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INDEX INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................[05] EASA.....................................................................................................................................................................[06] About History

CADIZ................................................................................................................................................................... [08] Intro Time Line Cultural References

EASA 011 .............................................................................................................................................................[26] Theme: deCOASTruction Cadiz Case Study Bibliography

WORKSHOPS....................................................................................................................................................... [38] Intro 5 Subthemes Places Considerations Your Participants Tools and Materials

TIMETABLE...........................................................................................................................................................[60] HOW TO CONDUCT A SUCCESSFUL WORKSHOP................................................................................................ [62] How to Examples

INFO [DEADLINES]............................................................................................................................................... [66] EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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HOW TO USE THIS TUTORPACK This document is issued by EASA Spain 2011 as a resource for prospective tutors at easa011 to be held in Cadiz in the summer of 2011. It provides information the organisers feel is important to consider and understand when submitting a workshop proposal. There are sections on Cadiz that cover its history, culture and architectural context, which, although not essential when developing a workshop proposal, we feel will inform a well rounded approach. They provide a basic introduction to the host cities and country, but are by no means a definitive guide. We have attempted to suggest further sources to provide additional information. The later sections deal directly with workshops and should be considered essential reading for any prospective tutor. The last section has all the specific dates and information needed to submit proposals.


Introduction EASA 2005, Switzerland, Pavillion Competition

We are proud to release the TutorPack for easa011_deCOASTruction. The 31st annual European Architecture Students Assembly will be held in Cadiz (Spain) from July 23rd to August 7th, 2011. This document provides the required information for students and professionals alike to propose workshops to be realized during the assembly. We want to use it as a tool to inform potential tutors about the event, the theme and the location of easa011. easa011 is a city based event. During the two weeks 400-450 architecture students from all over Europe will explore the city characteristics and intervene with its context. We hope that successful workshops allow students gain vital experience and exchange ideas and that their work will conclude with challenging and creative outcomes that connect strongly with the location. The theme is supposed to be a general link between the different workshops and activities during the assembly. Each workshop should embrace the theme in someway, dealing on a critical level with different approaches to the subject. The proposed subthemes have been formulated to be used as clues or guidelines in order to provide a closer approach to the context. It is also meant to be an inspiration for creative thought and reflection, and spark debate throughout the assembly. The organising team hopes that you will find this document useful and informative, and provide you with the basis to propose some of the most imaginative, thought-provoking workshops EASA has seen. Additional information will be released when we feel necessary, and links will be provided for further research. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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EASA: about EASA 2007 Greece

EASA is the only organisation of its kind in Europe and is fundamentally different to all other student architecture organisations around the world. Fundamentally EASA is a network of students, by students, for students, there is no central organisation or board, no standing affiliation with any external establishment exists. There are over 40 countries that cover the whole of the continent’s student population, each of these have two National Contacts (NCs), whose role is to promote the network within their country’s student population and be the link between individual students and the other countries in the network. In theory every student of architecture can be part of EASA and is connected through their National Contact (NC). These NCs come together once a year at the INCM (Intermediate National Contacts Meeting), in autumn, to discuss any issues that are facing the network and to choose the venue for the following INCM and EASA summer event. The most striking feature of these meetings is that there is never a vote on major decisions; rather all decisions must be reached by way of the consensus of those present. EASA is founded on the basis of all decisions being agreed on by consensus; consensus means that issues are discussed until everyone involved in the debate is satisfied and agrees on one course of action. Due to the expansion of Europe there are now more nations involved in EASA meaning debates can include up to 100 people and therefore can run for hours. Because of this consensus is now mostly reserved for more significant decisions such as changes to the guide and future locations of EASA events. Another defining characteristic of EASA is its non-political stand point. This allows for greater cooperation in possibly unexpected ways, for example 2008’s applicants from Northern Ireland applied for participation through the Irish quota. Another unlikely link up occurred with the organisation of the 2008 INCM when students from either side of the divided island of Cyprus collaborated to host the meetings, partly in the no-man’s-land that physically divides the Island.

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EASA: history EASA 1997, Narvik, NC meeting

1981 Liverpool England Starting the EASA Experience 1982 Delft Holland Uncertainfuture 1983 Lisboa Portugal Social Spaces 1984 Aarhus Denmark Turning Point 1985 Athens Greece Interpretation and Action 1986 Torino Italy Architecturi Latenti 1987 Helsinki Finland Architecture and Nature 1988 Berlin Germany Dimension Between 1989 Marseille France Heritage et Creative 1990 Karlskrona Sweden Exploration 1991 Kolomna USSR Regeneration 1992 UÅNrgüp Turkey Vision 2000 1993 Sandwick Scotland The Isle 1994 Liège Belgium Consommer l’Inconsommable 1995 Zamosc Poland Beyond the Borders 1996 Clermont France Dream Builders! L’Hérault 1997 The Train Scandinavia Advancing Architecture 1998 Valetta Malta Living on the edge 1999 Kavala Greece Osmosis 2000 Antwerp/ Belgium/ Dissimilarities Rotterdam Holland 2001 Gökçeada Turkey No Theme 2002 Vis Croatia Senses 2003 Friland Denmark Sustainable Living 2004 Roubaix France Metropolitain - Micropolitain 2005 Bergün Switzerland TranTrans Transition 2006 Budapest Hungary Common Places 2007 Eleusina Greece City Index 2008 Letterfrack Ireland Adaptation 2009 Darfo Italy Supermarchet 2010 Manchester UK Identity 2011 Cadiz Spain deCOASTruction 2012 Helsinki Finland Wastelands

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Cádiz Cadiz Bay, 1813

INTRODUCTION Cadiz, the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the Iberian Peninsula and possibly of all southwestern Europe, was founded by Phoenicians and has a history of more than 3.000 years. Established on one of the edges of the Cadiz Bay and linked with the Peninsula through a maintained isthmus, Cadiz is technically an island surrounded by the sea. The city was inhabited also by Greeks and many legends refer to it as founded by Hercules after his fabled tenth labor. There is written evidence that Cadiz hosted a Greek temple that is believed to be the starting point for the myth of the pillars of Hercules. Around 500 BC, the city fell under the sway of Carthage and became the base of operations for Hannibal’s conquest on southern Iberia. However three centuries later, the city fell to Roman forces and flourished a Roman naval base. By that time the city concentrated some of the most notable citizens in the area, being a major hub for commercial relations. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Cadiz’ prominent position began to fade. Fact mainly provoked by the assault of the Visigoths in 410 in which most of the city was destroyed. In 711, the city was included into the territories under Moorish rule: Al-Andalus. The Moors inhabited the city for five and a half centuries, when Alfonso X conquered it.

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San Antonio Square, Cadiz, XIX Century. J. Laurent

The later story of Cadiz has been marked by two factors that will help to determine its current origin and formation: its commercial and military marking. The military aspect influences not only its layout and division, but also its lack of public spaces present. On the other hand the commercial aspect marks the evolution of the type of housing where living space usually coincides with space for business. This way of life links to trade and resulted in a city articulated around port activity.

