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Let the benches burn

The search for a cure

Duke outscored UNC 18-4 in the second quarter on its way to a double-digit win | Sports Page 6

New partnership with local architect aims to expand ALS research | Page 3

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ONE HUNDRED AND TWELFTH YEAR, ISSUE 45

Is Duke under-reporting results from its clinical trials? Vir Patel The Chronicle A recent analysis from the University of Oxford suggests that Duke is among the worst universities in the United States for reporting clinical trials. The report compiled clinical trial statistics through ClinicalTrials.gov, a federal database of all government-funded and many privately-funded studies. Using the data, the investigators found that several companies and universities had neglected to report or publish findings resulting from their clinical trials. This includes Duke, which is missing results for 41.9 percent of all trials since 2006, according to the analysis. Although only certain types of clinical trials are legally required to be published, these findings nonetheless have ethical consequences, argued Dr. Ben Goldacre, a senior research clinical fellow at the University of Oxford and leader of the study. “Sharing clinical trials [is] an ethical rather than a legal obligation,” he wrote in an email. “We cannot make informed decisions about which treatments work best when the results of clinical trials are withheld from doctors, researchers and patients.” The most recent results were published in October 2016 as part of the University of Oxford’s TrialsTracker website in partnership with the AllTrials initiative. According to TrialsTracker, Duke ranks 25th worst out of 291 companies and universities surveyed in not reporting clinical trial results since January 2006. Out of universities in the United States, Duke is better than some peer institutions such as Stanford University and the University of

Carolyn Sun | The Chronicle

Pennsylvania. But just because some trials are not being reported does not mean Duke has not complied with legal requirements, noted Denis Snyder, associate dean for clinical research. She added that Duke itself has been in compliance with federal guidelines for Applicable Clinical Trials. According to Food and Drug Administration regulations, only Applicable Clinical Trials—specific types of trials related to biologics, drugs and medical device—must be reported within a year of

study completion. “The [TrialsTracker article] doesn’t differentiate between all clinical trials and ACTs,” she told The Chronicle. “Published results are required only for ACTs and beginning in 2007. The article addresses trials from 2006. Lack of differentiation between all trials and ACTs changes the data as reported in the article. Duke is at 100 percent compliance with the law regarding requirements to publish clinical trial results.” A manual review by The Chronicle

starting from 2007 found that all ACTs for which Duke was the primary sponsor were in compliance with FDA guidelines. There were eight examples, however, of trials that could be considered ACTs according to FDA guidelines that did not report study findings, but Duke was not the primary sponsor on these. The remaining trials that went unreported were behavioral or observational in nature or otherwise exempt from legal reporting requirements. Goldacre noted that these ACT regulations nationwide “have been widely ignored, with compliance rates of only one in five.” A study by Duke investigators in 2015 found that only 13.4 percent of all ACTs were reported in line with with FDA guidelines within one year of study completion. Companies and academic institutions are still encouraged to report all trials even if not required to do so, explained Trudo Lemmens, Scholl Chair in health law and policy at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. “Correct representations of findings is a core ethical requirement associated with respect for those who participated in research (i.e. you don’t allow people to be used as research subjects in a pure marketing scheme) and is also required to avoid harm to future patient and to avoid unnecessary costs to the health care system,” he wrote. Some researchers noted that some unpublished trials listed on ClinicalTrials. gov might still be in the works. In 2013, Dr. Momen Wahidi, associate professor of medicine, completed a study on the dynamics and efficiency of lung drainage using a catheter device. Although no See TRIALS on Page 5

New initiative to provide free tampons in the Bryan Center Isabelle Doan The Chronicle Beginning this month, free menstrual products will be provided in Bryan Center bathrooms as part of a pilot program. The University launched the program after discussions with Duke Student Government. The project is overseen by the Department of Facilities Management, which is partnering with Student Affairs to install the tampon dispensers in the Bryan Center. They also worked with Progress Period, a student organization that focuses on menstrual equality. Sue Wasiolek, associate vice president for student affairs and dean of students, noted that there are several reasons for the project being implemented now. For people who have a difficult time affording supplies, providing free

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tampons may alleviate some financial strain. In addition, the project aims to take the stigma out of menstruation. “Schools have been committed for some time to providing free condoms, and [this project] believes that women’s menstrual cycles are an as important physical manifestation issue as safe sex, and that it should be as easy to find a free tampon or pad on a college campus as it is to find a condom,” Wasiolek said. “It should be something that is not hidden, and it should be talked about.” Leslye Kornegay, director of university environmental services, noted that the Bryan Center was chosen as the location for the program because of its central location on campus. However, Wasiolek said that those involved in the project will

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Jim Liu | The Chronicle The installation of free tampon dispensers in the Bryan Center is expected to be completed by Jan. 27.

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Durham City Council approves Wildfire app allows students proposal for hospital expansion to alert others of emergencies Nathan Luzum The Chronicle The Durham City Council unanimously approved a permit last month allowing for an addition to the Duke University Hospital. Still in the early stages, the proposed addition would involve the construction of a 13-story, 504,423-square foot tower adjacent to the main hospital. Before the construction can begin, however, the plan must formally be proposed and approved by the Duke University Health System’s Board of Directors. Kevin Sowers, president of the hospital, told The News and Observer that the proposal would only be presented to the board in June.

“The addition is being considered because the current Duke North bed tower is in need of renovations,” Sowers wrote in an email. “To complete the renovations, there is a need to house patients while work occurs, since the hospital is operating at capacity.” Normally, Duke does not need to seek permission from the Durham City Council to construct new buildings, said Steve Schewel, a Durham City Council member and a visiting assistant professor in the Sanford School of Public Policy. “We allow [the universities] a lot of freedom of what they want to do on campus without having to go through a lot of zoning approvals with the city,” he said. See HOSPITAL on Page 5

Man-Lin Hsiao and Min Woo Kang | The Chronicle

Joyce Er The Chronicle On Wednesday, University of California-Berkeley graduates remotely launched a safety mobile app at Duke that they hope will spread, as its name suggests, like wildfire. Conceptualized as a platform that allows individuals to alert their communities of an emergency event near them, the Wildfire app has received funding to expand into college campuses across the United States, including Duke University. Wildfire’s founders said they hope that it will complement existing campus crime alerts in helping to keep students informed about emergency situations in real time. “Wildfire is unique in that an individual student can alert their nearby community if they witness a dangerous situation, like a mugging or break-in,” business lead Vinay Ramesh wrote in an email. Since it is a mobile app, Wildfire can send out alerts that are location-specific and feature more information and images, as opposed to text-only SMS messages and emails, the founders added. Alerts on Wildfire come from usersubmitted reports as well as verified and reputable newspapers and police departments. Content is moderated, with sources cited or marked as “unconfirmed” if they are pending validation. Posts result in an alert being distributed to users based on the timeliness, validity and severity of an incident. In 2015, Wildfire’s CEO Hriday

Special to The Chronicle The app, which helps inform students about emergencies on campus, was created by UC Berkeley graduates.

Kemburu was almost mugged near a UC Berkeley campus library and posted a status in a university Facebook group to reach hundreds of students. That October, he cocreated Wildfire with Ramesh and tech leads Jay Patel and Tim Hyon to replicate this effect campus-wide. Most recently, Wildfire ensured that over 4,000 students within a one-mile radius were alerted to the presence of a shooting near UC Berkeley’s campus last Fall. In the two hours following that event, more than See WILDFIRE on Page 5

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University partners with Durham architect to combat ALS Katherine Berko The Chronicle A newly announced partnership between the Duke ALS Clinic and the Freelon Foundation will help expand the University’s capacity to tackle the disease. The initiative is centered around amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal condition characterized by a loss of motor control in patients that is more commonly referred to as ALS. With the new financial backing, the DAC plans to establish an endowed professorship, fund future clinical trials and expand the number of patients who can visit the DAC, explained Dr. Richard Bedlack, associate professor of neurology and founder and director of the DAC. Duke is partnering with the Freelon Foundation and the Design a World Without ALS campaign, both of which were created by Phil Freelon—leader of the design team for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture—and his family to promote ALS research. “The [Design a World] campaign’s title is a call to action,” said Freelon, who was diagnosed with ALS in March 2016, shortly before the new Smithsonian was revealed. “I speak for other designers and anyone in general who would like to see an end to this disease.” The campaign is under the umbrella of the Freelon Foundation and is working to raise an additional $250,000 for the Duke ALS Clinic, with plans to raise more in the future. On April 20, 2017, the campaign will culminate in an event at the Carolina Theater, when the proceeds will officially be given to the clinic.

