A YEAR IN REVIEW
RE-BUILD THE BENCHES
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
WOMEN AT DUKE
PLUS A CONVERSATION WITH PRESIDENT BRODHEAD
from the editors I
n the waning days of the semesthat was—this issue makes seven in all. ter, we’ve found ourselves getting None of them would have happened withoverly sentimental about every last. out our phenomenal editorial and ar t team, This issue—themed Year in Review—the chief among them the capable crew featured last time we’ll walk through the doors in the contributors’ section on the opposite of TOWERVIEW magazine, the last time page. we go to Shooter’s, even the last student First, thanks are due to our Creative Di2009-2010 election we’ll vote in. rector Lawson Kur tz, who is far more capaWe’re lucky to have a tangible prodble in the realm of aesthetics than we could It was just one year of four for most of us—one uct, a scrapbook of sor ts, for the volume have pretended to be, which is pretty much chapter in a winding college narrative—yet it felt bigonly trait he shares with the inspiration ger, as it always does.the It was a year of recession-fueled trimming and international growth, of euphoric for his editorial title, Don Draper. Without triumphs and soulwrenching defeats, of tight elecCaroline McGeough, tions and expanded campus space for women. our resident cover story And it was a year that was epitomized, so many Khan, whose work repor ter, and inNaureen ways, by Main West’s second bonfire, matched in ethic and passion for journalism rubbed off brightness only by the flash of point-and-shoot camon for us burning every and month, there would be nothing eras. We lifted benches crowded around the flame, creating an image of Duke, cap- And, of course, we’re Chelsea Allison and Ben Cohen for you to read, either. tured and projected by the news helicopters buzzEDITORS-IN-CHIEF in debt to Barb Starbuck and Chrissy Beck ing overhead. The Duke community—undergraduates for not killing us,to graduand Jonathan Angier, for ates, staff members to full professors and everyone Lawson Kurtz not killing the magazine. in between—came together to create something to CREATIVE DIRECTOR Year inthatReview—covering many of remember, capping a yearInof this recollections won’t be re-written anytimethe soon.University’s facets but, naturally, not as Naureen Khan Caroline McGeough many as we would have liked—you can read ASSOCIATE EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR about women’s rights, conf licts of interest in Will Robinson Alex Klein research and what it takes to win a national EXECUTIVE EDITOR EDITOR, TV ONLINE championship, but you might want to star t with the end, the future. 8 | TOWERVIEW President Richard Brodhead sat down ar t s & let ter s with TOWERVIEW this month to discuss his tenure at Duke’s helm and, more impor tant, Libby Busdicker, Lauren Dietrich, Courtney Douglas, Margaux what comes nex t: for him, for Duke, for the McAulay, Michael Naclerio, Chase Olivieri, Maya Robinson, Ian future of higher education in general. “It’s Soileau, Melissa Yeo almost the end of my six th year,” Brodhead CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHERS said. “Time f lies.” Especially when you’re having fun. Ryan Brown, Nathan Freeman, Andy Moore, Sam Schlinkert So thanks, most of all, to you: our readCONTRIBUTING WRITERS ers. It still delights and charms us to see you reach into the racks and star t f lipping through these pages, justifying the hard business & produc t ion work that goes into crafting them. It’s been Jonathan Angier our pleasure. Chrissy Beck GENERAL MANAGER Merry LDOC! ADVERTISING DIRECTOR
A YEAR IN REVIEW
Rebecca Dickenson Barbara Starbuck
RETAIL SALES MANAGER
Margaret Potter Mary Weaver
Student Sales Manager
Creative Services Student Manager TOWERVIEW is a subsidiary of The Chronicle and is published by the Duke Student Publishing Company, Inc., a nonprofit corporation independent of Duke University. The opinions expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of Duke University, its students, faculty, staff, administration or trustees. Columns, letters and car toons represent the views of the authors. To reach The Chronicle’s editorial office at 301 Flowers Building, call (919) 684-2663 or fax (919) 684-4696. To reach The Chronicle’s business office at 103 West Union Building, call (919) 684-3811. To reach The Chronicle’s adver tising office at 101 West Union Building, call (919) 684-3811 or fax (919) 684-8295. Contact the adver tising office for information on subscriptions. Visit The Chronicle and TOWERVIEW online at dukechronicle.com. 2009 The Chronicle, Box 90858, Durham, N.C. 27708. All rights reserved No par t of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the prior, written permission of the business office. Each individual is entitled to one free copy.
Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or send letters to TOWERVIEW Magazine, Box 90858, Durham, NC 27708.
VOLUME 11, ISSUE 7
THE DEVIL’S DETAILS
The scene at the Streets of Southpoint surrounding the long-awaited release of the APPLE iPAD, the Class of 2010’s panorama from the TOP OF THE DUKE CHAPEL, a scene of fighting BAR BOTTLES.
YEAR IN REVIEW How do you measure a year? For us, at least, it’s in the people and the PAGE 8
events, the games and the ar ts—the stories. There was a NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIP, of course, but that was obvious. You might have missed the significant steps for WOMEN AT DUKE and a brewing debate over CONFLICT OF INTEREST in University research. Plus, it’s always wor th looking ahead, and who better to riff on the FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION than President Richard Brodhead?
ROADSIDE WISDOM PAGE 30
Where would Mayor William V. Bell, better known simply as BILL BELL, most like to live in the world? You guessed it: Durham. CAROLINE MCGEOUGH, a TOWERVIEW associate editor, geeked out so hard writing her piece on clinical research that she subscribed to the New England Journal of Medicine’s weekly e-mails. Her soul is in rent to Wall Street next year, but she is now accepting alternative offers star ting in 2012.
on the cover
Creative Director LAWSON KURTZ, a junior Neuroscience major, is curiously interested in non-scientific disciplines. He will serve as co-editor of TOWERVIEW’s 12th volume with Andrew Hibbard, and this summer, he will take his Nuji Group experience to intern at the Jake Group in Washington, D.C.
NAUREEN KHAN, a senior English major from Plano, Texas, is a senior editor of The Chronicle and an associate editor for TOWERVIEW. Next year, she will either be studying in law school or getting by as a starving journalist. Feel free to push her in either direction.
The halfcour t heave from Butler’s Gordon Hayward hit the backboard—mercifully, just inches off— and the celebration was on in Indianapolis’ Lucas Oil Stadium. Back on campus, from the rickety bleachers of Cameron Indoor Stadium to the outdoor patio of the Washington Duke Inn & Golf Club to the tiers of the Bryan Center’s Armadillo Grill, the students that stayed poured out to Main West Quadrangle, where a bonf ire blazed all night long. Sophomore MICHAEL NACLERIO, the photography editor of The Chronicle, was par t of that throng, except he was one of the staffers dutifully shooting images of the celebration for the nex t day’s newspaper. While at the bonf ire, Naclerio snapped a photo of freshman ashvin kapur, who had painted his face to watch the game in Cameron. A spor ts staff writer for The Chronicle, CHRIS CUSACK, identif ied Kapur as the man in question, and when TOWERVIEW e-mailed him for approval to use the photo, Kapur did more than grant permission. He set the photo as his default Facebook picture.