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Urban TIMELINE ... -1567 Cádiz: military and commercial city The medieval town is a small cluster of buildings that was walled in 1262 by order of Alfonso X, where the old Barrio del Populo (Populo quartier) now stands.  During the 15th century the city grew thanks to trade with Africa and then America. This economic prosperity led to the overflow of the citadel in two suburbs outside the walls, one to the east and one to the west, thus becoming  La Corredera,  a meeting space which separates these suburbs and is now called the Plaza de San Juan de Dios (San Juan de Dios square). The first suburb to appear outside the walls was the Barrio de Santa Maria (Santa Maria suburb). The main economical activity of this new suburb was trading and due to its strategic positioning,  the suburb could be connected with the continent through the isthmus (narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas). The second suburb, Barrio de Santiago (Santiago Suburb), is situated to the west. From the 16th century Cadiz  suffered heavy immigration owing to the trade boom and causing  the expansion of the suburbs in two directions: _ South using a linear pattern along the coast line. Calle Nueva (Nueva Street) emerged here as the main street articulating the new street pattern in this part of the city and where commercial and financial uses were located. _ West towards the Atlantic coast, following a rustic road leading to the Castle of S. Sebastian. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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1567-1650: Recovery after the English assault The English assault in 1567 highlighted the defensive deficiencies of the city. For this reason the citadel of Santa Catalina was built in 1598  as part of the new fortification. In 1609 some changes in the urban pattern around the wall took place, setting a more rational order next to the organic medieval one There was also an increase of trade with America helping to develop the city and create unique buildings such as the convent of Religiosos Descalzos de San Diego( the convent of the religious barefoot Saint Diego). The city grew in the direction of the Pozo de la Jara ( the Jara´s well), the centre of the Plaza San Antonio (San Antonio square), in the Northern part of the old town and moved away from the Atlantic Ocean. The existing irregular urban fabric of the Barrio de Santiago (Santiago Suburb) converged and intertwined to form Calle Ancha (Broad Street) and parallel streets. The convent of San Diego naturally establishes a clear division in the city. The area between this and the ocean retains a rustic character generating neighborhoods facing the sea wind. There are many Bourgeois neighborhoods in the port area and the current Alameda Apodaca. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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1650-1750: Urban zenith In the mid-seventeenth century the population increased fourfold in comparison to the beginning of the century. New districts were created in the field of Jara. A rectangular space was formed near the well that existed in the area, the Plaza de San Antonio (San Antonio Square). The area generated was carefully planned and elitist. The growth of Calle Ancha (Broad Street) almost reached the present location of Plaza de San Antonio (San Antonio Square). The convent to the south of Los Descalzos slowed its growth in that direction. The area began to have problems with a lack of space which led to the use of the rear of houses for trade on Calle Nueva (New Street). In the 18th century the city extended south to the stronghold of the Candelaria (Mentidero square) and to the convent of Los Capuchinos in the far north, beside which, the suburb of Las Vi単as began to appear. Open spaces were still a problem, and were mostly empty city squares of minor importance due to a lack of alignment corrections in the city plan made in the late 17th century. San Roque, Correderas , San Antonio and La Alameda were the only spaces to be fully configured . In the early 18th century, the ancient Camino del Arrecife (reef road) appeared, which was built on ancient paths through the reefs, between San Fernando and Cadiz along the coast and splitting at the Castle of Los Puntales. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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1750-1900 Consolidation of the city and outskirts During this century the configuration of old Cadiz ended with the urbanization of Peñalba Chandlery (1755), the king’s land near the Royal Hospital (1784), the creation of the district of S. Carlos, on reclaimed land (1781) and the advancement of the wall in Alameda and urbanization of this area. With regard to the area outside the walls and around the Bay there were many changes: _1757. In front of the wall structure a new semi-urban complex composed of gardens and disseminated houses appeared. However this complex was soon replaced by the King and allocated to military uses. _1770.The new Camino del Arrecife (reef road) was outlined as an axis to the walls of Puerta de Tierra (Country Gate) which ran straight across the territory. This road later became the central avenue of expansion of the city. _1798. On the western edge, the proliferation of gardens and buildings developed despite the military servitude and territorial structure was established. At the southern end, the church of S. Jose (1787) appeared along with some cross streets leading  to the district of S. Jose. _1801. After the clash with England in 1791, Antonio Hurtado drew up a plan of the Puerta Tierra fortress, and designed a new defense front that matched the future Cortadura defense front and walled the entire Atlantic coast.It was based on a bipolar model of the city, two towns and a large central rustic space, linked by the straight line of the reef. _ In the first decades of the 19th century the districts of San José, San Severiano and Los Puntales were consolidated, preserving the rustic and industrial structure in the intermediate zone. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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XIXth CENTURY HIGHLIGHTS The landmarks of the nineteenth century which marked the modernization of Cádiz are: 1861: Railroad Development 1874: Water 1883: Gas lighting home 1887: Maritime Exhibition 1888: Phone home 1889: Electric lighting home 1891: Vea-Murguía Shipyards 1904: Arrival of Cinema

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1900-2011: uncontrolled growth In 1906, an Expansion plan for Cadiz was proposed, not so much for a need to expand as a desire to create jobs. This involved the consolidation of the tram line which played a major role in connecting the Alameda de Cadiz, San Fernando and Ratchet. The Victoria Spa became a tourist focus (modernist work of the architect José Barrero, 1907) thanks to its relationship with the tram. In 1930 the military servitude disappeared and the land for the barracks (in areas near the old town) was delivered. In 1929 the municipality of Ramon Carranza announced a contest for the urbanization of these areas. In the contest, many proposals were received with very different typologies. Of note was the draft submitted by José Majó. This increased focus on the area developed it into a tertiary source of new revenue for the city. However, the Civil War (1936-1939) halted all works. The recovery of the idea of urbanization of land near Puerta de Tierra had to wait until the 40’s, with the exploitation of the beach of Santa Maria del Mar. The plans for the area were similar to the plans followed before the war, but the language of architecture changed towards a more vernacular style, with references to the old town. The management plan of the 50’s industry sought to confine the area bounded by the longitudinal axis of the railway and the bay. Residential quarters were located along the current  Avenue of Andalucía. Housing prices were highest along Marconi Avenue and Garden City areas closest to the old town and city. However, the plan was ignored on numerous occasions and caused  the differential value of the land which automatically reshaped the configuration of the city _Lower-class homes developed next to industry _Areas close to Avenida de Andalucía (Andalusia avenue) and the Atlantic coast developed as an upperclass area. To reorganize and clean up the old the popular district of Santa Maria, it was demolished and its population relocated outside the walls. A good example of social housing built in this time is San Severiano, destroyed in the explosion of 1947 and rebuilt by the City Council on a previously industrial area. In other cases, the projects were very poor, mainly composed of small dwellings with a strong lack of order and with small public spaces. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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Carranza Bridge, Cadiz

In conclusion, these neighborhoods were built with a lack of communication, infrastructure and services. By the end of the 50’s major works were undertaken to increase the surface area of the city and the neighborhood of la Paz. This neighborhood was built on 43 acres across the rail axis. In the 60’s the council continued its policy of urbanization. Saturation was expected in the city (during the 70’s) but far from seeking urban restructuring, the council proposed as a solution to build a bridge (Ramon de Carranza bridge) that connected to the northern part of the bay as an area for future growth. However, the bridge construction brought a new problem to the city. It highlighted the inefficient road system, which was unable to provide services for such a dense area. The city centre also suffered congestion problems despite the lower amount of dwellings in it. Many families lived in overcrowded conditions with poor facilities. The legislation had little control over these years and height growth overflowed. It was constructed with total impunity. However a clear solution came in 1981, when a combined plan for all the towns in the Cadiz Bay was prepared. This plan established a planning model “of comparable-sized cities” separated by areas of high environmental value and adequate communication between them. It searched for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly surroundings. The General Plan of 1983 intended to work on the recovery and improvement of existing city through the following initiatives: _The re-use of the old abandoned equipment containers (barracks) _The provision of a strict regulation on building heights. _The up-grading of neighborhoods with open spaces and facilities. _The promotion of public transport for outsiders by placing car-parking at the periphery. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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Light Tower, Cadiz

These objectives have been carried out halfway. The rehabilitation of downtown has only come to the re-use of certain buildings such as the university or college. Some actions such as housing by Rafael Otero and Alvaro Siza (1996-2001) showed a concern for the integration of social housing in the area of the walls. There are still problems of accessibility. To solve this situation the regional authorities are building a new bridge to the North Bay which will restructure the traffic flow in the city. This action will provoke a major change in the understanding of the city, which is read and understood presently as a line since its two accesses are at the South-East of the city. Nowadays land is scarce and there is a huge interest in developing the un-built areas, abandoned industrial sites (shipyards, old breweries, etc) which requires a quick solution to reach a sustainable transformation.

THE FIGURES -Region: Andalusia -Province: Cádiz -County: Bay of Cadiz -Founded: Phoenicians 1104 BC -Government: Type: Mayor-Council Body: Ayuntamiento de Cádiz

-Area: 13.30 km2 (5.1 sq mi) -Elevation: 11 m (36 ft) -Population (2008): Total: 127,200 Density: 9,563.9/km2 (24,770.4/sq mi)

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[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Cadiz: Cultural references ARCHITECTURAL REFERENCES [Downtown] Snuff Factory [1]

Calle Plocia Architect: Federico Gil de los Reyes, 1883 Nineteenth century industrial architecture treated with Moorish language. This was the most important manufacturing center of Old Town. It was built over the former corn exchange building and the interior has interesting structural and decorative elements of iron. Its high brick chimney, the peculiar statue of a siren and cigar vendors filled with city life until recent years. The building is currently under restoration works to become a Conference Center.

Palma Spa [2]

Avenida Duque de Nájera Architect: García Cañas, 1925 Built by the Provincial Council, it has since become an important venue in the city and especially the Barrio de la Viña (Wine neighborhood). It is one of the most important milestones of the historical edge and its image is closely linked to the city. Its foundation piles are built on sand, defining a semicircular floor tangent to the city wall, which is fully respected and appreciated among locals. The building wings are open to the see, influenced by British spas. Over the last years the building has been abandoned. However, rehabilitation works are taking place at the moment and the center will become an Archeological Center for the study of the sea.