“They say it’s an incurable disease, but I would say it’s an underfunded disease,” Freelon said. “With the kind of resources that other causes have been able to garner—let’s say heart disease or cancer—there’s a lot more money flowing into that research.” Bedlack explained that the endowed professorship will eventually be valued at $2.5 million and will fund a faculty member who will focus exclusively on ALS research. Currently, no Duke faculty members are dedicated solely to ALS research, with Bedlack noting that he spends about only 50 percent of his time studying the disease. He added that a committee will be used to determine who will receive the position. “I hope it’s me [the committee selects] because I’m very passionate about [ALS],” he said. “But if it’s not, it’s still a win for the people in North Carolina because somebody would be focused full-time on ALS.” ALS is a degenerative disease that affects motor neurons, which Bedlack described as wires that connect the decision-making part of the brain to a person’s muscles. Over time, he explained, people with ALS become paralyzed and eventually are unable to breathe. “I have less and less mobility, less and less control of the voluntary muscles with me,” Freelon said of his condition. “[My ALS symptoms] started in the legs. I’ve had to learn to walk with a cane, to be careful about falling and to learn how to accept help from other people.” The disease first gained public awareness through the Ice Bucket Challenge, a viral trend in which individuals dumped buckets of frigid

water on themselves and invited others to donate to the ALS Association, eventually raising more than $115 million. Despite some advances in treating the severity of ALS symptoms, there is no cure for the disease, with patients surviving an average of two to five years after diagnosis, according to the ALS Association. Since the disease affects very few individuals—about two per every 100,000 people—relatively little research has been conducted on its biological basis and treatment. Duke was among the first hospitals in the country to establish a dedicated clinic for treating ALS symptoms in 2001, Bedlack said. At the facility, patients are seen by a social worker, a research nurse and an

entire team of therapists who individually specialize in communication, swallowing, nutrition, breathing, arm functions and leg functions. Since the founding of the Duke clinic, Bedlack said he has noticed that patients who undergo treatment live longer than statistically anticipated. Bedlack explained that his inspiration for starting the clinic came during the early 90s, when he saw his first patient with the disease. “I remember being fascinated by this person’s story and neurological exam,” he said. “Then, [I became] just absolutely amazed by how much we didn’t know about ALS—why it happened and why See ALS on Page 5

Special to The Chronicle Durham architect Phil Freelon led the design team for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture and was recently diagnosed with ALS.

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Students’ baby food company aims to help refugees Bre Bradham The Chronicle Senior Andrew Huang spent last summer working in the Katsikas refugee camp in northern Greece—where he observed five volunteers spending seven hours a day mashing bananas and apples to feed the camp’s approximately 100 babies. This labor-intensive process was strenuous for the Greek camp with 1,200 refugees. In camps like Dadaab in Kenya, where the population has pushed the half-million mark, providing nutrition for about 1000 babies that are born each month strains the financial and labor limits of NGOs and humanitarian aid groups. Duke’s Hult Prize competition winner, HaBaby, seeks to provide an innovative solution to the problem while competing in the world’s largest social entrepreneurship competition. “Babies are the most vulnerable to sickness, malnutrition and to environmental conditions of any

demographic or population in refugee camps—and they are often the most overlooked,” said Huang, one of the HaBaby team’s members. HaBaby will represent Duke in the regional competition for the Hult Prize, where it will have the chance to advance to the global finals and compete for the $1 million social entrepreneurship winnings. This year’s competition centers around a prompt that encourages participants to “build sustainable social enterprises that restore the rights and dignity of 10 million refugees by 2022.” When Huang heard about the Hult Prize and this year’s theme last October, he was immediately interested. “I’ve been trying to continue the type of work that I did at Katsikas in whatever capacity I can at Duke and back home, but it’s been kind of difficult to find ways to have that direct impact,” Huang said. “So when I discovered the Hult Prize, I thought it was great.” Within a week he had connected with senior Adia Coley,

Open Courses in Public Policy Studies Enroll Now! There’s Still Space Available! Spring 2017 PUBPOL 290.01 Statistical Methods for Public Policy Research (QS) (SS) TuTh 10:05AM - 11:20AM Instructor: Sarah Komisarow This course covers statistical and econometric methods for inferring causal relationships in public policy. The first half of the course will cover the mechanics of linear regression, multiple regression, and regression models for binary dependent variables. The second half of the course will cover econometric methods used for inferring causal relationships, including randomized controlled trials, differences-in-differences, and regression discontinuity. In problems sets, students will analyze real-world data using Stata. As a final project, students will be required to write a research paper that incorporates descriptive data analysis and that proposes a research study using one of the causal inference methods covered in this course. STA 101 required. PUBPOL 290.15 Life with Capitalism (EI) (CZ) (SS) TuTh 10:05AM - 11:20AM Instructor: Dirk Philipsen Capitalism has been called both the most productive and the most destructive system in history. It has been cause for war and revolution. Not just a system, but also an ideology and culture. Relatively young, yet by now pervasive, it has left no aspects of life on the planet untouched. Peddled as the great, perhaps even only hope for prosperity, and repudiated as the central impediment to a humane future. Analyzed as everything from a crippled yet necessary precondition for progress to the mark of the “end of history,” capitalism has become the central organizing principle of lives from Beijing to Washington. Through multiple debate and project formats, this course explores the history of life within capitalism, with a focus on the U.S. By now a predominant economic and cultural system, discussions center on the struggles, values, and measures that generated modern versions of capitalism. Readings and materials cover key developments in the history of capitalism, the logic of capitalism (choices, values, goals), as well as current challenges and possible future developments. PUBPOL 290S.02 Iranian Grand Strategy (R) (SS) W 4:40PM - 7:10PM Instructor: William Rivera This course is designed to introduce students to, and promote understanding of, Iran’s grand strategy and how it is impacting the Middle East region and beyond. While Iran is understood to be an important regional actor, there is still little understanding of its history, its strategic intent, its capability and reach, and, perhaps more importantly how these elements interact to produce a grand strategy that challenges the status quo. This course will investigate the following question in depth: What is Iran’s Grand Strategy? Relatedly, this course will seek answers for the following questions. 1) What are the foundations of Iranian power? 2) How has the current strategic culture emerged? 3) How does Iran project power? 4) What are the elements of that power? And 5) what are the best ways to approach strategic interaction with Iran? To do so this course is organized into three sections. Section I introduces theoretical and historical approaches to analyze and understand the background and formation of Iran’s grand strategy. It locates part of the answer in Iran’s strategic orientation as

resistance to U.S. power. Section II concentrates on the several domains in which Iran is active and how Iran projects power in these domains: diplomatic, ideological, military, economic, and technological. The final section of this course will assess extant analysis and examine potential strategic policy choices for the U.S. PUBPOL 490S.01 Economics of Education (R) (SS) TuTh 1:25PM - 2:40PM Instructor: Sarah Komisarow This course will use the tools of intermediate microeconomics to analyze contemporary issues in education. First, we will consider public and private sources of demand for education. Second, will consider the production and supply of education services in the United States. Finally, we will explore empirical work on contemporary public policy issues in education, including topics such as achievements gaps, segregation, accountability, school finance, and teacher labor markets. STAT 101 required. PUBPOL 303 or ECON 201 required. PUBPOL 590.01 Financial Institutions TuTh 3:05PM - 4:20PM Instructor: Doug Brook This is a policy course. Its purpose is to explore and learn about the U.S. government institutions that make, implement, and enforce financial policy in the United States. We will focus on the policy aspect asking what policies caused these institutions to be established, what policies they oversee, how the institutions are structured and operate, the policy environment and what financial policy issues are currently being debated. We will also discuss contemporaneous events in the real world that relate to the topics of the course. This course is modeled on a pedagogy of active learning and involves significant student involvement in class discussion, projects, papers and presentations. PUBPOL 590S.03 Care of Orphaned Children (CCI) (EI) (R) (SS) F 10:05AM - 12:35PM Instructor: Kathryn Whetten In this course we will explore who orphaned and separated children are; where they live around the world, including the US; care options for these children and evidence based solutions to some of the issues faced.