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the devil’s details
TOYING WITH THE TABLETS
n a sunny Saturday afternoon, exactly one week after the iPad arrived, about 100 people walked around the Apple store at Southpoint to play with the newest, shiniest toy on display at the very entrance. There, throngs of browsers flooded the two wooden tables— the same light, ashy color of the floor—each boasting eight iPads for perusing. Six more rested on an adjacent counter. Outside, an iPad advertisement lured customers inside. The wait to futz around with the longawaited tablet—baseline price: $499, before tax—wasn’t too long, and Apple employees, young and hip, swarmed any customer who appeared even slightly idle. They all wore blue T-shirts that read, in white print: “iPad: A magical and revolutionary product at an unbelievable price,” adorned with the Apple logo on the left sleeve. The employees’ nametags, draped around their necks, were shaped like iPods. A boyish-looking
employee approached me, and I asked a few questions about sales so far. “Well, you won’t find anyone willing to talk to you, because we’ll lose our jobs,” he said, a sentiment that was repeated to me twice more by other employees. “But I can tell you that the front tables have been very crowded. Also, we’re sold out of the 16 and 32 [gigabyte] models. They come in when they come in, and they fly off the shelves.” Above those wooden shelves were more enticing photos of the iPad, even though looking at the device on canvas and holding it, viscerally, are two completely different experiences. Still, the advertisements showed a wide range of uses for the iPad, all directed at what seemed like the company’s core clientele. There was a New York Times travel article about visiting Japan and two Google Maps of the Eiffel Tower, one satellite, the other in street view. One photo depicted a dog on a surfboard, while a
pretty, blonde twenty-something with blue eyes filled another. Right next to a screenshot of Star Trek was an excerpt from the late Senator Ted Kennedy’s memoir True Compass, page 30 out of 683. Still, not many customers noticed the wall-to-wall mural of iPad art, caught up instead in the act of playing with the thing itself. Groups of kids looked over each other’s shoulders to watch it in action, while two older women practiced typing on the tablet. The crowd shuffled in and out, sharing the iPad with others, as one Apple store employee snapped a photo of the scene—on his iPhone, naturally. (Taking out a BlackBerry in the middle of iHeaven struck me as sacrilegious, so I kept mine stuffed in my pocket.) The MacBook Pros and iPods looked lonely on nearby tables; the poor iPod shuffles screamed of neglect. “Nope, there haven’t been any fights over the iPad yet,” one employee told TOWERVIEW
P H OTO I L LU S T R AT I O N B Y L AW S O N K U R T Z
FREAKS AND GEEKS
P H OTO S B Y L AW S O N K U R T Z
A CHAPEL WITH A VIEW
APPLE FRUIT: 21 MILLION GOOGLE RESULTS
APPLE PIE: 41 MILLION GOOGLE RESULTS
me over the din of chatter, floating about the sun-filled store. “It’s a peaceful store,” I said. “We try to keep the environment as calm as possible,” he said, as another employee, clutching a can of Klear, walked past to gently dab the iPad. It was also calm—peculiarly so, perhaps—the week before, when the store opened at 9 a.m. to a rush of tech geeks and early adopters. The front window panes, stretching from the floor to the top of the door, were initially covered with black curtains, eventually lifted to unveil the masterpiece inside to light applause. (It was still early.) The first people in the store were those who had reserved iPads; the first man in the public line, stretching even longer, entered about an hour later. “It was pretty cool,” one employee said. “Also, it was my first big product release, so that was very exciting.” It was still buzzing seven days later—it was normally crowded, but customers were typically dispersed throughout the store, not huddled around the front table. Still, in my short stay at the Apple store, the only distraction from the product came when a cow mascot from Chick-fil-A—with the chain’s slogan, “Eat Mor Chikin,” emblazoned across his back—pretended to walk through the glass doors before strolling away, catching gawking gazes the whole time. Only a giant fake cow could distract anyone from the iPad. Perhaps the mascot, too, was hunting a new gadget, but an employee, stuck by the iPod display, took his presence in another way, reminding himself of his own needs. “Man,” he muttered, “I could use a sandwich right about now.” —BEN COHEN
APPLE iPAD: 61 MILLION GOOGLE RESULTS
the devil’s details
uke’s Chapel Tower is the first thing one notices about this place. It’s fitting, then, that a view from the top should be among seniors’ last perspectives. On a sunny Monday in April, girls in sundresses and guys in sunglasses gathered in the shadow of the 210-foot icon to climb the spiral stairs, an opportunity reserved for first- and lastyear students during Orientation and Senior Week. They smiled, making small talk with the friends who had joined them, those who had come late and cut in line. They took pictures in front of the building they had passed nearly every day for four years, the inaugural event of Senior Week having made them something like tourists. The carillonneur had finished his 5 o’clock set—which on Fridays includes the alma mater, “Dear Old Duke”—in a small studio beneath the bells. By 5:15 p.m., more than 50 seniors wound around the Chapel lawn, while the speakers provided by the Duke Annual Fund spouted a different sort of hymn: Lady Gaga’s “Telephone” and Rihanna’s “Rude Boy.” “If you’re claustrophobic at all, decide beforehand if you’re going to go up,” a woman from the Alumni Association warned, walking along the row of seniors. “It’s small and dark and goes straight up.” The railing stretches almost vertically for 239 steps, and cylindrical lamps punctuate the darkness every 10 steps or so, save
a patch in the middle that is lightless, and a portion up top that is railless. Twice during one six-minute climb, as some slowed to steady themselves, certain seniors let there be darkness, flicking the light switch at the base of the Tower. As of 8:15 p.m., approximately 200 seniors in groups of 20—none had passed out—had ascended the winding Chapel steps. Perhaps just as many still awaited their turn. Up top, representatives from the Young Alumni Association distributed collection envelopes for those who have not yet given their senior gift of $20.10. They caught their breath on the sight of what, in a few weeks, they will leave behind. The long drive that bisects acres of woods. In the distance, to the left, East Campus. Further still, downtown Durham, signaled by the Lucky Strike smokestack. On the right, the Academic Quadrangle, and the artistry of the Gothic turrets. The students who will still call this campus their own. On the descent, seniors, the same ones accustomed to standing in line for hours for free T-shirts, chattered about whether the wait had been worth it, if only for the symbolism of the journey they had made. More Annual Fund representatives waited at the mouth of the Chapel, where seniors emerged, still dizzy from clutching the copper rail, the scent of pennies clinging to their hands. —CHELSEA ALLISON
the devil’s details
THE FUNNY PAGES
amages were less serious at Armadillo Grill. One chair was broken, a glass of beer was thrown at the ceiling and there was ‘more trash than you can imagine,’ Assistant Manager Sam Sills said. He said the glass of beer shattered on impact, causing shards of glass to fall on the crowd of students, but no one was hurt.”— “Celebration leaves eateries damaged” in The Chronicle, April 7, 2010.
MISSED CONNECTIONS (POSTINGS FROM R ALEIGH-DURHAM CR AIGSLIST)
APRIL 10, 3:23 p.m. MEN FOR WOMEN DUKE UNIVERSITY We talked about having lunch sometime, but it never happened. I think you might also be interested in a little more than just a conversation par tner... Discretion is a must. Reply to this post if you are interested. APRIL 9, 9:24 a.m. WOMEN FOR MEN BONFIRE/FULL FRAME I’ve seen you twice this week and I can’t get you out of my head. You’re tall (5-foot-10 to maybe 6 feet), wear glasses and have kind brown eyes, brown hair, a neatly-shaved beard/goatee and I think perhaps a mustache. The first time I spotted you was late Monday night/Tuesday morning at the bonfire. I’m pretty sure you had on a media or press pass. We made eye contact and smiled at each other. Last night I saw you again, with a male friend, at the Full Frame festival. You were walking east on West Morgan past the line for “Kings of Pastry.” I don’t remember what you were wearing, but your friend wore a Duke shirt under another shirt. Do you work at Duke? I would love to hear from you.
“Bloody hell,” Stella said out loud in a British accent, as she was lifted for another swig. “Some of them have been here for five hours already.” “Tell me about it,” Coors replied. “I haven’t been washed for six rounds. The game’s just starting now.” “Yum, this guy can lick my salt all night long,” purred Margarita. “Again? But seriously, somebody might get chipped tonight,” Stella worried, as she always did. “I mean if it happened to Porter, it could happen to anybody.” They all took pause to remember their stout friend. Suddenly, a man enthusiastically slammed Bud down on the bar. “Whoo-wee, we’re in for a wild one!” Bud yelled. “I am tanked.” “Oh, of course you are, you cheap drunk,” cried Stella. “You’re just jealous, you old prude!” Bud said. The gang continued their banter into the game. By halftime, even Stella was tipsy from rotation, and Coors, usually calm and collected, was starting to feel it. The bar had long been packed, some students standing on chairs to get a better view of one of the flatscreen televisions. “Have you seen Bud?” Stella yelled to Margarita
across the bar. “No! I think he’s out at one of the tables,” she responded. “How about that new guy, though? I think he’s here illegally. Calls himself, uh, Four Loko? He seems so energetic. ¡Ay carumba!” Coors was just returning for a refill. “Have I ever told you how pretty you are Stella?” he said, standing on the bar. “That logo’s never faded.” “Oh, cut it out.” “We could’ve had something!” Coors said, before being swept away. As the game wore on, the friends knew they were in for a dramatic finish that none of them wanted. With seven minutes left, Coors had been dropped to the floor. Fortunately for him, though, he landed on his thick bottom, uninjured. No one had heard from Bud in a while. “It’s like ’01 all over again!” Coors said. “I know some of you youngsters—” but Coors was drowned out by a monstrous cheer. The game was coming down to the final minute. The glasses were gripped tightly. “Ow ow ow!” said Margarita, who, like everyone else, was plastered. “Somebody just poured some of that Loko in me!” “Hey guys! What a game!” Bud called during a momentary silence of held breaths. The glasses all turned their heads to look from the bar. “Oh, thank God,” Stella said. Just then, a tremendous roar erupted, with some students screaming on top of slippery table tops. Almost in slow motion they all watched in horror as Bud was launched up toward the ceiling, exploding in ragged shards that showered down on the hooligans below. Not even Stella saw him come down. —SAM SCHLINKERT TOWERVIEW
A YEAR IN REVIEW 2009-2010
It was just one year of four for most of us—one chapter in a winding college narrative—yet it felt bigger, as it always does. It was a year of recession-fueled trimming and international growth, of euphoric triumphs and soulwrenching defeats, of tight elections and expanded campus space for women. And it was a year that was epitomized, in so many ways, by Main West’s second bonfire, matched in brightness only by the flash of point-and-shoot cameras. We lifted benches for burning and crowded around the flame, creating an image of Duke, captured and projected by the news helicopters buzzing overhead. The Duke community—undergraduates to graduates, staff members to full professors and everyone in between—came together to create something to remember, capping a year of recollections that won’t be re-written anytime soon.