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Theater Falla [3]

Plaza Fragela Architect: Adolfo Morales de los Ríos y Adolfo del Castillo, 1884 It stands on the site of the former wooden theater of Manuel García del Alamo (1870), lost in a fire. It was designed and begun by Adolfo Morales de los Rios and Adolfo del Castillo in 1884, after a contest, and finished by Juan Cabrera Latorre in 1910. The rehabilitation of 1990 was made by J.A. Carbajal, R. Otero. The building is built in the tradition of Neomudéjar architecture. It is remarkable to see the articulation between the various volumes outside the theater. The interior room is a large space featuring a magnificent ceiling work, made by the painter Abarzuza. Also noteworthy is the wooden machine which is a mobile structure consisting of the stage pit and upper stage machinery. The roof structure is a notable example of early twentieth-century engineering, consisting of steel girders arranged in a central cylinder.

Houses of the five towers [4] Plaza de España 5-6-7-8-9 1771

This square presents a transition from Baroque to Neoclassical and at the time of its construction ran a few yards from the front wall of the city. The work consists of five houses built at once, using a centered  floor layout. Each has a lookout tower, and all are fully characterized by the present Plaza de España (Spain square).  The lookout tower was a feature of domestic architecture that appeared in Cadiz in the late seventeenth century and became a symbol of prestige for the bourgeoisie devoted to trade.

Chamber of Commerce and Navigation [5] Antonio López 4 + Ahumada 2 José Gabarrón, 1801 + … 1860

The building, currently occupied by the Chamber of Commerce, is an example of Cadiz mansions belonging to the city’s commercial bourgeoisie. In the old town of Cadiz there are three essential periods that can be clearly differentiated: Baroque, Neoclassical and Elizabethan.  The early Baroque style is trivialized into a bourgeois style and therefore more functional style. This generated a building type that was structured around a central courtyard. This courtyard was used to provide access to a service perimeter gallery and a staircase with Castilian monastic type that was placed at the bottom of the plan to free more space on the street. After a time an extra floor was added due to lack of space and its relationship with surrounding buildings. These changes gave rise to the neoclassical stage, where the gallery no longer to wrapped around the perimeter of the patio. In the mid-nineteenth century, when the city was undergoing a period of decline, the Elizabethan style appeared, with remarked revival decoration as well as an eclectic style. It was a period of some relief after the crisis where a new kind of mansion slowly arose. Plants were still articulated through a courtyard decorated with balustrades and other decorative elements of French influence which became more defined using the new iron techniques. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

ARCHITECTURAL REFERENCES [Outside the Wall] Communications Tower and Telefónica buildings [1] Architect: Guillermo Vázquez Consuegra, 1992

The white concrete tower is already a city landmark. The office building with stone cladding similar to the classic rock of Cadiz, was inspired by the rationalism of the first transatlantic style as can be see in the corner inspired by Mendelsohn.

Drago Highschool [2]

Calle Marianista Cubillo Architect: Alberto Campo Baeza, 1991 Amazing exercise of abstraction and meticulous work on the urban scene.

Light Tower [3]

Architect: Alberto Toscano, 1955 These are two towers on either side of the mouth of the inner bay of Cadiz that allow the laying of electricity power cables from the power station of Cadiz to the grid. Made in 1955 by engineer Alberto Toscano, at the time of their construction, they were the tallest structures in the world of this type of construction engineering.

Europlaya Building [4] Paseo Marítimo 11 Architect: Diego del Corral

Building carefully designed in the international style (Interbau Berlin 1984), whose architecture stands on the coast, highly degraded by the speculation. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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SOME OTHER INTERESTING BUILDINGS Candelaria stronghold - Sea Museum Alameda de Apodaca S/N Architect: Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos www.cruz-ortiz.com

Module A+B Buildings

Calle Concepción Arenal S/N Architect: Álvaro Siza + Rafael Otero www.alvarosizavieira.com / www.rafaelotero.com

Social Housing

Calle Barbate 58-62 Architect: Guillermo Vázquez Consuegra www.vazquezconsuegra.com

Reyes Católicos School Avenida Ana de Viya 36 Architect: Ramón Pico Valimaña

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Casa del Plátano

Calle Piratas Architect: MGM arquitectos www.morales-giles-mariscal.com

Campo del Sur Housing Calle Campo del Sur 12 Architect: Rafael Otero www.rafaelotero.com

Between Cathedrals

Calle Campo del Sur S/N Architect: Alberto Campo Baeza www.campobaeza.com

Cádiz Sports Pavilion

Calle del Doctor Gomez Ulla 12 Architect: Ramón Gonzalez de la Peña www.rgparquitectos.com

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FOLKLORE Carnival The Cadiz Carnival is one of the most important carnival festivities in Spain and is considered of international tourist interest. Prominent among the many acts in the carnival, the official competition of groups is celebrated yearly with more than 100 groups of ‘Chirigotas’, ‘comparsas’, quartets and choirs every year The ‘Chirigotas’ are songs that are composed every year and are recited in the Great Falla Theater. They are characterized by simple rhyming songs and recitative characters aiming to make people laugh through humorous satirical criticism. The origins of the Carnival of Cadiz are unclear. They may be descended from celebrations originally founded in ancient Greece or ancient Rome. The oldest documents that speak of these festivals are the Constitutions of 1591 and the Statute of the Seminary of Cadiz in 1596, containing instructions for the religious parties would not participate in the same way as the secular. The arrival of Italian merchants to the carnival of Cadiz encouraged the use of masks, streamers, the confetti and other assimilated elements of the Italian Carnival.

Flamenco Flamenco is a Spanish genre of music and dance that originated in Andalusia in the eighteenth century and whose creation and development played a crucial role in the Andalusian Gypsy community. Singing, playing and dancing are the main aspects of flamenco. In November 2010, UNESCO declared the flamenco Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

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Cadiz is one of the obligatory stops for lovers of flamenco. Birthplace of great artists and the scene of numerous festivals, flamenco shows and flamenco companies, the province of Cadiz offers fascinating routes to find and enjoy flamenco. The first leads to the main sites of Jerez, Cadiz and El Puerto de Santa Maria. Starting from the district of Santiago to the district of San Miguel. The second of these routes is the “Camarón” route (one of the leading figures of this art), a journey to remember the figure of this great artist for his native district, San Fernando. Especially important for understanding flamenco in Cadiz is a visit to the Andalusian Flamenco Centre, located in the Palace of Pemartín. This building is converted into a museum of flamenco and has developed as an important work to investigate, promote and safeguard the art of flamenco.

Gastronomy: Wine Production The name of Spanish wine, in Spanish, represents the product and the social event of having it in company of others. It is a widespread social custom to drink wine together at tapas bars and taverns. From as early as Phoenician times there was wine production in Cadiz, enjoying international fame from an early age. Sherry wine grows in the towns of Cadiz, Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa Maria and San Lucar de Barrameda. It is well known in many countries such as England from as early as the reign of Elizabeth I. Even W. Shakespeare named sherry wine in some of his works (Twelfth Night). Cadiz has a protected name authenticating the origin: Jerez-Sherry-Xérès. Its geographical location, under the climatic influence of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean with an average of 30 days per year of heavy rainfall, makes the raising of their wines with special characteristics. Other distinguishing features are albariza land, the grape variety Palomino, breeding under flower (Saccharomyces yeasts) and the breeding system and the aging system used. The conservation of wines requires a specialized building. Thus a certain type of winery appears in the whole region of Cadiz. Most known sherry bodegas and especially those of Gonzalez-Byass are buildings of high architectural value: _ The Royal shell winery: The Shell was designed by French engineer Gustave Eiffel and inaugurated on the occasion of the visit to these wineries of Queen Elizabeth II in 1862. The most innovative feature is its dome, which is supported by iron ribs which transfer their weight onto the perimeter wall. _ The great winery Tio Pepe was built between 1960 and 1964 by the Spanish engineer Eduardo Torroja. It is a modern winery that has three floors and four 43-metre concrete domes. Fine wines are stored in the first two floors while Oloroso Sherry is stored in the last one.

Gastronomy: Fried Fish Fried fish is a traditional dish from the Mediterranean coast that can be served in specialized fish shops and also in most typical beach bars, terraces, etc ... Battered fish is prepared with wheat flour, fried in olive oil and sprinkled with salt as the only condiment. It is usually served hot, freshly fried. It can be taken as an appetizer, with a beer or wine, or as a starter or first course. Cadiz and Puerto de Santa Maria are specially known for this product. This fishing area is also famous for seafood such as lobsters, clams, razor-shell, the sea snails, cockles, prawns, crab and shrimp. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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ECONOMIC ACTIVITY Sea-related industry Cadiz has traditionally been a city facing the sea, the source of its development in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Hence most of the economic infrastructure is concentrated in the port area. However, maritime trade has declined over the past thirty years, fishing has entered a serious crisis from the loss of privileges in the Saharan Bank fishery and the shipyards are currently underused. The reasons for this are the poor boat production demand and the stiff competition from other foreign shipyards (ranging from other European Union shipyards to Korean shipyards).

