Page 1


Bot Eldof3a

Soon on


4 Dental Photography 6 App Eldof3a 8

Advances in dental local anesthesia


techniques and devices

15 IDEM’18 Social Competition 16 Oral Thrush

19 1st International Dental Student Photo Contest

Held by MUST & Genova University


21 The Fellowships Program in Laser Dentistry


18 Dental Fluorosis or Mottled Teeth


17 What is scientific research?

24 Humans of DSSA-MUST

32 Upcoming Events


25 Latest Events


I P P ’ S M E S S AG E

Hadi Al-Wakeel

When I first volunteered

for DSSA I never thought of how much I can learn and how much fun it could be to be a part of a bigger group having same vision and always ambition for more. Being with DSSA did not only give me the ability to challenge my abilities but it also gave me the chance to meet new friends with brilliant minds that I can always learn from. I learned a lot and I will always learn with the best fun ways with DSSA.

Islam Gad

Fame is not a goal, fame

is a result. The desire for fame in absolute is very bad, you find yourself doing what people like to be liked by them, so your goal will be fame not doing well in what you love. Fame is a result, result of your love to something, as a result to what you have done to make yourself happy. If you done this, you will get famous and be loved. Fame is not something relative, fame doesn't always mean love. You may be famous killer or famous of being a bad writer or cocky football player. You don't have to be famous for everyone in the world.... you may be famous among the people who shares the passion in the things you love to do, to learn from you and to make you the ideal person for them. You may be famous in something your good at among your family, friends or the place you live in. Do what you love even if you're the only one loving it, go for your choices one day you will find the people who shares with you the same thing and you will be famous between them.


DSSA-MUST HIGH BOARD 2017/2018 Hadi Al-Wakeel

Youmna Fakhr



Islam Gamal

General Secretory Noreen Al-Morshedy

Treasurer Mohammed Hanourah

Mahmoud Mashhadi



Mariam Al-Shawadfy

Doaa Malek

Exchange Officer


Basna AbdulWahhab

Ahmed Ibrahim

Yasseen Dabit

Scientific Officer



Nada Atta

Prophylaxis Officer

AbdulRahman AbdulBary

Nada Bassuoni

Zainab Kamal

HR & Training Officer


Radwa Nasser

Ahmed Ashraf

Social Officer


AbdulGhani Ahmed

Individual Members Officer Islam Gad

Immediate Past President



Dental Photography

Dental Photography

A patient in the second decade of his life suffered from broken lower incisors. Temporary cosmetic filling was used to give the normal shape of the incisors until permanent crowns are installed

In this subject we are going to learn about

dental photography, its types and its benefits. First, dental photography is a type of art and it contain many departments. It is concerned with photographing cases, so it can be documented and studied later or even make these cases an art that can be hanged and looked at.

carving teeth on soap or even the drawings that is related to this field. Instruments used: It’s not about buying the best professional camera but it’s more about combining and adding accessories to the camera like: • The lens: each type of photographing has its own lens, like photographing of nature and in dentistry field the best lens used is the Macro lens for photographing the finest details in the oral cavity.

Dental photography is divided to four types: 1. A department that is concerned to document cases of diseases and injuries • The lightening: it is considered one of the most important factors in making the might happen to patients, also following picture look good, moreover it plays role in up these cases during the journey of the accuracy of the picture. One of the best treatment to see the final result. used lightning in our field is what to be 2. Another department is concerned only with called a ring supported with lights that is the art aspect and how the image looks set on the front side of the lens so that the good to be viewed for its beautiful colors light is directed on the element directly in and details, like picturing the gingival all directions with amount of 360 degrees. details. • The Lens Filter: it is used to eliminate some 3. This department is concerned with the tools of the unwanted lights like UV light. and materials that are used in dentistry field for educational matters like surgical • Camera Base: it is important for the stability of the camera. instruments. 4. A department who cares about • Back ground: for photographing and it is of course one of the most essential elements photographing dental art works like


Dental Photography and it is better to have the opposite color of the object that is photographed mostly. Of course, there are more and more to take the perfect picture, but these will work good enough with you.


Ya s s e e n D a b i t



App El

By Students, We always strive to provide all the for dentists

through everything new and different.

We are announcing the merger of the

App Eldof3a project with the scientific committee within the association; knowing that the full management of appaldof3a will continue under the leadership of its support and help to continue during the previous period by Ahmed Ibrahim and will be supervised by The Scientific Committee within the DSSA-MUST and in coordination with the Chairman of the Scientific Committee within the entity by Basma AbdulWahhab.