8 | TOWERVIEW
A YEAR IN R
“It’s been break th
LADIES FIRST BY RYAN BROWN and NAUREEN KHAN Does sexism exist at Duke?
In the Fall of 1972, 900 students packed into
Page Auditorium to listen to President Terry Sanford deliver his opening remarks to the inaugural class of the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences. In many ways, the group of freshfaced first-years gathered that night resembled those who had come before them—privileged, white Southerners at a regional university whose star was beginning to rise nationally. But there was one characteristic that made this class different: among their ranks were 300 women who would attend Duke alongside their male colleagues for the first time. The University had established the Woman’s College in 1924, and in 1972, administrators had decided that Duke would become fully co-educational, merging the historically all-male Trinity College with the Woman’s College. “I hope you will be dissatisfied and will find ways to express that dissatisfaction,” Sanford told the sea of faces assembled in Page that evening. “Not only dissatisfaction with Washington and national affairs, but also with this campus.” One of the women listening to President Sanford speak that night was Kimberly Jenkins, Trinity ’76 and currently one of the 12 women members on the Board of Trustees. The campus she walked on to as a freshman in Fall 1972 was far from the perfect model for co-education. Walking across Main West Quadrangle, Jenkins remembers being appalled to see fraternity boys—perhaps not yet accustomed to women on their turf—lounging on benches outside their dorms and holding up cards to rate girls as they walked past. One day Jenkins turned the corner, ripped out a sheet of notebook paper and made her own rating cards. She marched back to the offending bench, gave the boys a thorough lookdown and handed each their own card. They were equal parts amused and impressed at her gusto. One even asked her on a date. “I think men were aware that this was ridiculous what they were doing,” Jenkins said. “They liked a woman who said it in a humorous way—here’s how it feels.”
From verbal skirmishes on the quad to the 2003
Women’s Initiative, the University has been grappling with how to integrate women into campus life since the 1970s. The 2009-2010 school year has been notable in many ways: a woman at the head of Duke Student Government for the first time in a decade. A female contender in the first-ever Young Trustee election. Two new women’s housing initiatives. A new sexual misconduct policy that mandates the reporting of rape on campus. Panhel’s refusal to participate in the fraternitysponsored Derby Days.
10 | TOWERVIEW
But are these mere examples of individual women swimming against the cultural tide, or is that tide really turning?
It was Feb. 9, 2010, and senior Chelsea Gold-
stein was exhausted. That day, she hoped, the blistering work of campaigning—parading herself before student organizations and plastering bulletin boards with pithy campaign slogans— would pay off and she would be chosen as the next Young Trustee. That day marked the first time in the position’s 38-year history that the Young Trustee would be elected by the entire student body. But for Goldstein, a former DSG senator, vice-president and presidential candidate, the inner workings of student elections were old hat. So that morning, despite a near-unanimous chorus of student group endorsements backing her, Goldstein was cautious. She was an improbable victor. If she won, she would become only the second female Young Trustee of the decade, and one of a very small number of women to win a major campus election—just five of the 38 DSG presidents since the University went co-ed have been female. But the stats beg the simple question, “Why?” This wasn’t 1972. In 2010, nearly 50 percent of undergraduates were women. Few students could say they didn’t know a number of driven, smart and personable women capable of sitting atop the student government or representing undergraduates on the Board of Trustees. “For whatever reason, I think women… are quite comfortable with that behind-the-scenes role,” Dean of Students Sue Wasiolek said. They don’t feel this need to or desire to embrace that top-level position.” In fact, a female DSG presidential candidate has been present on only four of the last 10 ballots. It remains unclear why the ones who emerge from “behind the scenes” to run are usually unsuccessful. Senior Awa Nur, who was elected to the position last year, is a notable exception: none of the women who have run in the last decade won that race. In Goldstein’s four years with DSG, she said, it “definitely always felt like an old boys’ club.” Some two-thirds of DSG senators are men, and many are also members of fraternities. The social power of fraternities is palpable: every weekend, legions of boat-shoed boys in a rainbow of Lacoste polos invite the student body into their West Campus sections, cans of warm beer in hand and a soundtrack played loud enough to make teeth chatter. Their political power is less visible. The percentage of fraternity members in student government barely exceeds their share of the University as a whole. But Goldstein said she
R IN REVIEW
t’s been very hard for women to reak through.” —DSG President Awa Nur
THE WOMEN’S INITIATIVE PHOTO BY MICHAEL NACLERIO TOWERVIEW | 11
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A YEAR IN REVIEW 2009-2010
visible female leaders on campus, said Brenda Armstrong, Woman’s College ’70, professor of pediatrics, Associate Dean of Medical Education, and Director of Admissions for the Duke Medical School. In her years as an undergraduate, she remembered, the closeness of the Women’s College fostered a similarly supportive environment. Today the University must re-cultivate that commitment to providing mentorship and support to all female students. Baldwins are one avenue, but at a much deeper level the University “must look at how we do or do not groom our exceptional women for roles that are going to be important outside their undergraduate experience.” And although DSG is not the only place that a student can learn skills like networking and public speaking, it provides a crucial training ground for the corporate and political worlds, Armstrong added. Women who choose to forgo roles within such organizations, whether out of hesitance to assume a visible leadership position or difficulty navigating the established social order, are missing out in significant ways. “If Duke is going to be true to saying that they’re interested in issues of leadership development of women, then we need to be honest with ourselves that we really have not done as good of a job as we should have by now,” she said.
The second floor of the Allen
Building is unlike most students wander down in the course of their academic career: there’s the plush carpeting, the handsome dark-oak furniture, the grandfather clock, and the offices of some of the most powerful administrators at Duke. Take a look at the gold-framed directory outside of the lobby, however, and one might notice something else: there are few names of women among the ranks of the University’s most senior officials. President Richard Brodhead, Executive Vice President Tallman Trask, Provost Peter Lange, Vice President for Public Affairs and Government Relations Michael Schoenfeld, and on and on. There is nevertheless at least one woman in the Allen Building who spends a significant amount of time unpacking the problems of female undergraduates. Donna Lisker was the director of the Women’s Center for eight years before
she assumed her current post as associate dean of undergraduate education. “When you look at the fact that Awa is the first female DSG president in ten years, it makes no sense given the talent in our student population,” Lisker said. “But some students have said to me, ‘Well, look at the Allen Building.’ And they’re not wrong there.” Among the 28 administrators Duke lists as executive leadership, only five are women, although they do reign over important parts of the University. Nancy Andrews was the first female in the nation to be named dean of a top-10 medical school. Jo Rae Wright is vice provost and dean of the graduate school. Tracy Futhey is the vice president of information technology and chief information officer. And Pam Bernard, the force behind the new, mandatory rape reporting policy, became vice president and general counsel for the University in 2006. Brodhead, for his part, said he is acutely aware of how important women have always been to the fabric of the University. After all, he found himself on the short list for the presidency in November 2003, just as Nan Keohane—Duke’s first female president—was taking her leave and chairing the 2003 Women’s Initiative. “I myself went to an all-male college, but Duke’s history is a history of being a college for women and for men,” he said in the office that he inherited from Nan. But in the present, the lack of women—specifically women at the very top— troubles Brodhead as well. Although he said he takes gender and race into account when looking to fill upper-level positions, at the end of the day, he must choose the best candidate for the job. “To tell you the truth, I wish there were more [women] now,” Brodhead told TOWERVIEW. “I’m used to working with more. And yet at the same time I will tell you that Peter Lange is as good a provost as there is at any university in America. And so I am very happy with the quality of the talent on this team— but it remains a work in progress.“ Dean of Students Sue Wasiolek, Trinity ’76, is the most visible female administrator for undergraduates—an institution unto herself, clocking in with almost 30 years in the Gothic Wonderland, first as student then administrator. Over the course of her career at Duke,
TOWERVIEW | 13
THE WOMEN’S INITIATIVE
watched as older members of fraternities mentored younger brothers to help them ascend the ranks. And she observed how fraternity members formed a backbone of support for candidates during elections. With a pool of voters only a few thousand deep, such connections could spell the difference between success and narrow defeat. Because the networks with the strongest ability to garner support were all-male—sororities don’t live together and therefore, typically, form looser associations—the group most disproportionately hurt was women. That day, Goldstein found herself sandwiched on the ballot between two male candidates. Senior Zach Perret was a brother in the Kappa Alpha Order and senior John Harpham was a member of selective living group Wayne Manor. Both candidates would be able to tap into those houses and Greek-affiliated students generally. All three candidates were highly qualified, Goldstein knew, but she hoped to leverage something that they could not. “Part of choosing a Young Trustee is that you want to contribute to a diverse Board, and to have someone who has lived the life of a female on this campus is very different than to have someone who has lived the life of a man,” she said. Late on the night of the election, Goldstein received a phone call from Executive Vice President Gregory Morrison. She had 1,051 votes. Harpham had 1,054. She had lost. “It’s very difficult for [women] to win a prominent campus-wide election,” she said, “Because we just don’t have those close-knit groups backing us up.” But for every rule there is an exception. Senior Awa Nur is the first female DSG president since 1999, interrupting a seemingly permanent succession of men at the top of student government. “Greek men have a whole network,” she said. “It’s been very hard for women to break through.” But she also attributed her success in part to her own close-knit living group— the Baldwin Scholars. The Baldwin program chooses around 20 women in each freshman class for three years of mentoring, leadership development and a sophomore year residential experience in Crowell. Programs like the Baldwin Scholars, now in its sixth year, try to cultivate
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Dean Sue has witnessed dramatic cultural changes transform the lives of women at the University. On the whole, there have been marked improvements, she said. Yet, there is also something to the symbolic importance of a strong female presence—or lack thereof—at the upper level of the University. “I do sit back and look at our current senior leadership—all exceedingly capable and dedicated people… and wonder, ‘Why are they all men?’ And wouldn’t it make a positive difference if there were women represented at the senior level?” she said. “I’d like to see more—not just as an administrator, but as an alum.” However, increasing the representation of women might be harder than it looks. Take it from a surprising source— someone who undoubtedly recognizes the importance of gender diversity in higher education: Keohane. Bringing issues that impacted women to the forefront of the University’s consciousness remains a lasting part of her legacy. Still, Keohane was far from satisfied. “Certainly we tried hard to recruit more women to positions of leadership while I was there, but we didn’t have a great record,” Keohane said. She emphasized that although attracting women to upper-level administration is emblematic of a University’s commitment to diversity, it will not solve all of its cultural ills. “It’s a very important thing to do,” she told us. “But it’s not a cure-all.”
