up until 2008, there were no records of any production or sale of mineral resources in Juruti.

14.8 LEGAL COMPENSATION IN MINERAL PRODUCTION (3) 9.5

Up until 2008, no CFEM or share in the mine’s earnings had been paid, since there was still no mineral exploration in Juruti

10

In R$ million

7 5.1 3.6 0

0

Beneficiaries

1.2

0

0

0

2006 2007 2008

2006 2007 2008

2006 2007 2008

Environmental Control Plans (PCAs)

National System of Conservation Units (SNUC)

Collective Compensation

Damages from the use and occupation of land

Share in the mine’s earnings

State Environment Department – Pará

Socó I Settlement Project

Affected residents

Owner of the mined land

Various

(1) Source: National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM)

2006 2007 2008 Financial compensation for the exploration of mineral resources (CFEM) 65% Municipal government 23% State government 12% Federal government

(2) Source: Mineral Report of Pará 2008 - National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM) (3) Source: Alcoa

ENVIRONMENT

Production and sale

39


Water Quality WATER QUALITY AT POINTS MONITORED BY ALCOA (1) excellent

good

regular

bad

very bad 2006

Amazon River Downstream from the port Amazon River P2 Upstream from the port Juruti Mirim Lake P3 Community of Alemanha P15 Maranhão Stream Bridge to Lago Preto P16 Maranhão Stream In front of HM P17 Jará Lake Reservoir formerly used by Cosanpa P18 Maranhão Stream Downstream from the public baths P19 Jará Lake Eastern side P20 Jará Lake Center P21 Jará Lake Northern end P22 São Pedro Stream After the community of São Pedro P23 Maranhão Stream Before the confluence of Igarapé da Ponte P8A Confluence of Igarapé-Açu and Prudente Opposite the community of Prudente P9 Juruti Grande Stream Upstream from the community of Maravilha P10 Cabeceira do Chain Water at the Juruti mine P11 Capiranga Stream Opposite the Capiranga Base P12 Jauari Stream Community of Jauari P13A Juruti Grande Stream Community of Pau-D’Arco P4 Branco River Community of Café Torrado Branco River P5 Community of Santo Hilário P13 Mutum Stream Former camp P14 Pacoval Stream After the confluence of Igarapé Socó P1

40

(1) Source: CNEC Engenharia/Alcoa

may

aug

2007 nov

feb

may

2008 sep

nov

feb

may

sep


How can the water be used without posing health risks

excellent

good

regular

bad

very bad

Drinking, washing vegetables and cooking once chlorinated (or boiled) Drinking, washing vegetables and cooking once filtered or chlorinated (or boiled) Swimming/bathing Washing clothes Watering vegetable patch, orchard, park and garden Fish farming Amateur fishing/drinking water for animals Mooring boats and navigation

JURUTI P1 P2 P15

Lago Preto

r ive nR o az Am

P21

Laguinho

São

P20 José P23 P17 Sta. Maria P18 São P19 P16 Portugal Luiz Jará

Betânia

Bom que Doi

Sta. Terezinha

Piranhas P22 Lake Jararaca Araçá Preto Nsa. Sra. da Conceição São Pedro Espanha São Paulo Rio Jordão Mariá Sta. Rita de Cássia Nova União Diamantino De Pedreira Café Torrado P3 Alemanha Nova Vida Uxituba São Raimundo São Braz P4 do Oriente Nova Aliança

Juruti Mirim Núcleo Raifran Stream Capelinha Nova Monte Sinai Mocambo Monte Muria Bela Vista Sta. Madalena Maravilha Juruti-Açu P9 Surval V. Muirapinima P8A Monte Sinai Açaí Germana Prudente Açailandia P10

Pompom

Sto. Hilário Branco River

P5

Jabuti

Cipó

Capiranga

P13A Jauari

Pau-D’Arco

P11

WHAT IS THIS? The classification (1) was based on an evaluation of key parameters for water use, namely: dissolved oxygen, total solids, turbidity, fecal coliforms (which indicate the presence of feces in the water) and the amount of cianobacterias (tiny alga that can cause health problems if they grow in large quantities).

MONITORING THE WATER QUALITY Up until 2008, water quality was not monitored, only some testing conducted by Alcoa and reviewed by public bodies. Alternatives, such as participative monitoring, involve local residents in controlling the quality of their water. Find out more!

Capiranga Base

P12

Aruã River

Juruti Grande Stream

P14

P1

North

Sampling points This is the region of Juruti enlarged in the map above

Microbasins Communities Villages Alcoa base (1) Source: CNEC Engenharia/Alcoa

ENVIRONMENT

Location of the water sampling points (1)

41


Access to treated water PUBLIC SUPPLY OF WATER IN THE URBAN AREA (1) In 2007

population served by the 5,877 Urban public supply of water

Amount of water

Produced

41,222 m3

Treated

41,222 m3

Number of urban connections In 2007 (1) Active Inactive Residential Commercial Industrial Public

1,034 n/a

1,020 1 0 13

In 2008 (2) The municipal government made nearly 10,000 urban water connections in Juruti.

PERCEPTION ON ACCESS TO WATER IN RURAL COMMUNITIES (2) In 2009

Rural communities with access to water

44

communities Microsystem

72 communities

42

Well

95

communities Stream/river

48

communities Spring

11 communities

Waterhole

162 is the number of communities that responded

Total das comunidade

Each community may have more than one type of access to water

(1) Source: COSANPA, the Pará state water utility (2) Source: Municipal Department of Planning – Juruti Municipal Government (3) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Community Information Workshop - May 2009 Note: The data represent information obtained from a questionnaire applied to community advisors from the areas of the Municipal Department of Community Integration on the infrastructure in Juruti’s rural communities. Of the 194 communities listed by the Department, responses were obtained for 162 communities n/a: information not avaliable


1. Microsystem: Consists of a hydraulic pump that pumps underground water directly into a water tank. It is considered the best solution for communities in the Amazon, where underground water is abundant and good quality. Having running water straight from the tap makes life much easier, although the pump requires a source of energy to work.

INSPECTION OF THE QUALITY AND USE OF WATER (1) In 2008

Inspection agency:

SEMMA Type of inspection:

Contamination of streams and treatment of effluents Inspection operations:

8

2. Well: All varieties of well with different types of pump systems. The majority of the wells in Juruti are manual, so they do not need electrical energy. However, water quality is not guaranteed. 3. Stream/river: Using water from streams and rivers raises some major doubts about water quality, since it depends on the location of the community and the land occupation in the region. 4. Spring: When we draw water from a spring, quality is far less of a problem, since it is taken straight from the source. 5. Waterhole: A small shallow hole dug in the ground that is generally only used in the summer, during the rainy season. (1) Source: Municipal Environment Department (SEMMA) – Municipal Government of Juruti

LEARN MORE The treatment of water is very important to avoid a number of illnesses. In the region of Juruti, treated water is generally either filtered or sterilized. The filters, which can be made of clay or sand and coal, among other types, are a good means of physical water purification, that is, preventing dangerous impurities from being consumed. Sterilization, which is done with the use of chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), is a chemical treatment that kills the microorganisms that cause illnesses.

ENVIRONMENT

Inspection

43


Air quality AIR QUALITY AT POINTS MONITORED BY ALCOA (1) Results of air quality in samples collected from seven sampling points, in %

84%

16%

Good

Regular

2006

68%

26%

Good

Regular

2007

44 75%

1% Bad 1% Very Bad

25%

Good

Regular

2008

(1) Source: CNEC Engenharia/Alcoa

4% Inadequate

WHAT IS THIS? The classification of air quality as GOOD, REGULAR, INADEQUATE, BAD, VERY BAD and CRITICAL is based on the number of suspended particles in the air. If the rate exceeds the limit of 240 g/m³, then the air quality fails to meet the recommended standards. GOOD and REGULAR meet the standard set in Resolution 03/90 of the National Environment Council (Conama); IMPROPER, BAD, VERY BAD and CRITICAL do not comply with the standard of Conama Resolution 03/90.


INSTANCES OF FIRES (1) In number of instances

193

120

1996

1997

23 n/a 1998

38

28

31 8

20

3

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Emissions of greenhouse gases EMISSIONS OF CO2 Up until 2008, we did not identify any initiatives for greenhouse gas inventories in Juruti.

(1) Source: State Environment Department (SEMA) - Pará n/a: information not available

LEARN MORE Over the past few decades, the environmental debate has come to the forefront. This is because rising levels of pollution have intensified the greenhouse effect, making the planet warmer and the climate more unruly (with more droughts, hurricanes, storms and undefined seasons). The greenhouse effect has got worse because gases such as carbon dioxide, released by cars and motorbikes, and by forests when they are burned, do not allow the heat to disperse in the atmosphere. They absorb part of this heat and cause the planet to warm.

ENVIRONMENT

5

10

45


Occurrence, conservation and use PERCEPTION OF THE OCCURRENCE OF FAUNA, ITS USE AND SPECIES THREATENED WITH EXTINCTION (1) In 2009

OCCURRENCE

Rare

Moderate

TREND

Frequent

Varies by region Occurrence and trend

46

Decreasing Threat of extinction

Increasing

Varies by region

Use

Jaguar

Yes

None

Margay

Yes

None

Giant armadillo

Yes

Hunting

Hyacinth macaw

Yes

None

Bush dog

Yes

None

Giant otter

Yes

None

Giant anteater

Yes

None

Manatee

Yes

None

Tapir

No

Medicinal & Hunting

Red-footed tortoise

No

Hunting

Curassow

No

Hunting & Crafts

White-lipped peccary

No

Hunting

Pacas

No

Hunting & Medicinal

Turtles

No

Hunting & Stewardship

Agouti

No

Hunting & Dispersal of seeds

Armadillo

No

Hunting & Medicinal

Collared peccary

No

Hunting

Monkeys

No

Hunting & Dispersal of seeds

Deer

No

Hunting & Superstition

Capybara

No

Hunting & Medicinal

Coati

No

Hunting, Medicinal and domestic utensil

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Rural Workers Union of Juruti (STTR) – May 2009. Species under threat of extinction according to the Environmental Impact Study/Environmental Impact Report – Juruti – CNEC Engenharia – December 2004


Inspection

CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE PROGRAMS (1)

INSPECTION OPERATIONS (2) In 2008, we identified three inspection operations conducted by SEMMA for fauna in Juruti.

• Program: Integrated Stewardship of Amazon Turtles in Juruti • Period: 2007 and 2008 • Institute Responsible: ICMBio/RAN • Description: Protection and stewardship of turtle egg deposits, by identifying turtle populations, conducting research on conservation and sustainable management of the species, training producers and communities, and environmental education • Beneficiaries: Families from the region of influence of the Juruti mine: community of São Benedito (Ilha do Chaves); Recreio (Paraná de D. Rosa); Galiléia, Jauari, Santa Madalena and Capitão (Juruti Velho); Araçá Preto (Lago do Araçá); Santa Terezina (Lago das Piranhas); Santa Maria (Lago do Curumucuri); Nossa Senhora do Carmo (Igarapé das Fazendas) and São Sebastião (Ilha de Santa Rita)

(1) Source: Chico Mendes Biodiversity Conservation Institute (ICMBio) – Center for the Conservation and Stewardship of Reptiles and Amphibians (RAN) (2) Source: Municipal Environment Department (SEMMA) – Municipal Government of Juruti

ENVIRONMENT

Technical assistance and support

47


Occurrence, conservation and use PERCEPTION OF THE OCCURRENCE AND TREND OF FLORA, ITS USE AND SPECIES THREATENED WITH EXTINCTION (1)(2) In 2009 Species

48

Amapá Andiroba Angelim Carapanaúba Sweet Chestnut Cedar Cedrorana Copaíba Cumaru Cupiúba Guaruba Ipê Itaúba Jacarandá Jarana Jatobá Maracatiara Miri Cinnamon tree Rosewood Piquiá Preciosa Sapupira Rubber Tree Sucuba Uxi

Perceived trend

TREND

Decreasing Increasing

Species threatened with extinction

Technical assistance and support TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT PROGRAMS FOR FLORA In 2008, we did not identify any technical support programs for flora in Juruti.

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Rural Workers Union of Juruti (STTR) – May 2009. (2) Source: Species under threat of extinction according to the Environmental Impact Study/Environmental Impact Report – Juruti – CNEC Engenharia – December 2004


Forestry production AMOUNT AND VALUE OF PRODUCTION IN PLANT EXTRACTION Amount of lumber and firewood produced in plant extraction

249,000

(1)

In cubic meters Firewood

216,000

Lumber

180,000

125,000

12,000 2000

12,000 2001

121,000

116,160

106,000

10,000 2002

2003

12,000

5,000

5,100

2004

2005

10,000 2006

15,000

2007

Amount produced in plant extraction (1)

49

By type of product, in tons

216

Charcoal

190 306

151 200

Brazil nuts

385 220

Açaí berries

Cumaru (tonka beans) Others

200 200

216

66

30

160

182

218

255

150

100 60 283 170

213

45

50

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

(1) Source: Plant Extraction and Forestry Production – IBGE

ENVIRONMENT

118,000


260

Value of production in plant extraction

(1)

By value of product, in R$ thousand

153 Charcoal

142

139

120 Brazil nuts 102 96

120

66

50

38 9 2000

Cumaru Others

50

0 1

USE OF THE FORESTS The main uses of the forests are timber extractivism, non-timber extractivism, community hunting and biodiversity reserves. Non-timber extractivism is an activity performed by the various traditional communities that exist in the municipality of Juruti. Timber extractivism, meanwhile, should occur through the granting of forest stewardship concessions by the public authorities. However, unfortunately it also occurs through fraudulent land grabbing and illegal logging.

40 10

86

60

70

55

53

117 Açaí berries

88

40 22

2001

2002

1 1

1 1

16 2003

2004

2 1

2 1

2005

2 1

2006

2 1

2007

3 1

Value of production in timber extraction(1)

4,056

By type of product, in R$ thousand

(1) Source: Plant Extraction and Forestry Production – IBGE

Firewood Lumber

3,456

1,250 700

590 516 2000

600 2001

636 2002

929

1,089

306

325

2003

2004

1,275

1,620 840

800

2005

2006

2007


Licensing and inspection AUTHORIZATIONS, PERMITS AND LICENSES FOR FLORA (1)(2)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Type of authorization, permit or license

SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMA SEMMA SEMA

Industrial Sawmill – Operating license Industrial Sawmill – Permit Industrial Sawmill – Operating license Industrial Sawmill – Operating license Industrial Sawmill – Operating license Industrial Sawmill – Permit None Industrial Sawmill – Permit Industrial Sawmill – Operating license None Burning forest-fallow n/a

2 1 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 0 94 n/a

FLORA INSPECTION OPERATIONS (2)(3) Year

Inspection agency

2008

SEMMA IBAMA

Type of inspection

Wood Vegetation clearing Operations Notices of infractions

Inspection operations

7 2 4 25

WOOD ECONOMY Plant extractivism used to be the most important economic activity in the Amazon at the start of the 20th century, during the rubber boom, when the cities of Manaus, Porto Velho and Belém prospered. These days, the most sought after forest product is wood, besides rubber, and to a lesser degree Brazil nuts, guarana berries and other plants. Wood extraction is intense, particularly in Pará, and the main destination for the lumber is São Paulo.

(1) Source: State Environment Department (SEMA) – Pará (2) Source: Municipal Environment Department (SEMMA) – Municipal Government of Juruti (3) Source: Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Institute (IBAMA) n/a: information not available

ENVIRONMENT

Year

Authorizations, permits and licenses

Inspection agency

51


Environmental services PAYMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

52

Up until 2008, no initiatives to pay for environmental services were identified in Juriti. Everyone knows about the importance of the forest, the soil, the rivers and the seas. Besides providing food, medicinal products and materials for building houses and countless other purposes, these environments, called ecosystems, play other very important roles in sustaining life. And not just for us, but for all nature. The forest, for example, preserves the soil, by preventing erosion, and conserves water, by enabling the ground to act like a sponge. When the forest grows, the air becomes cleaner. In contrast, when it is cut down, the climate warms. In other words, forests, just like other environments, provide a “service” to society, since they benefit everyone. As a result, projects began to emerge to pay for the these “services”, known as Payment for Environmental Services, or by the Portuguese acronym PSA. They are mechanisms to remunerate landowners or populations that stick to the traditional use of their land by protecting its forests. These services may be paid directly by companies, through environmental funds, or by municipal, state or federal government programs. Environmental services are generally grouped into three

categories: carbon, since native forests and reforestation help remove and store carbon from the atmosphere, thereby reducing the impact of climate change; water, since forests, riparian woodland and proper soil management can prevent erosion and the sedimentation of streams and rivers, thereby avoiding a reduction in the quality of water and potential damage to fish farming, hydroelectric power generation and irrigation; and biodiversity, which, while difficult to measure, these services include scenic beauty, which permits ecotourism, and biodiversity

FGV

assets, such as plants and fruit that generate opportunities for biotechnology. One example of PSA is the case in the municipality of Extrema, in the state of Minas Gerais, where farmers have, since 2007, been receiving a monthly payment from the municipal government in exchange for conserving springs and for letting land lie fallow so natural vegetation can grow back on their farms. The purpose of the program is very clear: to restore some of these degraded areas and provide compensation to the farmers.