a political science and Arabic major whom he met through a FOCUS program when they were first-years, and Shantanu Sharma, a master’s student whom Huang had never met. The team quickly added Priyanka Venkannagari, a senior with expertise in business and finance. “These are really enthusiastic people,” Sharma said. They considered ideas ranging from a comic book— following the lives of 10 refugees to fill the void of positive representation of refugees in the media—to hiring resettled female refugees to make food in their home kitchens that people could order online, Huang explained. During a Thanksgiving break Skype call, however, the team had their “eureka moment” when they thought of a way to give nutrition to children in camps while also providing employment to resettled refugees, Huang said. HaBaby, a name that Sharma said stems from an Arabic word meaning “beloved, a friend,” is first and foremost aimed at being a profitable baby food company. “If the profits are not viable, if the sales are crap, then there is no way that you can even think about sustaining that to serve a social initiative,” Huang said. Their business plan is to offer customizable, organic baby food to customers in the United States—a premise that Sharma explained is unique. The profits made from the business, which will market to retail and specialty stores, will be used to subsidize the sale of the baby food to NGOs and humanitarian aid organizations in bulk for distribution in refugee camps, for a fraction of the production costs. Huang stressed that one priority of the company will be employing resettled refugees in the business and providing resources and training to help them find various types of jobs they want. What set the group apart at the Duke competition was their detailed financial plan, said the competition’s campus director Aashna Aggarwal, a sophomore economics major. Sharma noted that the team put a large amount of work into explaining the details of the finances and measurable impact, putting to use his and Venkannagari’s experience. HaBaby bested four other teams in the second round of judging at Duke to advance directly to the San Francisco regional competition, which will be held the first weekend of March, where they will face approximately 60 other teams competing for one of 10 global finalist spots and one wildcard position. The field of 11 will narrow to six before the final competition, Aggarwal explained. Another Duke team, Sawiana Enterprises, is composed entirely of first-years. Although it did not win the Duke competition, it applied directly to the Boston regional and was accepted—meaning that the University will have two entries in the pool of 300 regional finalists from around the world. HaBaby is currently working to raise $30,000 and continue their research in preparation for the March regionals, Sharma said. Although winning the Hult Prize would accelerate the team’s progress, he said that their idea is viable even if they do not win and that the exposure from the competition may bring in investors. Huang expressed enthusiasm about the future of the company and the social entrepreneurship opportunities the competition had shown him. “When I started out at Duke, I never thought that I would be passionate about this type of topic—this humanitarian crisis,” he said. “It’s never too late to devote your time and passion and labor to doing something that you think is meaningful.”

PUBPOL 590S.04 Policy of Religious and Cultural Pluralism (EI) (SS) Tu 10:05AM - 12:35PM Instructor Ian Macmullen How should religious and cultural pluralism impact our reasoning about the ethics of public policy? Does pluralism strengthen the case for policies and political institutions that defend the liberty and promote the autonomy of individual citizens? How can liberal democratic states and their citizens justify using coercive power against a background of pluralism and in ways that systematically disadvantage certain religious and cultural groups in society? Should special rights, exemptions from generally applicable laws, or other accommodations be granted to the members of particular religious or cultural groups? Readings are taken from contemporary political philosophy. Prerequisite: at least one previous course in ethics/political theory/philosophy, graduate standing, or permission of the instructor. Special to The Chronicle Created by a Duke team, HaBaby seeks to provide nutrition for babies of refugees.


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ALS from page 3

WILDFIRE from page 2

people couldn’t just shake it off like they did with a cold or a flu.” Duke sponsors clinical trials for ALS, Bedlack said, explaining that trials are partially funded by pharmaceutical companies testing their ALS drugs. In addition, the DAC hosts trials for alternative therapies, which are not wellfunded and are even sometimes considered controversial, Bedlack noted. Bedlack said that he was inspired to pursue alternative therapies after talking to some of his patients, many of whom would take to the Internet after learning of their diagnosis. “I recognized early on that people would go home from our clinic and go on the Internet, and they would try things that they read about on the Internet,” he said. In response, Bedlack created the ALSUntangled program to scientifically examine some of these alternative therapies and determine their effectiveness. He noted that some patients diagnosed with ALS have improved their condition with alternative therapies and are referred to Bedlack’s ALS Reversals program. Among the alternative therapies suggested are nutritional supplements and other nondrug solutions. “I never knew those existed,” Bedlack said. “They’re not in any textbook, and they were never taught to me, but I found some of these people on the Internet, and I have [patient] medical records, so I’m studying them. It’s a very controversial type of research, but I really think there could be a clue here on how to make other people [with ALS] better.”

2,000 new students downloaded the app. The application has since reached over 13,000 student users at Berkeley, which is 60 percent of the student population. The application is free in order to encourage users to download it and maximize the reach of its emergency alerts, Ramesh noted. Wildfire’s expansion to Duke and other campuses is funded by a UC Berkeley accelerator, which offers support for startups. “Hriday was born and raised in North Carolina and was a huge Duke basketball fan growing up,” Ramesh wrote. “He’s had several friends attend Duke who have suggested than an app like Wildfire could be useful for Duke students, which is why we chose Duke as one of our next colleges to launch at.” Some students at Duke have raised concerns about DukeALERTs not being issued in a timely manner, in particular following an armed robbery on Central Campus in November. Other recent incidents reported through DukeALERT include a sexual assault and robbery on Swift Avenue in November and an armed robbery in the Duke Gardens in December.

TAMPONS from page 1 reconvene later on and discuss expanding the program to other locations. She noted that during meetings about the pilot program, the organizers discussed how a group of faculty members and students had already implemented a free tampon program in the Physics building. In addition, they talked about how free tampon and pad initiatives were being handled on other campuses, such as Brown University, Dartmouth College, Columbia University and Emory University. Emory launched its free tampon pilot program in Fall 2016—as did Brown, which started an initiative to stock tampons in men’s and gender-inclusive bathrooms in addition to women’s bathrooms. Viet Nguyen, student body president of Brown, told Newsweek that by putting tampons in men’s and gender-inclusive bathrooms, the program can be more inclusive of transgender men. The initiative at Duke has followed in the footsteps of its peer programs. Junior Riyanka Ganguly, DSG vice president for equity and outreach, explained why such steps are necessary. “We want to make sure, given the climate after HB2 and laws like that, that all transgender students also feel comfortable and have access to these resources,” Ganguly said. “Even if this is a minority, there are students on our campus who are male-identifying who menstruate, and that’s why they might use a male bathroom but still have menstruation needs.” Kornegay noted that 20 restrooms in total will have dispensers. “The dispensers will be checked by staff each day and restocked as necessary,” she wrote. Kornegay added that the coinless dispensers have been ordered and will be installed upon delivery. The installation is expected to be completed by Jan. 27.

HOSPITAL from page 2 But in this instance, the University did have to get approval because the 145-foot height of the proposed addition would exceed the 120-foot height maximum found in Durham zoning ordinances. Sowers noted that, due to space constraints, “building up is the only option versus building out.” Despite the excess height, however, the Durham City Council had no reservations and unanimously approved the proposal. “We agree with the University and the hospital that they should be able to build a hospital building of that height,” Schewel said. “We could see a lot of advantages for the city of Durham and for the people that Duke Hospital serves to have such a building.” Sowers emphasized that this approval does not mean the University will actually go forward with the plans to construct a new building. “The addition is only under consideration at this juncture and has not been formally recommended or approved by the governing boards of the Duke University Health System or Duke University,” Sowers wrote. If the expansion is formally proposed and later approved, it will join other significant research and hospital construction efforts in recent years. For example, the University added the Duke Medicine Pavilion in fiscal year 2013 and the Duke Cancer Center in fiscal year 2014, with a cumulative cost of $781 million. These added a combined 160 hospital beds, 16 operating rooms and 25 clinic rooms. The Board of Trustees also approved last June a 155,000-square foot, $103 million medical sciences research building, which is set to be completed by Fall 2018.