In the mid-1990s, Donna Lisker,
newly minted Ph.D. in hand, landed her first job, as an assistant director at the Women’s Center of Virginia Tech. She came into her position at the same time as a male colleague who had also just earned his Ph.D and worked on the staff of Vir-
ginia Tech’s psychological services. At the outset of their careers together, Lisker decided to look up each of their publicy listed salaries. Check, check. Good news: they were almost identical. Two years passed, and again, out of curiosity, Lisker decided to look again. This time: a difference of $5,000. “It may not sound like that much money but you know, we were both young and accrued over a long career, $5,000,” Lisker said. “That’s huge.” She took the issue to her supervisor, the vice provost, who was just as perplexed as Lisker, given that there was no apparent reason for the disparity. After investigating further and finding no answers, the vice provost gave Lisker a 12 percent raise to close their earnings gap. Gender discrimination today lives in subtleties and old attitudes. Men need frequent raises and the money to provide for families. Popular wisdom holds that women don’t share these needs. “We tend to think about the women’s salary as shoe money or something,” Lisker said, laughing. “There are just as many women as men who are the sole support or the primary support for their families, but as a culture, we haven’t gotten to the point yet where we think about that.” At Duke, too, it appears that some of most harmful instances of sexism and gender discrimination reveal themselves in the social norms that govern how women should behave. Case in point: the collective sigh of relief heard around campus when the Women’s Initiative put a term to the psychological pressure confronting Duke women for years: “effortless perfection.” For the
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last seven years, it has struck a chord with undergraduate women struggling to excel in an academically and socially competitive environment, and make it look easy to boot. There are standards of how to look and how to dress and how to curry favor with boys. Men on campus feel these pressures too, administrators said. But for whatever reason, it appears the cult of “effortless perfection” has had particularly destructive effects on women. Seven years later, it appears that much of the cultural pressure remains the same. Kimberly Jenkins has given dozens of talks on campus centering around being a woman at this University, but on the eve of an address to the Panhellenic Association, she was especially nervous. “What I saw happening at Duke today is a lot of women demeaning themselves in a bid for affection and attention. I saw the pain that came from that,” Jenkins said. “And I worried that they wouldn’t relate to that. I thought they might laugh me out of the room. “ Instead, at the end of the lecture, Jenkins hung back for an hour as girls lined up, one after another, to talk to her. They did relate, they did understand and many thanked her for tackling the taboo topic of sexual double standards. “These double standards are alive and well and they’re having a huge impact on men and women,” Jenkins said. It is evident from talking to power players like Jenkins, Lisker, Keohane and Dean Sue that they care deeply about these issues. And they agree that change has to come from the ground up. “I wish women today would speak up more,” Jenkins said, recalling that day 30 years ago when she went toe-to-toe with the fratstars of the 1970s. “What I see toWe d o c a te r in to o ! g
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day is women accepting some of this so quietly and in silence. I just don’t understand.” Similarly, in focus groups for the Women’s Initiative, Lisker heard endless amounts of talk about the booze-fueled hook-up culture at Duke. As an administrator, Lisker’s hands are tied. “I’m not going to do anything about it. What am I going to do? Say that the administration is instituting a dating policy?” she said. “The change has to be grassroots. You can attack structures that are inequitable as an administrator, but the behavior change has to come internally.”
housing for Duke: non-selective group living. They would choose the women who filled their dorm at random from the applicant pool. By February, the trajectories of both WHO and the Panhel housing proposal reached an anticlimactic apex: they were unceremoniously approved. WHO was granted 48 beds in Few. Panhel took over two apartment buildings on Alexander Avenue. And a month later, both groups had easily filled their spaces. But the women involved know that if they want to make a difference in the long term, they will need more than just 48 beds on West and a block of Central apartments. The small victories will need significant support and expansion in coming years to go head-to-head with the Greek alphabet soup on West. “If we really want to change social culture it’s not about bringing women together and segregating them,” Sisler said. “It’s about bringing it into the whole student body.”
“At Duke I met people who
like me felt trapped by the games they were supposed to play, and I learned that I didn’t have to play them. I could refuse to wear clothes that weren’t comfortable, to contort my hair and paint my face, to pretend to be demure, and to let my decisions be made for me,” Chronicle columnist Nancy Stewart wrote in 1972. Forty years later, Stewart’s words still resonate on this campus, both in articulating the social pressures faced by women at Duke and underlining the spirit of resistance that those same women have always exhibited. This school year has witnessed a powerful jolt of resistance from undergraduate women that extends beyond simply identifying and complaining about the same old issues. “The only way that people ever resist the things they don’t like about campus culture is by resisting them,” Brodhead said. But history can’t be understood while it’s happening. It’s unclear whether this is an earthquake or merely a tremor running through campus. “You revert to the status quo pretty quickly,” Lisker said. “It’s great to see a groundswell of activity like we have this year, and I don’t want to be skeptical or cynical. I hope it will continue but only time will tell.” |TV|
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THE WOMEN’S INITIATIVE
Main West is the boardwalk
of Duke’s campus, the prime real estate that thousands of students jostle for each year in RoomPix. And standing on the quad, it’s easy to see why: Gothic stone, abundant greenery, a dozen eateries within a five-minute walk, and the priceless ability to sleep an extra 10 minutes before Orgo lecture starts. But another feature defines the landscape of West. It is the home of nearly every selective residential community on campus, from fraternities to the substance-free dorm to selective living groups. To senior Mary Caroline Dyke, something felt odd about this arrangement—less than half of West’s 24 living groups accepted women. And when it came to social life, things were even more skewed. Of the 11 housing sections that did have women, only three— Mirecourt, Maxwell, and Brownstone— were not academically oriented in some regard. So when a Saturday night rolled around, odds were that if you wanted a party, you’d be putting on heels and tottering over to a fraternity section. “[I] specifically made the connection between physical living space and social power,” she said. “That’s what fraternities have on this campus.” Last fall, the issue of women and housing surfaced in Dyke’s PUBPOL 140 class, “Women as Leaders.” Professor Rachel Seidman, associate director of the Duke Center for History, Public Policy and Social Change, had given her students a rather unusual final. They had to work together as a group to translate what they had learned in the class into something tangible on campus. It became clear that there was one
problem that had resonance for nearly every member of the class: the dearth of female-oriented housing on campus. So they came up with the radical idea to submit a proposal for a new, all-female dorm on West. Meanwhile, seniors Alyssa Dack and Casey Miller had watched for four years as their sororities shuffled through rented meeting rooms and competed with other student groups for space on campus, and they were fed up. The membership of the Panhellenic Association—the umbrella group for nine Duke sororities—comprised a third of female undergraduates, and yet they had not one single meeting or living space to their names. Dack and Miller wanted to know why. So they began to meet with administrators, and almost immediately they had de-bunked a Duke urban legend. You know that story about how sororities don’t have housing on campus because of a so-called “brothel law” that prevents large groups of women from living together? Turns out it is 100 percent myth. In fact, the administrators whom Dack and Miller approached told them that the reason sororities didn’t have housing was merely that they’d spent years locked in internal squabbles and never come forward with a solid proposal. Now that the women had figured that out, however, administration was more than willing to push through the changes. And when Dyke and her class presented their own proposal for a nonselective women’s housing option in Few, they found themselves similarly stunned by the enthusiasm from the top. “The administration is very aware of gender problems on campus,” said junior Laurel Sisler, a member of Dyke’s class. “But what they expressed to us is that change has to come from the students or else it’s never going to work.” So they grabbed that initiative and took off running. Soon the class had crafted a proposal for an all-female section in Few, the Women’s Housing Option. WHO would be associated with the Women’s Center, but not attached at the hip. It would focus on women’s issues and promote a dialogue about gender on campus, but it would also be a space to relax and a venue for parties. And most importantly of all, WHO was to pioneer a relatively new model of
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“This is th
GREAT EXPECTATIONS BY ANDY MOORE
Duke wins a fourth national championship against all odds Five minutes before his last collegiate game, then they’re tear-gassed and arrested in subsequent post-game
Jon Scheyer concluded his pregame warm-up and walked over to head coach Mike Krzyzewski. It was time for the national anthem, so Krzyzewski and his senior point guard lined up on the baseline in preparation for the ceremony. The song struck its first chord, and Krzyzewski listened as he always does, his posture ramrod straight, his gaze intense and unwavering. For an old military man, you would expect nothing less. Beside him, though, stood a young man appreciating Francis Scott Key’s words in a different manner. Scheyer, from the song’s beginning, bowed his head and closed his eyes as tight as an infant in mid-tantrum, never reopening them for the duration of the song. He occasionally mouthed the words, but otherwise never moved, never looked up, never interrupted his near-meditative state. It was a different form of intensity from Krzyzewski’s, but a spellbinding one, nevertheless. When the song was over, the senior didn’t speak to anyone, not until it was time for the tip. Perhaps Scheyer, standing there in prayerful pose, realized something, understood that his embattled class—criticized and critiqued for four years for embodying the misdirection of Duke Basketball—stood on that baseline with Duke immortality 40 scant minutes away. They stood in a position they were never meant to be in, a position no one might have expected.