Occurrence, conservation and use PERCEPTION OF THE OCCURRENCE OF FISH AND SPECIES THREATENED WITH EXTINCTION (1)(2)(3) In 2009

Rare

Moderate

TREND

Frequent

None

Juruti Velho

Decreasing

Conceição do Salé

Capital

Increasing

Santa Rita

Stable Tabatinga and Igarapé das Fazendas

Bom Jesus

YES no

no no

- -

no no no no no

no no no no no

-

- -

- -

no no

no no

- -

no no no no no

no no no no YES

no no no no no no YES

no no no no no YES

no no

YES no

no no no

no no no

no no no no no

no no no no no no YES no

Angelfish Marbled Sailfin Pleco Tiger Oscar King Gold Threespot Leporinus Stingray Arrowana

- -

Bagre Catfish Rock-Bacu Catfish

- -

- -

Porthole Shovelnose Catfish Glass Headstander Cottonmouth Jack Charuto Headstander Gilded Catfish Kumakuma Flatwhiskered Catfish Cajuba Black Prochilodus Silver Catfish Jaraqui Characid Pike Cichlid Giant Catfish Gold Wolf Fish Lambia Pacupeba Graceful Pimelodena Manduba Catfish Amazon Brycon (matrinxã) Dogfish Silver Croaker Piracatinga Catfish Piramoela Laulao Catfish Piramutaba Catfish

Overfished or threatened Threat of with extinction (2) overfishing (3)

- -

-

-

no no no

no

(continued)

ENVIRONMENT

OCCURRENCE

53


- -

Aracu Arraia Aruanã

Braço-de-moça Branquinha Cara de gato Charuto Dourada

-

- -

no no

no no

- -

no no no no no

no no no no SIM

no no no no no no SIM

no no no no no SIM

no no

SIM no

no no no

no no no

Filhote Fura-calça Cujuba Curimatã Jandiá Jaraqui - -

Jacundá

-

Jaú Jiju Lãbiá Mafurá Mandi

-

Mandubé Matrinxã Peixe Cachorro Pescada Piracatinga Piramoela Piramutaba Piranambu

Juruti Velho

Conceição do Salé

Capital

Santa Rita

Tabatinga and Igarapé das Fazendas

-

Piranha Fish Red-Bellied Pacu Red-Tailed Catfish Spotted Metynnis Arapaima Highwaterman Catfish

no no no

- -

- -

Bagre Bacu

no no no

no

no no no no no no Threat of Bom Jesusno extinction (2) no

no no no no Overfished or no threatened nowith (3) overfishing SIM no

no YES no YES no no

no no no no YES no

Spotted Surubim Sardine Giant Pacu

YES no no

no YES YES

Cascarudo Trahira Peacock Cichlid

no no no

no no no

- -

54

4 8 3

Location of the bases of the Z-42 Fishing Colony that supplied the data (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Juruti Velho Conceição do Salé Capital Santa Rita Areial Tabatinga Igarapé das Fazendas Bom Jesus

7 2

6

5

1

JURUTI

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Z-42 Fishing Colony – May 2009 Note: The data present information obtained by representatives of 8 of the 11 bases of the Z-42 Fishing Colony identified in 2009. The information from the centers of Igarapé das Fazendas, Areial and Tabatinga are presented together, exactly how it was presented at the workshop. Information from Irateua, Araça Preto and Ilha do Valha-me Deus was not collected and, as such, is not presented. Note: Representatives from Ilha do Valha-me Deus participated in the workshop, but they were not present when this data was collected (2) Source: Regulatory Instruction No. 5, of May 1, 2004 – Ministry of the Environment (3) Source: Regulatory Instruction No. 52, of November 8, 2005 – Ministry of the Environment (-) not informed


Fishermen PROFILE OF THE MEMBERS OF THE Z-42 FISHING COLONY (1)(2)

Members and insurance holders 1,864 Members

860 68 2004

715 273 2006

2008

Members by gender 750

864 Women 426

2004

2006

Increase in the proportion of women members

2008

Location

1,005 Rural

789

859

430

2004

THE FISHERMEN OF JURUTI

1,000 Men

881

110

430

Policyholders (offseason income insurance)

Urban

518 2006

2008

Location of members, by gender

Men

Women

Urban

477 382

Rural

523 482

The characteristics of the fishermen and women of Juruti vary depending on the region, since fishing in lakes is different from fishing in the Amazon river. Generally speaking, fishing is a family business, but they also pursue other activities and therefore have other sources of income, so they do not live on fishing alone. They also engage in farming and raise livestock. Since the fishermen in Juruti do not fish in large vessels or in distant waters, they go out fishing and come back the same day. They set limits and rules for their activities and have their own fishing agreements. Not all the agreements work perfectly, but through collective efforts, they have secured a number of welfare benefits, such as offseason income insurance.

(1) Source: Z-42 Fishing Colony (2) Source: Movement and Fishermen and Fisherwomen from Western Pará and Baixo Amazonas (MOPEBAN) – Regional Diagnosis 2007 (3) Source: Primary Data Collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Z-42 Fishing Colony – May 2009

ENVIRONMENT

1,307

55


Inspection

PERCEPTION OF FISHING TECHNIQUES (1) In 2009

OCCURRENCE

Rare

Profile of fishermen

TREND

Moderate

Frequent

Decreasing

Perceived intensity of use

Fishing techniques and tackle

Z-42 members Small monofilament nylon gillnet Large multifilament nylon gillnet Fishing rod Longline Cast net Harpoon Bow and arrow Assegai spear Handline Weir Others Trawl net

56

Increasing

Stable

Perceived trend

Varies by region

Varies by region Varies by region Varies by region

FISHING INSPECTION OPERATIONS (2)(3) In 2008, the Municipal Environment Department conducted inspection operations almost on a daily basis starting in November, in the breeding season. The Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Institute (IBAMA) has run operations that have resulted in the seizure of 14 shipments and 14 tons of fish.

Varies by region

Technical assistance and support TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT PROGRAMS (1)(4)(5)(6)(7) In 2008

Programs

Advice on the development of projects to apply for low-interest loans from PRONAF Project to farm the Giant Pacu Courses for the Z-42 Board Courses on fish processing Fish farming project Feed plant project

Institution responsible

Beneficiaries

EMATER

80 projects developed

CNEC Engenharia PRO-VÁRZEA SENAI SEMAGRI CNEC Engenharia

9 groups of 5 to 10 families Z-42 Board 40 fishermen Community of São José (Vila Souza) Community of Novo Horizonte (Juruti Velho)

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Z-42 Fishing Colony – May 2009 (2) Source: Municipal Environment Department (SEMMA) – Municipal Government of Juruti (3) Source: Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Institute (IBAMA) (4) Source: Z-42 Fishing Colony (5) Source: Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Agency of the State of Pará (EMATER) (6) Source: Municipal Agriculture Department (SEMAGRI) Municipal Government of Juruti (7) Source: CEC Engenharia/Alcoa


FISH FARMING PROJECTS (1)(2)(3)

FISHING AGREEMENTS (4)(5)

In 2008

In 2007

No. of Projects Species

Description

Institution

Number of fishing

Giant Pacu

1

CNEC Farming in the agreements region of Juruti Engenharia Velho – 9 groups of 5 to 10 families

Tambatinga

1

Farming in 11 tanks

SEMAGRI

Farming in streams

CNEC Engenharia

(cross between the Giant Pacu and the Red-Bellied Pacu)

Amazon Brycon (Matrinxã)

1

QUANTITY SOLD AND VALUE OF PRODUCTION (5) The Z-42 Fishing Colony informed that, between March 15 and April 15 of 2008, 105 tons of fish were sold, of which 38 tons were shipped outside the municipality. No other information on production and sale is available.

10

Areas covered by the fishing agreements: • Region of São Luis • Community of Uxituba • Community of Arieal I • Community of Lago Preto • Region of Lago do Tucunaré • Region of Juruti Velho • Region of Juruti Mirim • Region of Ilha Valha-me Deus, Ilha do Chaves and Ilha do Macaiani • Community of Santa Rosa • Community of Santa Maria (Region of Curumucuri)

WHAT IS THIS? “Fishing Agreements” are rules set by communities to regulate fishing in a given area, in accordance with the interests of the local community and the need to conserve fish stocks. In many places, uncontrolled fishing has triggered conflicts between commercial fishermen, local communities and environmental organizations. To begin with, these “Fishing Agreements” were hammered out by community leaders, without the need for government regulation or sanction. But in 2003, IBAMA published Regulatory Instruction No. 29, recognizing the “Fishing Agreement” as a fishing planning instrument and established the criteria for their regulation.

PERCEPTION ON THE POTENTIAL FOR FISH SALES (2)

In 2009

OCCURRENCE Main fish species

Low

Moderate

High

Potential for sale

Angelfish Marbled Sailfin Pleco Tiger Oscar King Gold Threespot Leporinus Stingray Arrowana Rock-Bacu Catfish Porthole Shovelnose Catfish Bagre Catfish Glass Headstander Cottonmouth Jack Charuto Headstander

Gilded Catfish Kumakuma Flatwhiskered Catfish Cajuba Black Prochilodus Jaraqui Characid Pike Cichlid Silver Catfish Giant Catfish Gold Wolf Fish Lãbiá Pacupeba Graceful Pimelodena

Manduba Catfish Highwaterman Catfish Amazon Brycon (matrinxã) Dogfish Silver Croaker Piracatinga Catfish Piramoela Laulao Catfish Piramutaba Catfish Piranha Fish Red-Bellied Pacu Red-Tailed Catfish Spotted Metynnis

Arapaima Spotted Surubim Sardine Giant Pacu Cascarudo Trahira Peacock Cichlid

(1) Source: CNEC Engenharia/Alcoa (2) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Z-42 Fishing Colony – May 2009 (3) Source: Municipal Agriculture Department (SEMAGRI) - Municipal Government of Juruti (4) Source: Municipal Environment Department (SEMMA) – Municipal Government of Juruti (5) Source: Z-42 Fishing Colony

ENVIRONMENT

Stewardship, production and sale

57


Family farmers and small livestock producers MEMBERS OF THE RURAL WORKERS UNION (1) In 2008

8,258

By gender

Men Women

By location

n/a n/a

Rural Urban

n/a n/a

members

Agriculture and Livestock producers MEMBERS OF THE RURAL UNION (2) In 2008

50 members

58

ProďŹ le of the members 47 Men 3 Women

Location of the members 20 Rural 30 Urban

(1) Source: Rural Workers Union of Juruti (STTR). No data available on the number of members receiving welfare beneďŹ ts, on the number of male and female members, or on the number of members from rural or urban Juruti (2) Source: Rural Union of Juruti n/a: information not avaliable


Technical assistance and support PROGRAMS FOR AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)

ATES

(Technical, Social and Environmental Consulting for Agrarian Reform) –

Institution responsible

Beneficiaries of the program

Description of the program

EMATER

n/a

Provide technical, social and environmental consulting to families settled by Agrarian Reform Projects and Settlement Projects recognized by INCRA, turning them into structured production units that are productively competitive, market driven, aligned with the dynamics of municipal and regional development, and environmentally sustainable.

EMATER

n/a

Collaborate with the social, environmental, economic and sustainable food development of rural communities, through technical, social, operational and budgetary planning, with the intention of contributing to the implementation of the Pará state government’s rural development policies.

75 families from the region of Juruti Velho

Implement, in one year, 155 family beekeeping businesses in the municipalities of Terra Santa, Juruti, Alenquer, Oriximiná and Prainha, generating employment, raising incomes, promoting gender equality and improving quality of life for families from the region of Baixo Amazonas.

Settlement Projects PROATER

(Technical and Rural Extension Consulting Program) –

Projects outside Settlements

Enxame (Swarm) CEFT-BAM project

(communities of Maravilha, Açailândia and Juruti Velho)

Pajiroba project

ICE, ALCOA and CAMARGO CORRÊA

Nearly 450 families from the municipality of Juruti

Contribute to improving quality of life in the communities of Juruti, by raising incomes, investing in family farming and handicrafts, empowering grassroots organizations and strengthening local governance.

Project to raise small animals

Municipal Agriculture Department

100 families

Professional training, in addition to monitoring progress and providing technical guidance to farmers, while also helping them with part of the necessary infrastructure for the aviaries and enclosed areas, such as wire netting, water and feed troughs, chicks and the first few supplies of feed.

Professional training course

Municipal Agriculture Department

n/a

Professional training in making maximum use of manioc derivatives, livestock and others, and in administration and management of farms and small businesses.

Distribution of cuttings

Municipal Agriculture Department

n/a

Distribution of cuttings of the curauá plant (a bromeliad) and seeds of watermelon, vegetables, beans, jute, mallow, corn and rice, during each planting season, as an incentive to grow this produce for subsistence.

Beekeeping project

Municipal Agriculture Department

n/a

Support and incentivize the production of honey.

Family Kitchen Garden project

CNEC Engenharia/ Alcoa

97 families

Instruction on how to cultivate kitchen gardens, thereby contributing to the diversification of family production, supplementing income and improving the quality of meals for schoolchildren.

Project to Improve the Production Chain of Manioc

CNEC Engenharia/ Alcoa

73 families

Instruction on how to improve the production chain of manioc – technologies to improve the soil, planting techniques and making maximum use of manioc derivatives.

(free-range chickens)

(1) Source: Workers of Baixo Amazonas Study and Training Center (CEFT-BAM) (2) Source: Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Agency of the State of Pará (EMATER) (3) Source: Corporate Citizenship Institute (ICE) (4) Source: Municipal Agriculture Department (SEMAGRI) - Municipal Government of Juruti (5) Source: CEC Engenharia/Alcoa n/a: information not available

ENVIRONMENT

In 2008

59


Production and sale PERCEPTION OF PRODUCTION METHODS (1) In 2009

OCCURRENCE

Low

Stages of production

Moderate

High

TREND

Decreasing

Increasing

Stable

Type

Varies

Occurrence

Land Preparation

60

Slash-and-burn Uncontrolled fires Coivara (slash-and-burn with additional clearing before burning) Seeds, cuttings, manioc shoots Seeds, Cuttings, Own production (manioc shoots) Manioc Shoots Purchase (corn, beans, watermelon, rice) Distribution programs Farm Work Work party (preparation, Family labor planting, clearing) Hired labor Planting Nonaligned (manioc shoots) Aligned Harvest Society Processing Soaking manioc in a stream Soaking manioc in a waterhole Soaking manioc in a water tank Making manioc Machine grater flour Manual grater Strainer Tipiti woven press Quality of the flour n/a Transport Paneiro (traditional wicker baskets) In sacks (wheelbarrow, cart, bicycle, motorbike) Training Courses run by STTR and partners n/a Sale Group (Farmers Market) Individual

Trend

n/a

n/a n/a n/a n/a

n/a n/a n/a n/a

FARMING AND LIVESTOCK ESTABLISHMENTS (2) In 1996

Number by type (2)

Area by type (2)

In number of establishments

In hectares

53,706

2,005 1,486

1,027

24,696

940

23,807

794 Perennial crops

Annual crops

Pastureland

Forest and woodland

Perennial crops

Annual crops

Pastureland

Note: Data from 2006 was not presented because they are preliminary, according to the IBGE

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Workshop for the Rural Workers Union of Juruti (STTR) – May 2009. (2) Source: Agriculture and Livestock Census – IBGE n/a: information not avaliable

Forest and woodland


CROPS

Total planted area (1) In hectares

15,840 11,774

16,099

11,815 11,919 6,732

229

2000

2001

215

188

2002

2003

Area planted with annual crops

125

225 2004

2005

6,009 Annual

100 Perennial

95 2006

2007

ENVIRONMENT

165

6,047

(1)

By type, in hectares

15,000 11,000

11,000

15,000

11,000 5,000 Manioc 6,000

5,000 1,009 Other crops

2000

Pineapple Rice Sweet potato Sugarcane Beans Tobacco Jute Mallow Manioc Watermelon Corn Tomato Total

12 30 5 10 180 2 300 50 11,000 5 180 11,774

2001

2002

10 55 5 12 180 2 50 245 11,000 6 250 11,815

10 55 12 180 2 225 130 11,000 5 300 11,919

(1) Source: Municipal Agricultural Production - IBGE

2003

15 40 12 280 2 125 56 15,000 5 300 5 15,840

2004

13 48 8 280 2 167 200 15,000 6 370 5 16,099

2005

13 30 10 150 2 50 66 6,000 6 400 5 6,732

2006

12 5 13 150 2 210 250 5,000 100 300 5 6,047

2007

10 7 9 80 2 70 75 5,000 150 600 6 6,009

61


Area planted with perennial crops (1) By type, in hectares

40 Banana 20 Coffee 20 Coconut 10 Orange 10 Passion fruit

Avocado Banana Cacao Coffee Coconut Orange Lime Passion fruit Black pepper Tangerine Achiote (urucum)