Tourism Tourism is a growing sector in the city of Cadiz, with 2307 establishments engaged in it. This is due to its beaches, the importance of its carnival and historical heritage it possesses. Cadiz counts a wide range or touristic activities that range from its beaches to its festivals. One of the musts of the city is having ‘tapas’ in the neighbourhoods of ‘La Viña’ or ‘El Populo’. In addition Cadiz is considered the oldest standing city in Western Europe and contains rich artistic and monumental heritage in its old town.

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EASA011: theme: deCOASTruction Beach of Torrevieja, Alicante

BACKGROUND In the early twentieth century, the beach was a therapeutic place and a sign of social status, but gradually it became firmly established as space for leisure and sociability for the emerging European bourgeoisie. The only constructions existing at that time were a few beach huts. At the end of the First World War, a timid “sun worship” begun under the influence of the new tourism from the beaches of Florida and California in the U.S.A. Two important turist cities were born on the Mediterranean Coast: Barcelona and Málaga. In Barcelona, the new sun and beach formula was very well received by the bourgeoisie. The beach of Málags was discovered by British visitors who came from the nearby city of Gibraltar. The period between the beginning of the century and the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (July 1936) reveals a precedent of the tourist boom of the 60’s. By this time the housing estates on the coast, began by local and European investors, were projected as large leisure cities on the seaside. A good example was the City of rest and vacation (Ciutat de Repòs i de Vacances) signed by the group of Catalan architects GATEPAC in 1933. This new city was intended to attract both weekend visitors and those who would like to spend a rest period. The project included 8 km of beach and residential and recreational areas, however, the project was discontinued and never completed. Meanwhile, the increasing popularity of the Mediterranean Coast required an effort improvement to the infrastructure provided. Railways took the firt step. First trainlines were established from important cities to main coast cities: Madrid- Alicante, Zaragoza- Alicante and Seville- Malaga. As well, first aerodromes and golf courses were built.

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Beach of Sardinero, Santander, 1925

AFTER THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR Promising future of tourism business in Spain was stopped by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (19361939). After the war, Spain became an autocratic goverment under the dictatorship of General Franco. By this time, intenational tourism fell down and was submit to strict police controls and rationing of food and fuel, as well as tedious procedures for obtaining visas. Throughout the decade of the 40`s, tourist flow was mainly domestic, only affordable for upper classes and focused on traditional festivals and religious celebrations. In the early 50’s, Europe started to overcome the ravages of World War II and the phenomenon of mass tourism was born. The new middle class in Western Europe quickly began to travel to the South during their holiday periods. The Mediterranean Coast was the most popular destination. During those years, Spain increased in visitors: from 1 million tourist in 1951 to six million international visitors in 1959. However, infrastructures (hotels, roads, highway ...) were deficent and there wasn’t enough national budget to this effect, so those first tourism businesses started to borrow abroad for the construction of hotels and other services.

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Torremolinos, Malaga. The first major hotel coexisting with small fishing boats

THE FOUNDATIONS OF A MASSIVE INDUSTRY (1951-1960) In the early 50’s, tourism was already a complex phenomenon because of its rapid growth, that indicated an imminent massification. One of the biggest decisions was to soften the conditions to enter and move around the country and to make the procedures for obtaining visas easier. In 1954, an English businessman called Vladimir Raitz set his eyes on Spain. He was the owner of an important travel agency (Horizon Holidays) and pioneer in the management of holiday packages (tour operators). It’s hard to imagine how the Spanish Coast looked when those first explorers came fifty years ago: beaches that remained untouched, fishing houses, small boats ... what became colloquially called “Spanish petroleum”. First comunities open to tour operators were the Costa Brava (Gerona) and Mallorca. These places had a charm similar to the French Côte d’Azur, but with cheaper rates. The creation of efficient airlines and the national initiative, which has specialised in the field of catering and services, helped to the growth of this areas. The Spanish Mediterranean coast started to acquired a fabulous reputation for good service at good prices. Parties all night long, folklore and alcohol began to identify Spain around the world. In this first stage of the tourist boom, British businessmen, owners of modest tour operators, began to discover unexplored beaches, mainly in the Mediterranean. Once they chose the correct place, they came in contact with the few owners of hotels or lodging in order to begin negotations about the arrival of groups of tourists. Due to financial difficulties in Spain, tour-operators became lenders of hotel’s owners in exchange of the reservation of a number of rooms or the whole hotel. This practice was completely illegal but became a standard practice. Thanks that, the seaside multiplied his value. When the phenomenon began to spread, hotel owners and mayors looked for those tour operators. From the political aspect, Spains was the only country in Western Europe where a visa was neccesary to enter into the country and many tourists chose not to come. In other hand, the Goverment rejected several offers from European airlines to operate in Spain, especially in Baleares Islands, this fact helped Menorca and Ibiza to keep safe from mass tourism some more years. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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Party in Torremolinos, Málaga, 1972

Increased competition added to the need to discover the most exclusive beaches ended with the arrival of tour operators to Ibiza and Menorca in 1955. Ibiza didn’t have an airport when it was discovered. In Menorca, the takeoff began with a small hotel, owned by the mayor of the city, whom the idea of receive thirty customers a week make him very happy. Rates got lower due to the competition between hotels: you could have a room and full broad in a hotel for 1£ per day. A year later, in the Costa del Sol (Málaga) the first airline between Frankfurt and Málaga was born. Thanks to a new airline conexion between Valencia and London in 1957, the Costa Blanca (Alicante) started to be a more important destination for international visitors. In the 60’s, new airline companies incorporated modern engines to their planes in order to make shorter flight hours. From 1958, the Goverment investments made it possible to increase Spanish airports capacity. Tourism demand increased and international businessmen and mayors become allies. Across all the Mediterranean coastline, traditional fishing villages gave way to sites of great projection and tourist potential. By this time, the Ministry of Information and Tourism was not involved in any way, nor to encourage or to control, which gave freedom to the actions of the mayors, who saw their future in the tourism development. In the 50’s and 60’s, there were three important points in the Mediterranean Coast: the Costa Brava, the Costa del Sol and the Costa Blanca. In the coast fo Malaga, a tourism based on the luxury tried to take off over a period of 15 years. This concept was inmediately choked by the mass tourism in the years after and the construction of luxury hotels were carried on between Málaga and Fuengirola, but these buildings were quikly locked in the middle of low cost hotels. This trend had to be rectified due to the massive influx of tour operators and the loss of exclusivity. The case of Marbella is the most symbolic, because it was designed as a paradise of luxury, with huge mansions and private beach areas. By this time, Marbella was the biggest competitor to French Côte d’Azur. The fame of marbella has been linked to some members of the international Jet Set and has attracted some of the largest national and international fortunes. In other parts of the coast of Málaga, small fishing or agriculture towns (Torremolinos, Nerja, Torre del Mar, etc) were transform into holidays cities with hotels, appartments and leisure centers.

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Benidorm, 1960- 2009

The first outbreak in the Costa Blanca (Alicante) was specially linked to the resort city of Benidorm. The best example of urban concentration at service of mass tourism is Benidorm. Even today, this city is the first destination for European holidaymakers since the 50’s. In 1953, the General Urban Plan of Benidorm (PGOU) concerned the whole entire territory as a tourist center. Ten years later, the PGOU was modificated again in order to increase the capacity of the city and grow vertically. Other parts of the Spanish Coast like Murcia, Cadiz, Huelva or Castellon, followed almost intact until the late 60’s. Although the lack of planning and construction quality was already present in many of these places, the speculation still took a decade before get stablished.