TRIALS from page 1 results from the study are currently listed on ClinicalTrials.gov, Wahidi noted in an email that he and his colleagues planned to update the database soon. “The [catheter trial] actually just got accepted for publication and will be published in a few months,” he said. “It just takes a long time to conduct trials, analyze data then get it accepted into a journal.” Other physicians and faculty at Duke who were listed as the lead investigators for clinical trials with unreported results could not be reached for comment.

FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017 | 5

Your weekly skim of all things Duke...

The Chronicle | January 12

While You Were Gone (Or Studying For Finals) Duke put the finishing touches on its new Student Health and Wellness Center, and The Chronicle got a tour before it opened for real. Duke Lemur Center Officials determined the cause of death for the four lemurs who suddenly passed in October. And the killers were… avocados.

What’s Happening Now A fake Duke student has been emailing Duke professors in order to acquire...syllabi? Duke is potentially saying “sayonara” to the curriculum language requirement. Crowell is going under the big shiny surgical knife, and students are being relocated to 300 Swift.

Catch Me Up On Sports (Okay Just Basketball) Grayson Allen was suspended, and his suspension lasted a grand total of one whole game. The men lost to Virginia Tech, then redeemed themselves against Georgia Tech and Boston College. Unfortunately, No.9 Florida State was too much for them to handle, and now, the boys are missing their MVP—Coach K.

What About The Women? The lady Blue Devils were riding the victory wave through a 10game winning streak including wins against Villanova, Kentucky, and then Georgia Tech. But their streak came to an end with a blowout loss—also at Florida State.

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WOMEN’S BASKETBALL

LET THE BENCHES BURN

Blue Devils control the paint, hold UNC to four-point second quarter in bounce-back win Cole Winton The Chronicle The Blue Devils entered their first rivalry game of the year hoping to play inside-out against a smaller North Carolina frontcourt. Although senior Oderah Chidom came off the bench, she and her teammates did just that to bounce back from Sunday’s 24-point loss at No. 6 Florida State. No. 12 Duke got six quick paint points from Chidom then outscored North Carolina 18-4 in the second quarter 58 en route to a 70-58 UNC Thursday DUKE 70 victory night at Cameron Indoor Stadium. Chidom and fellow forwards Kendall Cooper and Leaonna Odom scored 13 of the team’s first 18 points before the Blue Devils’ matchup zone took the Tar Heels out of their offense. “In the second quarter we shut the gaps down,” Duke head coach Joanne P. McCallie said. “We started to pick it up and understand how to play a little bit better… .There was a little bit better defensive tenacity, and then of course offensively I thought we were more aggressive. Everyone was more aggressive in that quarter.” Although Duke star guards Rebecca Greenwell and Lexie Brown were largely held in check for a second straight game, the Blue Devils used a balanced attack with five players notching at least eight points to preserve a 15-point halftime advantage. Odom had one of the best games of her career with 15 points on 7-of-9 shooting to go

Jim Liu | The Chronicle About 100 students gathered after the game to celebrate Duke’s win by burning benches on Abele Quadrangle.

along with seven rebounds, and Brown and sophomore Kyra Lambert finished with 25 points combined. With defenses locking in on Greenwell and Brown, Lambert took advantage of plenty of openings Thursday to post her third straight game in double figures. “We have a lot of weapons,” Lambert said. “We’re a very versatile team, and we’re very confident in anybody taking shots or attacking the basket.” In addition to sparking Duke’s offense inside, Odom and the Blue Devil forwards

got several deflections that led to 20 North Carolina turnovers. Duke (15-2, 3-1 in the ACC) slowed down a team that averages 75.4 points per game with its matchup zone, then took advantage on the other end for a 36-18 edge in paint points. The Tar Heels (12-5, 1-3) shot just 4-of-26 from 3-point range. In her final home game against North Carolina, Cooper set the tone defensively with an emphatic block that had the Cameron Crazies going wild from the first minute of the game. Although Chidom came off the bench

for the first time this season—McCallie said she is just rotating Cooper, Chidom, Odom and junior Erin Mathias inside—she too went right to work in the paint. The Blue Devils fed off the strong start inside after a back-and-forth opening period, then went on to take Tar Heel star Stephanie Watts and her teammates out of the game in the second quarter. Watts, North Carolina’s leading scorer, made 10 3-pointers in a game earlier this season, but struggled to find much airspace because of Duke’s length. She finished with just 15 points on 6-of-14 shooting and a gamehigh seven turnovers. “We didn’t want to get in a running race with them. We wanted to get solid stops on the defensive end,” Brown said. “This season we’ve really been preaching defense and steals, and I think Kyra and I have been growing every game at being able to read each other off the ball. We’re both at the top of that zone most of the time. I think we’re a dangerous combo at the top.” And as the Tar Heel defense began collapsing on Cooper and company inside on the other end of the court, the Blue Devils’ other players then got free for open looks. Brown and Lambert found themselves all alone on the perimeter several times throughout the contest, one of the main reasons Duke was able to pull away despite going just 3-of-17 from 3-point range. The fact that the Blue Devils were able to win convincingly despite their leading scorer See W. BASKETBALL on Page 9

MEN’S BASKETBALL

Duke travels to Louisville hoping to find road consistency Sameer Pandhare The Chronicle

Carolyn Chang | The Chronicle Freshman Jayson Tatum and the Blue Devils will have to find a way to generate consistent ball movement against another aggressive defensive team.

Throughout its history, Duke has relied on the crowd at Cameron Indoor Stadium to intimidate opposing teams and provide the momentum needed to spur the Blue Devils on to victory. But through two road games in the ACC, the tables have turned, with the Blue Devils struggling to match the intensity of their opponents and stay composed in hostile environments. No. 7 Duke will look to notch its first conference road win of the year when the Blue Devils battle No. 14 Louisville Saturday at noon at the KFC Yum! Center in Louisville, Ky. Coming off a 16-point blowout loss at No. 9 Florida State, Duke will look to avoid falling below .500 in ACC play through at least five games for the first time since 2006-07. “That is the nature of the league, we prepare for it like any other game,” interim

head coach Jeff Capel said. “We are in a very tough league and so every game is going to be very high-level game but this why these kids choose to play in the ACC because they want to play against that competition. The Blue Devils (14-3, 2-2 in the ACC) tied a season-high 16 turnovers and were pummeled on the boards by a bigger Seminole frontcourt Tuesday. Without cocaptain Amile Jefferson, who missed the contest with a right-foot bone bruise, Duke was forced to rely on the trio of Harry Giles, Marques Bolden and Chase Jeter to clean up the glass. “Everybody had to play bigger. Everybody had to rebound more since we were down a big man,” freshman Jayson Tatum said. “We just had to adjust.” But the adjustment has been more difficult than expected with Giles and Bolden struggling with foul trouble and Jeter having problems with more physical players in the post. See M. BASKETBALL on Page 8


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FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017 | 7

MEN’S BASKETBALL

Louisville hoping to impose its will in the paint duo, the Cardinals boast a number of athletic rim protectors, including sophomore Deng Adel, junior Anas Mahmoud and redshirt senior Mangok Mathiang. Mahmoud leads Louisville with 37 blocks and Mathiang averages 6.0 rebounds per game. The Cardinals outscored the Blue Devils 70-42 on points in paint between their two contests last season. And after getting dominated by Florida State big men Michael Ojo and Jarquez Smith, Duke will need to respond—with or without graduate student Amile Jefferson—this weekend.