2000

2001

9 25 12 30 10 35 7 11 3 3 20

10 30 14 44 25 25 8 15 3 5 50

2002

2003

40 11 44 40 25 15 40

30 51 32 25 10 40

2004

2005

2006

30 20 20 15 10 -

30 20 40 25 10 -

30 88 32 25 10 40

2007

40 20 20 10 10 -

Amount produced, annual crops (1) By type, in tons

150,000

62 100,000

110,000

150,000

110,000 60,000 50,000

50,000 Manioc 6,471 Other crops

2000

2001

100 Pineapple* 120 55 Rice (in the husk) 30 15 15 Sweet potato 480 400 Sugarcane 108 108 Beans (dry beans) 1 1 Tobacco (leaves) 80 432 Jute (fiber, in tons) 396 90 Mallow (fiber) 100,000 110,000 Manioc 60 8 Watermelon 250 180 Corn (dry grains) Tomato *Thousand fruits

2002

2003

2004

100 150 100 48 40 55 320 480 480 112 92 108 1 1 1 267 200 360 214 100 234 110,000 150,000 150,000 60 50 50 296 300 300 60 60 -

(1) Source: Municipal Agricultural Production - IBGE

2005

130 30 400 60 1 56 112 60,000 60 320 60

2006

2007

100 120 6 4 360 520 32 60 1 1 50 63 120 147 50,000 50,000 5,250 3,500 480 240 72 60


Amount produced, perennial crops (1) By type, in tons Orange 2,136

Lime 1,400

285 Coconut Passion fruit 816

260 Banana 143 Orange 93 Passion Fruit 16 Coffee

Tangerine 300 Avocado 162 Coconut 77 2001

80 194 5 26 356 356 64 140 2 38 40

2002

259 4 16 570 356 140 32

2003

195 18 456 356 93 -

2004

195 25 456 356 93 32

2005

30 20 40 25 93 -

2006

195 16 285 214 93 -

2007

260 16 285 143 93 -

ENVIRONMENT

2000

Avocado 162 Banana (bunch) 23 3 Cacao (beans) 45 Coffee (beans) Coconut (thousand fruits) 77 2,136 Orange 1,400 Lime 816 Passion fruit 3 Black pepper 300 Tangerine 16 Achiote (seeds)

Value of agricultural production (1) In R$ thousand

18,706

63

15,960 Annual Perennial

11,767 8,484

8,256

10,079 7,299

7,567

527 2000

(1) Source: Municipal Agricultural Production - IBGE

535

597

2001

2002

390 2003

466 2004

499 2005

426 2006

418 2007


ANIMAL PRODUCE (1) Amount produced Milk

Value of production

In thousand liters

In R$ thousand

1,768

1,490

1,512

1,260 1,184 2000

Eggs

1,150

2001

2002

2003

2004

In thousand dozens

920

592 2005

2006

2007

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

In R$ thousand

41

2006

2007

2006

2007

149

31 60

14 2000

Quail eggs

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

In thousand dozens

60

60

2007

2000

2001

2002

2003

3

2

2

1

Honey

n/a

n/a

2000

2001

2002

64

1 n/a

2003

2004

2005

2006

In kilograms

50

50

2007

n/a

n/a

n/a

2000

2001

2002

n/a

2003

1

2001

2002

n/a

n/a

2003

2004

2005

2006

2005

2006

2007

2000

2001

n/a

2002

2003

2007

1

1

1

25 2000

2004

In R$ thousand

50

40

n/a

2005

In R$ thousand

3

n/a

2004

0

0

2004

2005

2006

2007

FARMS WITH LIVESTOCK (2) 2007 2008 Cattle and water buffalo

2007

43 34 571 585

Just cattle Just water buffalo

Number of animals

Farms with animals

21 14

44,055 45,384

Pigs

n/a 62

38,906 42,362

Horses

n/a

Mules

5,149

3,022

2007

2008

n/a

858

n/a

2,170

n/a 2

n/a

61

n/a

5

n/a

15,474

267

Sheep

n/a 38

n/a

561

Donkeys

n/a 1

Goats

n/a 23

n/a

625

Poultry

n/a

(1) Source: Municipal Livestock Survey - IBGE

Number of animals

Farms with animals

2008

619

(2) Source: Para State Agriculture and Livestock Defense Agency (ADEPARÁ) n/a: information not available


Animal health control and inspection INCIDENCE OF HOOF-AND-MOUTH IN THE MUNICIPALITY (1) In recent years, no cases of hoof-and-mouth disease have been identified in the municipality of Juruti. According to the Pará State Agriculture and Livestock Defense Agency (Adepará), the region is nevertheless classified as a high-risk area for the disease. The most recent cases occurred in Santarém in 1994 and in Monte Alegre in 2004.

PROPORTION OF ANIMALS VACCINATED FOR HOOF-AND-MOUTH (1) In %

Not vaccinated

Vaccinated

Cattle 4.32

Water buffalo 0.78

95.68

Hoof-and-mouth disease rarely kills adult animals, but it does cause weight loss – which means less meat and dramatically lowers milk production for several months. Proper vaccination protects against the disease, whose symptoms include sores and blisters inside the mouth and on the hoofs – hence the name – and also on the animal’s nose and skin, in addition to excessive salivation.

2.47

Total

3.41

4.1

0.96

99.22 97.53

96.59 95.90

99.04

SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY INSPECTION OPERATIONS (1)

2007 2008

ENVIRONMENT

THE PROBLEMS OF HOOF-AND-MOUTH

2007 2008

(1) Source: Para State Agriculture and Livestock Defense Agency (ADEPARÁ)

2007 2008

The agency responsible for agriculture and livestock defense in the state of Pará (Adepará) does not focus purely on inspection, but also on raising awareness, by offering courses and making educational visits. In 2008, in addition to visits, four courses were staged for local health agents. The Animal Transit Permit (GTA) inspections are made weekly, on a rotational basis.

65


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71


Access to education NUMBER OF ENROLLMENTS

18,356

Municipal and state

Total enrollments (1) 15,584

14,892

15,956 16,187

16,835

16,813

Growth of nearly 10% in the total number of enrollments from 2007 to 2008

13,980 12,929

ENROLLMENTS IN PRE-SCHOOL, PRIMARY SCHOOL AND YOUTH & ADULT EDUCATION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS (2) Information still not available in 2008. 2000

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Enrollments by grade (1)

2004

2005

2007

NUMBER OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED TO JURUTI (2) Other municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Amazonas Other states

505

209 40 19 4

63 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

(1) Source: Anísio Texeira National Educational Research and Studies Institute (INEP) – Ministry of Education (MEC) (2) Source: Municipal Education Department - Municipal Government of Juruti

Increase in the number of school transfers to the municipality of Juruti from 2006 onwards

2,120 1,443 124

3,134

10,473 1,739 1,413 82

3,106

10,364 2006

11,535

Special Education

1,705 1,540 74

3,152

3,509 9,753 1,476 1,389 60

10,386

2003

Youth & Adult Education

1,367 1,203 64

2002

2,936

3,436 10,108 1,179 813 48

9,666 627 1,167 60 2001

Secondary Education

3,356 9,610 901 960 65

2000

Primary Education

2,460

474 1,140 31

9,028

Pre-school

2,256

72

2001

2008


STUDENTS WHO TAKE PUBLIC SCHOOL TRANSPORT (1)(2) In 2006, according to a report by the company Terra Meio Ambiente, a total of 1,350 students took public school transport in Juruti. In 2008, according to the municipal government of Juruti, there were 1,983 students. The figure includes transport offered by state and municipal authorities, and also students from state and municipal administrative facilities, in both rural and urban areas.

NUMBER OF SCHOOL TRANSPORT VEHICLES (2) 70 bicycles 49 boats

ENROLLMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION (2)

16 large motorized canoes 7 buses

In 2008, at the Federal University of Pará, there were 50 enrollments in the Geography course, 20 in the History course and 100 in the Mathematics course. Additionally, there were 50 enrollments in the Biology course and 50 in the Technology in Public Health Management course at the Federal Institute of Pará, via the Open University of Brazil.

3 small motorized canoes 2 kombi vans 1 minibus

73

ENROLLMENTS IN VOCATIONAL COURSES (3) Vocational course Infrastructure Industrial processes and control Management and business Information and communication Food production Environment, health and safety Hospitality and leisure Educational support Cultural production and design

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

In 2008

2006 Enrolled

Graduating

437 366 132 122 49 49 59 57 114 94 40 40 54 41 0 0 60 55

2007 Enrolled

o 498 60 120 0 79 35 0 90

(1) Source: Terra Meio Ambiente 2007 (2) Source: Municipal Education Department - Municipal Government of Juruti (3) Source: National Industrial Vocational Training Service (SENAI) of Juruti

Graduating

o 445 43 111 0 72 31 0 90

2008 Enrolled Graduating

47 47 206 196 42 39 161 146 28 28 81 40 15 14 38 35 52 51


Quality of education COLLECTIVE BODIES FOR DISCUSSING EDUCATION

FAILURE RATE BY GRADE (1) In %

Primary - first 4 years Primary - last 4 years

18.7

17.0 12.7

11.4

12.0 9.8

8.8

Secondary

16.8

10.0

3.7

4.8

0.2

0.4

0.7

0.1

3.2

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

14.4

14.9

15.2 15.0

6.1 4.5 2005

DROP-OUT RATE BY GRADE (1) In %

Primary - first 4 years Primary - last 4 years

18.9

13.0 11.3

18.4 12.8 10.3

11.3

12.0

7.0

Secondary

5.2

By 2008, there were still no School Boards in Juruti. One way of guaranteeing a good education for our children is to participate in the school administration, in collective discussion bodies that are open to the community. The School Board is one such body: any parent can run for a seat to discuss the direction of the school with students, teachers, employees and principals.

12.8 11.6 7.5

5.0 2000

74

2001

ILLITERACY RATE AMONG PEOPLE AGED 15 AND OLDER (3)

Juruti Pará Brazil

3.0 1.7

15.0

1991

2004

2005

WHAT IS THIS? The age/grade distortion rate shows the percentage of students who are behind at school, that is, who are older than the normal age for the grade they are taking. The calculation is made by dividing the total number of over-aged student enrollments in a given grade by the total new enrollments in the same grade.

In years

23.2

1980

2003

AVERAGE YEARS SPENT IN SCHOOL AMONG PEOPLE AGED 25 AND OLDER (3)

In %

28.8

2002

2000

4.0

3.6

2.3

1980

5.0

4.9

5.9

3.4

1991

2000

SCHOOL AGE/GRADE DISTORTION RATE (1) In %

Primary - first 4 years Primary - last 4 years

89.9 82.7 71.1

89.6

80.9 66.3

Secondary

2000

90.6

76.0

2001

62.0

2002

89.7 71.6 61.4

2003

88.6

87.2

76.4

72.8

67.4

51.9

54.6

47.1

2004

2005

86.0

2006

(1) Source: Anísio Teixeira National Educational Research and Studies Institute (INEP) – Ministry of Education (MEC) (2) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (3) Source: Applied Economics Research Institute (IPEA)


IDEB PERFORMANCE (1)

Juruti Pará Brazil

ENEM PERFORMANCE (1)

Juruti Pará Brazil

1991

Juruti Pará Brazil

0.703

First 4 years

0.710

First 4 years 2005

0.745

3.1 2007

3.1

Last 4 years

41.5

3.5

Last 4 years

0.815

2000

2008

0.849

3.2

Last 4 years 2007

WHAT IS THIS? The Municipal Human Development Index - Education (HDIM-Education) is calculated based on the literacy rate and the school attendance rate. It ranges from 0 to 1. The nearer to 1, the greater the level of educational development in the municipality.

First 4 years

WHAT IS THIS? The National Secondary Education Exam (ENEM) ranges from 0 to 100. Each school receives a grade, depending on the average grades of students who took the exam. Then an average for all schools is calculated.

2.8

Last 4 years

2.9 4.2

First 4 years

3.8

Last 4 years

46.1 49.4

3.5

First 4 years

47.1 51.3

3.8

First 4 years

0.811

44.1

2.8

WHAT IS THIS? The Basic Education Development Index (IDEB) ranges from 0 to 10. Brazil has a goal to achieve an IDEB rate of 6.0 by 2021.

“PROVINHA BRASIL” CHILD LITERACY TEST Data still not available in 2008.

AVERAGE NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER CLASS (1) In number of students Pre-school Primary Education first 4 years Primary Education last 4 years

43.1 40.2 30.6 29.8

44.8 41.3 33.7 30.9

45.3

43.3 42.9

36.9

40.4 34.4 28.3

2001

2002

38.5 28.8

28.3

Secondary Education

2000

40.2

2003

27.7

2004

(1) Source: Anísio Texeira National Educational Research and Studies Institute (INEP) – Ministry of Education (MEC) (2) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

39.9 31.6 27.6

2005

42.6

30.7 30.3 27.9

2006

Sharp reduction in the average number of students per class in Primary Education – from 40 students to 30 in six years

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

HDIM-EDUCATION (2)

75


Education professionals NUMBER OF TEACHERS (1)

621

642

628

631

2000

2001

2002

2003

772

656

2004

2005

828

2006

Number of teachers by level of education (1)

Rural area Higher Education Secondary Education Primary Education

2000 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2000 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2000 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

0 78 350

0 0 0 0 410 436 428 460 1 3 13 25

7 545 1

129 437 3

Sharp increase in the number of teachers with Higher Education in 2006

76 Urban area Higher Education Secondary Education Primary Education

Total Higher Education Secondary Education Primary Education

12 158 23

12 236 373

45 160 2

45 570 27

19 159 1

19 595 14

33 164 3

33 592 6

38 134 23

38 594 24

43 176 0

166 93 0

50 295 721 530 3 1

TEACHERS ENROLLED IN CONTINUED EDUCATION COURSES Information still not available in 2008.

(1) Source: Anísio Texeira National Educational Research and Studies Institute (INEP) – Ministry of Education (MEC)


Alignment with the local reality “CASA FAMILIAR RURAL” CENTER (CFR) (1) In 2008

Location

Juruti Velho São Benedito

Number of CFRs

Number enrolled

Number graduating

1 1

33 28

23 21

LOCAL PRODUCE IN SCHOOL MEALS (1)

Manioc derivatives

Fish meal

Natural yoghurt

Fresh milk

Watermelon

Corn on the cob

Fruit pulp

Beef

Free range chicken

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

In 2008, schools in Juruti served the following local produce:

77

(1) Source: Municipal Education Department - Municipal Government of Juruti


Teaching facilities NUMBER OF SCHOOLS (1) Total number of schools 190

177

Number of schools per grade 190

150

153

150 Primary

25

35

38 - last 4 years

2 2004

2005

2006

2004

- first 4 years

Primary

2 2005

2

Secondary

2006

SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURE PER GRADE (1)

78

Infrastructure

Grade

2004

2005

2006

Library

Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

Sports court

Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

0 1 0

0 1 0

0 1 0

Bathroom

Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

150 25 2

153 35 2

136 37 2

Water

Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

150 25 2

153 35 2

150 38 2

Electrical energy Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

32 16 2

22 12 2

63 27 2

Computers

Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

1 2 0

1 2 0

2 3 0

Internet

Primary Education - first 4 years Primary Education - last 4 years Secondary Education

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

(1) Source: Anísio Texeira National Educational Research and Studies Institute (INEP) – Ministry of Education (MEC)


Mortality INFANT MORTALITY RATE (1) Per thousand live births

25 21

46

Juruti Pará Brazil

25

24

22

23 20

2000

2001

22

22

19

19

2002

2003

19

21 18

18

17

2004

2005

21 20 16

2006

Life expectancy LIFE EXPECTANCY UPON BIRTH (2) In years

79 HDIM-LONGEVITY (2) 0.586

0.637

Juruti Pará Brazil

1991

60.1 63.4 64.7 63.2

2000

68.5 68.6

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

45

1991

2000

WHAT IS THIS? The Municipal Human Development Index - Longevity (HDIM-Longevity) is calculated based on life expectancy upon birth. It ranges from 0 to 1. The higher the index, the higher the life expectancy of the population.