The app provides a free and

easy service to all dental students from various payments through the presentation of the various recordings, lectures, in addition to the


For Students material selections and the most important elements of the expected exams, in addition to the examinations of previous years.

All the best for you all in what is

coming and we will always seek only to develop student work away from various differences and make it fertile environment for creativity and innovation.

đ&#x;”ľVisit us at: .


Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices

Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices Abstract:


local anesthesia remains the backbone of pain control in dentistry, researches are going to seek new and better means of managing the pain. Most of the researches are focused on improvement in the area of anesthetic agents, delivery devices and technique involved. Newer technologies have been developed that can assist the dentist in providing enhanced pain relief with reduced injection pain and fewer adverse effects. This overview will enlighten the practicing dentists regarding newer devices and methods of rendering pain control comparing these with the earlier used ones on the basis of research and clinical studies available.


The most important skill required of all dental practitioners is the ability to provide safe and effective local anesthesia (LA). The injection of local anesthetic is perhaps the greatest source of patient fearand inability to obtain adequate pain control with minimal discomfort remains a significant concern of dental practitioners. The achievement of good local anesthesia requires knowledge of the agents being used, the neuroanatomy involved, and best techniques and devices available. The agents and anesthetic delivery equipments available today provide the practitioner an array of options to effectively manage the pain associated with dental procedures. This review focuses on the most recent developments in dental LA techniques and devices.

recently that anesthetic delivery systems have seen major innovations. Although the traditional aspirating syringe still is the most common method by which local anesthetics are administered, newer technologies have been developed that can assist the dentist in providing enhanced pain relief with reduced injection pain and minimum adverse effects. This section will discuss vibrotactile devices, computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD) systems, jet injectors, safety dental syringes and devices for Intra-Osseous (IO) anesthesia.

Vibrotactile Devices:

Some of the newer local anesthetic delivery

systems aimed at easing the fear of the needle take advantage of the gate control theory of pain management, which suggests that pain can be reduced by simultaneous activation of nerve fibers through the use of vibration. Inui and colleagues have shown, however, that pain reduction due to non-noxious touch or vibration can result from tactile-induced pain inhibition within the cerebral cortex itself and that the inhibition occurs without any contribution at the spinal level, including descending inhibitory actions on spinal neurons.

• VibraJect: It is a small battery-operated attachment that snaps on to the standard dental syringe. It delivers a high-frequency vibration to the needle that is strong enough for the patient to feel. Local Anesthesia Delivery Devices: Researches evaluating effectiveness of Dental VibraJect Syringe Although Cook invented the modern the VibraJect, have shown dental syringe nearly 150 years ago, it is only


Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices mixed results. Nanitsos et al., and Blair have recommended the use of VibraJect for painless injection. In contrast, Yoshikawa et al., found no significant pain reduction when VibraJect was applied with a conventional dental syringe. Saijo et al., evaluated the effectiveness of VibraJect in combination with an electrical injection device. They also found no statistically significant decrease in pain scores at needle insertion or anesthetic injection. • DentalVibe: Another system that uses vibration diversion based on the pain gate theory is recently introduced DentalVibe (BING Innovations LLC, Crystal Lake, IL, USA). It is a cordless, DentalVibe rechargeable, hand held device that delivers soothing, pulsed, percussive micro-oscillations to the site where an injection is being administered. Its U-shaped vibrating tip attached to a microprocessor-controlled Vibra-Pulse motor gently stimulates the sensory receptors at the injection site, effectively closing the neural pain gate, blocking the painful sensation of injections. It also lights the injection area and has an attachment to retract the lip or cheek. • Accupal: The Accupal (Hot Springs, AR, USA) is a cordless device that uses both vibration and pressure to precondition the oral mucosa. Accupal provides pressure and vibrates the injection site 360° proximal to Accupal the needle penetration, which shuts the “pain gate,” according to the manufacturer. After placing the device at the injection site and applying moderate pressure, the unit light up the area and begins to vibrate. The needle is placed through a hole in the head of the disposable tip, which is attached to the motor. It uses one AAA standard battery.