Mitchell Gladstone The Chronicle After a strong nonconference slate that saw Louisville suffer just one defeat—a narrow three-point loss at the hands of thenNo. 20 Baylor—the Cardinals came out of the gates sluggish in ACC play. Louisville fell against a fellow ACC contender in then-No. 12 Virginia at home and on the road to then-No. 23 Notre Dame, but the No. 14 Cardinals have now rebounded and are back at .500 in the league with quality nonconference wins against Kentucky, Purdue and Indiana. If the roller-coaster start to the second half of Louisville’s season is any indication of what to expect come Saturday, Duke fans will likely be anxiously awaiting the Blue Devils’ next shot at the team’s first ACC road victory. With both teams preparing for a crucial late-January matchup, The Chronicle gets you ready with five things to look for as the Blue Devils return to the KFC Yum! Center for the third straight season. A dynamic duo With experience and continuity, the Louisville backcourt pairing of sophomore Donovan Mitchell and junior Quentin Snider has established itself as one of the ACC’s best. The two combine for a little more than a third of the Cardinal offense—averaging 25.5 points per game together—and each plays about 30 minutes a night. Snider handles the point guard duties for Louisville with a 2.9

Jack White | Chronicle File Photo Louisville head coach Rick Pitino has led his team to impressive wins against Purdue, Kentucky and Indiana this season.

assist-to-turnover ratio, good for 35th in the nation, and tied a career-high with 22 points Wednesday night against Pittsburgh. Mitchell—the Cardinals’ leading scorer this year—victimized Duke at Cameron Indoor Stadium for 17 points but was held scoreless at home. The then-freshman shot 7-of-11 from the field in just 24 minutes and a more explosive version of the 6-foot-3 guard could spell trouble for a Blue Devil team that has struggled defensively in transition thus far. Duke allowed 13 fast-break points at No. 9 Florida State Tuesday night and can expect more quick-strike offense if Louisville’s guards find driving lanes.

Physicality at its finest In the Blue Devils’ last road game against the the Cardinals, it was a turnover-fest. Louisville head coach Rick Pitino’s toughminded squad forced Duke star Brandon Ingram into 10 giveaways and caused 18 Blue Devil turnovers. Although this year’s Duke team averages just 11.6 per game, the Blue Devils committed 16 turnovers against Florida State, leading to 22 Seminole points. Louisville currently stands third in the ACC in turnover margin at +3.8 a night and held Duke to only 64 points at the KFC Yum! Center last season—even with 29 points from Grayson Allen. And outside their backcourt

Road ‘trip’ For the second straight contest away from Cameron Indoor Stadium since returning from his one-game suspension, Allen will have to face an opponent who he tripped last season—Seminole fans made plenty of noise Tuesday night in response to Allen’s second incident. But the original crime came in Duke’s first matchup with Louisville last season when after hitting the floor, the then-sophomore stuck out a foot and sent Cardinal forward Ray Spalding to the floor. Although no one could have expected the Jacksonville, Fla., native’s first transgression to become a pattern, Louisville fans will be sure to jeer Allen when he takes to their home floor Saturday. The junior led the Blue Devils with five assists Tuesday, but finished with only nine points and was 0-of-3 from beyond the arc. If Duke’s leading scorer from last year See SCOUTING on Page 9

SWIMMING AND DIVING

Blue Devils back in action after almost 6 weeks off Alex Sanfilippo The Chronicle

With winter break striking at the heart of the swimming and diving season, the Blue Devils are anxious to get back in the water against another opponent for the first time in almost six weeks. Duke will close out the dual meet portion of its schedule with three meets in 14 days, beginning with Saturday’s matchup against South Carolina. A South familiar foe—the Blue Carolina Devils and Gamecocks vs. have squared off in dual meets each of the Duke last nine years—the Gamecocks will travel SATURDAY, Noon Taishoff Aquatics Pavilion to Taishoff Aquatic Pavilion at noon more acclimated to recent competition after both the men’s and women’s sides fell to Tennessee last weekend. Although Duke has not competed since Dec. 3 when it dominated Queens University, the No. 23 Blue Devil women and Duke men are hoping to build off a promising fall in which both sides took third at N.C. State’s GAC Invitational. During that meet, both the men and women outscored Tennessee, results that should give the hosts confidence heading into Saturday’s competition. “One of the things we are excited about is that a lot of people on the team are swimming faster than they ever have at this point in-

season,” Blue Devil head coach Dan Colella said. “A big part of that is every year we take it up a notch in terms of our competitiveness as the caliber of athlete that comes in continues to improve. With that, expectations rise as the bar gets higher and people are rising up to it. I think the swimmers are a little more dialed in, a little more focused. With that, we’re seeing better results.” A talented freshman class has been a strong catalyst for what Colella refers to as the evolution of his program. Freshman Alyssa Marsh, along with sophomore backstroke specialist Mickayla Hinkle and senior freestyle sprinter Maddie Rusch lead a talented short-distance group with a clear advantage against South Carolina’s team. Events like the 100-yard freestyle and butterfly will likely be where the Blue Devils can amass points by attempting to place multiple swimmers in the top six. Colella noted that the real battle would be in the middle-distance and long-distance freestyle events. Junior Verity Abel, who holds Duke’s top times ever in the 500-, 1,000- and 1,650yard freestyle will have her hands full with sophomore Emma Barksdale, who holds the Gamecocks’ top times in the same three events. After a modest showing at the ACC championship last year, a young Blue Devil diving team has rebounded considerably so far this fall and will look to continue improving starting Saturday. With a team comprised of three

Deniz Simsek | Chronicle File Photo The Blue Devils will kick off a busy stretch of dual-meet action Saturday afternoon at home in what should be a tightly-contested meet.

sophomores and one freshman, the men’s side continues to show more growth and consistency —at least one diver has already eclipsed last season’s best score in both the 1-meter and 3-meter events. The women’s team, the more experienced of the two, returns an older group led by sophomore Mackenzie Willborn, who paced the team in scoring last season. The women will face a tough competitor in South Carolina junior Julia Vincent, who was named SEC Diver of the Week for the third time this season after the Tennessee meet.

“Diving is huge,” Colella said. “You see programs across the country who win conference championships based on their depth in diving. There has been an upswing in their performances, [and] they’re diving at a higher level so we’re excited to see what they can do at ACCs and hopefully NCAAs.” The Blue Devil men will face their second strong opponent this season—the first being perennial powerhouse and then-No. 4 North Carolina State—as South Carolina enters See SWIMMING on Page 9


DUKE vs. LOUISVILLE

Saturday, January 14 • KFC Yum! Center Noon Blue Devils (14-3, 2-2) F F G G G

FRONTCOURT

HARRY GILES: 5.3 ppg, 4.8 rpg, 6 gp JAYSON TATUM: 17.4 ppg, 6.8 rpg, 1.7 bpg MATT JONES: 8.2 ppg, 3.0 rpg, 1.9 spg LUKE KENNARD: 20.4 ppg, 5.6 rpg, 2.5 apg GRAYSON ALLEN: 15.2 ppg, 4.5 rpg, 4.3 apg

BACKCOURT

Jefferson was expected to be re-evaluated Wednesday but no indication has been made about whether the graduate student will suit up against the Cardinals (14-3, 2-2). The Philadelphia native was in a boot and walked with a slight limp during the loss to Florida State. If there was ever a time when the Blue Devils needed Jefferson, Saturday’s game would be it—like Florida State, Louisville plays a number of versatile wings that could exploit Duke on the boards. Perhaps the bigger adjustment Duke will need to make, regardless of whether Jefferson takes the court, is how it deals with the Cardinals’ full-court pressure. Louisville head coach Rick Pitino’s defense places a premium on turnovers and has already forced other high-powered offenses like Kentucky and Indiana into miserable shooting nights this season. The Cardinals rank just outside the top 10 in the nation in scoring defense and have held opponents to just 28.5 percent shooting from deep this season. Guard Donovan Mitchell and center Anas Mahmoud have been particularly stout, with Mitchell leading the conference in steals and Mahmoud sitting second in the ACC in blocks per game. One of the biggest differences in Duke’s conference games at home as opposed to on the road has been its ball movement. Even considering that the Blue Devils’ tougher ACC games to this point have come on the road, Duke has struggled to execute its offense away from Cameron Indoor Stadium. The Blue Devils have assisted on 62.9 percent of their made field goals in