Is their improbable path already etched in our
collective memory? Is it permanently ingrained there despite the transitory, blink-and-you-missed-it celebration? Or do we need to remind ourselves? Let’s go back to the beginning—the alarmingly unathletic days—when Duke was a “finesse” team, soft, a squad that would never win when the threes weren’t falling. January 20: The Blue Devils go into Raleigh and face N.C. State, who would go on to win five games in ACC play. The Wolfpack crush Duke by 14. Fans rush the court. January 30: In front of the leader of the free world, Duke watches Georgetown shoot 71.7 percent, lead by as much as 23 and win 89-77. Fans rush the court. March 3: Maryland beats Duke 79-72. Scheyer goes 7-for21 from the field and Greivis Vasquez locks up ACC Player of the Year honors in the process. Fans rush the court. (And
16 | TOWERVIEW
celebrations on Route 1.) Oh, the regular season had its highlights. Brian Zoubek dropping 16 and grabbing 17 boards at home against the Terrapins. Roy Williams and Deon Thompson staring blankly at the clock as the final seconds ticked down on Duke’s 82-50 win on senior night. Hell, this year’s Cameron Crazies didn’t watch the Blue Devils lose at home, not once. But when Duke prepared to enter the NCAA Tournament as the national consensus to be the first No. 1 to bow out, it was not unexpected. After all, Duke fans grew accustomed to hearing about their team’s lack of talent compared to Kentucky or Kansas. Then came the favorable draw. And then, the upsets. The Ali Farokhmanesh shot over Kansas. The 4-for-32 performance from downtown by Kentucky. The Sweet Sixteen bow-out by Syracuse at the hands of Gordon Hayward, Willie Veasley, and the rest of an upstart Butler team. Suddenly, that Butler team is in the national championship game. And it’s playing Duke, the team many prognosticators figured would lose to Louisville in the second round. The world is upside down. Right is left. Black is white. And Duke is back.
At Countdown to Craziness, the season’s kick-
off event in October, Scheyer came out to “All These Things I’ve Done.” Especially in retrospect, The Killers’ lyrics stood out: While everyone’s lost, the battle is won With all these things that I’ve done.
Singler is decked by a screen. Hayward shoots. Seventy thousand, nine-hundred thirty-eight people people gasp. The ball hits three inches wide. Chris Spatola, the director of basketball operations, sprints onto the court, his first step quicker than anyone else’s. Always one of the most intense guys on the bench—an Army man himself, actually—Spatola is introduced to the national media with a colorful addendum to other coaches’ advice in Duke’s semifinal win over West Virginia. “Four minutes till we play in the national championship!” associate head coach Steve Wojciechowski yells.
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This is the best team I’ll ever play for in my life.” —senior Lance Thomas
RETURN TO GLORY PHOTOS BY IAN SOILEAU TOWERVIEW | 17
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LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION BY BEN COHEN The Green Light
New technological services are acquired tastes: they start with curious interest, proceed to an almost immediate backlash and then, finally and mercifully, result in cautious acceptance. (When was the last time someone told you he doesn’t use Twitter because he doesn’t care what anyone had for lunch that day?) So in endorsing FOURSQUARE, I know full well that you will scoff and roll your eyes and maybe even crumple up this glossy paper in an act of Luddite defiance against progress. Or maybe, more likely, you have no idea what I’m talking about. Rudimentary definition sentence: Foursquare is a locationbased mobile service that allows its users—that’s you!—to check-in to wherever it is in the world they might be, broadcasting their locations to their a p proved friends. It’s more complicated than that, of course. The nuance of the game, replete with competition for mayorships and badges, is part of its contagious charm, and, undoubtedly, why the app spread after Spring Break like a nasty chain e-mail. That virality led me to believe that it’s the so-called next
big thing at Duke—perhaps bound for greater ubiquity than Twitter—because it’s inherently perfect for the contained college campus, infested by students who might like to know where their friends may be at any given moment. Sounds stalkerish, perhaps, like something out of an Orwellian knock-off, but for the social among us, it’s critical to know whether Shooter’s or Devine’s is trending that night. (Likewise, for, um, group projects, it’s always helpful to locate a partner in Bostock or Perkins.) Duke students don’t stray far from the bubble, but sometimes, that bubble is bigger than it is convenient. But for me, the best part about Foursquare—better than the location tips and the badges and being able to create a virtual duplicate of any location in the world—is that Foursquare tracks where I am every day, creating a digital history of my daily schedule, based on location. For this graduating senior—already nostalgic about checking-in to K-ville and then Cameron Indoor Stadium, a Main Street bar and then Cosmic Cantina at 2 a.m. and Cookout, anytime—it’s something else entirely. It’s another way of remembering.
Head coa his eigh m
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Head coach Mike Krzyzewski enjoyed his eighth trip to the NCAA tournament finals this April.
On Tuesday afternoon, hundreds
of hung-over students skipped their afternoon classes. Thousands of fans and alumni crowd the understaffed bookstore in a horde so thick that, according to an employee, a woman suffering from an asthma attack fell on the floor, lying there for several minutes, unable to be found by EMS in the maze of humanity and merchandise. The heroes coming home are given a worthy welcome in Cameron Indoor Stadium. The seniors spoke first. They didn’t say much, just reminders to enjoy the experience, coupled with praise to their teammates for their performances in the tournament. But before he left, Lance Thomas, the senior power forward, left the crowd with words no one will forget anytime soon. “This,” he said, “is the best team I’ll ever play for in my life.” |TV|
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RETURN TO GLORY
“Four motherfucking minutes!” Spatola adds. Almost as quick on the court is Krzyzewski. Fifteen years ago he took a year off—back surgery. Twice in those 15 years, he’s been sidelined with hip replacement surgery. No matter. He runs onto the court. Like he did after his first taste of this success in ’91. Kevin White, Duke’s athletic director, is the first to find him for a hug. White’s excitement and admiration for Krzyzewski is not remotely close to dissipating minutes later, while he stands on the 3-point line waiting for the nets to be cut down. “He’s won four of these!” he yells. “Best coach at any level at any sport. He’s an amazing coach. A great leader.” In July, while in California, Krzyzewski told him this was possible. His words, White believes, were prophetic. On the platform with CBS’s Jim Nantz and the NCAA’s Jim Isch, Nolan Smith stands with his arm draped around Scheyer. “Best backcourt in the nation!” he says. “You can’t say we’re not the best backcourt in the nation!” They never move from that spot when “One Shining Moment” comes on, only now Krzyzewski stands between them, smiling as Smith bursts out laughing at the sight of Taylor King in a Villanova jersey. In what seems like an eternity later, the team walks off the court. Andre Dawkins, the freshman who skipped his senior year of high school, holds the trophy. “This is my baby,” he says. “Don’t let me let go of my baby.”
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“You ca is going —Dr.