(1) Source: DATASUS – Health Information Charts – February 2009 (2) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP)


Disease and risk factors INSTANCES OF THE MOST COMMON MEDICAL COMPLAINTS (1) In number of cases

2005

Accidents with poisonous animals Rabies vaccines Condyloma acuminata Dengue Skin diseases (rubella) Hansen’s disease (leprosy) Hepatitis A Genital herpes (first outbreak) American tegumentary leishmaniasis Visceral leishmaniasis Malaria Syphilis Genital ulcer syndrome Cervical discharge syndrome Urethral discharge syndrome Tuberculosis Chickenpox Acute diarrheal diseases

80

n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 14 n/a n/a n/a n/a 29 n/a n/a n/a n/a 7 n/a n/a

2006

2007

2008

64 66 n/a 86 46 n/a 20 28 n/a 27 219 n/a 88 n/a n/a 3 5 4 26 n/a 269 5 14 n/a 23 38 n/a 2 7 n/a 22 24 22 12 n/a n/a 2 n/a n/a 81 n/a 199 24 31 n/a 11 6 4 4 n/a n/a n/a 2,151 1,647

Explosion of cases of dengue in 2008

PROPORTION OF LIVING NEWBORNS UNDERWEIGHT AT BIRTH (2) In %

Juruti Pará Brazil

7.95

7.70 7.09 6.23

7.47 6.23

2000

2001

8.75

8.27

8.24

8.13

6.83

6.89 6.80

6.49

6.79

2002

2003

5.82

2004

8.28 8.23 6.96

8.12 6.72

2005

2006

PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN UNDER TWO (2) Per 100

2.8

2002

3.5

2003

1.6

1.8

2004

2005

0.8

0.7

2006

2007

PROTECT YOURSELF AGAINST STDs STDs are sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes and AIDS. These diseases are spread from one person to another through unprotected sexual contact. They generally cause discharge, blisters, sores or warts on or around the sexual organs. Many can be easily treated, while others can evolve and even cause death – hence the importance of not being too embarrassed to visit a doctor at the first sign that something is wrong.

WHAT IS THIS? This indicator shows how commonplace it is for children less than two years of age to suffer from malnutrition. In 2007, the chances of a child being malnourished was less than 1%.

In decline since 2003 (1) Source: Municipal Health Department - Municipal Government of Juruti (2) Source: DATASUS – Health Information Charts – February 2009 n/a: information not available


Access to health services PROVISION OF PRENATAL CARE (1) As a proportion of live newborns

Mothers of live newborns who received 4 or more prenatal care consultations In %

89.75

Belém

Pará

91.23

Northern Brazil

90.66

91.00

90.65

76.13

88.74 76.71

74.21

74.27

82.20 73.30 69.13

73.35 70.17 63.49

75.22 72.33 68.79

91.32 83.07 77.46 75.16

54.66

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

A higher than average increase between 2002 and 2004

Mothers of live newborns who received 7 or more prenatal care consultations

54.40

Belém

Pará

58.41

58.90

Programs

55.15

51.98

38.65 27.35

27.87

27.97

24.83

26.09

26.13

5.29

6.22

11.13

2000

2001

2002

81 In 2008

Northern Brazil

56.28

7 prenatal consultations is the goal recommended by the World Health Organization and adopted by Unicef

WOMEN’S HEALTH PROGRAMS (2)

In %

Juruti

4 prenatal consultations is the minimum number established by the Ministry of Health

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

Juruti

29.37 28.00 24.75

2003

28.27 27.58

2004

28.65 26.86 24.46

Beneficiaries

SISPRENATAL – Program to monitor women’s health during pregnancy SISCOLO - Program to monitor the treatment of women with cancer of the uterus

2005

(1) Source: Basic Medical Attention Compact – Pará – 2006 (2) Source: Municipal Health Department - Municipal Government of Juruti

491

2,134


PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM (PSF) AND THE COMMUNITY HEALTH AGENTS PROGRAM (PACS) (1)

WHAT IS THIS? The Family Health Program (PSF) is a system for providing medical services at basic healthcare facilities by multiprofessional teams. These teams cater to a set number of families in a given region. Their work includes health promotion, disease prevention and recovery and rehabilitation from illnesses and common medical complaints, as well as maintaining the overall health of the community. The Community Health Agents Program (PACS) carries out activities via its Community Health Agents who are monitored by a supervisor. These agents are residents of the regions where they work and they receive training in how to help improve living conditions in the community. They make house calls to check on the health of families and give advice on disease prevention and how to stay healthy.

82

In %

PSF

PACS

73.3

18.0

75.1

70.4

67.1

63.7

22.7

18.7

62.6

18.6

7.9 n/a

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

NUMBER OF CHILDREN UNDER ONE IMMUNIZED WITH TETRAVALENT VACCINE (2) 3,466

2005

3,424 2,993

2006

2,820

2007

2008

NUMBER OF OUTPATIENT CONSULTATIONS (2)

698,264

224,171 2000

329,887 2001

383,204

2002

746,724

855,486

531,753

438,014

404,290

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

(1) Source: DATASUS – Health Information Charts – February 2009 (2) Source: Municipal Health Department - Municipal Government of Juruti n/a: information not avaliable


Health professionals NUMBER OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS BY CATEGORY (1) In 2008

26

76

34

Community health agent

Nursing technician

Endemic disease agent

20 Nursing assistant 19 Nurse

HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ENROLLED IN CONTINUED EDUCATION COURSES Information still not available in 2008.

11 Doctor

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

8 Lab technician 7 Dental surgeon 6 Public health supervisory agent 5 Dental assistant

2 X-ray technician 2 Biochemist 2 Epidemiology agent 1 Nutritionist 1 Physiotherapist 1 Psychologist 1 Veterinarian

83

Healthcare facilities and equipment NUMBER OF HEALTHCARE ESTABLISHMENTS BY CATEGORY (1)

Family Health Clinic

Hospital

Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervisory Unit

Basic Care Center

Inpatient/ Outpatient Clinic

Mobile River Clinic

6 3 2 1

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

1

1

1

1

1

1 0

2005 06

07

08

2005 06

07

08

2005 06

(1) Source: Municipal Health Department - Municipal Government of Juruti

07

08

2005 06

07

08

1

1

1

08

2005 06

1 0

0

2005 06

07

07

08


Violence, sexual abuse and exploitation of children and adolescents WHAT IS THIS? These ďŹ gures are taken from the reports of the Municipal Guardianship Council of Juruti REPORTS OF CASES OF VIOLENCE, SEXUAL ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Reports of cases of sexual violence (1) 3

Sexual abuse Violent sexual assault Rape

9 1

Prostitution

7

2 2002

84

3 4 2003

7

6

2 2 7

12

2007

2008

Increase in the number of cases of prostitution

3

3 11

6 4

1

5

1

2004

2005

6 5 2006

The number of reports of abuse averaged 30 between 2002 and 2004, rising to 136 between 2005 and 2008

Reports of cases of abuse (1) 154

175 119

96 31 2002

22 2003

37 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Reports of cases of aggression and threats Physical aggression Death threats

(1)

FORENSIC MEDICAL REPORTS ON CHILD AND TEEN VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE (2)

77 47

30 n/a

2005

39 8

2006

11 2007

14 2008

Bodily harm Statutory rape Lewd or lascivious act Abortion

(1) Source: Guardianship Council of Juruti (2) Source: Pedro Vallinoto Municipal Hospital n/a: information not available

2005

2006

2007

2008

33 7 17 1

28 2 11 0

12 0 9 0

10 0 23 0


Child labor

Teen pregnancy

REPORTS OF CASES OF CHILD LABOR (1)

REPORTS OF CASES OF TEEN PREGNANCY (1)

10 7 3 2007

13

2008 2005

WHAT IS THIS? The Brazilian Child and Adolescent Statute (ECA) is a set of rules, instituted by law, that governs the rights of children and adolescents. It defines children as persons who have not completed 12 years of age, and adolescents as persons between 12 and 18 years of age. In this publication, we have adopted the ECA’s classification, although we understand that young people live differently in different parts of the country and the world. In Juruti, particularly in rural areas, young people typically assume adult responsibilities before they turn 18.

2006

2007

2008

HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS BY PREGNANT WOMEN IN LABOR AGED 18 AND YOUNGER (2) 2005

Aged 12 and younger Aged 13 to 14 Aged 15 to 16 Aged 17 to 18

2 12 37 70

2006

1 9 51 96

2007

0 17 68 99

2008

0 16 74 121

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

2006

14

4

n/a 2005

13

Sharp increase from 2006 onwards

85 Violence against women FORENSIC MEDICAL REPORTS ON VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE (2) Abortion Statutory rape Lewd or lascivious act Bodily harm

4 22 6

11

77

74

2005

2006

2

25 10 26

30

2007

2008

(1) Source: Guardianship Council of Juruti (2) Source: Pedro Vallinoto Municipal Hospital n/a: information not available


Programs Programs and and financial financial instruments instruments forfor vulnerable vulnerable groups groups and and social social inclusion inclusion (1)(2)(3) (1)(2)(3) PROGRAMS PROGRAMS GEARED GEARED TOWARDS TOWARDS VULNERABLE VULNERABLE GROUPS GROUPS

Beneficiaries Beneficiaries Program Program

Description Description

Run by

Run by

2006

2007 2006 2008 2007

80-

80 80

80

Contribute to strengthening to strengthening the independence the independence of of 50 Municipal Municipal ProJovem ProJovem Contribute families and young and people young people Government Government (ProYouth) (ProYouth) families of Juruti of Juruti

50 50

70 50

70

127 80

80

Municipal 505 505 505 Municipal 505 505 Government Government of Juruti of Juruti

505

poor mothers, identified ProvideProvide poor mothers, identified by the by the MunicipalMunicipal 127Cidadão NascerNascer Cidadão Municipal Department, assistance Municipal HealthHealth Department, assistance Government Government a Citizen) (Born a(Born Citizen) acquiring essential linen and clothing for their of Juruti acquiring essential linen and clothing for their of Juruti newborns, through handicraft workshops. newborns, through handicraft workshops.

86

2008

Promote Promote the integration the integration of the elderly, of the elderly, through through Municipal MunicipalConviver Conviver planned planned and organized and organized activities activities designed designed to to Government Government (Cohabitation (Cohabitation strengthen strengthen social and social affective and affective ties and ties improve and improveof Juruti of Juruti Project) Project) relationships relationships with the with family the family and society. and society.

Eradicate all of forms childwhile labor, while all forms childoflabor, Program to Eradicate Program to promoting civic awareness the social promoting civic awareness and theand social Eradicate Eradicate Child Child inclusion of families andchildren. their children. of families and their Labor (PETI)inclusion Labor (PETI)

young people with financial aid while Municipal MunicipalProvideProvide young people with financial aid while 496 Job Job professional qualification courses, and Government Government professional qualification courses, and Qualificationtaking taking Qualification assistance entering job market. of Juruti assistance entering the jobthe market. of Juruti Grant Grant

496 277

277

initiative, through in CultureCulture revivalrevival initiative, through coursescourses in Artisan’s Artisan’s Studio Studio handicrafts. handicrafts.

266 464

464

MunicipalMunicipal 266 Government Government of Juruti of Juruti

Organization Organization linked to linked the Catholic to the Catholic ChurchChurch that that Child Child 458 519 458 473 519 473 Child Pastoral Child Pastoral promotes promotes the integral the integral development development of young of young Pastoral Pastoral(no. of (no. of families) families) children children and helps andimprove helps improve qualityquality of life for of life for their families their families and communities. and communities. a network to strengthen the WCF TakingTaking action,action, within within a network to strengthen the Tecendo Tecendo a Rede a Rede of guaranteeing that of guaranteeing rights, rights, that aims toaims to (Network systemsystem (Network implement public policies to protect children, public policies to protect children, Weaving) implement Weaving) adolescents and families are vulnerable to adolescents and families that arethat vulnerable to domestic and sexual violence. domestic and sexual violence.

WCF

-

(1) Source: Municipal (1) Source: Welfare Municipal Department Welfare Department - Municipal- Government Municipal Government of Juruti (2) ofSource: Juruti (2) Child Source: Pastoral Child(3) Pastoral Source: (3) WCF Source: Brazil WCF Institute Brazil Institute

--

137-

137


CHANNELS FOR REPORTING VIOLENCE AND FOR THE PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE GROUPS Telephone

Body

Slave labor

Reporting the crime of slave labor

(91) 3211-3541

Regional Police Department for Labor Matters (Belém/Pará)

Children and adolescents

Reporting the crime of sexual violence, domestic violence and other rights violations against children, adolescents and families National Crime Hotline for Reporting Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Adolescents Reporting violence against children

(91) 3223-9755 (91) 3212-3377

Specialized Welfare Reference Center (CREAS) (Belém/Pará)

100

Federal Government

(93) 9122-4778 (91) 3212-4490 (91) 3210-3507 (91) 3223-9577

Municipal Guardianship Council of Juruti

180 (91) 3246-4862 (93) 3522-2132 (91) 3225-4636

Special Department of Policies for Women

Women

Reporting violence against women

Police Department for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (Belém/Pará) Integrated Center for Children and Adolescents (Belém/Pará) Childhood and Youth Court (Belém/Pará)

Special Police Department for Women (Belém/Pará) Special Police Department for Women (Santarém/Pará) State Council on Women’s Rights (Belém/Pará)

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS FOR VULNERABLE GROUPS (1) A financial instrument for vulnerable groups, the Municipal Fund for the Rights of Children and Adolescents, was created on December 27, 1999. By 2008, there were still no records of disbursements or any projects underway.

(1) Source: Municipal Government of Juruti

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

Type of report

87


Crime POLICE CHARGE SHEETS (1) Civil Police Rape Sexual assault Corruption of a minor Murder Attempted murder Assault/bodily harm Domestic violence Robbery Attempted robbery Theft Attempted theft Burglary Embezzlement Disrespect for authority Disorderly conduct Drugs Fire arms Traffic accident Vehicle damage Others

2003

8 3 0 5 2 54 1 1 1 42 1 2 0 1 5 2 3 3 3 87

2008

7 3 1 5 4 45 6 8 1 121 2 2 3 7 1 8 4 30 23 183

88 PERCEPTION OF VIOLENCE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES The first experiment in collecting data on the perception of violence in rural communities was conducted by Getulio Vargas Foundation staff in 2009, but the results were not used. It would be worthwhile to join forces to collect this information on an annual basis, especially as security was considered by the population of Juruti as one of the most pressing issues to be monitored in the development of the municipality.

(1) Source: Civil Police and Military Police – data compiled by ISER, 2009

Military Police Rape Sexual assault Soliciting a minor Murder/attempted murder Assault/bodily harm Gang violence Domestic violence Stabbing Robbery Theft Breaking and entering Disrespect for authority Disorderly conduct Vandalism Drugs Illegal possession of firearms Bladed weapon Traffic accident Traffic violation Dangerous driving Extortion Others

2003

3 1 0 4 26 1 2 4 1 15 2 10 86 5 2 6 0 0 0 1 0 20

2008

4 0 7 13 147 1 5 2 8 84 10 11 316 9 39 7 7 9 30 17 5 82


Public security professionals NUMBER OF PUBLIC SECURITY PROFESSIONALS BY CATEGORY (1)(2) Civil Police

Military Police

2005

0

n/a

0

3

9

2006

0

n/a

0

3 n/a

2007

0

n/a

0

3 n/a

2008

0

n/a

0

3

17

CHANNELS FOR REPORTING Theft, robbery or crimes against women Crime Hotline

http://www.delegaciavirtual.pa.gov.br 181

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

Municipal Forestry Fire Fighter Guard Police

Pará State Virtual Police Station Pará State Civil Police

89 Security infrastructure SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE (1)(2) Patrol vehicles – Military Police Motorbikes – Military Police Commands (bases) – Military Police Police stations – Civil Police Patrol vehicles – Civil Police Fire Brigades Women’s Police Departments

(1) Source: Civil Police of Juruti (2) Source: Military Police of Juruti n/a: information not available

2005 2006 2007 2008

1 0 0 n/a n/a 0 0

1 0 0 n/a n/a 0 0

1 0 0 n/a 1 0 0

1 0 1 1 n/a 0 0


Traffic security 280

HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS RESULTING FROM TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS (1) By vehicle

In 2008, there was an increase in hospital admissions resulting from motorbike accidents

Motorbike Car Bicycle

110

123

46 14 11

18 10 2005

2006

22 6

29 25

2007

2008

Hospital admissions resulting from motorbike accidents (1) In 2008, by age group

110

More than 60% of the people involved in accidents were between 11 to 30 years of age

80 37

90

18 0-10 years

17 11-20

21-30

31-40

41-50

10 51-60

5

2

1

61-70

71-80

81 or older

The number of vehicles in Juruti has grown significantly. See the indicators on page 118

TRAFFIC INSPECTION Juruti still had no traffic inspection agency in 2008.