MASS PHENOMENON (1960 - 1978) In the 60’s, Spain increased from 6 million visitors to 24. By then, Spaniards began to join the turism phenomenon. The business was completely defined: sun and beach, exclusive concentration both geographically (in the coast) and seasonal (in summer) and specialisation in a few (but powerful) markets: Britain, Germany and France. However, the problems of this model were the Mediterranean coast landscape, and the rrban growth plan, because no one thought what would happen when the lack of building land starts on the coast. After the 1973 crisis, tourist flow fell down by 12% and the boom period started to finish. From that moment, rural tourism became an alternative to the sun and beach formula. In 1975 and 1976, tourist flow fell down again but with less intensity. In 1977 and 1978 international visitors increased surprisingly to high levels. The decade ended with slight falls again. The fall of the tourism industry was positive in a way because it was generated a serious debate around the tourism policy. The climate of insecurity in Spain was aggravated due to the imminent death of the General Franco, and the uncertainty of the years ahead, as well as, one of the biggest crisis of the postwar world. At the end of the 70’s, 74% of tourists came to beaches, mainly in the Mediterranean area. The regeneration of the Spanish Coast became necessary. Some places like the Costa Brava, suffered a strong erosion caused by the multiple urban developments. The first step to alleviate the problem, was the creation of the Coastal Legislation in 1969, which regulates the construction, operation and maintenance of the entire Spanish Coast. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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Family at Puerto de Mazarrón beach, Murcia, 1975

1988, NEW COASTAL LEGISLATION In the 80’s, the aggressive competition in the hotel industry triggered a big fall of rates: hotels were not a profitable business anymore. The solution came from the housing development, which satisfied the comfot demands of the new middle-class tourism. Small Mediterranean villages, which were kept safe of tourist business before, disappeared to give way to residential cities with a real tourist vocation. To build clandestine and legalize after, become a typical practice of those years. Sometimes, when the ejecution of a building was especially shocking/scandalous there was no other way that to leave them standing because, demolishing the building and taking the compensations that it carried, was very expensive. After all, those buildings had capacity to accommodate thousands of tourists and bring money to the city. In 1988, the new Coastal Legislation was born in order to solve the excess of previous years. This law was justified by the progressive destruction and privatization of the coast, as well as, on the need to protect and conserve its natural and cultural values. The first step taken was to define where was the boundaries/limit between public and private space (50- 100 meters from the shore). However, beyond those 50 or 100 meters from the shore, property developer and mayors were free for rise huge building. The residential tourism business has continued growing despite restrictions imposed by the new legislation, becoming an essential part of Spanish economy. Between 1999 and 2005, houses on the coast increased in 165,400 units. This kind of tourism development is characterized by the seasonality in the occupation of houses (between 32 and 66 days per year). The main problem is that this seasonality created ghost towns during the winter. The low turnover of tourists and less spending per tourist and day, is another negative factor.

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El Algarrobito beach, Cabo de Gata- Najar Nacional Park, Almería.

The residential tourism demand is mainly national, due to the wealth improvement of the Spanish society. In the last years, a lot of people have had access to a second home, a sign of social status highly value. This demand is a phenomenon accepted by the society. The spread of this phenomenon has been also helped by the gradual increase in retirees and people over 60 years, which have very good rents levels and time, and live the entire year in those coast dwelling. This fact is positive because slows the seasonality. One of the last dilemmas related to the 1988 Coast Legislation is the eradication of “chinringuitos” (small bars installed on the beach, which serves meals and drinks). According to the Law, the year 2007 is the deadline given to these establishments to stop occuping the beach. The disappointment comes from the owners of these establishments, as well as, a part of the Spanish society, that considers “chiringuito” as an untouchable symbol of summer, sun and beach. Today, many “chiringuitos” still stand on the beaches and it is uncertain when they will be completely eradicated. In short, the tourism boom was a predictable failure despite it initial success. The main problem has been the fact that urban planification depends on regional goverments (Comunidades autónomas), so they are who takes all decisions and have the last word. Land speculation, modifications on the urban planning to increase density and other kind of ins and outs between property developer and regionals governments have made the Spanish Coast the perfect paradise for corruption. The over urbanization of the Spanish Coast has had irreversible natural consequences, and has not left quality planning, leaving architects to face a very complex scene due to its economic, political and social dimension.

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La Casería beach, San Fernando, Cádiz, 2009. Towers of the Casería beach could be demolished because of an alleged illegality in the planning permission.

Spain has played an important role in the consecration of the leisure culture. The binary sun and beach, added to weak legislation, corruption and the complete lack of natural and cultural values, have made the Spanish Coast the most dense and saturated place in Europe. Only in 50 years, hotels, resorts, restaurants and holiday residences have transformed the Mediterranean Coast into an expiration-date business, with terrible social and natural consequences.

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EASA011: Cadiz Case Study The city of Cadiz began the twentieth century with an economic crisis caused by loss of its former trade privileges with the West Indies and fruitless industrial activity. Against this uncertain future emerged attempts to develop the tertiary sector, tourism. The spa Victoria was built and chalets, sports facilities, bars soon developed around it ... an economic development center, Tourism Society ,(1910) intended to market Cadiz as “the best beach in the south.” During this time a racecourse was built near the ‘Puntales’ harbour behind the tobacco warehouses (1880). Afterward this venue was turned into a bullfighting arena, linked by the tram network. In the 30’s came the consolidation of Cadiz as a tourist destination following the building of the Hotel Atlantic, designed by the architect Churruca Catalan, who belonged to the group known as GATEPAC. This along with other interventions such as the redesign of the Victoria Sanchez spa and pool by rationalist Estévez (municipal architect of the time), who created a tourist destination with a modern dimension, following the idea of the resort town of rationalism. This led to isolated housing proliferates such as recreational villas, houses and small hotels. In the postwar period, 1940-50, there was still an intention to develop land on the city’s outskirts for highclass residences of Cadiz, enhancing the image of the city (as the touristic area of Cadiz Province) . As an example, a garden city with a high level of restriction in the Delhi suburb was constructed. The development plan created in the 50’s favored excessive development of tourism along the Atlantic coast of Cadiz. Construction continued until 1975,however, without observing the densities established by the plan, reaching as high as 20m3/m2. With such saturation, work began in 1967 on the Ramon de Carranza bridge with the intention of expanding to the north. The city’s economy focused on the booming shipbuilding industry and of course on tourism.

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Such was the zeal that municipal authorities sought to challenge the declaration of the old town as an historicartistic complex in 1978, and create a new tourist planning isthmus (Cádiz-3), with 8,300 hotel rooms, 3,000 apartments and 850 homes Cortaduras and Torregorda. Fortunately such claims were not carried out due to public opposition. In the 80’s that urban plan became obsolete and new plans were proposed to link the various nuclei that make up the Bay of Cadiz in a more controlled and sustainable manner. However, the creation of tourist centres suche as South Bay, Puerto Sherry and Novo Sancti Petri were opposed to the plan for a sustainable development. Cadiz today remains a major tourist attraction with traces of excessive growth. This translates into residual spaces, poor urban infrastructure and collapse of the urban fabric.

BIPOLAR CITY Cádiz could be considered today as a lab-city to study the coastal urban developments. Cadiz, because of its geographic conditions, do not have more space to grow nowadays. As said, during the sixties and seventies, the piece of land connecting the city with the continent was built in a massive way. High density buildings faced the old city. The old city of Cádiz was built as an answer to different military and climatic reasons. Layered, complex and massive city. Narrow streets and squares as the perfect scenery for public life. Patio houses and vegetation to protect from the agressive clima conform a city that still today works like a perfect engine. The new part of Cadiz was built in answer to a lack of space and a new potential “industry”: turism. High buildings, big avenues and a lot of asfalt. As said...this two faces make out of Cádiz the perfect place to study this phenomenom and to rethink the direcEASA_011 tion we should follow. TUTORPACK

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CADIZ: THE PROVINCE. GREENPEACE REPORT. In Cadiz, as well as in the neighboring town of Huelva, urban planning and infrastructure have been primed in the last decade with the stretches of coast that had survived relatively isolated from the construction boom. Sadly, during the last decade the Cadiz coast has starred a long list of irregularities, urban sprawl over its territory associated in most of cases with urban corruption. For instance, Chiclana, in 2007, overpassed Marbella in number of illegal housing construction (40,000). In Chipiona, the former mayor and three council members were charged with illegal licensing of public land. Urban pressure on the Protected Natural Area of the Bay of Cadiz has shattered many of its wetlands. Municipalities such as Puerto de Santa Maria accumulate dozens of lawsuits against outlawed developments but, despite the lawsuit, the town has continued building development projects. Only in 2007, 28,000 new homes were projected. Furthermore, and in this bay, in 2009 the Supreme Court stopped the destruction of the Las Aletas marshes in Puerto Real, a project which had the approval of the State Board and the region of AndalucĂ­a, and Greenpeace began to report in 2006. That same year, the City of San Fernando allowed the construction of three 16-storey towers on La Caseria beach. Barbate has been urbanizing the Cape Trafalgar for years and in 2009 the City Council of Vejer has resumed its historic plan to destroy El Palmar coast with the construction of a large resort. Between Tarifa and Zahara de los Atunes, year after year, coastal dunes and pine forests are getting destroyed, ruining large areas of virgin coast. The Atlanterra beach, in Zahara, has been welcoming more and more constructions. Indeed, in 2002 the Grand Atlanterra Hotel was demolished, fact that the former Minister of Environment, Jaume Matas, considered a milestone in the recovery of areas of maritimeterrestrial public domain. However, as Greenpeace denounced a decade ago, this measure was totally ineffective, since in 2006, 2,000 new homes and a golf course were projected in this beach. In 2008, the Port Authority of Algeciras Bay announced plans to expand the existing port of Tarifa to accommodate all the passenger ships of the nearby port of Algeciras. The expansion will irreversibly affect Natural Park of the Gibraltar Strait.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY THEME: deCOASTruction:

_Costa Ibérica: hacia una ciudad del ocio. Winy Mass, Jacob van Rijs. Barcelona: Actar Arquitec tura, 2000. ISBN: 978-84-89698-95-6

_Historia del turismo en España en el siglo XX. Ana Moreno Garrido. Madrid: Síntesis, 2007. ISBN: 978-84-97565-09-7

_Turismo sostenible. Pere Sullana, Silvia Ayuso. Barcelona: Rubes, 2002. ISBN: 8449700787

PHOTOS

_http://www.torremolinoschic.com/lanuit.html

MOVIES

_El turismo es un gran invento. Pedro Lazaga. España, 1968 _En un lugar de la manga. Mariano Ozores. España, 1970

REPORTS

_Greenpeace - Destruction at all co(a)st 2010 (es) http://www.elpais.com/elpaismedia/ultimahora/media/201007/16/sociedad/20100716elpepusoc_1_Pes_PDF.pdf _Greenpeace - Destruction at all co(a)st 2008 (en) http://www.greenpeace.org/espana/Global/espana/report/costas/destruction-at-all-coast.pdf

OTHERS

_Deconstruyendo la costa. El escarabajo verde. Madrid, 2009. RTVE Link : http://www.rtve.es/television/escarabajo/

_www.greenpeace.org/espana/campaigns/costas

CADIZ CASE STUDY:

_Guía de arquitectura de Cádiz. Juan Jiménez Mata-Sevilla: Consejería de obras públicas y trans portes,1995.

_Thesis directed by Dr. D. Manuel Bustos Rodríguez (Department of Modern History at the University of Cádiz), read on 19/09/1997, obtaining the qualification of “cum laude by unanimity” Thirteenth Es say Prize Caja San Fernando. Doctoral dissertation defended at the University of Cádiz in 1999

PHOTOS

_http://www.guiadecadiz.com/albumfotosgaleria.asp?page=1&subcategoria=76

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WORKSHOPS INTRO Workshops are the central framework of the EASA assembly, structuring the event and producing the majority of what will remain once the assembly is over. However, the aim is not necessarily to achieve the best end result in the short time available. There is rather an emphasis on process. A workshop’s success should be measured by how the proposal was realised and what the participants and tutors have gained from it. It should be about how well the participants and tutors have worked together and how satisfied every single one is with their involvement. In this spirit it is not a case of a professional imparting his knowledge to the participants. It is rather about exchange of ideas and dialogue. Workshops should allow students to evolve and have important experiences, meet new people, get together and solve problems as a team. The EASA workshop ethic is in deliberate contrast to the usual introverted and competitive approach in university education, to the output orientated professional context, and expertise and elite approach of many other summer schools. It is the EASA spirit that joins all in a network without hierarchy. This is not supposed to and does not limit the variety of approaches tutors can have to their proposals. Instead it widens the possibilities. We aim for workshops at EASA011 to differ as much as possible in scale, theory, material and media, because we believe that it is important to offer participants a broad range of different subjects and working methods to choose from. We invite everyone to submit unique ideas of any kind as proposals for a workshop at EASA011.

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These could include for example: Large built structure - permanent, ephemeral; Smaller experimental structures with strong theoretical background; Theoretical workshops with a physical output or purely experimental and theoretical workshops. Workshops also differ in the way that participants are engaged. Proposals should consider whether: - there is a preconceived output delivered by the tutor; - if the whole group work on the same project: - or if are all participants develop their own ideas, producing many variations under a common framework provided by the tutor. All these approaches have been realized as successful workshops in previous assemblies. It is up to the tutor to decide which one suits best the idea.

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THEMES & SUB-THEMES However different the various workshops are, they will have one common link. The theme is supposed to be a general framework between the different workshops and activities during the assembly and meant to be a source for creative thought and inspiration. Each workshop should embrace the theme in some way, dealing on a creative level with diverse approaches to the subject and conclude with critical reflection. For EASA011, the organizing team has developed the theme deCOASTruction. We understand deconstruction on the coast as a urban and landscape concert that affects the land structures, as a disaster that produces bodies dependent on infrastructure, as a legal conflict, etc. Nevertheless we should not forget that there are also some poignant examples of good design in relation with the environment. The workshops will focus on this reality, through material and theoretical explorations, solutions to problems are provided at a local and regional level, by creating productions that will be part of the city as a footprint of the event, always looking for a dialogue with the surroundings and the theme. This dialogue will be achieved through 5 workshop groups. Through making this division we intend to provide a good understanding of the theme and location by the tutors. The 5 subgroups are provided as theoretical and abstract conditions looking to increase the tutors’ and participants’ creativity. The five sub-themes are: -PARA-SITES: These workshops will deal with the concept of parasitizing and its different form and scales. It is intended that some theoretical and constructive activities will arise, exposing realities, reflecting the assembly itself, and the city. Moreover the double meaning of the word is aimed to encourage different understandings: parasites and para-sites -TRADITIONAL INNOVATIONS: This sub-topic intends to encourage a fresh perspective to the concept of tradition and innovation, as a key concept for a logic and sustainable development. We aim this workshops to work on concepts as identity, tradition, culture evolution, gastronomy, traditional systems (irrigation channels, aqueducts, clay works), etc. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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-OCCUPATION: Inside this sub-theme, we intend to gather everything linked to locating the Assembly in a precise place by occupying a non permanent location. At the same time, we want to work in the city to detect its defects, proposing solutions of reusing, habitation, openness to the city, temporary or spontaneous spaces, local actions and rehabilitation of abandoned buildings. -DELIRIOUS SPAIN: Through para-phrasing one of the most influential XXth century architecture books, we want to cement the workshops with a strong dialogue with Spanish traditions, famous outside our borders. We propose some inputs to guide the thoughts we want to promote in this group: ways of living (timetables and habits), Marina d’Or, Spain as a melting pot of cultures, city as layers of history and the de-contextualiziation of cultural elements. -WORKING ON THE EDGE: We propose this category using the concept of ‘limit’ coming from the geographic location of the event - the limit of the peninsula, but also the limit of Europe; a physical and a psychological limit that comes along with phenomenon that are inherent to the idea of urban and architectonic limitsexpansion and contraction, horizontal and vertical limits, frontier, limit, coast, intersection, laws, etc The workshops will be constructive, theoretical or compound; and they will be selected by the organizers and other professionals from all the submitted proposals. The EASA011 organizing team will decide which workshops will be held in the Assembly, based on a certain criteria that takes into consideration aspects such as the interest of the project, the relationship with the theme, the number of participants needed and the feasibility to be completed in the two week period of the Assembly. We hope that the assembly will conclude with challenging and creative outcomes that connect strongly with the location and the theme through a series of authentic, exploitative and innovative workshops.

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PLACES We are proposing different places in the city where workshops could be developed. These sites should be regarded as illustrative places for prospective tutors and not every workshop needs to be located in one of these locations. Every proposal in one of these spaces will be carefully studied in terms of dimensions, specific location, subject of the workshop and its appropriateness. All these locations have been studied with the city government, which will have to give the final confirmation studying every specific case. Tutors applying can decide the location of the workshop, being it not strictly necessary to choose one out of the proposed ones. All those who cannot find an appropriate place to develop their ideas, should just specify the conditions of the place they want to have and we will do our best to find the optimum location. If tutors do not have special needs for their workshops sites, they will be allocated in the workshops space inside the different EASA sites, outdoors or indoors. If organisers consider that a certain location does not suit the workshop needs, this workshop could be relocated into the EASA sites, outdoors or indoors, or in any other location. In the map above you can only see the historical center of the city. For mobility reasons, we would like most of the workshops and locations to be in this area. In any case, if any workshop needs to be outside the walls for whatever reason, it is totally possible.

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OUTODOOR SPACES - CONSTRUCTIVE / COMPOUND WORKSHOPS 01_PASEO DEL VENDAVAL (VENDAVAL SEASIDE WALK) AREA: 700m2

Next to the city seaway and to Campo del Sur school. Triangular square wich has diferent seriated trees.

02_PLAZA DE SANTA CRUZ (SANTA CRUZ SQUARE) AREA: 500m2

Compressed place between the Cathedral and the roman ruins of the city.