THE RESEARCH INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX BY CAROLINE McGEOUGH Is unbiased research economically feasible? In one tower of an nondescript, nine-story white
building on Fulton Street, just across from Duke University Hospital, operates the world’s largest academic clinical research institute, generating more than $125 million in revenue per year from the research grants and contracts it receives from both government sources and from industry. Its more than 218 clients in the pharmaceutical and medical device sectors include corporate giants Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline and GE Healthcare. The Duke Clinical Research Institute, composed of more than 1,000 employees supporting the worldwide clinical research projects directed by 220 Duke faculty, has evolved from a small cardiological research outfit in 1996 into an enterprise capable of conducting large-scale Phase I through Phase IV clinical trials across 20 therapeutic areas. “There’s no other university that presents the full translational continuum in a way that blends the professionalism that you find in industry with the expertise and mission of an academic health center, in the way that Duke does,” said Dr. John March, director of neurosciences medicine at DCRI and professor of psychiatry and psychology at the School of Medicine. In the contracts with pharmaceutical and medical device companies that provided DCRI with 67 percent of its funding in 2009, the Institute arranges to perform a range of core clinical research services—including study design, accessing patient populations and project management and execution— typically in exchange for the company providing funding or materials for the study. Of all U.S. academic institutions, Duke receives the most industry funding annually for its research and development—$152 million in 2008, according to National Science Foundation data—primarily because of DCRI’s revenue-generating power. The School of Medicine, and the University as a whole, benefit from a yearly inflow of revenue from DCRI’s funding agreements. “In a world where society is distrustful of the motives of the pharmaceutical and medical device world, it is in everybody’s best interests—society, the industry, the academic community—to have some independence over the conduct of research,” said Dr. Robert Harrington, director of DCRI, explaining his sales pitch to pharmaceutical and medical device companies. But as a recipient of high-value funding grants from corporations, who have a significant stake in a positive outcome for trials involving their products, DCRI is particularly vulnerable to the major risks posed by financial conflicts of interest—or, formally defined, when a researcher or institution’s own economic interests contradict professional obliga20 | TOWERVIEW
tion. The financial ties criss-crossing the once-rigid barrier between academia and industry are many and complex, inclusive of receiving payment for consulting or research services provided to a company, and holding equity or intellectual property rights in a company—practices now ubiquitous among clinical researchers. As collaboration between academia and industry in clinical research becomes more common and more lucrative, some warn that unaddressed financial conflicts of interest will erode the objectivity of the science and menace the welfare of clinical trial participants. Critics point to scandals like the one that erupted in 1999 over the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger, a patient enrolled in a gene therapy experiment led by a principal investigator who had founded a biotechnology company that stood to profit from the experiment’s success. They warn that a proposal offered by industry and accepted by academic clinical research—with the union sweetened with funding contracts—will undermine the credibility of academia’s findings. “Our problem, nationally, is that our research is so biased with financial interest that the scandals that plague the financial world are every bit as ubiquitous and serious in medicine,” said Jeanne Lenzer, an investigative journalist who has contributed to the British Medical Journal, Slate and The Atlantic on conflicts of interest in clinical research. “You pull back the bed covers and what we’re finding, over and over again, is not only that patients in clinical trials are not being protected, but that when bias gets into the science, it puts all of us at risk.”
Supporters of academia-industry collaborations
argue that much research benefiting the public health could not take place without industry dollars, and that regulatory controls are in place to mitigate bias. A case study in commercialized academic clinical research, DCRI sits at the center of a broader debate over the propriety of using private dollars to support a discipline whose results impact public welfare at large. Contract research organizations—or CROs, which perform clinical research services for industry or public agencies—emerged in the 1980s to capitalize on the trend toward outsourcing clinical trials once performed by pharmaceutical or medical device company staff. Targeting greater efficiency and cost reduction during the trial phases, the outsourced model has now become dominant practice in the pharmaceutical industry, with some retaining only their management teams, March said. The CRO market has grown at a breakneck speed, with annual industry revenue climbing from $7
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“You can try to change the system, but that s going to take an awful lot of time.” —Dr. Kevin Weinfurt, Duke Clinical Research Institute
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY COURTNEY DOUGLAS TOWERVIEW | 21
RESEARCH billion in 2001 to $17.8 billion in 2007, according to a 2007 New England Journal of Medicine study. Three of the four largest CROs named in the study—Quintiles, Covance and Charles River Laboratories— are located in the Raleigh-Durham area. Media reports about mismanaged clinical trials run by CROs, such as the 2005 SFBC International trial in Florida involving Hispanic immigrants with limited knowledge of the study’s risks, have prompted questions about the organizations’ qualifications, ethics and degree of independence from corporate sponsors. But academic research organizations (AROs) like DCRI are a different breed from companies like Quintiles, as Harrington was quick to emphasize. Typically housed within universities and run by faculty, AROs are sheltered from the allegations against professional credibility that dog CROs, yet are still not immune to the question of intellectual independence from commercial sponsors of research. Harrington spoke with gentle condescension toward CROs, which he says treat research as a commodity to be exchanged in a transaction, rather than an endeavor intended to advance a broader institutional goal. “We’re not here to do contract research,” Harrington said. “We’re here to do research that furthers our mission.” Although DCRI is often asked to be the “arms and legs” of a trial, merely implementing a trial that has already been designed, Harrington said DCRI avoids participating in this type of study and instead seeks to collaborate as an equal partner in research projects. March, however, said there are still some occasions when DCRI does basic contract research, though it has never agreed to execute a research protocol that faculty thought might tarnish its ethical reputation. “If someone wants to do something a particular way, and it’s their program of research and they’re paying for it, we go along with it. But if we think it’s unethical, and for whatever reason the flaw of the protocol is so egregious that we wouldn’t participate, we wouldn’t do it,” March said. “But I can’t think of a single example of that over the past 25 years.”
As a scientific research organization that relies on fund-
ing from corporate sponsors, DCRI routinely confronts the possibility of significant bias in its research, reacting to a fundamental conflict of interest. Although those involved in the study seek scientific impartiality, those underwriting the study seek a certain partiality toward the company’s own products, which are usually the subject of the research it sponsors. “Most industry-funded research is to achieve an end, which is usually defined as more reasons to use a given drug. It’s our job as academics to be the brokers—what are the right questions to be asked, and how can we ask this?” said Dr. Ross McKinney, director of the Trent Center for Bioethics and chair of School of Medicine and University conflict of interest committees. “My worry is that we lose that ability to be the honest broker, because we start to get a stake in the economic benefits that come from more drug sales.” Financial conflicts of interest in clinical research pose two main risks: to the objectivity of the science and to the welfare of the patients. Although no reliable data is available on how financial conflicts of interest impact individual patient welfare, strong data suggests that conflicts challenge the integrity of the science, said Dr. Kevin Weinfurt, a medical psychologist at DCRI and lead author on several studies examining conflicts of interest in medicine. A 1998 report in the New England Journal of Medicine, for example, found that studies that positively reviewed a treatment for cardiovascular disorder were overwhelmingly authored by researchers with financial stakes in the treatment’s manufacturers. (Ninety-six percent of authors had such interests, vs. 60 percent and 37 percent for neutral and critical au-
A YEAR IN REVIEW 2009-2010
more vigorous reporting of financial interests than those of other institutions, protecting from the influence of bias and damage to the University’s good name. The School of Medicine’s 2008 conflict of interest policy mandates reporting to the Conflict of Interest Office financial interests in excess of $600, and it requires a management plan for interests between $10,000 and $25,000. Researchers with financial relationships exceeding $25,000 are banned from participation as a lead principal investigator in a study related to that company or its products. Those researchers
ence decisions even when the economic stakes are small, Field said. “We don’t know a lot about the way in which that kind of bias might occur,” she said. “For example if you had a nice visit with a drug company representative, perhaps there’s a greater potential for that physician to use the drug represented by that company.” Another vital component to the protection of scientific integrity in industry-funded clinical research concerns which intellectual property rights the research organization guards. DCRI fiercely protects its rights to access data and to publish the results of research in contractual language, Harrington —Dr. Ross McKinney said, indicating its intent to carefully would still be eligible to participate in manage the data and show confidence the study in a different capacity. in association with its results. In addition, DCRI enables its researchers to voluntarily disclose poWhen March looks toward the tential conflicts of interest—a measure future of biotechnological research, he Harrington, whose own disclosure form sees the dominant model as a publicinventories financial relationships with private collaboration, where clinical 15 corporations, says is relatively unique research institutes like DCRI carry out among clinical research organizations. studies with funding from both governAbout half of the 95 faculty financial- mental agencies and corporations to exly supported by DCRI have opted to plore shared areas of interest. “We have publicly disclose, said Kristen O’Berry, to find a way of making this work, and director of faculty finance and admin- we have to do it in a transparent and istration at DCRI. Although O’Berry ethical way,” he said. “Otherwise we’ll said she was unsure why some faculty be doomed to the ethical lapses of the did not opt to disclose their financial past, and that will encourage people to relationships, Weinfurt said researchers divorce research completely from inmay be loath to fill out additional forms dustry funding.” or have privacy concerns regarding how Harrington noted an example of a the public would interpret the informa- typical DCRI study that fits the publiction. Although it is useful to set certain private vision March had elaborated. dollar-based thresholds for disclosure DCRI performed a large randomized of researchers’ financial relationships, trial whose operations were funded by research suggests that bias can influ- the National Heart, Lung and Blood
“My worry is that we lose that ability to be the honest broker.”