(1) Source: Pedro Vallinoto Municipal Hospital


Cultural programs and events

CULTURAL CALENDAR FOR 2009 (1)

Sebastian

may

· Celebration of Mothers · Festival of the Good Shepherd

february

april

· Celebration of

· Commemorative

Women

Week for the Anniversary of Juruti · Good Friday

june

july

august

· Sweethearts Fair · Raimundão Fair · Festival of the Patron

Saint of Juruti/Our Lady of Good Health · March for Jesus · People’s Festival for Fishermen and Manioc Flour Producers

september october · Civic Parade

march

· People’s Carnival · Christian Carnival

· Festival of San

Francis of Assisi · Gospel Festival

(1) Source: Municipal Culture Department - Municipal Government of Juruti

· Rehearsal of the

Munduruku and Muirapinima tribes · Festival of the Tribes of Juruti

· Festival of Popular Culture · Festival of the Fish · Lasso Contest

november december · Peace Congress · Festival of Christ the

· Juruti Song Festival · Festival of Our Lady

· Açaí Berry Festival

· The People’s New

King

of Perpetual Succor Year

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

january

· Festival of San

91


Cultural facilities PERCEPTION OF THE CULTURAL PROGRAMS IN THE RURAL COMMUNITIES An early collection of data on the perception of cultural programs – culinary, traditional festivals, handicrafts - in rural communities was conducted by Getulio Vargas Foundation staff in 2009, on an experimental basis, but the results were not used. It would be worthwhile to join forces to collect this information, since the local culture is part of the heritage of the population of Juruti.

CULTURAL AND SPORTING FACILITIES (1)(2)(3) In 2008

Rural

Urban

120 0 0 0 0 0 170 5

0 4 2 1 0 0 4 6

Community marquee Cultural center Theater Public library Cinema Museum Soccer field Multi-sports court

• Tribodrome • Cultural Arena • Universo Munduruku • Okara Muirá • Dom Bosco • Cultural Arena

Archeological heritage PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HERITAGE

92

Although archeological sites and treasures have been identified in the municipality of Juruti, in 2008 there were still no structured programs in place to promote this heritage.

(1) Source: Department of Government - Municipal Government of Juruti (2) Source: Department of Culture - Municipal Government of Juruti (3) Source: Department of Community Integration - Municipal Government of Juruti


Munduruku

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

FESTIVALS Visitors to Juruti in July encounter a town transformed. An explosion of color, music and excitement signal that preparations are underway for the Tribal Folklore Festival, known as Festribal. This event, organized annually since 1994, evokes and pays homage to the rituals of tribes from the region. The Muirapinima color themselves blue and red, in lively contrast with the red and yellow of the Munduruku tribe. The festival takes place in the Tribodome, an open-air arena in the shape of a canoe, where the two tribes perform choreography, music, parables and rituals that portray the culture of the two tribes.

93

Muirapinima


Labor,Labor, employment employment and income and income NUMBER OF NUMBER WORKING OF PEOPLE WORKING BY OCCUPATION PEOPLE BY OCCUPATION TYPE (1) TYPE (1) 1991 2000

1991 Self-employed 2000

3,902

Self-employed

3,336

383 Unpaid helping a member Unpaid helping a member of the household of the household

2,219 n/a

n/aformal Employed – without Employed formal – without employment contract employment contract

n/a 1,327

6 86

Employers

2,219

1,720

Employed – military Employed and public – military n/aand public n/a servants on government servants on government 910 employment contracts employment contracts

Employers

Adm

3,336

383

n/afor own Work on production Work for own on production consumption consumption

n/a Employed – with formal Employed – with formal employment contract employment contract 156

3,902

ADM FROM

1,720 1,327 7 910

2000

n/a 156 6 86

ALCO NUMBER OF WORKING NUMBER OF PEOPLE WORKING BY SECTOR PEOPLE(1)BY SECTOR (1) In 2000

94

In 2000

By orig

Indir

Juru Oth Oth

5,453 5,453 Workers in agriculture Workers and in livestock, agriculture forestry, and livestock, hunting and forestry, fishing hunting and fishing 1,974 1,974 Workers in industrial Workers goodsinand industrial servicesgoods production and services production 1,222 1,222 Workers in services, Workers salespeople in services, in stores salespeople and markets in stores and markets 432 432 Mid-level technicalMid-level staff technical staff

382

181 181 Arts and sciences professionals Arts and sciences professionals

1,1 60

de 20

165 165 Workers in administrative Workersservices in administrative services 154 154 Unspecified occupations Unspecified occupations

Direc

Juru Oth Oth

127 127 Senior governmentSenior employees, government heads of employees, public interest headsorganizations of public interest and organizations companies, and and managers companies, and managers 35 35 Repair and maintenance Repairworkers and maintenance workers 11 11 Members of the armed Members forces, of police the armed and military forces, police fire fighters and military fire fighters (1) Source: Demographic (1)Census Source: – Demographic IBGE n/a: information Census – IBGE not available n/a: information not available

18

6 3

de 20

(1) Sourc


ADMISSIONSADMISSIONS AND DISMISSALS AND DISMISSALS (1) FROM FORMAL FROM JOBS FORMAL JOBS (1) Admissions

Dismissals Admissions

1,227

498

4

2000

2001

6 7 14 2 2000 2002

55

498

257 152 113 152 113 66 66 57 3 6 3 1 282 4 3 3 57 28 4

20012003

2002 2004

2003 2005

2004 2006

2005 2007 2006 2008

257

2007

(2) (2) ALCOA EMPLOYEES ALCOA EMPLOYEES

By origin

By origin

Indirect jobs Indirect jobs

Juruti Juruti Other towns in Pará Other towns in Pará 2,484 Other states Other states

2,070 3,445

382

1,156 604 dec 2006

1,370 1,179 591 382

jun 2007

Direct jobs

dec dec 2007 2006

jun jun 2007 2008

Direct jobs

126

18

dec 2006

6 34 2518

jun 2007

2,484

2,070 3,154 3,445

2,509 1,370 2,509 1,156 1,179 2,086 1,967 2,086 604 1,087 591 1,087

Juruti Juruti 8 Other towns in Pará Other towns in Pará Other states Other states

6 32

2,017

5 630 32 41 dec dec 2006 2007

6 98 34 25

jun jun 2008 2007

dec dec 2007 2008

jun 2008

15

2,017 3,154 1,967 dec 2008

15 8

134

2008

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

7

The information The refers information to refers to formal jobs (with formal signed jobs (with signed employment contracts) employment in contracts) in 1,227 companies with companies head office with or head office or subsidiary based subsidiary in Juruti. based in Juruti.

Dismissals

Increase in theIncrease in the formal job market formal job market from 2005 onwards from 2005 onwards

55

1,833 WHAT IS THIS? WHAT IS THIS?

1,833

126

5 126 30 41

98

dec dec 2008 2007

jun 2008

134

126 dec 2008

(1) Source: Annual Social (1)Information Source: Annual Report Social (RAIS) Information – Ministry Report of Labor (RAIS) and–Employment Ministry of Labor (2) Source: and Employment Alcoa (2) Source: Alcoa

95


AVERAGE MONTHLY WORKER INCOME (1) In 2000, in R$

All workers Rural workers Urban workers

516,09

154,95

91,00

518,57

57,23 Juruti

Belém

PER CAPITA INCOME (1) Per month, in R$ Juruti 1991

Pará

Brazil

66.7 141.52

230.30

55.18 2000

192,31

132,85

168.59

297.23

96

239,51 150,77 Pará

WHAT IS THIS? Per capita income is the sum of the salaries, rents, interest and profits received by the entire population, plus the allowances and benefits paid by the government, divided by the number of inhabitants. This metric helps to give an idea about local development, although a high per capita income does not guarantee the wealth of the inhabitants, since other factors need to be taken into consideration, such as income distribution.

HDIM - INCOME (2) Juruti

Pará

Brazil

1991

0.474 0.599 0.681

2000

0.442 0.629 0.723

WHAT IS THIS? The Municipal Human Development Index – Income (HDIM-Income) is calculated based on the average per capita income. It ranges from 0 to 1. The higher the index, the higher the per capita income of a municipality.

Income inequality and distribution FAMILIES BENEFITING FROM THE BOLSA FAMÍLIA PROGRAM (3) 2004 2005

2,067 2,739

2006

3,615

2007

3,527

2008

3,253

GINI INDEX (2) Juruti

Pará

Brazil

1991

0.500 0.619 0.637

2000

0.610 0.655 0.607

WHAT IS THIS? The GINI Index measures the amount of income distribution among the population. It ranges from 0 to 1. The closer the index is to 1, the greater the income inequality.

(1) Source: Pará State Planning, Budget and Finance Department (SEPOF) (2) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (3) Source: Ministry of Social Development (MDS)


Social organizations CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS (1) In 2009

Frequency of the general meeting

Area of operation Sectoral commercial and business organization

up to 4 times a year

Religion

5

5 to 9 times

1

2 3

10 to 14 times Welfare, education and civic awareness

2 5

15 or more

1

varies

1 Number of women 4

less than 40% 40% to 60%

1 2

more than 60% Rural social organization

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

4

5

not informed

Time since founded Division of responsibilities among members

4

5 to 9 years

Responsibility without involving a general meeting Joint responsibility among all members

0 to 4 years

1

10 to 19 years

1 1 4

Working groups, commissions and work parties (temporary)

3

20 years or more

4 Number of members

Up to 100 members

Joint responsibility among leaders

3

3 Sub-boards, offices and centers (permanent)

97

4 5

101 to 500 501 to 1,000

1

1,001 to 5,000

1

5,001 or more

1 Type of organization

union

2 9

association

The characteristics of the social organizations refer to the 12 entities that participated in a workshop to collect information. A total of 29 social associations and organizations were invited from Juruti that represent groups, employee classes and regions/territories with several communities. Rural community associations and neighborhood or residents associations were not invited. During the workshop, the participants identified another 7 social organizations and associations that will be invited to collect data in the future.

informal

1 Election and length of mandate

every year 0

7

every 2 years every 3 years every 4 years

3 1

every 5 years or more 0 does not apply

1

Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Social Participation Workshop – May 2009. Participants: Priests of the Territorial Prelature of Obidos Charity Association, Charity and Promotion of Peace Association (ABEP), Good Samaritans Association, Commercial and Business Association of Juruti (ACEJ), Curumucuri Glebe Land Community Association (ACOGLEC), Association for the Disabled of Juruti (ADJ), Rural Producers of the Socó I Settlement Association (APRAS), Street Vendors of Juruti Association (AVAJ), Z-42 Fishing Colony, 100% Juruti Movement, Child Pastoral, Workshop for the Rural Workers Union of Juruti (STTR)


Councils and social participation bodies CIVIL SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION OF THE COUNCILS AND OTHER SOCIAL PARTICIPATION BODIES An early collection of data on civil society’s perception of the councils was conducted by Getulio Vargas Foundation staff in 2009, on an experimental basis, and the results were not used.

LEARN MORE

98

Anyone who participates in an association or some other form of social organization understands how a general meeting works. In a community association, for instance, the role of the board is to implement what the general meeting decides. However, all members may PARTICIPATE and assume responsibilities, and the Statutory Audit Board exists to check that the accounts are in order. In the municipal government, the mayor and his or her secretaries are there to implement programs and public policies. The role of the municipal legislators (councilmen) is to propose and enact rules and oversee

the work of the people enforcing them. They serve a mandate, that is, they are chosen by the population to do this work. It is our job to PARTICIPATE and keep a close eye on what is being done. In companies, the job of directors and managers is to produce, provide services and make a profit. But this profit may not be made at the expense of the environment or the community. On the contrary, the benefits ought to be distributed. Companies also need to be socially and environmentally responsible, that is, they should be willing to engage in dialogue and welcome the PARTICIPATION of the

community, so their actions and investments are in line with society’s plans for the future. Society is formed by us and all these parties. We, therefore, should also assume the role of “managers” in PUBLIC BODIES. Government, companies and social organizations are parties that should work together in councils, forums and assemblies so society can propose, decide and monitor the course of development. This is SOCIAL PARTICIPATION. When we live in society, it is very important for us all to understand everyone’s role, and, first and foremost, assume our own.


WHAT IS THIS? Councils are an effective channel of social participation. They are extremely important for strengthening democratic participation in the formulation and implementation of public policies and for establishing dialogue between the various sectors of society (public, private and civil society)

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXISTING COUNCILS (1) Number of participating institutions

Appointment of councilors

Renewal of mandate (election)

Number of meetings per year

How the resolutions are publicized

Appointed

Every 2 years

16 or more

No broad disclosure

Appointed

Every 2 years

1 to 5

Minutes

Every 2 years

6 to 10

Each councilor in their own organization

Appointed

Every 2 years

11 to 15

No broad disclosure

Elected

Every 2 years

According to demand

Each councilor in their own organization

Appointed

Every 2 years

16 or more

No broad disclosure

Elected

Every 3 years

16 or more

Annual reports

Elected

Every 3 years

16 or more

Lectures and schools

Sustainable Juruti Council (CONJUS)

30 Elected

Every 2 years

16 or more

In-person, organizations’ own publications and electronic means

Municipal Development Council

16 Elected

Every 2 years

11 to 12

Municipal Government Gazette

Municipal Council Fund for the Development of Basic Education and Teacher Appreciation Municipal School Nutrition Council (CAE)

7

3

Municipal Health Council

Appointed 10 and elected

Municipal Welfare Council 10 Municipal Women’s Rights Council

8

Municipal Rural Development Council

10 5

Municipal Guardianship Council Municipal Child and Adolescent Rights Council

8

(1) Sources: Primary data collection (FGV) – Characteristics of the Councils – May 2009 Note: The information was obtained from representatives from each of the councils who answered a questionnaire.

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

In 2009

99


Socio-environmental conflicts PERCEPTION OF THE CONFLICTS OVER THE USE OF FISHING RESOURCES AND THE USE AND OCCUPATION OF LAND AND SETTLEMENT MECHANISMS (1) In 2009

Type of conflict

Land conflicts

100

Fishing conflicts

Description

Proposed settlement mechanisms

Loggers

Illegal logging is one of the most common forms of irregular land appropriation.

Land-Grabbers

These are the main villains in the conflicts. Land Land ownership regulation grabbing, together with illegal logging, represents the start of the chain of land conflicts.

Gunmen

Land conflict can, in some cases, have more serious implications and turn violent. The tactics of gunmen include death threats and actual killings.

Land ownership regulation

Between land-grabbers

In some cases, conflicts can erupt between people who dispute the same plots of land, even though they have no legal right of occupancy.

Land ownership regulation

Recent migrants in possession of land

Territorial Over the past five years, there have been cases in Juruti of people and families, with the profile demarcation of small-scale family farmers, who occupy isolated land without consulting the local organizations, and without recognizing or respecting the collective agreements established by the social organizations.

Soy farmers

A source of potential conflict, since although there is no soy in the municipality of Juruti, soy farmers are often involved in land disputes and the cultivation of this crop can cause land-grabbing.

Land ownership regulation

Commercial fishing in restricted areas

Commercial vessels from other locations with a medium to large capacity are known to enter the traditional fishing areas of local communities, ignore the fishing agreements in force in the municipality and removed large amounts of fish.

Fishing agreements, education, information, laws and municipal inspection

Land ownership regulation and environmental inspection

(continued)

(1) Source: Primary data collection – Workshop on Perception of Socio-Environmental Conflicts – May 2009. Note: Of the 10 social organizations and associations invited, representatives from 4 local institutions and associations took part. During the workshop, the representatives were asked to present the types of conflicts existing in Juruti, together with a brief description of what they involve and also ways – actual and potential – of solving them.


Commercial fishing on the Amazon River

Commercial vessels are known to come to the Amazon River from other locations to fish the river. They catch large amounts of small fish, which are discarded, damaging traditional and artisanal fishing production.

Buffalos

Buffalo farming needs to be controlled, since it can cause the degradation of streams, damage the wider environment and harm fishing conditions.

Improper lake property

Education, This occurs with people who own land around information, laws and lakes or areas that flood in the rainy season. municipal inspection Because they consider themselves the owners of the lakes, they bar the entry of fisherman for reasons of preservation. Very often, however, they remove large quantities of fish themselves.

Between fishing colony and independent vendors

Independent vendors disrupt the market and operate unregulated, without consulting the fishing organizations. There have also been cases of fishing colony members skirting the rules when buying and selling fish.

Education, information, laws and inspection

Between fishermen

In the areas where fishing agreements are in place, it is common for disputes between the fishermen to arise, related to non-compliance with the rules and agreements.

Education, information, laws and inspection

Non-compliance with the offseason fishing law

Many fishermen continue to fish during the breeding season, when they officially receive compensation for loss of income due to the ban on fishing at these times. They frequently claim that this is because of delays in the receipt of the compensation.

Education, information and inspection

Undefined fish prices

The growth in the number of independent vendors and the lack of market regulation result in difficult situations for fishermen and consumers, both inside and outside the town.

Education and information, municipal inspection, municipal laws, fishing and price policy and fish market

Dive fishing

In the black water rivers, that is, off the Amazon River, dive fishing is practiced, with the use of spearguns, which is in violation of the fishing agreements.

Education and information, municipal inspection and municipal laws

Education, information, laws and municipal inspection

(continued)

HUMANS AND SOCIETY

Education, information, land usage plan, laws and municipal inspection

101


Type of conflict

102

Description

Proposed settlement mechanisms

Right of passage conflicts

Access sealed off by ranchers

Ranchers who own grazing land on either side of a back road are known to put up fences or gates on the roads, preventing the passage of residents and, as a result, blocking the access and the right of way.