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03_PLAZA DE LAS FLORES (FLOWER’S SQUARE) AREA: 450m2

This small square recived this name because of the flowers kiosks. Situated in one of the main street of the city.

04_PLAZA EMILIO CASTELAR (EMILIO CASTELAR SQUARE) AREA: 2200 m2

Traditional Cadiz Square with abundant vegetation and gardens.

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05_PLAYA DE LA CALETA (CALETA BEACH) AREA: 15000 m2

This is the only beach in the historical center of cadiz and is usual to see the neighbours using it during the summer.

06_BALUARTE DE SANTA CATALINA (SANTA CATALINA STRONGHOLD) AREA: 800 m2

It used to be an old prison for the city. Nowadays it is mainly used for exhibitions or lectures at the central patio.

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07_PARQUE GENOVES (GENOVES PARK) AREA: 30000 m2

Big park along a big avenue in the north west of the city, where some of the “easa buildings” will be.

08_PLAZA DEL MENTIDERO (MENTIDERO SQUARE) AREA: 350 m2

Small square close to the university.

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09_BALUARTE DE LA CANDELARIA (CANDELARIA STRONGHOLD) AREA: 750 m2

This fortress has a big patio inside where some workshops could be developed.

10_PASEO DE LA ALAMEDA (ALAMEDA SEASIDE WALK) AREA: 6000 m2

It is a great pederestian avenue in the north of the city, next to the sea.

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11_PLAZA DE SAN ANTONIO (SAN ANTONIO SQUARE) AREA: 3200 m2

One of the most important squares in the city, located in the middle of the old town.

12_PLAZA DE MINA (MINA SQUARE) AREA: 4000 m2

One of the most symbolic squares in Cadiz.

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13_PLAZA DE SAN FRANCISCO (SAN FRANCISCO SQUARE) AREA: 1100 m2

Square divided in two different spaces, animated and with different terraces

14_MURALLA DE SAN CARLOS (SAN CARLOS WALL) AREA: 600 m2

Located in the north of the city, next to the Cornelio Balbo school.

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15_PLAZA DE ESPAÑA (ESPAÑA SQUARE) AREA: 9200 m2

The most monumental square of the city. Surrounded by trees and ways that hug them, in the center of it is located a big sculpture with a platform which make honor to the constitution of spain of 1812, commonly called “la pepa”. On 2012 the city will commemorate the 200 anniversary of its proclamation

12_PASEO DEL PUERTO (PORT SEASIDE WALK) AREA: 5000 m2

Avenue at the east of hte city with views to the port of cadiz. in here is situated the turism office and also has gardens and pergolas wich makes shadows rounding them.

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INDOOR SPACES - THEORETICAL / COMPOUND / MEDIA

17_BARRACONES BALUARTE DE SANTA CATALINA (SANTA CATALINA STRONGHOLD BARRACKS) AREA: 300m2

Inside the fortress of Santa Catalina (St. Catherine) there are two exhibition galleries commonly used for exhibition purposes and for workshops.

18_FACULTAD DE FILOSOFIA (FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY) AREA: 5000m2

The faculty is located on the North-West of the old town. It has many classrooms which the university could provide us for workshops. There are basically two kind of rooms: regular rooms and computer rooms with internet access. The university has two courtyards where a possible exhibition could take place.

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19_CONCEJALIA DE FOMENTO (MUNICIPALITY DEPARTMENTS) AREA: 300 m2

This building belongs to the municipality of Cadiz and could be used during the assembly. It has a computer room, meeting rooms and a 200 people auditorium.

20_BOVEDAS DE SANTA ELENA (SANTA ELENA VAULTS) AREA: 1200 m2

This building belongs to the municipality of Cadiz and is used by the administration of one of the city departments. Two large rooms of circa 40m2 with computers and internet could be used for workshops.

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POSSIBLE EASASITES-THEORETICAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE WORKSHOPS 21_COLEGIO CAMPO DEL SUR (CAMPO DEL SUR SCHOOL) AREA: 5700m2

The school is located next to Paseo del Vendaval, in front of the sea, and has classrooms to work inside, IT Lab, library, a small auditorium and an outdoor big sports space. It also has two big patios. The sleeping area would be the sports pavilion next to the school.

22_CASTILLO DE SAN SEBASTIAN (SAN SEBASTIAN CASTLE) AREA: 33250m2

The sleeping area would be at the perimetrical galleries of the castle and the workshops would take place in the open spaces inside the fortress. It is totally bordered by the sea, counting with just one access to the city through a bridge. This space would allocate most part of the activities of the event because of its considerable dimensions.

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23_COLEGIO CORNELIO BALBO (CORNELIO BALBO SCHOOL) AREA: 4500 m2

Located in the northern part of the city, the school contains different classrooms which could be used for theoretical workshops. As well, the complex counts with a big open sport space that could serve as the place for constructive workshops.

SOME PICS

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[14]

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[6]

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CONSIDERATIONS The EASA event is never the same and there is no rule of how an assembly has to be. Equally there is no manual on running a successful workshop. There have been many workshops in previous assemblies, each and every one with their own and unique approach to how to run a workshop, how to engage participants, how to relate to the theme. We won’t dictate how to go about any of these topics, but instead provide a couple of things to consider. Keep these in mind when looking at the case studies below and working out your own ideas. There are no restrictions to who can apply for either tutoring a workshop or competitions and no professional background is essential. However a skill in organising a two week project, working in a group and explaining and communicating effectively are required. When proposing a workshop you should have an idea of: How to actually realize it during the two weeks of the assembly. This can include a timetable or plan of action. If that seems too limiting there still has to be some notion of a realistic target. How to work in a group. What is the group structure? Are there roles? How are tasks divided or responsibilities allocated? Consider how many participants can work on the project at the same time. How to communicate the idea of the workshop and what you want to achieve. This could be for example in form of presentation material that will also prove useful when first introducing the workshop at the assembly. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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How to engage the participants in your idea. What will keep the participants interested in working on the project and stop them from spending their time elsewhere. This is important since it’s entirely up to the participants if they wish to attend. How to document the process and final outcome. This will be essential for tutors and participants. It will also feed into the final report produced by the organisers after the assembly. It is important to keep in mind that the students are usually unskilled in using tools, not accustomed to the city and most of them do not speak perfect English. Further, as a tutor, you are required to foresee potential danger of your project and if necessary make your participants aware of health and safety issues and give an introduction to tools if applicable.

YOUR PARTICIPANTS As EASA participants don’t choose workshops before the assembly starts, it’s up to the tutors to promote their workshop to their potential participants. This is to be done in the first two days of the assembly. On the first day of the assembly, there will be the workshop presentations. This involves a short 3 minute presentation to give a taste to participants of what the workshop will entail. The next day, after the participants have had some time to think and discuss, there will be a workshop fair. Here tutors will be able to answer questions and talk to potential participants on a personal level.

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MATERIALS & TOOLS The organisers of EASA011 have put together a shopping list of basic materials which we hope should cover a vast majority of workshop’s material needs.

Construction Materials

Plywood Fibre board - e.g. MDF / OSB / Hard Board Timber Lengths - Varying lengths and dimensions Dowel - Varying lengths and dimensions Sheet Metal Metal Lengths - Varying lengths and dimensions Metal Angles Glass / Plastic Sheeting String / Rope / Metal Rope / Wire Bricks / Construction Blocks / Paving Tiles Cement / Aggregate / Sand Insulation Board / Roll Mechanical Fixings - e.g. screws / nails / nuts & bolts / Rivets Chemical Fixings - e.g. glues / mastics Paint / Spray Paint / Paint Brushes / Paint Rollers Fabric - varying types and colours Electrics - e.g. lights / cable / switches

Stationary

Pens / Pencils / Paint / Ink / Glue / Sticky Tape Paper / Card / Mount Board Clay / Plaster Craft Knives / Scissors / Rulers / Erasers / Staple Guns & Staples EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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If tutors want to use more specific materials they must ask for it in their application, or better yet, find themselves a sponsor who can provide the material for them.