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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
thors, respectively.) The influence of bias in professional contexts is often subtle and nebulous and, at times, exerted without the person’s intent. But financial biases differ from personal and other biases in one important way, as Lenzer pointed out: They are always unidirectional, pointed favorably toward the source of income. Furthermore, attempts at regulating bias among researchers may come off as an affront on their integrity as scientists. “We often meet with people when there’s a significant conflict, and they say, ‘How can you say that some amount of money can influence me more than providing care for patients? You are demeaning me by accusing me of being influenced by these external relationships,’” McKinney said. “When you look at their data, their opinions are bullshit. It doesn’t hold water. In fact, we are influenced.” Institutional policy and practice lay down rules governing some types of financial conflicts of interest among researchers, which shape the degree to which such biases can enter into research. “Conflicts of interest must be defined, disclosed and eliminated when they are avoidable or particularly threatening, and managed if there is no other option,” said Marilyn Field, a National Academy of Sciences researcher who authored a book on conflicts of interest in medicine. Several recent reviews of U.S. academic medical centers, however, have found substantial variations in conflict of interest policy, and judged most to be insufficient. Benchmarked against its peers, McKinney said, Duke’s policy requires
RESEARCH Institute to determine whether implanting a defibrillator would reduce risk of death in patients with heart damage. The defibrillator devices, which cost around $75,000 each, were provided by Medtronic, a medical device company that manufactures several types of implantable defibrillators. “If, in fact, the defibrillator was shown to be superior to no defibrillator, that obviously has potential marketing implications for the company,” Harrington said. “They now have something that’s been done independently of them, so it raises the credibility of the research that then might benefit them.” The trial, whose results were published in 2005 in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillators reduced the rate of sudden death within five years by 23 percent, as compared with a placebo or a drug that corrects abnormal heart rhythms. Both Harrington and March view these public-private partnerships, which tend to grow organically through researchers’ contacts in the industry, as mutually beneficial arrangements.
A YEAR IN R
The public gains academically-verified knowledge about the efficacy of certain drugs or devices, and the private company gains an evaluation that—if positive—can be used to market their products. Although supportive of the consortia model, McKinney emphasized that strict ground rules need to be set to prevent private funding sources from overriding the public interest— which, as a tax-exempt institution, Duke is obliged to represent. But Lenzer, terming the intermingling of public and private funding for clinical research a contamination of the science, noted that in some jointly-funded studies, the resulting data is owned by the participating university, unavailable even through a Freedom of Information Act request. “We have to increase public funding that is not combined with private funding, and there should be comparative effectiveness studies,” Lenzer said. “Without that, we’re really lost.” One provision of the health care reform bill will shed more light on the degree of financial involvement between academia and industry by requiring
American drug, device, biologics and medical supplies manufacturers to disclose payments made to physicians and teaching hospitals. Public disclosure of these records, which will start in 2013, McKinney said, may make industry “cagey” about its routine payments, though Lenzer doubted that the public would know what to make of the data. Most sources, however, said governmental agencies would never be able to fill the funding void that would open up if industry and academia divorced— particularly in clinical research, where an estimated 70 to 80 percent is funded by industry. To remove or greatly reduce the amount of industry money flowing through clinical research would cripple the funding system and make it difficult for companies to harvest the expertise of clinical researchers. “To remove industry sponsorship of individual studies would obviously create a pretty huge hole in clinical research right now,” Weinfurt said. “This is just how research is getting done. You can try to change the system, but that is going to take an awful lot of time.” |TV|
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R IN REVIEW
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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
Getting stuck on the C-1 totally blows. For those 10 unbearable minutes each day, as you’re pressed up against a gaggle of randos who egregiously invade your personal space, your day goes quickly from bad to worse. It’s always a lose-lose. You’re either condemned to a crushing period of silence, or forced to cough out awkward small talk with people to whom you’d normally never speak. At this moment, we could all use a little salvation. The bus gods—that is, Professor Deborah Pope, ViceProvost for the Arts Scott Lindroth and the Transportation Office—have come up with a solution: poetry. Starting this semester, the placard space above the handrails—real estate usually reserved for staid ads for the Duke Annual Fund or off-base attempts to curb student fun—will feature verses of poesy, providing students with a reprieve from the reality of their unenviable situations. Soon enough, haggard bio majors will be able to board their pitifully glum C-4 back to their pitifully glum Central Campus crash pad and take pleasure in reading the words of a laureate. They’ll be transported to Coleridge’s Xanadu; watch the fleeting Nightingale next to a brooding Keats;
“The fund higher ed to chang
STATE OF THE UNIVERSITY BY CHELSEA ALLISON
Brodhead discusses Duke and the future of higher education Let’s talk about the landscape of higher education. What are its values? How do you think higher education is likely to be changed and influenced by its challenges? The fundamental drama of higher education just isn’t likely to change. What is it? It’s about talented people being brought together in ways that make them strike sparks off each other and surrounded by opportunities and challenges that make them discover their own powers and interests in unanticipated ways. For me higher education isn’t about offering courses, it isn’t about offering programs—all of those are examples of the kind of world of opportunities in which people realize themselves. And of course you only really realize yourself by actively investing in things. And, not everything you invest yourself in turns out to be you, in the long run. But that’s a revelation as well. So I see the world of—you come to college, you meet all your clever contemporaries, all the self-discovery that takes place—I don’t see that changing. I see it as being continually enriched. But there are ways in which I think higher education is likely to change. Everybody’s heard me say it a million times: I think that the formal model of higher education has been quite abstract—a rather artificial exercise that the point of the exercise was to develop powers that exceed the exercise. I think we’re coming to a very interesting time where that boundary begins to be blurred. You’ve mentioned that you view this culture of building up opportunities that are seemingly outside the formal academic experience as enriching education. At what point does it become a distraction, or how do you strike some balance? It’s always a question of getting things right. Formal education can be done in ways that are not very interesting, and in ways that are very interesting. Involving people in activities away from campus—what we call service learning—there would be versions of that that would be less interesting and versions of that that would be more interesting. And I think the challenge always remains for us to be self-aware and selfcritical to make sure that we’re creating the most enriching combinations, and not just new combinations. It’s not like you’re looking for a formula—it’s not like you’re looking for an algorithm that will produce these things. You really always be having to try to experiment , to honestly assess the experiment afterward, and to see how much value was derived, what could be done better, and then run the experiment
26 | TOWERVIEW
a second time with those revisions. The opportunities of one year won’t be the opportunities of another. Duke, a selective, four-year private college, is different from the majority of universities in this country. How does Duke’s role evolve as the way the population of this country changes the way it approaches its education? There’s something like 18 million people who are students in higher education at this time. And you have to realize, that that’s many different categories of people who are seeking many different things. It seems to me perfectly natural that Duke would have its own market. There’s a kind of education that we’re extraordinarily well-equipped to offer and there’s a kind of education that other places are better equipped to offer than us, and I think that’s the way it should be. And I don’t think it would be helpful to try to do things it’s not going to be good at. But I do think it would be helpful for us to ask ourselves what are we good at, and how do we do that in the best way we can. And what do you see Duke as being best at? What do I see Duke as being best at? Well, let’s remember Duke has all its graduate and professional schools as well as its undergraduate schools. Duke is a selective university, let’s be frank. There are students who are mentally very active, students who are just going to eat the place alive, students who—you know there’s a phrase, give them an inch and they’ll take a mile. That’s the kind of students you want at a place like this, and that’s the kind of students who we are privileged to attract here. Students who do what is required of them, but where that is optimally the beginning of a sort of larger advantage of education and making something of it. I think in all of our schools, students have the academic gifts that they would have anywhere but there is a very obvious passion here for wanting to use knowledge to do things in the world. And so I think that the faculty has that character as well. So if you put yourself in the shoes of one of the prospective students on campus on Blue Devil Days today, what would be going through your mind, if you saw this university with fresh eyes? But don’t forget I see it with fresh eyes, because I speak at Blue Devil Days and when I do, I really take some trouble to try to imagine where people are who are very bright students but still of high school age. Because don’t forget how extraordinarily foreign college is even to the most knowing high school student.