Structural works

Conflicts with Alcoa

Compliance with collective compensation

Conflicts related to the establishment of the compensation agreements and to the fact that some compensations may be pending.

New negotiations/ compensations

Polluted water

Streams were silted up during the construction of the highway and railroad.

Water supply and microsystems/remedy and restore the streams

Dissatisfaction with amounts received for land

Conflict related to the dissatisfaction with agreements and amounts received for land

New negotiations/ compensations

Urban conflicts

Occupation of private property

Conflict related to the urban swelling caused by the surge in migration and by the occupation of several areas on the outskirts of town.

Land ownership regulation and housing policies

Institutional conflicts

Between Z-42 and STTR

Conflict related to the unclear criteria for fitting into the classifications of farmers and fishermen, and the migration of members from one to the other to get social and welfare benefits.

Inspection, control and orientation


Cost of living

Businesses

AVERAGE PRICES OF GOODS AND SERVICES

NUMBER OF BUSINESS PERMITS IN JURUTI (1)

In 2008, it was not possible to determine the average price for goods and services. A preliminary assessment was made, but the results were not used.

PRICE OF FOOD STAPLES In 2008, it was not possible to determine the local price of food staples. A preliminary assessment was made, but the results were not used.

554

493

The rising number of business permits issued by the municipal government of Juruti indicates the growth of the local economy

288

106 135

2005

2006

NUMBER OF MEMBERS OF THE COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATION OF JURUTI (ACEJ) (2)

(1) Source: Municipal Treasury Department - Municipal Government of Juruti Note: Includes individuals and companies (2) Source: Commercial and Business Association of Juruti (ACEJ)

2007

2008

2007 2008

93 120


Domestic product

WHAT IS THIS? Value added here shows how much each sector has contributed to the municipality’s GDP.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 100 million

60 40 20 0

2002 64tʰ

2003 63rd

2004 63rd

2005 66tʰ

Better position in the ranking

2006 62ⁿd

Ranking in the state, of all the 143 municipalities

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT PER CAPITA (1) In R$

2,500

2,330.91

2,000 1,500 1,500 500 0

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

107

VALUE ADDED BY SECTOR (1) In %

1.80

6.19

1.75

49.94

1.71

55.62

2.25

63.41

37.68

4.06

60.00

Taxes

Services

6.31 7.60 8.94

2002 (1) Source: Gross Domestic Product of the Municipalities - IBGE

86,392.87

80

54.34

Reduction in the contribution of agriculture and livestock compared to the other sectors

(1)

In R$

Economy and infrastructure

WHAT IS THIS? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of all the wealth produced in a region in a given period of time. It includes money changing hands for both goods – a fish sold for R$10, for example – and services – a plumber who fixes a sink for R$20. GDP began to be used after World War II, in the 1950s, although nowadays there is some debate as to whether adding all the wealth produced in a region is really the best way to measure its development. Indeed, this is very often not the case, since GDP does not consider the distribution of this wealth – for example, if it all ends up in the hands of just one person – or the environmental cost.

41.99

2003

35.07

2004

25.41

2005

11.15

24.79 2006

Industry

Agriculture and Livestock


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Access to electrical energy HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND DURABLE GOODS (1) In %

49.48

1991 2000

31.24

Economy and infrastructure

29.65 24.07 15.24 11.40

0.68 Electric lighting

Fridge or freezer

Television

NUMBER OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN JURUTI (2)

2,144

Computer

4,195

2,586

2,358

1,742 2000

2002

2004

(1) Source: Demographic Census – IBGE

2006

2008

(2) Source: National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL)

109


WHAT IS THIS? • Grid: Some communities are connected to the power grid. These are the ones served by rural electrification programs such as “Light for All”. This is the most stable form of energy. • Private or community generator: Some communities have organized a supply of electricity for a few hours a day. In some cases, the generators are privately owned. • Renewable sources: Renewable sources are numerous, but the most common source for rural communities in the Amazon is solar energy.

ACCESS TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN RURAL AREAS (1) In 2009

Source of energy in rural communities Grid

52 communities 108 communities

Generator Renewable sources 0

Access of rural communities to energy (1) By cluster, in 2009

Number of communities in the cluster

Communities with families without energy Did not respond

1 São Benedito

7 8

15

3 Paraná de D. Rosa

8

8

4 Ilhas

110

13

2 Curumucuri

5 Miri Centro

8

2

7 Aruã

12 Uxituba

21

22 16

1 10

30

2

14 Mamuru 1

19 8

In Juruti, 92 rural communities have families without access to energy

19

11

10 9

8

6

7

8

8

5

2 1

13

13

7

13 Juruti Velho 15 Mamuru 2

12

10

1

10 Salé

4

3

3

9 Traíra 11 Castanhal

3

10

6 Bem Longe 8 Central

11

5 0

Areas/clusters of the Municipal Department of Community Integration

14

8

15

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Community Information Workshop – May 2009. Note: The data present information obtained from a questionnaire applied to community advisors from the areas/clusters of the Municipal Department of Community Integration on the infrastructure in Juruti’s rural communities. Of the 194 communities listed by the Department, responses were obtained for 162 communities


Quality of energy SUPPLY INTERRUPTIONS Hours without electrical energy (1) Average number of hours per month without energy Targets set for Juruti

133.7

101

70 47.49 24.3

30.12

31

31 26.77 21

10.91

18.86

21

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Electrical energy interruptions (1)

158.01

Average number of interruptions per month Targets set for Juruti

64

70

58.07

58.91 50

35

20.47 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

(1) Source: National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) Note: Targets set by ANEEL

Number of hours without energy and interruptions are far higher than the targets set by the regulatory agency (ANEEL)

Economy and infrastructure

85

111


Coverage, sanitation facilities and wastewater treatment NETWORK COVERAGE AND SANITATION FACILITIES

89.7%

(1)

Majority use outhouses, since there is no sewage network

Outhouse

Percentage of households by type of sanitation facility (1)]

5.88% Drainage ditch

In 2000

3.04% No bathroom or toilet 1.28% Septic tank

112

0.04% Hooked up to a rainwater/sewage system 0.06% Other drainage system

PERCEPTION OF TYPE OF SANITATION FACILITIES IN RURAL COMMUNITIES (2)

153

Number of communities

74

WHAT IS THIS? • Sewage network: a system of pipes and connections that receives all the liquid effluent from houses, businesses and industries. • Outhouse: a latrine built over a hole in the ground, covered by a wooden or cement seat with an opening in the middle. This type of latrine is usually built away from the house. • Septic tank: a sewage system built to store solid waste and drain away liquid waste. It consists of two tanks, one that is completely closed and the other that has an opening at the bottom, called a drainage hole. The liquid waste can also pass through a natural filter, such as stones or plant roots. This device requires a flush toilet. There are other types of sanitation solutions for cases where no water is available, such as the dry toilet and biodigester. These are new ways of disposing of our waste in an efficient and healthy way. It’s worth trying to find out more!

11 Septic tank

Outhouse

Some houses without toilet

(1) Source: Demographic Census – IBGE (2) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Community Information Workshop – May 2009. Note: The data present information obtained from a questionnaire applied to community advisors from the areas/clusters of the Municipal Department of Community Integration on the infrastructure in Juruti’s rural communities. Of the 194 communities listed by the Department, responses were obtained for 162 communities Note: The same community may have more than one type of sanitation facility


Up until 2008, no sewage treatment was identified in the urban area of Juruti. It is, nevertheless, an important issue. There are basically three types of sewage: rainwater, industrial and domestic. The first is produced by rainwater that washes all the wastewater into the town’s sewage pipes. The second is produced by industries: to manufacture a football, for example, you need processed rubber, glue and other chemical products, and all the leftovers from this process, when mixed with water, is sewage. Finally, and more important for our purposes, there is domestic sewage, produced in our houses every time water goes down the drain – in the sink, shower and lavatory, for those of us who have indoor plumbing, or simply into rivers or holes in the ground, for people who don’t. Three very important problems can arise when there is no sewage treatment: the first problem, that everyone has

experienced in their lives, is the bad smell. Regions without sewage collection cannot escape this. But things can get much worse, because the bacteria that cause the bad smell can also cause diseases. This brings us to the third problem: when untreated sewage is discharged into the river, it can, in large enough quantities, kill fish and feed algae. It can decimate fish populations. This is has already happened in many large cities. In regions where sewage is treated, this does not occur, because before it reaches the river or sea, the wastewater is filtered and cleaned through various processes, rendering it harmless.

Economy and infrastructure

AMOUNT OF SEWAGE TREATED IN THE URBAN AREA

113


Production, collection and disposal of garbage AMOUNT OF GARBAGE PRODUCED IN THE URBAN AREA (1)(2)(3)(4) In tons per day*

Disposal of urban garbage (2)(3)(4) Landfill Collected by the municipal government

13 2000

2006

Incinerated Produced by Alcoa

Recycled Produced by the hospital

n/a

2007 2008

20.05 2006

According to Alcoa, more than 90% of its garbage was recycled in 2008

53.63 2007

114

41.15 2008

FREQUENCY OF GARBAGE COLLECTION (2)

In 2008, garbage was collected in all the urban neighborhoods of Juruti on a daily basis, by dumpsters, trucks and garbage collectors.

(1) Source: Demographic Census – IBGE (2) Source: Municipal Works Department - Municipal Government of Juruti (3) Source: Alcoa (4) Source: Pedro Vallinoto Municipal Hospital Note: the data include garbage produced by the municipal hospital and by Alcoa, and garbage collected by the municipal government, with the exception of data from 2000, which are from the Demographic Census – IBGE n/a: information not avliable


PERCEPTION OF GARBAGE DISPOSAL IN RURAL COMMUNITIES (1) By number of communities, in 2009

Buried

Incinerated

162 is the number of

33

YES

133

YES

communities that responded

156 129

YES

NO

6

29

NO

NO

WHAT IS THIS? Garbage disposal is a serious challenge for all rural regions. The methods of disposal identified in the rural communities of Juruti were: 1. Garbage is littered on the property, in the forest, on the side of the road, in rivers etc. 2. Garbage is buried in holes that are covered up with earth when full and a new hole dug. 3 Garbage is burned in these holes or in piles.

Families from the same community may dispose of garbage differently

None of the three methods of disposal can be considered an ideal solution. Garbage is waste that can be recycled or reused, while not forgetting that it is always possible to simply produce less. There are many solutions, such as recycling, reusing or transportation for disposal in more appropriate destinations, such as cities that have landfills. The solution may not be easy, but if the community gets organized and finds partners, everyone can benefit, including nature.

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Community Information Workshop – May 2009. Note: The data present information obtained from a questionnaire applied to community advisors from the areas/clusters of the Municipal Department of Community Integration on the infrastructure in Juruti’s rural communities. Of the 194 communities listed by the Department, responses were obtained for 162 communities

Economy and infrastructure

Littered

115


Housing policy

Housing units

HOUSING POLICIES (1)

UNITS BUILT (1)

Juruti has had no federal, state or municipal housing policies implemented in recent years

Juruti had no units built by housing policies in 2008

Access to housing NEED FOR NEW HOUSES AND THE HOUSING DEFICIT (2) In 2000

Housing situation

116

Improvised Borrowed Rented Cohabitation Housing deficit Percentage of the total number of permanent private households

Number of houses

2 401 64 1,545 2,012 37.9%

WHAT IS THIS? The housing deficit determines how many houses it would be necessary to build for each family to have their own.

(1) Source: Municipal Planning Department - Municipal Government of Juruti (2) Source: Pará State Planning, Budget and Finance Department (SEPOF)


Transport infrastructure TYPE AND DISTANCE OF ROADS (1) In 2008

52.4 km Paved

Lago do Poção

Juruti

Faro

A

Nhamundá

er n Riv azo m

Economy and infrastructure

Lago Tureré

1,177.42 km Unpaved

Parintins

Municipality of Juruti am Rio M

117

Mu nic ípio

de Par int ins

ur u

Mu nic ipa lity of Sa an tar ém

Lago do Madabá

f lity o icipa Mun

o Aveir

Close-up of Juruti

1,229.82 km Total

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Treatment and interpretation of satellite images – 2008

This region of the municipality is enlarged in the map above

Paved roads Unpaved roads

North

5 km

os o de Óbid pi

Mu nic í


271 Motorbike

NUMBER AND TYPE OF VEHICLES Vehicles with Juruti license plates (1) Mu nic í

os o de Óbid pi

Lago do Poção

Increase in number of vehicles Brazil

Pará

Belém

2001

31,913,003

313,900

145,237

18

2002

35,523,633

350,178

151,674

19

Juruti

2003

36,658,501

394,267

159,383

29

2004

39,240,875

442,530

168,228

55

2005

42,071,961

497,802

179,028

77

2006

45,372,640

554,892

193,526

136

2007

49,644,025

635,299

214,170

245

2008

54,506,661

736,981

236,889

516

2,867

Increase in %

118 234

170 Brazil

163 Pará

Belém

Juruti

66 Light Truck 66 Automobile

41 Heavy Truck 38 Moped Type of vehicles with Juruti license plates (1)

0

2

10 4 2 2001 Total of 18 vehicles

(1) Source: National Transit Department (DENATRAN)

18 Van 7 Trailer 4 Utility vehicle 2 Minibus 2008 2 Bus 1 Tractor Total of 516 vehicles


Coverage of public transport BOAT AND BUS ROUTES AND FREQUENCY (1) Type

Route

Mode of transport

Frequency

Intra-community

Curuaí-Juruti (Capital) Piraquara-Juruti (Capital) Castanhal-Juruti (Capital) Batata-Juruti (Capital) Santa Rosa-Juruti (Capital) Ferrugem-Juruti (Capital) Galiléia-Juruti (Capital) Juruti Velho-Juruti (Capital) Ilha do Valha-me Deus-Juruti (Capital) Juruti Velho-Parintins Juruti-Manaus Juruti-Parintins Juruti-Santarém Juruti-Óbidos Juruti-Belém Juruti-Alenquer Juruti-Oriximiná Juruti-Terra Santa

Road Road Road Road Road Road River River River River River River River River River River River River

6 x week 5 x week 6 x week 1 x week 5 x week 6 x week 2 x week 2 x week 2 x week 3 x week daily 5 x week daily daily 2 x week 2 x week daily 6 x week

Inter-municipal

Economy and infrastructure

In 2008

119 Inspection ROAD AND RIVER INSPECTION In 2008, Juruti still had no local institution responsible for the inspection of road and river transport. The Port Authority, of the Brazilian Navy, conducts some specific inspections, although not with any regularity.

(1) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Transport routes by public transport companies


Access to communication

Close-up s na of Juruti zo

maregion of Rio AThis

NUMBER AND LOCATION OF TELEPHONES (1) In 2008

F Landline telephones

P Public telephones

North

Communities

Villages

the municipality is enlarged in the map below

Alcoa Base

5 km

Juruti 619 Municipal capital F P 126

1 São Benedito P

P 1 Araçá Preto P 1 Café Torrado

Lago do Madabá

1 Igarapé-Açu P 1 Ferrugem P

1 Ingracia P P 1 Maravilha

Village of Muirapinima

P 1 Prudente P 1 Capiranga

F 21 P 10 1 Pom-pom P

120

1 Justina P

Village of Castanhal F 2 P 4 Village of Tabatinga F 10 P 6

Capiranga Base

P 3 Galiléia

Juruti has 161 public telephones and 652 landlines PERCEPTION OF MEANS OF COMMUNICATION IN RURAL AREAS (2)

Communication, health and education

In 2009

In number of communities 161 120 52 25 0 Mobile signal

Access to TV

Radio signal

Newspaper Post office/ circulation mailbox

Communication is all about reducing distances, bringing closer what is far away. In a region the size of the Amazon, then, it’s easy to see why communication is so important: the distances are enormous, there are few roads and river transport is slow. In Juruti, communication has emerged as one of the primary needs of residents. Not for lack of good reason: in addition to

putting people on the map and in touch with friends and loved ones, the ability to communicate quickly and efficiently can mean the difference between life and death for people in need of medical attention. It also serves an educational purpose – we learn a lot from the news on the radio, brochures, newspapers and books.