Tools and Equipment A variety of both hand tools and power tools will be provided to tutors who should allow them to achieve the workshop to the best of their abilities, and on time. Non building equipment, (for example projectors, audio/ visual equipment, and computers) will be available to be loaned out to workshops. There is also the use of the IT lab.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA The selection of the workshops will be performed by a panel composed by members of the easa011 organisation team and may be assisted by professionals that will have a say but not a vote. During the evaluation, some key points of the proposals will be studied and each prospective workshop will be awarded with a mark. The top rated workshops will be selected to be part of easa011. The key criteria are:

· Originality of the idea · Experience and motivation of the tutors · Relevance to the theme · Relation to the subtheme(s) · Outcome and documentation · Feasibility · Collaboration on sponsoring EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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TIMETABLE The easa011 timetable includes a number of activities around the theme deCOASTruction aiming to give participants a wide understanding on it. Lectures, talks and visits are of vital importance for that. In this context, workshops are considered the backbone of the assembly and they run over the two weeks assembly. On the following page, prospective tutors will find the timetable containing the main activities of the event. Among the activities relevant to tutors we find: ·Workshop presentation: During this first presentation, tutors will have the opportunity to explain to all the participants the concept and aims of their workshops. Every tutor will be awarded with 3-5 minutes of time · Workshop fair: This activity is aimed to personally talk with participants and further explain the workshop to them. Each workshop will be provided with a stand in a common hall. Participants will be able to register to one workshop to be involved in it over the whole length of the assembly · Pecha Kucha workshops review: This review is intended to showcase the workshops development to all the participants in easa011. It is, in essence, a mid-term exhibition using the pecha kucha format (20 slides, 20 seconds per slide). · Exhibition day: August the 6th will be a major day for easa011. A feast in which all the work produced by 400 students of architecture from all over Europe will be exposed right in the city centre of Cadiz. · Final presentations: The final presentation will be the climax of easa011. The moment in which all the tutors will present the work to the assembly and to all interested parts in Cadiz.

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WORKSHOPS WORKSHOPS

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How to conduct a SUCCESSFUL workshop HOW TO It goes without saying that it can be a limiting activity to propose an outline structure to a workshop. EASA workshops come in a variety of media, are composed of different numbers of participants, have different goals and revolve around leadership, dedication, a distinct skill-set and coherent organisation on the ground. With this in mind, we feel that it is beneficial to outline, using one successful workshop from easa007 Elefsina, some striking aspects that were evident to us, as future organisers, and that we felt would be helpful to those seeking to undertake a tutorship this year. Obviously, these aren’t strict guidelines, but rather hints on how to bring a good idea to a successful conclusion.

REALISTIC AIMS From inception, tutors should make clear what they foresee as the ultimate realisation. This will help the organisers to provide for, and the participants to commit to the workshop. Motivating participants is key, the tutors can take certain lengths to help this happen.

ENGAGING PARTICIPANTS If applicable, the backing of a sponsor can lend a workshop a little extra financial clout. It may allow tutors to provide starter packs for the participants. This is a great way to gain commitment and interest from your participants early. A workshop starter pack may include a participants guide/ sponsorship info/workshop t-shirt or hat/whatever raw material may be relevant to that workshop.

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INFORMING PARTICIPANTS It’s impossible to assume that the average participant will have the same depth of under- standing of the workshop topic as the tutor of that workshop. Therefore it can be very helpful to inform the participants with a synopsis of research done, as well as any other important information and considerations. As with any architectural undertaking it is helpful to see previous examples and precedents for the type of work the tutors are proposing. Far from steering participants, this allows them to be inspired by people who have had a lot more time to consider their interventions. Observing case studies is one thing, being able to achieve the desired finish is another. For a built workshop this may mean having a strong understanding of the assembly details, for Co_Dec, it was knowing how to actually use paints. Workshops should aim to provide both the theoretical platform, as well as the means with which to implement it. Disregard for either ingredient may well make for a weak end-product.

MAINTAINING PARTICIPATION EASA workshops are about involving all the participants, basically it’s important for a tutor not to make his/her participants feel like lackeys. This may require a certain amount of ‘holding-back’ from tutors. Creating a healthy and non prohibitive atmosphere is an essential part of the EASA spirit. However, if you’ve been selected by your NC to travel with your country to participate at a EASA, we think you have an onus to your tutors and your hosts to muck in. Discipline will come more naturally from some than others. The rule of thumb is; the more you put in to a EASA workshop, the more you are likely to get out. Continuous discussions and exercises are very helpful for both developing ideas, and helping participants to get to know one and other. To get the best out of the short time available, we think it would be helpful if exercises and discussion topics were considered in advance by the tutors and given a deliberate slot in the workshop schedule. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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A schedule is essential. It’s very easy to put things off until the ‘next day’. If everyone knows the progress expected throughout the workshop period, then it relieves the tutors from having to convince people to work - i.e. It becomes clear that if you loose time one day, then you’ll have to make it up the next if the workshop is to be completed. This probably sounds strict, which it generally isn’t - adjustments are inevitable and always negotiable.

SAFETY What may seem obvious always needs to be reiterated as regards safety. During the course of a workshop participants will be using any number of different tools, as well as materials of all descriptions and sizes. Although EASA has sported a clean bill of health in recent memory, tutors must not grow complacent. Attending the power-tool demonstrations lecture early in the workshop period is a great idea, not only for tutors but for anyone intending to use these tools. Including a small house-keeping and hazards advisory relevant to the proposed workshop in the ‘participants guide’ is clever.

SPONSORSHIP AND LECTURES Sponsorships and some bare-faced brand pushing allowed Co_Dec to spend more money than most workshops. Everyone benefited. The sponsors were well advertised and their donations allowed the tutors to invite a guest lecturer from a top contemporary Swiss architecture practice. Obviously this isn’t a necessity for all workshops, but it is a fine example of what can be achieved with a little foresight and organisation.

DOCUMENTATION Collating written reports and photographs during the course of a workshop will aid in the production of a final report, whether that be a printed publication, an exhibition or a DVD. A well produced body of work is a great testament to the effort put in by the organisers, tutors, participants and also the sponsors. It can also provide a lasting memory for works that may have been more temporary or intangible in nature. EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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INFO FEE PAYMENT EASA is a network of students of architecture run by students for students. Because of that easa011 constitutes a great opportunity for emergent and enthusiast architects willing to run a workshop inside a highly successful event shared by 400 students of architecture coming from more than 40 European countries. easa011 is highly dependent on partnership and sponsorship in order to maintain low fees for all attendees. The fees for participants and tutors will be:

GROUP 1: 100% = 300 euros Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lichtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Malta.   GROUP 2: 80% =  240 euros Poland, Portugal.   GROUP 3: 60% = 180 euros Cyprus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moscow(*), Slovenia, Slovakia and non-European participants (such as ELEA, CLEA etc).   GROUP 4: 40% = 120 euros Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Armenia,.   GROUP 5: 20% = 60 euros Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Russia(**), Ukraine. (*) (**) Due to economic differences, Moscow and the rest of Russia are separated in different payment groups.

Submitting a workshop proposal is free and only selected tutors coming to easa011 will have to pay the fee in accordance to the country of residence.

SPONSOR YOUR WORKSHOP As a means for encouraging tutors to presenting ambitious proposals for a workshop, this year we are including a new practise. Tutors sponsoring their own workshops will be fee-deducted in accordance with the sponsored amount, taking into consideration workshop typology, workshop estimated budget and the fund raised amount. In order to give time to tutors for finding sponsorship for their workshops, the sponsorship could be obtained until the start of the assembly, being on that moment when the fee reduction will be applied.

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DATES AND DEADLINES Tutorpack release: 19th December 2010. Call for workshops: From 19th December 2010 until 6th February 2011. Selected workshops announcement: 20th February 2011. The decision will be announced to all NCs, selected tutors and will appear on the easa011 website.

SUBMISSION The workshop submissions will only be accepted on .pdf format using our application form editable pdf. Please, make sure you fill in all the fields and send it to jesus.diaz@easa011.es. You will receive a confirmation message when the email is received.

MORE INFORMATION Enquiries on the theme: ilda.rodriguez@easa011.es Other questions: francisco.rodriguez@easa011.es

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CREDITS: Photography: Sándor Lilienberg Bojana Boranieva Leyla Ibrahimova Piotr Maciaszek Roland Dániel Németh Design: Javier Díaz Garrido Texts: Francisco J. Rodríguez Perez Jesús Díaz Osuna Ilda Rodriguez Martinez Victoria Ruiz del Portal Blanca Dominguez Medina Rodrigo Castro Peñalva Natalia López Barragán Carlos Valderrama Edition: Jesús Díaz Osuna Francisco J. Rodríguez Perez Translation assistance: John Murray Ruth Hynes Sam Patterson Laura Collins EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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QUESTIONS AND SUBMISSIONS Proposal submissions (no questions): jesus.diaz@easa011.es Enquiries on the theme: ilda.rodriguez@easa011.es Other questions: francisco.rodriguez@easa011.es

CONTACT EASA Spain ETS de arquitectura de Valencia UPV, Camino de la Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (España) m:+34 620 304 618 (Francisco) m:+34 667 623 965 (Jesús) e: info@easa011.es www.easa011.es EASA_011 TUTORPACK

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