conference wins against Georgia Tech and Boston College, but that mark drops to just 35.3 percent away from home. In order to reverse the trend, the Blue Devils may need junior Grayson Allen to revert to a scoring mentality. Since his return from a one-game suspension, Allen has become Duke’s primary ballhandler and led the team in assists in three consecutive games. But with Tatum struggling at times against long, athletic defenders and a limited interior presence without Jefferson, the Blue Devils need Allen—who racked up 29 points at the KFC Yum! Center a year ago—to look for his shot after attempting just six shots against Florida State. The guard struggled to score efficiently earlier this season as he battled a turf toe, but will need to make his presence felt with Louisville likely making a concerted effort to contain sharpshooter Luke Kennard. Although a more aggressive Allen could help Duke’s offense, the junior will need to keep his head in another tough road environment—one that will berate him after his trip of Cardinal forward Ray Spalding at Cameron Indoor Stadium last season. Allen fouled out down the stretch of last season’s visit to Louisville and picked up a late technical foul. “I guess it’s just trying to find that balance,” Allen said following Duke’s win against Georgia Tech. “Like I said, I can do a much better job of [controlling my physicality] when everything is just focused on what we’re doing….not worrying about any foul calls, missed shots, physcial play, anything like that.” Through four ACC games, the Blue Devils are far from the team many envisioned

BENCH

M. BASKETBALL from page 6

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8 | FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017

Cardinals (14-3, 2-2) F F F G G

ANAS MAHMOUD: 5.8 ppg, 3.6 rpg, 2.2 bpg RAY SPALDING: 6.7 ppg, 5.8 rpg, 0.9 bpg DENG ADEL: 10.6 ppg, 4.5 rpg, 1.9 apg DONOVAN MITCHELL: 13.5 ppg, 5.1 rpg, 2.5 apg QUENTIN SNIDER: 12.0 ppg, 3.9 apg, 2.5 rpg

(Projected lineups, statistics from 2016-17 season) The Cardinals are one of the DUKE LOU nation’s best rebounding 75.6 PPG: 84.5 (9th) and shot-blocking (2nd) 61.9 PPG DEF: 65.9 FG%: teams, and Duke forward 48.3 43.6 3PT%: 36.5 34.0 Amile Jefferson will likely be FT%: 73.7 68.4 out or limited for a second RPG: 41.8 39.1 straight game. APG: 14.2 13.8 Although Louisville’s Quentin 6.8 BPG: 4.7 Snider and Donovan Mitchell SPG: 7.1 7.1 are excellent off the dribble, 11.6 11.8 TO/G: Duke’s ability to knock down The breakdown 3-pointers could give it an The Blue Devils have looked lost defensively in edge late in a potentially their first two road games of the year, which tight game. could play into the hands of an aggressive Like Florida State, Louisville has Louisville side that struggles to shoot the ball the ability to play as many as 12 from the perimeter. If Jefferson is out or limited men and keep up its defensive again as expected, the Cardinals will likely be pressure. The Blue Devils’ young too tough inside in front of their raucous home reserves have looked rattled on crowd for Duke to pull out the victory. the road, giving the Cardinals OUR CALL: Louisville wins, 74-68 the advantage here.

when they began the season ranked No. 1 in the country. And with almost half the season behind it, Duke must begin racking up key conference victories to avoid slipping any farther. “With a young team, we just got to take

our lumps and grow from it,” senior Matt Jones said. “It’s not the end all, be all right now. It’s still January, so we just have to keep getting better and fighting.” Hank Tucker contributed reporting.

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W. BASKETBALL from page 6

SCOUTING from page 7

SWIMMING from page 7

in Greenwell shooting just 3-of-14 and 0-of8 from 3-point range was a step in the right direction for a team that will look for its first road win against a ranked team Sunday. Duke will take on another in-state rival in No. 23 N.C. State, which has already posted impressive top10 wins against Notre Dame and Florida State this season. But before focusing on the next challenge, the Blue Devils took some time to enjoy their sixth straight win against North Carolina and 13th in the teams’ last 15 matchups. Several players were seen on the Main Quadrangle after the game when about 100 students gathered to burn benches in celebration of a home win against the Tar Heels. “The fact that [the Crazies] showed up and showed out was really good and made us feel really special,” Brown said. “We know that we have the support of our student body, but that was a really fun environment, and I’m excited for the rematch later this year.”

can find a groove in yet another tough environment, though, he could be in for another big game against the Cardinals after giving his team nearly half its total scoring last year in Louisville.

Saturday just outside the top 25. “The men’s side will be an incredibly competitive meet,” Colella said. “What you’ll see is a score that is going to go back and forth throughout the course of the meet. I don’t think anyone is going to break away and take control. As long as everyone steps up and swims hard, it should be a meet that goes down to the last event.” Much like the women’s side, the men’s competition breaks down into who can dominate more in the sprints and distance. Senior Kaz Takabayashi and sophomore Max St. George will lead the Blue Devils in the sprint backstroke and butterfly, where Duke should hold a slight advantage. Senior breaststroke specialist Peter Kropp will battle closely with South Carolina’s Nils WichGlasen, a junior from Germany who has posted swift times in both the 100- and 200yard breaststroke.

Kevin Zheng | The Chronicle Lexie Brown and company bounced back from a 24-point loss by shutting down North Carolina’s high-octane offense.

Injury report Although Jefferson’s status for Saturday remains up in the air, the Cardinals got one of their best players back Wednesday night. Adel, who suffered a concussion last weekend at Georgia Tech, returned to action against Pittsburgh and scored 15 points off the bench. The 6-foot-7 forward is Louisville’s best free-throw shooter at 80.9 percent and averages 10.6 points per game. Although they have not been decimated like the Blue Devils, the Cardinals have had their fair share of injuries already with Mahmoud also suffering a concussion earlier in the year and reserve Matz Stockman still out after taking a blow to the head against Indiana.

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Unfamiliar coaching battle Pitino and Duke head coach Mike Krzyzewski’s connection has been the centerpiece of recent matchups between the two teams. Louisville knocked off the Blue Devils in the 2013 Elite Eight before going on to win the national title that year, but since the Cardinals joined the ACC, Duke holds a 2-1 series advantage. This time around, however, Pitino will be taking on Jeff Capel. The Cardinals knocked out Capel’s Oklahoma team in the second round of the 2008 NCAA tournament but the Blue Devils’ interim head coach never faced Pitino during his own playing days at Duke—when the 64 year-old was the head coach at Kentucky.

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The Gamecocks will likely own a massive advantage in all three distance freestyle events, with depth that could ultimately set Duke too far back to recover. Junior Matt Johnson and freshman Roger Kriegl will need to cut multiple seconds off their respective times in order to contend for first place. After what stacks up to be a competitive meet for both sides, the schedule does not get any easier. The Blue Devils host Virginia, which has the No. 15 men’s team and No. 4 women’s side, before traveling to face North Carolina, where the men have a legitimate opportunity to beat the Tar Heels for the first time in more than a decade. “We gave [North Carolina] the best meet we ever have a year ago,” Colella said. “We’re in position where we’ll be able to give them a crazy competition on both the men and women’s side. The most important thing is that the team is, in terms of attitude, excited, pumped, and ready to go to compete at the highest level.”

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PUZZLE GULCZYNSKI PUZZLE BY BY DAMON DAVID PHILLIPS

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Online subscriptions: Today’s puzzle and more than 7,000 past puzzles, nytimes.com/crosswords ($39.95 a year). Read about and comment on each puzzle: nytimes.com/wordplay. Crosswords for young solvers: nytimes.com/studentcrosswords.