(1) Source: National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL) (2) Source: Primary data collection (FGV) – Community Information Workshop – May 2009. Note: The data present information obtained from a questionnaire applied to community advisors from the areas/clusters of the Municipal Department of Community Integration on the infrastructure in Juruti’s rural communities. Of the 194 communities listed by the Department, responses were obtained for 162 communities


Private investment AMOUNT INVESTED Percentage of the costs of Alcoa by origin of suppliers of products and services (1)

R$ 1,593,995,295.00

83.61%

81.87% Brazil (other states)

15.27%

13.93%

14.86% Pará

6.74%

2.46%

3.27%

77.99%

2006

2007

Juruti

2008

Economy and infrastructure

Costs of Alcoa on products and services for the construction of the Juruti Mine (including port and railroad) (1)

R$ 866,805,497.00

121 Costs of Alcoa on taxes, fees and compensations (2) 2006 2007 2008

Costs of Alcoa on employees in Juruti (3)

R$ 141,177,601.00

2006 2007 2008 2006

R$ 8,042,132.16 R$ 58,722,175.30 R$ 100,126,973.71

2007

R$ 8,439,436.08 R$ 13,159,059.64 R$ 18,292,620.43

2008

(1) Source: Alcoa (2) Source: Alcoa Note: Includes payment of taxes (such as value-added tax – ICMS), fees, payments to the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC), Financial Compensation for the Exploration of Mineral Resources (CFEM) – only when there is mineral extraction – and employer payroll taxes and fees. (3) Source: Alcoa Note: Does not include employees of subcontracted companies.


SOCIAL PRIVATE INVESTMENT (1) In R$

13,348,886.00 Positive Agenda

11,128,931.43

4,089,603.00 1,643,942.53 1,503,982.57

1,279,799.76 2006

2007

Transparency

122

INFORMATION CHANNELS (1) Alcoa provides information on its website and also in printed publications, on banners in the community and in public announcements on the radio.

(1) Source: Alcoa

3,045,740.37

Others

473,418.54

Donations 2008

WHAT IS THIS? • Positive Agenda: partnership between Alcoa, the municipal government, the municipal legislative council and local communities to develop programs in the areas of education, health, security, infrastructure and welfare. • Donations: variety of donations to local and regional institutions.

• Others: specific projects, such as the Sustainable Juruti project, run by the Brazilian Biodiversity Fund (Funbio) and the Center for Sustainability Studies of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (GVces), the Indicators of Juruti project, developed by the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), the studies conducted by the Institute of Religious Studies (ISER), and the activities organized by the Health and Happiness Project, among others.


Banking NUMBER OF BANK UNITS (1) 2007

2008

Banco do Brasil

1

4 0

Banpará

0

Bradesco

Branch ATM Correspondent banking

1

6

0

0 0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

2

Caixa Econômica Federal 0

1

1

0

1

1

Branch ATM Correspondent banking

MAIN FINANCIAL SERVICES • Bank accounts: checking accounts are the most common types of bank accounts. In these accounts, the depositor’s money is available for withdrawal at any time. Savings accounts are intended for putting aside small amounts of money, and they pay a monthly rate of interest. • Requirements for opening a bank account in Brazil: Fill out the bank form, have the minimum deposit amount (this may be required by the bank) and present original copies of the following documents: -Identity Card: National ID card or equivalent identification; -Personal Taxpayer Identification (CPF) card; -Proof of residence. • To get a checkbook: customers must not be on the national blacklist of

people who have written bad checks and they must also meet the requirements stipulated by the bank. • Credit card: an electronic form of payment that enables the cardholder to purchase goods and services in accredited establishments. Payment occurs on the date each month that the credit card comes due, a date chosen by the cardholder in accordance with the dates made available by the issuer. • Debit card: a form of payment linked to a bank account that, among other purposes, may be used to buy goods and services using a pin number. The value of each transaction is debited, provided the funds are available, directly from the bank account.

(1) Source: Banco do Brasil, Banco do Estado do Pará, Banco Bradesco and Caixa Econômica Federal

Economy and infrastructure

By type

123


Access to credit policies ACCESS TO MICROCREDIT In 2008, there were still no programs providing access to microcredit in Juruti.

ACCESS TO RURAL CREDIT (1)

04

2, 76 5

.0 1

Credit amounts granted by the National Program to Strengthen Family Farming (PRONAF)

2000

2001

2003

3, 2005

2006

14 8

86

,8

1,7

23

12

.2

8

.7 9

5 .4

6,

59 4

.1 4 2004

12

,0 14 8

,0 75 . 95

86 ,2 2002

42

60

3 .4

.5 ,5 99

23

13

35

,9

50

.0

0

4

In R$

2007

2008

Note: the 2008 data go only as far as July

264

Number of credit contracts granted by PRONAF

124

11

39

2003

2004

7

11

2000

39

2001

2002

85 18

9

2005

2006

2007

2008

Note: the 2008 data go only as far as July

Credit granted by PRONAF between 2000 and 2008, by group (1)

WHAT IS THIS? • A: Family farmers settled on land by the National Agrarian Reform Plan (PNRA) or beneficiaries of the National Land Credit Program (PNCF) who were recipients of neither the Special Credit Program for Agrarian Reform (Procera) nor the investment credit limit of Pronaf. • B: Includes family farmers, fishermen, extractivists, riverside dwellers, quilombolas (residents of quilombola communities originally founded by escaped slaves) and indigenous peoples with a gross annual family income of less than R$5,000, although up to 70% of their income may come from activities other than those developed on their rural property. • C/D/E: Family farmers with a gross family income over the preceding 12 months above R$5,000 and up to R$110,000, including income from activities developed both on and off the rural property. • OTHERS: Not fitting into any group or very small-scale farmers.

Credit amounts granted by PRONAF between 2000 and 2008, by group (1) In R$

A

28.55%

A Others 3.68% B 0.04%

C/D/E

67.72%

0 2000 0 2001 0 2002 0 2003 0 2004 0 2005 0 2006 2007 1,283,650.00 0 2008

B

0 0 0 0 2,000.00 0 0 0 0

C/D/E

Others

13,950.00 0 35,599.54 0 23,286.43 0 95,075.60 0 78,542.14 67,500.00 87,443.45 39,151.00 853,535.79 8,177.00 1,743,633.67 15,481.34 113,476.84 35,346.44

Note: the 2008 data go only as far as July

A sharp increase in 2006 and 2007 (1) Source: National Program to Strengthen Family Farming (PRONAF) – Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA)

Total

13,950.00 35,599.54 23,286.43 95,075.60 148,042.14 126,594.45 861,712.79 3,042,765.01 148,823.28


One of the objectives of this project was to identify which neighboring municipalities could suffer influences from the installation of Alcoa in Juruti, and to suggest indicators to accompany the development of the region. To do this, we conducted extensive bibliographical and field research. After an analysis of the results, we identified two groups of municipalities that had either intensified their relations, or initiated relations, with Juruti since the arrival of the mining project to the region. The first, formed by Óbidos, Oriximiná and Santarém, consists of municipalities whose relations with Juruti have intensified dramatically, and is called the “Territory for Monitoring”. In these municipalities, we identified a heavy flow of people, services and merchandise. The second group is comprised of Alenquer, Faro, Itaituba, Parintins and Terra Santa and covers the municipalities whose relations with Juruti have experienced less significant alterations, although enough to merit some monitoring. We have called this group the “Territory for Observation”. In these municipalities, the changes in relations with Juruti are less pronounced and more diffuse, generally speaking associated with actual or potential mineral exploration, with vocational courses to cater to the growing demand, and with the flow of people and merchandise. Considering the feasibility of keeping track of development in these municipalities, we decided to use only information collected periodically by national research institutions. As a

result, 11 indicators were chosen for the Territory for Monitoring. Under Environment, we monitored land cover and use, mineral deposits and the production and sale of mineral resources. In Humans and Society, we chose indicators on life expectancy and mortality, quality of education, labor, employment and income, demographics and the HDI. In the section on Economy and Infrastructure, we covered domestic product and sources and uses of public money. In the Territory for Observation, nine of these 11 indicators were selected. The challenges involved in defining a territory to monitor beyond Juruti brought to light a number of issues. The first is that the transformations reaching the surrounding municipalities are diffuse and influenced by other factors at play in the region. The second is that some transformations are intangible, that is, they are difficult to quantify, such as, for example, the potential impact on the family structure when heads of households leave home to look for work elsewhere. Finally, the proposed indicators do not fully cover all the issues identified in the field research. However, of all the information available, they come closest to the issues being monitored. It is worth pointing out that the progress made by incorporating the monitoring and observation of development in the municipalities surrounding Juruti, in this project, expresses a desire to contribute to a broader discussion on the importance of adopting a regional approach when installing large business projects, particularly in the Amazon.


Óbidos

Oriximiná

Index

Faro

See which indicators were selected for the regions below

Terra Santa Alenquer Santarém

What is shown on this map

Parintins

PARÁ Juruti

Municipalities that make up the Territory for Monitoring

Municipalities that make up the Territory for Observation

Oriximiná Óbidos Santarém

Alenquer Itaituba Faro Parintins Terra Santa

Itaituba North

100 km Section

Topic

Environment

Dynamics of Land cover and use Land Occupation

Percentage of deforested area

X

X

Mineral Resources

Mineral deposits and their location

X

X

Prospecting permits

X

X

Production and sale of mineral resources

X

X

Mining concessions

X

Demographics

Population

X

X

Municipal Human Development Index

HDI-M

X

X

Quality of education

HDIM-Education

X

X

IDEB performance

X

Average years spent in school

X

Illiteracy rate

X

Mortality

Infant mortality rate

X

Life expectancy

HDIM-Longevity

X

Labor, employment and income

Per capita income

X

HDIM-Income

X

X

Domestic product

GDP

X

X

Per capita GDP

X

Value added by sector

X

Total revenues

X

128

Indicators

Mineral deposits

Production and sale

Humans and Society

Population

Education

Health

Labor, Employment and Income Local Economy and Infrastructure Economy

Public Finances

Sources and uses of public money

Metrics

X


Sector: Environment Topic: Dynamics of land occupation

Land cover and use DEFORESTED AREA (1) In %

19.38 Santarém 17.29 Terra Santa 15.45 Parintins

16.15 14.87 14.34 12.34

Indicators from the surrounding area

13.55 Juruti

7.21 Itaituba 5.94 Óbidos 5.70 Alenquer

5.04 4.93 4.92

1.88 Faro 1.26 Oriximiná

1.56 1.03 2000

2008

Sector: Environment Topic: Mineral resources

Mineral deposits MINERAL DEPOSITS AND THEIR LOCATION (2) Until 2009

Juruti Alenquer

Faro

Itaituba

Aluminum Diamond Tin Granite Dolerite Titanium Tin Aluminum Diamond Calcitic limestone Gypsum Pebbles* Mineral water Limestone Amethyst Gold Tourmaline Topaz Tin

* for civil construction

Óbidos

Amethyst Tin Oriximiná Aluminum Amazonite Limestone Copper Diamond Tin Fluoride Gemstone Gold Pyrite Rock salt Titanium Parintins Clay Sand Shale Terra Santa Aluminum Santarém Dolerite

PROSPECTING PERMITS (3) In 2008

Itaituba

Santarém

(1) Source: National Institute of Space Research (INPE) – PRODES Project (2) Source: Mineral Resources Research Agency (CPRM) (3) Source: National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM)

Mineral

Number of permits

Gold Dolomite Aluminm Bauxite

7 1 1 3

129


Sector: Environment Topic: Mineral resources

Production and sale PRODUCTION AND SALE OF THE MAIN MINERAL RESOURCES (1) In 2007

Municipality

Mining company

Oriximiná Itaituba

MRN Bauxite (t) 18,058,339 CBE/ CAIMA Limestone (t) 762,956 SERABI Copper (t) 448 Gold (g) 888,583 GARIMPO Gold (g) 3,521,533

Itaituba and others

Mineral

MINING CONCESSIONS (1) Year

Juruti Oriximiná Santarém

Production beneficiated

Number of concessions issued

Mineral

2006 Aluminum 2000 Aluminum 2001 Mineral Water 2008

3 1 1 1

Production sold

Total sale value (R$)

ICMS tax in R$

18,058,339 1,078,323,183.00 762,956 11,663,909.82 448 5,555,254.04 888,582 39,748,050.34 3,521,533 128,172,897.54

CFEM payment in R$

28,545,286.50 138,533.43 0.00 0.00 0.00

Company given the concession

Omnia Minérios Mineração Rio do Norte Santágua – Santarém Águas Iara – Produtos Alimentícios

Sector: Humans and Society Topic: Population

130

29,335,812.42 145,345.67 69,032.32 390,852.91 0.00

241,538

Demographics

262,538

TOTAL POPULATION (2) 1991

2000

94,750 69,909

23,262 31,198 Juruti

90,150 42,307 46,490 36,254

35,834 41,784

48,332

58,783 10,945 14,592

7,529 10,037 Alenquer

Faro

Itaituba

Óbidos

Oriximiná

Parintins

Terra Santa

Santarém

Sector: Humans and Society Topic: Population

Municipal Human Development Index HDI-M (3) 1991

2000

0.588 0.630

Juruti

0.547

0.623

Faro

0.594

0.673

Alenquer

0.622

0.704

Itaituba

0.658 0.696

Parintins

0.614

0.688

Terra Santa

0.616

0.681

Óbidos

(1) Source: National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM) – Annual Mineral Report of Pará - 2007 (2) Source: Demographic Census – IBGE (3) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

0.637

0.717

Oriximiná

0.661

0.746

Santarém


Sector: Humans and Society Topic: Education

Quality of education ILLITERACY RATE (1)

IDEB PERFORMANCE (2)

People aged 15 or older, in %

4.2 Brazil

2000

First 4 years 23.15

Juruti

23.60

Óbidos

Oriximiná

15.19

3.5

19.30 14.90

3.1

17.1 11.66

Santarém

3.9 Santarém

3.8

15.05

3.5 Juruti 3.2 Óbidos

2.8 2.7

2.8 Pará 2.7 Oriximiná 2005

2007

3.9 Santarém 3.8 Brazil

Last 4 years

AVERAGE YEARS SPENT IN SCHOOL (1)

3.7 3.6 3.5

People aged 25 and older, in years

5.4 Santarém

3.6 Oriximiná 3.5 Óbidos

4.6 Oriximiná

2.8

4.1

3.9 Óbidos

3.6

3.4 Juruti

3.2 Juruti

3.1

2.9 Pará

3.0

2.3 2.2 1.7

Indicators from the surrounding area

1991

By score

2005

131

2007

2.3 1980

1991

2000

HDIM-EDUCATION 1991 0.703

(3)

2000 0.811

Juruti

0.675

0.801

Faro

0.688

0.797

0.791

Alenquer

0.791

0.855

0.786 0.831

0.632

Itaituba

Parintins

Terra Santa

0.713

0.800

Óbidos

0.763

0.828

Oriximiná

0.788

0.884

Santarém

(1) Source: Applied Economics Research Institute (IPEA) (2) Source: Anísio Teixeira National Educational Research and Studies Institute (INEP) – Ministry of Education (MEC) (3) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP)


Sector: Humans and Society Topic: Health

Mortality INFANT MORTALITY RATE (1) Per thousand live births

45

33 21 Juruti 21 Oriximiná

25 21 18

20 Pará 19 Óbidos

12 16 Brazil 15 Santarém 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Life expectancy HDIM-LONGEVITY (2) 1991

2000

0.586 0.637

132

Juruti

0.524

0.598

Faro

0.589

0.707

Alenquer

0.634 0.691

Itaituba

0.636

0.705

Parintins

0.586

0.733

Terra Santa

0.625

0.733

0.586

0.733

0.643

0.755

Óbidos

Oriximiná

Santarém

Sector: Humans and Society Topic: Labor, employment and income

Labor, employment and income HDIM-INCOME (2) 1991

2000

0.474 0.442

0.442 0.469

0.505 0.520

Juruti

Faro

Alenquer

0.601 0.623

Itaituba

0.546 0.527

0.471 0.500

0.509 0.509

0.561 0.591

0.551 0.598

Parintins

Terra Santa

Óbidos

Oriximiná

Santarém

PER CAPITA INCOME (3) Per month, in R$ 1991 2000 66.70 55.18 Juruti

82.51 82.50

112.46 134.23

Óbidos

Oriximiná

105.98

139.90

Santarém

141.52 168.59 Pará

297.23 230.30

Brazil

(1) Source: DATASUS – Health Information Charts – February 2009 (2) Source: Atlas of Human Development in Brazil – United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (3) Source: Pará State Planning, Budget and Finance Department (SEPOF)


Sector: Economy and Infrastructure Topic: Local economy

Domestic product

1,428,692.23 Santarém GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) (1)

GDP PER CAPITA (1) In R$

In R$ thousand

12,688.00 Brazil

11,682.10

9,489.51

766,514.43

9,498.00

630,823.55 Oriximiná 6,241.00 Pará

479,542.93

4,448.00

Santarém

352,717.97 Parintins

3,098.51

244,761.86 200,000.97

Óbidos

2,862.29

2,330.91

2,150.61 1,580.13

Juruti

2002

447,424.88 Itaituba

5,175.03

2003

2004 2005

153,630.54 Óbidos 118,248.33 Alenquer 86,392.87 Juruti

102,564.75 80,498.13 52,897.95 25,059.11 13,521.40

2006

2002 2003

2004

2005

2002

VALUE ADDED (1) By sector, in %

2006

1.8

3.02

Agriculture and Livestock Industry Services Taxes

Juruti

24.79

36.81

53.60

3.27

4.06

37.68 54.34

2006

40,088.32 Terra Santa 25,521.73 Faro

Óbidos

Juruti

33.82 Óbidos

11.15 6.19 8.15

25.94

10.08

6.10

8.70

Oriximiná

59.81

(1) Source: Gross Domestic Product of the Municipalities - IBGE

60.00

6.57

Santarém

68.27

12.95

31.52

54.79 9.41

4.99

Oriximiná

8.12 11,29 8,11

Santarém

54.08

12,95 67,64

Indicators from the surrounding area

Oriximiná

133


Sector: Economy and Infrastructure Topic: Public finances

Sources and uses of public money TOTAL REVENUES (1)

252,122,180.31

In R$

Santarém

97,492,792.95 Oriximiná

85,027,149.59 Juruti

70,186,119.60

39,270,454.00 Óbidos

30,381,594.00 10,324,520.74

134

11,859,170.00 2000

2002

2008

(1) Source: Report on the Finances of Brazil (FINBRA) - National Treasury Department


Some reflections and lessons learned

The construction of the Indicators of Juruti turned out to be a process full of challenges and valuable lessons for the Getulio Vargas Foundation staff. Lets take a look at some of the lessons and reflections of this project:

Local follow-up At the very first workshop in Juruti, we suggested creating a group of representatives from local institutions to keep a close watch on our work. This governance body was not part of our original proposal, but proved itself to be extremely worthwhile. The “Follow-Up Group”, as it was called, did a lot more than just check how the work was being done. The group shared with us many of the concerns and challenges involved with the project and advised us on several occasions. Without the Follow-Up Group, the result of this project would not have been the same!