The fundamental drama of igher education just isn’t likely o change. ” —President Richard Brodhead
A CONVERSATION PHOTOS BY MAYA ROBINSON TOWERVIEW | 27
THE PRESIDENT What would they see? I’m not sure I could pretend to say. Don’t forget Duke is way bigger than anybody’s high school—in that sense it may be intimidating. It’s very beautiful, and very mysterious. Every smart high school student knows you’re supposed to go to college, but what exactly college is is something you’re never going to learn until you’re in it. So I don’t know, I only like to give people a sense that the point of college isn’t to go do well all over again—you’ve already had to grind your way through this in high school. The point of it is to enter into a space of discovery. In all of its meanings—its curricular, its extracurricular, its social—its every aspect. I think when students come here, the main response I get is they pick up on the fact that this place is not only friendly, it is humming. That’s a pretty good message for someone to get. I think that in my experience, one of the things that students find very hard to understand is that a place can be competitive—that is in the sense that everybody is trying really hard to do things really well, but that doesn’t mean that people are trying to climb over each other’s back in some sort of Darwinian way. You talk a lot about the purpose of education to equip students to discover themselves, but it seems like Duke—a school younger than its peers—is also discovering itself. What are you discovering about the challenges for Duke in the next five or 10 years? I mean strategically and in a long-term way, beyond the usual refrain about the economy. The truth is, I don’t begin by thinking about the economy. For the following reason: the trick isn’t to try to get a lot money and then see how you can spend it. The trick is to figure out what is interesting to do in the world of research and education and then use your resources to accomplish that means. The best universities are the ones that are even more imaginative in scarce times than in posh times. We’ve just lived through a very posh period, and it’s wonderful. We could build the Nasher and the Bostock and French Family Science Center and all those other things. It’s wonderful that DukeEngage could
28 | TOWERVIEW
have been founded. But I’ll tell you: I believe that this University is doing things programmatically in every one of its schools at the level of education that will be as valuable in the long term as any building we have built. I think of the founding of the Global Health Certificate. Four years ago there was no such program. There was no way to connect the fields of study to the actual social mission of bringing trained intelligence to all the health challenges of this country and the world. Now there’s a hundred students in this program. Instead of acting as if the fields of study were all described long ago and now we just put students into those boxes, this is a place that understands that fields of study are always emerging and we’re trying to get out there and capture them as they emerge for the benefit of our students. We expect both students and faculty to be active and imaginative in creating the educational landscape. You just returned from the National Championship in Indianapolis—in some ways, this moment highlighted how athletics can bring out the best qualities of a university. But what do you think the future of athletics is at this place and perhaps elsewhere? Now that I have seen my team win a national championship, I see that that is even harder than I thought. There were many really good teams in that Tournament who did not get anywhere near the Final Four. So you have to be better than good to win that Tournament. And I’ll tell you the longer I watch, the more I admire the traits that are needed, the sort of deep character traits that are needed in adversity, to be resourceful in adversity. I myself was not a varsity athlete— this is probably widely suspected—I was a very intellectual type of student. But I will say I have come to have a very full appreciation of athletics as a means of education. Because it trains things that you need to be effective in later life. How in the face of challenge and adversity do you reach deeper down to find the will and the talent to succeed at that moment? How do you work in teams not only by working in set plays but by a group of people improvising intuitively in face of emerging challenges?
LOOKING FO They’re extraordinarily important skills that are learned through athletics. Even, you know, it’s a cliché but all clichés are true, that to go through moments of humiliating defeat and still have to get up and do it all over again rather than just boo-hoo. My own understanding of the way higher education is going—will make athletics more relevant to the rest of higher education and not less so. I think we understand how these sort of deep arts of self-discipline, of improvisational teamwork, it’s not just metaphorical to say that they will be parts of the skills that people need. They literally are skills that people will need. I see how that’s useful to those student-athletes, but how do you respond to people at this place or elsewhere who say that athletics doesn’t deserve such a prominent role or shouldn’t siphon money from the academic business of the university? To that I would say, everyone is entitled to his or her own view. I certainly know people who think that, I have spent time in their company, and I have spent time arguing with them. My own understanding is, American higher education at its best is matched by nothing in the world. There’s nothing like it. And you will not go anywhere where people won’t acknowledge that fact. But it is not the narrowly academic part that makes American higher education so unique. It’s understanding that a mix of things that it’s quite hard to explain their relationship at a conceptual level, but it’s easy enough to understand at an experiential level. You know, the Sorbonne does not have athletic teams. There’s something about education that is practiced at the Sorbonne that extraordinarily limited, very narrow, compared to what you get here. And so I’ve long since not only come to understand but really celebrate the fact that the pieces we have on the table are all part of the game, or to use another metaphor that I like, higher education is like a stew. You put lots of things into it and they together become something none of them could be on their own. A lot of attention had been paid to the universities in the championship—both Duke and Butler. We talk about the “brand” of Duke, and in
NG FORWARD you had a medical school. And, at that time, President Few also understood that if you want to take a respected regional liberal arts college and give it national visibility as a university, athletics was a means. Wallace Wade was the first building on West Campus that was complete and Duke went and got the football coach from Alabama, then a great football powerhouse, and that’s how Duke became known. You can say, “Gee, wasn’t that overweighting of athletics?” but the truth is all the academic parts of Duke benefited from the attention that was brought in in the first instance through athletics. It remains true. Now Duke is better known for a wider range of things. What do you think is bringing attention to the University now? Or what do you hope it’s being recognized for? Duke is known to be one of the world’s great universities. So now you want to be working on the fundamental quality of all the schools, of the faculty you hire, of the attention they give to students and the experience that students have when they come here. I think at the moment—I say this with some immodesty—that the sort of dramatic emphasis that Duke has put on the relation of theory and practice, the relation of academic learning and activity in the world is our visible signature at the moment, and of course it cuts across
all the schools. That, and the sort of visible and somewhat aggressive internationalization that Duke is engaged in—I think those are probably our biggest new signatures at this time. So, in speaking of signatures, what do you hope yours to be? What do you envision as your legacy? I am at heart a modest person, and this place is far greater than me. But after all, there will be things that will be associated with my presidency, and I’ll tell you what I hope some of them will be. One will be the Financial Aid Initiative, and in the first instance having made the issue of access and affordability a dramatic commitment on the part of this place. The second is the whole emphasis on knowledge in the service of society, of opening the doors between academic work and experience in the world, especially in the areas that need intelligence to solve human problems. Obviously it’s nothing I dreamed up on my own but it certainly is my vision for this university. And where would you see it? You’d see it in DukeEngage, in Global Health, in Sanford being elevated to a school, you’d see it in our international programs, which are really very largely based on trying to bring high-level crossdisciplinary problem solving into places in the world that have deep need of that. And if I could say it, plus everything else as well. |TV|
TOWERVIEW | 29
some ways this national scene highlights the brand. How do you think that is part of “moving” a university, of making it better or improving its national reputation? I’m very interested in history—you know this. One of my favorite figures in the history of Duke is the person named John Franklin Crowell, from whom Crowell Quad is named. After the Civil War and during the Reconstruction, Trinity College was just about at death’s door. There was a period when they could not make the faculty payroll for almost two complete years, and no one was willing to be the president. They went and hired a graduate student who had not finished his degree to come and be the president. That person revived the school, he found donors for the school, he moved the school to Durham and he introduced varsity athletics to Trinity College. And then he left after six or seven years, finished his dissertation and he was a historian of child labor—he worked for the Labor Department later in his life. So I’ve got that as one little historical point, and then I’ve got another one. When William Preston Few had the vision of making a university out of this place, he had all the parts in mind: you need a beautiful campus, because great universities have beautiful campuses. You know what I mean? This place had a beautiful campus, so it started from the outside in, in a way. You needed a medical school. Bingo—they went to Johns Hopkins and hired the doctors and then
WILLIAM V. “BILL” BELL MAYOR OF DURHAM AGE: 69
Bell became the mayor of the Bull City in 2001, and he has called Durham home for more than 40 years. His fourth term is up in 2011, and during his tenure, he has focused on improving safety, revitalizing the inner city and implementing green initiatives. What is your perfect idea of happiness? Having no worries about anything and just enjoying life and all of God’s blessings. What is your greatest fear? I faer that I might not live to be around to see my two grand-daughters grow into mature young ladies in their 20s and beyond. What is the trait you most deplore in others? Deceit and dishonesty.
TO W E R V I E W F I L E P H OTO B Y A N T H O N Y C R O S S
What is your current state of mind? Right now, I am relaxed. I am looking at the Final Four, and Duke is in the lead at halftime.
On what occasion do you lie? I try hard not to lie, but rather, to say nothing or be non-committal on a subject, especially if lying could cause serious harm to the issue or subject. What do you most dislike about your appearance? I dislike my appearance most when I have gone too long without a haircut or a shave. What is the quality you most like in a man? The steadfast strength of his convictions, loyalty and honesty. When and where were you TOWERVIEW
happiest? Over a period of time during my youth, growing up in the summers with no worries—very carefree. If you could change one thing about yourself, what would it be? I would probably be much more complimentary of others and more accepting of praise when offered or given to me, which I don’t do well. What do you consider your greatest achievement? Becoming a father. Where would you most like to live? I have been fortunate in my life to have traveled both nationally and internationally, as well as to live in various parts of the United States. I tell persons that I am in Durham by choice and not by chance, and I like living in Durham most. Which historical figure do you most identify with? I admire greatly the work of Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King Jr. for their strength and conviction of ideas and level of quiet introspect. How would you like to die? Peacefully, without any prolonged suffering. What is your motto? My motto, in general, is to not
worry or stress yourself about those things you can’t control, and don’t worry or stress yourself about those things you can control if you know within yourself that you have done your best. [TV]
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