As spring rises, AP falls

T H E I N D E P E N D E N T D A I LY AT D U K E U N I V E R S I T Y

The Chronicle

A

mong the new components of the Imagine Duke curriculum to be voted on by members of the Arts & Sciences Council later this semester is the elimination of Advanced Placement credit at Duke. Opponents of the elimination see the decision as an obnoxiously paternalistic decision at best and a heavy-handed cash grab at worst; proponents, however, have suggested that allowing students to use AP credits to skip classes detracts from a robust academic experience by prematurely aborting what is meant to be a full eight-semester experience. We, the Editorial Board, agree with proponents that AP credit should be removed, but believe compensatory adjustments are necessary. Students at Duke have a unique opportunity to receive instruction from world-renowned instructors and leading researchers. Using AP credits to pass over two classes or graduate early prevents students from taking advantage of it: they have less time to interact with faculty and develop academic depth and breadth than they otherwise would. To be sure, AP classes themselves do offer benefits—they allow students to place out of basic introductory courses and spend more time learning higher level topics. But refusing AP credit does not necessarily mean disallowing students from using

their AP scores to place into higher level classes—it simply means that they must still take 34 courses. There is a misconception that receiving AP credit is critical for every student, but in reality, that is not true. AP credit itself does not exempt students from specific course requirements and students cannot choose which credits to apply. AP credit only reduces the total required course load for students. While that may be beneficial to some students completing majors with long class sequences of such as physics,

Editorial math, chemistry, engineering, etc., it is not especially necessary for most other students who lose little by having to take an extra two classes. Admittedly, it is worth noting that Duke has a fiscal interest in preventing students from applying AP credits. If students are unable to apply credits, they will be harder pressed to graduate early and will thus be guaranteed sources of revenue for a full eight semesters. While good for University coffers, that situation could ostensibly be painful for students. But a study by Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at Stanford’s Graduate School of Education

onlinecomment “Yet, there was no outcry from the left when other large organizations, such as public employee unions, pumped millions of dollars into the campaigns of those who then voted to increase the salaries and benefits of the donors...This simplistic and myopic column fails to address the fundamental freedom of expression right of a corporation (or a union).” — “Fed Up,” responding to “Authority back to the voter,” published on January 12, 2017

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The Chronicle

www.dukechronicle.com commentary

10 | FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017

E-mail: chronicleletters@duke.edu Editorial Page Department The Chronicle Box 90858, Durham, NC 27708 Phone: (919) 684-2663 Fax: (919) 684-4696

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Inc. 1993

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Beyond moderate

here is something about the concept of the middle that always seems to fascinate people. Something about being neither high nor low, neither first nor last, that triggers certain emotions—emotions that allow the middle to become the subject of songs and TV shows. It may seem a strange thing to hold in such high esteem, but it isn’t unworthy. After all, when it comes to many things, the middle isn’t such a bad place to be. Take politics, for example. Polls have shown that political moderates tend to see both sides of issues. They recognize that neither liberals nor conservatives have the complete solution to anything and can find good and bad points in each side’s positions. Small wonder, then, that a higher percentage of people identify as political independents than ever before. Being moderate is in; being partisan is out. Plus, as The Washington Post notes, “Everyone is a moderate on something.” But what happens when the middle suddenly becomes the worst of all possible worlds? There are times when choosing a moderate position causes more problems than it solves. For example, such positions

Ben Zhang

the candidates are right on all of the issues.” Again, these statements are so neutral that they are essentially meaningless. There are no perfect candidates, and both sides of the aisle have their faults...but we already knew that. And even if you truly disliked all of the candidates, you could find some things you liked and disliked about all of them and their positions. But people aren’t looking to further the dialogue or give a more in-depth explanation—they just want to switch topics by dropping a line and hoping it will stick. After all, when was the last time you heard someone say, “I don’t like all of the candidates, and here’s why”? Sometimes, this avoidance of conversation can raise serious doubts about people’s true feelings on certain issues. Take the All Lives Matter movement, for example. On first glance, it seemed like an honest attempt to find the middle ground and take a moderate stance with which everyone could agree. But, no matter your feelings about Black Lives Matter, it is hard to deny that ALM was a not-so-subtle attempt to keep things the way they were. No one who paraded “All Lives Matter” ever followed up with a discussion of race relations in America. Simply put, that was never their goal in the first place.

HUMAN FOIBLES

AMRITH RAMKUMAR, Sports Editor

FRANCES BEROSET, University News Department Head

T

found students from low socioeconomic schools tend to have less access to AP courses. All other things equal, these findings suggest that a student with this profile would most likely be unable to apply AP credits anyways to graduate early. Another popular criticism of AP credit removal is that it would unduly burden students by demanding they complete more classes than they do now in the same amount of time. While that is true, taking five classes twice in four years is hardly impossible—five classes per semester used to be the norm at Duke. Even so, the criticism does highlight the silliness of Duke’s credit system wherein students receive one credit per course taken, regardless of workload. If a student, for example, were to be taking four lab classes at once, he/ she might spend upwards of 20 hours in class per week but only be classified as taking a regular load; if another student were taking five classes without labs, he/she might only spend 15 hours in class per week yet still be classified as taking an overload. While we support eliminating AP credits, if the Arts & Sciences Council decides to proceed with doing so, it ought to also look at how its actions would interact with our out-of-place credit system and consider changing that too.

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can often act as screens that mask one’s true beliefs. Politics is always a contentious subject, and many people don’t want to be judged for their views on certain issues. Thus, they gravitate toward the middle, where they are less likely to be criticized. This, however, means that people who are not actually that moderate end up describing themselves as so. When used this way, “I’m a moderate” becomes a catch-all phrase that loses its meaning. Thus, rather than lying and using it to describe your political views, you’d be better off just pleading the Fifth on the subject altogether. But what about the people who actually are moderate (or, at the very least, think they are)? Well, there are still problems that arise when they refer to themselves as so. For one, saying that one is moderate is a very neutral statement that doesn’t say much of anything at all. As the Post also notes, “No one is a moderate on everything.” Even people who are truly moderate take sides on certain issues. Maybe they lean right on taxes or left on healthcare reform. In any case, surely the people who insist on calling themselves moderate can follow up with their positions on some issues they find important? It can’t be that difficult—unless of course, their goal in the first place was to avoid doing just that. People often use moderate positions not only to avoid revealing their true beliefs, but also to end conversations before they even begin. This past election cycle, you probably heard some variant of the following: “I dislike all of the candidates” or “I don’t think any of

Perhaps it is not surprising, then, that one of All Lives Matters’ main proponents was Dr. Ben Carson, whose book “One Nation” contained such neutralstatement gems as, “If we are to put an end to division, people from all political persuasions will have to stop fighting one another and seek true unity, not just a consensus that benefits one party.” It is possible to call for everyone to come together while also fighting to make the world a better place. However, when used by people such as Carson, such pleas for peace and harmony carry little weight. For the Carsons and the ALMs and the false moderates will never address issues being disputed or put forth any sort of constructive ideas of their own. They will just call for people to be more moderate—but what really they want is to maintain the status quo. 2016 has come and gone. For many people, 2017 offers hope and the chance to start anew. But to avoid making mistakes of the past, perhaps we should try to adopt a different set of New Year’s resolutions. Let us resolve to inspire conversations, not stifle them. Challenge people who try to hide in the middle, and press them for more if all they give you is a series of moderate responses. It may not seem like much, but it will make a difference. Because on some occasions, there is something to be said for picking a side. Ben Zhang is a Trinity senior. His column, “human foibles,” usually runs on alternate Mondays.