The vision of Juruti

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A review of the literature dealing with local development indicators in general implied that we should organize our indicators in accordance with their connection to the resources existing in the municipality or region. These resources are usually called “capitals”, and the most common division separates them into natural capital, human capital, social capital and produced capital. However, when we arrived in Juruti and started to construct the indicators together with the local community, we noticed that their vision is far more thematic than it is capital or resource based. As a result of this, the organization of our indicators follows the logic of the population of Juruti, meaning it is based on themes. An example: issues such as agricultural, livestock and fishing production would traditionally be classified under economics, or produced capital, but in Juruti people consider them to be environmental, since they are based on the use of natural resources, and they have been presented as such in this project.


Difficulty finding information We experienced some difficulty finding the information that the population of Juruti wanted to see here – for example, statistics on children not attending school, the cost of living, mapping the traditional local culture, the quality of river and stream water. Sometimes the official data was extremely vague and quite dated, since they are not updated every year. Other times, the information from Juruti’s own institutions, which are far more in touch with reality, had still not been organized – making it difficult to get hold of important data. Finally, in some cases, the information simply did not exist. This is why it is so important for institutions to embrace this initiative, so as to guarantee reliable information over time and the survival of these indicators.

Primary data In order to get information on important issues that we could not find either from the official sources or from the institutions of Juruti, steps were taken to collect primary data. We organized meetings and workshops with community advisors from the municipal government and with representatives from rural unions, from the fishing colony and from other social organizations. We managed to make some headway, but for some issues the results of our attempts to collect data were insufficient for them to be used in this book. In some cases, discussions with the participation of local residents, to hear their ideas and suggestions, are still required for this information to be obtained over the next few years. In others, we need to redefine the methodologies for collecting data, such as, for example, the location of socio-environmental conflicts, perceptions about security in rural communities and the cultural expressions in Juruti.

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Amount of information Our work resulted in the collection and presentation in this publication of more than 150 items of information. This is quite substantial! But it was our choice: to present the maximum amount of information on the issues that the population told us it was important to monitor. In this first diagnosis, we considered it important to present this “snapshot” of Juruti in quite some detail. We made an effort to produce a publication – this book – that makes it easy to read about and understand the project. But it will be Juruti that is going to decide eventually whether it makes sense to cover this amount of information to assess the development of the municipality.

Installation of large business projects in the Amazon

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The experience in Juruti has brought to light an issue of great importance on the subject of installing large projects in socially and environmentally sensitive regions, such as the Amazon. Long-term regional planning is still relatively fragile. This is because the host municipalities do not generally have the means to prepare in advance for the profound changes they will experience in their environmental, social and economic contexts, not only to curb the potential damage, but also to take advantage of the opportunities that will arise. For example, in spite of the mitigating and offsetting measures adopted by Brazilian legislation, the government is unable to respond in time to the social and environmental demands generated by the installation of such a large business project. Rising tax revenues resulting from the arrival of a big company do not make it into the public coffers in time to meet the immediate demands, in the areas of health, sanitation and welfare. As a result, for physical and financial reasons, what occurs is a period of deficient social services, which often requires intervention on the part of the company. The main consideration on this matter is the importance of large business projects in the Amazon being accompanied by public policies that effectively structure the region.


How to use the indicators

All the work involved in the construction of the Indicators of Juruti was extremely gratifying, challenging and enriching for the Getulio Vargas Foundation staff. Lots of people participated, we learned a great deal and we managed to gather valuable and interesting information on the municipality. However, this project will only be a success if it is useful for the population of Juruti. If this book gets left on the bookshelf, the work will not have been so useful. It needs to be used as a tool, to be looked after, improved upon and streamlined, so it can stay with us forever. Talk with the book in your hands

Talk to your neighbor, discuss the issues with your Community Health Agent, arrange meetings with leaders from your community. Participate in the municipal councils or approach council members to suggest issues, for council discussion, that you consider important for the development of your municipality. Approach the municipal government, government agencies and companies to address the issues that you think are important, so you can work together to face the challenges and find the right solutions.

Improve the Indicators of Juruti

Think about how you can improve the information we have compiled here, and also find the data that is missing. Get involved with local institutions that provided information for the Indicators of Juruti and discuss how they can improve the organization of the data and how they can help maintain the indicators over the years.

Access the indicators on the internet

The Indicators of Juruti are also available for anyone who is interested on the internet. Visit the website http://www.fgv.br/ces/juruti/sistema (portuguese only).

Contact us

The Getulio Vargas Foundation spent two years working to present Juruti with this publication and the internet system containing the Indicators of Juruti. We welcome criticisms, suggestions and also questions from anybody who would like to learn more about the process of developing this project or about the indicators themselves. Send an email to juruti@fgv.br.

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Acknowledgements

Writing the acknowledgements for this publication was the hardest part of our work. So many people and institutions collaborated and devoted their time and effort to the Indicators of Juruti over these past two years that we run the risk of listing a hundred names and, even then, forgetting someone. Someone who welcomed us, who gave us directions on the river, who invited us into their home for a meal, or who served up a snack in one of the communities. Someone! Therefore, in these acknowledgements, we have decided to leave you with a story that had a lasting impression on us and inspired us in our work right from the start. It was January 2006 and the FGV arrived in town to make a diagnosis. “Another survey?� asked the locals, in a town that was enveloped in clouds of dust from the construction work. Our mission was to talk to the residents and try to understand how they envisioned Juruti in the future. Their hopes and concerns. Among the numerous voices we heard, one caught our attention. Very clearly, softly and politely, this voice made a special appeal: that we bring back to Juruti the result of our work, of our survey. That our project not end up gathering dust on a library shelf.

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Throughout the entire project, this message echoed in the minds of all the staff members, as if it were a light to be followed, a commitment to be honored: return the results of our work to Juruti. With this publication, we have answered this special appeal. This publication is for Juruti. For the schools of Juruti, for the councils, for the communities, for the institutions, for the municipal government, for the companies, for the average citizen, for the residents. We hope this publication can help Juruti build its Common Future. The Indicators of Juruti are the sum of the involvement of a great many people: those who entrusted us with the responsibility of returning this project to them; a team of staff that committed itself heart and soul to the cause; everyone who contributed to the joint construction, submitting information, advice, criticism and insight, telling their stories and sharing their challenges and triumphs; and also those who extended us their kindness and friendship. Since it is the product of such a rich sum, this project reflects the efforts of each and every one of us. For this reason, we would like to extend our heartfelt gratitude to each person who took this journey with us. And we thank that voice, our light. THANK YOU!

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Index

Credits ....................................................................................................................................page 2 Introduction ...................................................................................................................page 4 Where is Juruti headed?................................................................................page 7 Discovering what course to take...........................................................page 9 Indicators of Juruti.............................................................................................page 11 The construction of the indicators......................................................page 12 Juruti is here..............................................................................................................page 22 How to read the charts....................................................................................page 26 How to read this publication.....................................................................page 28 ALL THE INDICATORS.........................................................................................page 30

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ENVIRONMENT...........................................................................................................page 33 Dynamics of Land Occupation........................................................page 34 Land cover and use - Types of land cover and use - Deforested area Territorial planning - Land planning in the region and the beneficiaries - Areas allocated for the porposes of regularizing land tenure - Implementation of the master plan Mineral Resources..........................................................................................page 38 Mineral deposits - Mineral deposits and their location - Prospecting permits Licensing and inspection - Authorizations, permits and licenses for mineral exploration - Inspections of mineral exploration activities Production and sale - Production and sale - Production and sale of the main mineral resources - Legal compensation in mineral production Water................................................................................................................................page 40 Water quality - Water quality at points monitored by Alcoa - Monitoring the water quality Access to treated water - Access to treated water - Perception on access to water in rural communities Inspection - Inspection of the quality and use of water

Air and Climate...................................................................................................page 44 Air quality - Air quality at points monitored by Alcoa - Instances of fires Emissions of greenhouse gases - Emissions of CO2 Fauna...............................................................................................................................page 46 Occurrence, conservation and use - Perception of the occurrence of fauna, its use and species threatened with extinction Technical assistance and support - Conservation and sustainable use programs Inspection - Inspection operations Flora..................................................................................................................................page 48 Occurrence, conservation and use - Perception of the occurrence and trend of flora, its use and species threatened with extinction Technical assistance and support - Technical assistance and support programs for flora Forestry production - Amount and value of production in plant extraction Licensing and inspection - Authorizations, permits and licenses for flora - Flora inspection operations Environmental services.........................................................................page 52 Environmental services - Payment for environmental services Fish and Fishing.................................................................................................page 53 Occurrence, conservation and use - Perception of the occurrence of fish and species threatened with extinction Fishermen - Profile of the members in the Z-42 Fishing Colony - Perception of fishing techniques Inspection - Fishing inspection operations Technical assistance and support - Technical assistance and support programs Stewardship, production and sale - Fish farming projects - Fishing agreements - Quantity sold and value of production - Perception on the potential for fish sales


Agriculture and Livestock...................................................................page 58 Family farmers and small livestock producers - Members of the rural workers union Agriculture and livestock producers - Members of the rural union Technical assistance and support - Programs for agriculture and livestock Production and sale - Perception of production methods - Farming and livestock establishments - Crops - Animal produce - Farms with livestock Animal health control and inspection - Incidence of hoof-and-mouth in the municipality - Proportion of animals vaccinated for hoofand-mouth - Sanitary and phytosanitary inspection operations HUMANS AND SOCIETY...................................................................................page 69 Population................................................................................................................page 70 Demographics - Total population of Juruti - Rural and urban population by gender - Urbanization rate - Division of the total population by age group Municipal Human Development Index - HDI-M Education...................................................................................................................page 72 Access to education - Number of enrollments - Number of students transferred to Juruti - Enrollments in Pre-School, Primary School and Youth & Adult Education in urban and rural areas - Students who take public school transport - Number of public school transport vehicles - Enrollments in higher education - Enrollments in vocational courses Quality of education - Failure rate by grade - Drop-out rate by grade - Collective bodies for discussing education - Illiteracy rate among people aged 15 and older - Average years spent in school among people aged 25 and older - School age/grade distortion rate - HDIM-Education - IDEB performance

- ENEM performance - “Provinha” child literacy test - Average number of students per class and grade Education professionals - Number of teachers - Teachers enrolled in continued education courses Alignment with the local reality - Casa familiar rural center - Local produce in school meals Teaching facilities - Total number of schools - School infrastructure per grade Health............................................................................................................................page 79 Mortality - Infant mortality rate Life expectancy - Life expectancy upon birth - HDIM-Longevity Disease and risk factors - Instances of the most common medical complaints - Proportion of living newborns underweight at birth - Prevalence of malnutrition in children under two Access to health services - Provision of prenatal care - Women’s health programs - Proportion of the population served by the Family Health Program and the Community Health Agents Program - Number of children under one immunized with tetravalent vaccine - Number of outpatient consultations Health professionals - Number of health professionals by category - Health professionals enrolled in continued education courses Healthcare facilities and equipment - Number of healthcare establishments by category

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Index

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Social Vulnerability....................................................................................page 84 Violence, sexual abuse and exploitation of children and adolescents - Reports of cases of violence, sexual abuse and exploitation of children and adolescents - Forensic medical reports on child and teen victims of violence Child labor - Reports of cases of child labor Violence against women - Forensic medical reports on victims of violence Teen pregnancy - Reports of cases of teen pregnancy - Hospital admissions by pregnant women in labor aged 18 and younger Programs and financial instruments for vulnerable groups and social inclusion - Programs geared towards vulnerable groups - Financial instruments for vulnerable groups Security.......................................................................................................................page 88 Crime - Police charge sheets - Perception of violence in rural communities Public security professionals - Number of public security professionals by category - Channels for reporting Security infrastructure - Security infrastructure Traffic security - Hospital admissions resulting from traffic accidents - Traffic inspection Culture, Sport and Leisure..................................................................page 91 Cultural programs and events - Cultural calendar for Juruti in 2009 - Perception of the cultural programs in the rural communities Cultural facilities - Cultural and sporting facilities Archeological heritage - Programs to promote the archeological heritage Labor, Employment and Income...................................................page 94 Labor, employment and income - Number of working people by occupation type - Number of working people by sector - Admissions and dismissals from formal jobs - Alcoa employees - Average monthly worker income

- Per capita income - HDIM-Income Income inequality and distribution - GINI index - Families benefiting from the Bolsa Família program Social Participation.....................................................................................page 97 Social organizations - Characteristics of social organizations Councils and social participation bodies - Civil society’s perception of the councils and other social participation bodies - Characteristics of the existing councils Socio-Environmental Conflicts...................................................page 100 Socio-environmental conflicts - Perception of the conflicts over the use of fishing resources and the use and occupation of land and settlement mechanisms ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE...............................................page 105 Local Economy.....................................................................................................page 106 Cost of living - Average prices of goods and services - Price of food staples Businesses - Number of business permits in Juruti - Number of members of the Commercial and Business Association of Juruti Domestic product - Gross domestic product - Gross domestic product per capita - Value added by sector Public Finances...................................................................................................page 108 Sources and uses of public money - Total revenues - Expenses and investments Transparency in accountability - Accountabilty channels Energy............................................................................................................................page 109 Access to electrical energy - Households with access to electric lighting and durable goods - Number of energy consumers in Juruti - Access to electrical energy in rural areas Quality of energy - Supply interruptions


Sewage...........................................................................................................................page 112 Coverage, sanitation facilities and wastewater treatment - Network coverage and sanitation facilities - Perception of type of sanitation facilities in rural communities - Amount of sewage treated in the urban area Garbage.........................................................................................................................page 114 Production, collection and disposal of garbage - Amount of garbage produced in the urban area - Frequency of garbage collection - Perception of garbage disposal in rural communities Housing.........................................................................................................................page 116 Housing policy - Housing policies Housing units - Units built Access to housing - Need for new houses and the housing deficit Transport...................................................................................................................page 117 Transport infrastructure - Type and distance of roads - Number and type of vehicles Coverage of public transport - Boat and bus routes and frequency Inspection - Road and river inspection Communication.................................................................................................page 120 Access to communication - Number and location of telephones - Perception of means of communication in rural areas Private Investment.......................................................................................page 121 Private investment - Amount invested - Social private investment Transparency - Information channels Financial Services...........................................................................................page 123 Banking - Number of bank units by type Access to credit policies - Access to microcredit - Access to rural credit

INDICATORS FROM THE SURROUNDING AREA..............page 127 Land cover and use - Deforested area Mineral deposits - Mineral deposits and their location - Prospecting permits Production and sale - Production and sale of the main mineral resources - Mining concessions Demographics - Total population Municipal Human Development Index - HDI-M Quality of education - Illiteracy rate - IDEB performance - Average years spent in school - HDIM-Education Mortality - Infant mortality rate Life expectancy - HDIM-Longevity Labor, employment and income - HDIM-Income - Per capita income Domestic product - GDP per capita - Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Value added Sources and uses of public money - Total revenues Some reflections and lessons learned.......................................page 136 - Local follow-up - The vision of Juruti - Difficulty finding information - Primary data - Amount of information - Installation of large business projects in the Amazon How to use the indicators........................................................................page 139 - Talk with the book in your hands - Improve the indicators of Juruti - Access the indicators on the internet - Contact us Acknowledgements........................................................................................page 140

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September 2009 Typography: Arauto and Tekton



Juruti