The Chronicle

www.dukechronicle.com commentary

Learning from life

N

ew Years Eve marked the end of a calendar year that, for me, was largely filled by my core clinical clerkships. For medical students, the first year of clinical rotations is a pivotal and transformative time—a transition from the tidy multiple-choice questions and lectures of first year to more nuanced complexity of the wards and clinics. It’s a time of excitement and of challenge. The end of the year lends itself to reflection. This year, of my 25, has been more academically eventful than most. This was the year that I entered a locked psychiatric ward for the first time. This was the year that I learned to carefully scrub into a surgery. This is the year that someone confided in me that she had installed a deadbolt on her bedroom door as protection against an abusive partner and yet another told me of deferring filling critical medications to buy food for her children. This was the year that I auscultated, percussed, sutured, suctioned, lanced, interviewed and listened. This year was a compendium of experiences, each taking me a step closer towards the

Lauren Groskaufmanis

intrusion. Similarly, the repetition that must accompany the presence of a medical student further can be a deterrent, since a physical exam or history obtained by a student must always be verified by their supervisor. Likewise, a procedure conducted for the first time may be more uncomfortable and less efficient that when it is performed for the five hundredth time. Yet despite all this, I found many patients who were willing to accept me as a member of the medical team. They let me suture their lacerations, draw their blood and attend the births of their infants. They freely shared their stories—of working to land a man on the moon and fighting in Europe during WWII, of sexual assault and caring for a severely disabled child. In many ways, medicine is a trade with skills that cannot be learned through books alone and must be crafted through muscle memory, personal experience and apprenticeship. From these patients I learned what a dilated cervix feels like as labor processes, how to approximate the edges of laceration and what can make a sick toddler laugh. I also learned how to

THE PICTURE OF HEALTH

becoming a physician. Attending and resident physicians, classmates and classroom professors all were crucial to the continued accumulation of knowledge throughout this year. However, just as important were the many patients who were willing to let their care be a part of my education. The willingness of others to contribute to my education began before I entered my clinical rotations. The cadaver used in anatomy lab is often referred to as the “first patient”—the first chance that students have to connect their book learning with its more potent human corollary. Through a process that relies more on effort than on skill, the human form gives way to its component parts; bones, organs, tendons lay bare. The process provides an understanding that is far deeper that what could be achieved even after poring over Gray’s or Netter’s flashcards. Some discoveries were so shocking they become indelibly seared into my memory. While I had read about calcification of the aorta before, I was stunned to hear crunching under my fingers during the abdominal dissection. I am frequently reminded of my anatomy cadaver. When I see a patient with heart disease, I remember the cadaver’s enlarged heart, the sutures from a previous bypass surgery still distinct. When I perform a musculoskeletal exam of the knee, I constantly reference the memory of the anatomy lab. I still wonder about his life. I am forever thankful to this individual and his family who prioritized my learning over the traditional process of bereavement. For many patients, the downsides of medical student participation seem readily apparent. Particularly in outpatient clinics, where doctors and patients may have a relationship built on years of experience, the presence of a medical student may feel like an

FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017 | 11

Seeming and doing

W

hen it comes to New Year’s resolutions I am as guilty as anyone of having high aspirations and less than stellar execution. But I have a hypothesis that would explain why so many of us aim “too high” and end up burning out before we even see the results. In a world that glorifies outcomes while ignoring the hard work that makes those outcomes possible, we are making it difficult for ourselves to differentiate between success and the appearance of success. Seeming to have goals gives us instant gratification. We can tell our friends and family our resolutions and let them be impressed by our ambition. Doing, taking consistent action towards those goals, is not only a textbook example of delayed gratification but is also just plain hard. It is hard because we are not in the habit of frequently monitoring our progress and thus we do not see if and when we are improving. This demoralizes us and is a major factor why gyms are teeming with new recruits for January and February but their

Jack Dolinar

always that easy, but it often is.” So, if we know that we should be taking action if we want to be achieving our goals, which we all know being logical human beings, and we can also assume that keeping track of our progress and monitoring our action steps helps us to make consistent progress…Then why is success so damn difficult? A 2013 article in the Social and Personality Psychology Compass describes what is known as now called “the Ostrich Problem,” a difficulty that may be at the root of our issue. The abstract of this article presented the following hypothesis “that there is an ostrich problem such that, in many instances, people have a tendency to ‘bury their head in the sand’ and intentionally avoid or reject information that would help them to monitor their goal progress.” In other words, there is a built-in psychological roadblock that makes progress-orientation difficult for us. One potential reason for the Ostrich Problem is our desire to avoid negative

SIMPLIFYING SUCCESS

navigate a language barrier, how to sit with despair, how to deal with anger, frustration and vitriol—which were sometimes directed against me. Studies have examined the factors that predict patient participation in care provided by medical students. Altruism and a desire to contribute to a student’s education are both factors that predict participation. But on a more pragmatic level, other studies have shown that patients who receive care from medical students have high levels of satisfaction and that the participation of students does not seem to jeopardize care. On the hospital wards, students have a lighter clinical and administrative burden than other team members—providing them with additional time to perform repeat exams, answer questions and just talk with patients. Patients benefit as well, when a student is involved in their care. If you’re on the fence about having a medical student involved in your care, here’s my message. It truly makes a difference, and it is not a responsibility that students take lightly. The patients I met during my clinical year helped me become a more proficient clinician and helped prepare me for a graduation date that draws ever closer. The stories shared by patients have informed me of the human condition in a way that few experiences could ever replicate. In turn, I and other students—despite our inexperience—provide time, attention, thoroughness and dedication to their care. The patients I met this year shaped the student I am, and the physician I will become. Working with patients has been an honor, one that I hope to reflect in my future practice. Lauren Groskaufmanis is a graduate student in the school of medicine. Her column, “the picture of health,” runs on alternate Fridays.

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attendance dwindles soon thereafter. Psychological research has found that the most effective way to achieve goals is to be process-oriented instead of resultoriented. That means instead of “I want a six-pack in time for summer,” you need to resolve “I will count my calories every and work out three days per week.” This gives credence to the already obvious fact that doing resolutions are more effective. We all know intuitively and logically that our abs aren’t going to miraculously transform into that rippling steel washboard without a change in our current habits, but we are so focused on the shiny object of our desire that we neglect to prepare for the arduous trek to acquire it. However, being process-oriented means you must frequently monitoring yourself to make sure that you are on the right track and following through with your action steps. Research from 2015 found that the more frequently progress towards a goal was monitored the more likely it was to be a success; but this obviously takes more work and mental energy than the alternative—trying something for a while, not seeing results, and changing your habits or routines again and again until hopelessness and failure set in. I think that our inherent difficulty in following through with goals that require delayed gratification is a reason famous success figures and industry moguls often claim to keep detailed notes documenting “experiments” that they run in their lives. Entrepreneurs like Tai Lopez and Tim Ferris both espouse the philosophy of constant experimentation and fitness experts have for years spoken to the effectiveness of “before and after” pictures. Ferris, in particular, has referred to himself as a “human guinea pig” and in his recent tome, “Tools of Titans,” wrote, “I am a compulsive note-taker. To wit, I have recorded nearly every workout since age 18 or so…My goal is to learn things once and use them forever. For example, let’s say I stumble upon a picture of myself from June 5, 2007, and I think, ‘I really wish I looked like that again.’ No problem. I’ll crack open a dusty volume from 2007, review the 8 weeks of training and food logs preceding June 5, repeat them and— voilà—end up looking nearly the same as my younger self (minus the hair). It’s not

feedback. Obviously it is easy for us to disappoint ourselves when it comes to following through with our goals, especially when they are as ambitious as many of ours are. It is also likely that confirmation bias stands in our way, as we are far more likely to seek out and accept information that confirms our preconceived worldview, that we ourselves are successful and awesome, than information that may suggest we are not progressing towards milestones. Nonetheless, there are ways to get around our, seemingly inherent, results-oriented attitude towards goal achievement. (Several of these suggestions were mined from Shimi Kang’s M.D.’s article in Psychology Today and some are the result of my own research and experimentation.) It can be helpful to reflect on progress towards goals when you are already in a good mood. This raises the likelihood that successes will motivate you and setbacks will not get you down. You may also like to use Jerry Seinfeld’s “chain method.” This is a calendar system where you make an X on each day you take action and, over time, feel compelled to not “break the chain” of X’s even when you’re feeling low or unmotivated. In a similar vein, and especially when you are pursuing multiple goals at once, you could create a notebook of current goals and your progress toward them. Or, like I do, you could take a lot of the mental energy out of constant monitoring and set up a dozen or so daily reminders on your phone to keep you on track. I currently have reminders to make sure that I’m: staying focused on my daily to-do’s, tracking my calories, reading, writing and going to bed on time. New Year’s resolutions often die soon after they are conceived on the first of January, but if you want to make 2017 a year of achievement instead of just aspiration, please take at least one thing to heart: don’t be an ostrich who hides its head in the sand. Be someone who takes responsibility for their actions and knows that their success or failure is in their hands. Jack Dolinar is a Trinity sophomore. His column, “simplifying success,” runs on alternate Fridays.


12 | FRIDAY, JANUARY 13, 2017

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January 13, 2017  
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