• Computer-controlled Local Anesthetic Delivery Systems: In the mid-1990s, work began on the development of local anesthetic delivery systems that incorporated computer technology to control the rate of flow of the anesthetic solution through the needle. This concept is now called computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD).[15] The first of these CCLAD devices, the Wand™ (Milestone Scientific, Inc., Livingston, N.J.), was introduced in 1997. Subsequent versions from same manufacturers were named Wand Plus and then CompuDent™, the current designation. In 2001, the Comfort Control Syringe (Dentsply International, York, PA, USA) was marketed as an alternative to the Wand. Examples of similar products include the QuickSleeper and SleeperOne devices (Dental Hi Tec, Cholet, France) and the Anaeject (Nippon Shika Yakuhin, Shimonoseki, Japan) and Ora Star (Showa Uyakuhin Kako, Tokyo, Japan) syringes.

Computer-controlled Local Anesthetic Delivery Systems:

In the mid-1990s, work began on the development of local anesthetic delivery systems that incorporated computer technology to control the rate of flow of the anesthetic solution through the needle. This concept is now called computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD). The first of these CCLAD devices, the Wand™ (Milestone Scientific, Inc., Livingston, N.J.), was introduced in 1997. Subsequent versions from same manufacturers were named Wand Plus and then CompuDent™, the current designation. In 2001, the Comfort Control Syringe (Dentsply International, York, PA, USA) was marketed as an alternative to the Wand. Examples of similar products include the QuickSleeper and SleeperOne devices (Dental Hi Tec, Cholet, France) and the Anaeject (Nippon Shika Yakuhin, Shimonoseki, Japan) and Ora Star (Showa Uyakuhin Kako, Tokyo, Japan) syringes. • Wand/Compudent system: This system enabled operator to accurately



Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices

manipulate needle placement with fingertip accuracy and deliver the LA with a foot-activated control. The lightweight handpiece is held in a pen-like grasp that provides the Wand system user with greater tactile sensation and control compared to a traditional syringe. The available flow rates of LA delivery are controlled by a computer and thus remain consistent from one injection to the next. The greater control over the syringe and the fixed flow rates of the LA drug are responsible for a significantly improved injection experience, as demonstrated in many clinical studies conducted with CCLAD devices in dentistry. A growing number of clinical trials in medicine also demonstrate measurable benefits of CCLAD technology. • Comfort control syringe: The Comfort Control Syringe differs from the Milestone products in that there is no foot pedal. It has two main components: A base unit and a syringe. Several functions of the unit- most Comfort control syringe importantly injection and aspiration- can be controlled directly from the syringe, possibly making its use easier to master for practitioners accustomed to the traditional manual syringe. The Comfort Control Syringe has five pre-programmed speeds for different injection techniques and can be used for all injection techniques. Although, use of the Comfort Control Syringe may be more perceptive than that of the CompuDent system in the sense that the injection is controlled by hand, the syringe is bulky and more cumbersome to use than the Wand handpiece. A comparison between the traditional dental syringe and the Comfort Control Syringe revealed no meaningful differences in ease of administration, injection pain and efficacy, and acceptance by patients.

Jet Injectors:

Jet-injection technology is based on the principle of using a mechanical energy source to create a release of pressure sufficient to push a dose of liquid medication through a very small orifice, creating a thin column of fluid with enough force that it can penetrate soft tissue into the subcutaneous tissue without a needle. Jet injectors are believed to offer advantages over traditional needle injectors by being fast and easy to use, with little or no pain, less tissue damage, and faster drug absorption at the injection site.[8] Controlled studies evaluating efficacy are lacking, and reports are primarily anecdotal. To date, the effectiveness of the technique in dentistry has been reported to be limited. • Syrijet: The Syrijet Mark II (Keystone Industries [aka Mizzy], Cherry Hill, NJ, USA) has been on the market for nearly 40 years and has had some minor Syrijet improvements over the years. Some good features of the device is that it accepts the standard 1.8 mL cartridges of LA solution (thereby ensuring sterility of the solution), permits the administration of a variable volume of solution from 0 to 0.2 mL, and is completely autoclavable. • MED-JET H III MED-JET (Medical International Technologies, Montreal, QC, Canada) has been launched in 2011 with the manufacturer’s claim that medication being injected with the device is directed through a MED-JET H III small orifice 7 times smaller than the smallest available needle in the world. This extremely small stream of liquid under pressure pierces and then the remainder of the dose will be dispersed into the desired layer of tissue. The system’s uniqueness is its ability to utilize low pressure delivery methods without compromising


Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices


accuracy, convenience and ease of use - while • UltraSafe Syringe: The UltraSafe syringe ensuring patient comfort, environmental (Safety Syringes Inc, safety and user affordability. Carlsbad, CA, USA) is a disposable syringe Safety dental syringes: and needle with a plastic In recent years there has been a move toward transparent, syringe barrel, which UltraSafe Syring the development and introduction of ‘safety’ has a retractable syringes in both medicine and dentistry. Use of a safety syringe minimizes the risk of accidental needle sheath. Providers can view the carpule needle-stick injury occurring to a dental health contents through the clear plastic syringe provider with a contaminated needle after the barrel; this is further helpful in aspiration administration of LA. These syringes possess and in viewing anesthetic content, and also a sheath that ‘locks’ over the needle when it is protects the provider from injury because the removed from the patient’s tissues preventing needle is covered before and after injection. accidental needle stick. Both OSHA and the The difference between this type of syringe CDC have recommended that health care and the Ultra Safety Plus XL syringe is that in personnel should adopt safer work practices the UltraSafe syringe the entire assembly is and consider using medical devices with safety disposable and is not autoclavable. features. Subsequent to this several syringes • HypoSafety Syringe: The HypoSafety syringe (Dentsply MPL appeared in market. Surveys reported wide Technologies, Susquehanna, PA, USA) is a user dissatisfaction with many of the safety devices, however. Results of a review and translucent disposable plastic syringe and bench tests indicate that the devices tested needle combination. The needle can be into the were no safer than traditional anesthetic retracted needles. Most have disappeared from the barrel of the syringe market. There is still a need for safety syringes after the injection. that will protect providers from needle-stick Therefore, the needle is covered before and injury, and some are available on the market. after injection, which • Ultra Safety Plus XL syringe: will minimize the The Ultra Safety Plus XL syringe (Septodont, HypoSafety Syringe chance of needle-stick Lancaster, PA, USA) has a sterile disposable injury for providers. protective shield that The obstacle with this type of syringe is that is fitted with a dental the dentist is not able to re-expose the safety needle into which shield in order to administer a second injection anesthetic carpules are if the needle has been bent; this can therefore placed. The plunger delay the procedure and will require use of a assembly is reusable second syringe in the case of a bent needle and autoclavable. technique having been used. The Ultra Safety Plus • SafetyWand™: XL syringe provides In response to the Ultra Safety Plus XL syringe protection from the needle because the needle is covered both Needlestick Safety and before and after injection, and the needle does Prevention Act, the not have to be disassembled prior to disposal, SafetyWand has been which further protects the worker who is developed for use with cleaning the dental tray. Providers who used the CompuDent system. safety system this type of syringe reported that there was The has a pen-like grasp more time required for changing anesthetic that allows maximum SaftyWand™ carpules. tactile control and



Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices

an auto-retracting design that shields the needle when not in use. It is lighter than a traditional syringe, and the shield is operated with one hand, apparently making it safer to use. The manufacturer (Milestone Scientific Inc, Livingston, NJ, USA) claims that it is the first patented injection device to be fully compliant with OSHA regulations under the federal Needlestick Safety Act. • RevVac™ safety syringe: The RevVac safety syringe operates the same as a standard conventional syringe. No additional training, skills, or procedures are necessary. It works on a simple concept; where retracting and pressing the plunger creates a robust vacuum at the time of use. When the RevVac™ Retracting Safety Syringe plunger reaches the bottom, after all medicine is administered, a further push on the plunger breaks the seal, and the needle retracts into the plunger. The syringe cannot be reused. The RevVac™ Safety Syringe is FDA Cleared.

Devices for intra-osseous anesthesia:

Several systems have been developed to achieve IO anesthesia. Although, significant differences exist among them, they all aim to inject local anesthetic solution into the cancellous bone adjacent to the apex of the tooth. These systems are: Stabident (Fairfax Dental, Miami, Florida), X-tip (Dentsply International Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA), and IntraFlow (Pro-Dex Incorporated, Santa Ana, CA, USA). • Stabident: Numerous studies have shown the Stabident system to be safe and effective when used as directed. The advantages of the product are that it is relatively inexpensive and can be used with equipment already Stabident Components Blue Perforator existing in a dental

office: A slow-speed hand piece with a latch contra-angle for the perforator and a standard dental anesthetic syringe for the needle. The main disadvantage of the device is that the perforation needs to be made in a reasonably accessible and visible location in the attached gingiva distal to the tooth to be anesthetized. If the penetration zone is located in alveolar mucosa that moves once the perforator is withdrawn, it can be extremely difficult to locate the perforation site with the anesthetic needle. • X-Tip: In view of above difficulty of Stabident system to locate the perforation hole, the X-Tip solves this X-Tip problem by making the pilot drill itself a hollow tube through which a 27-gauge needle can pass. The initial drill stays in place, allowing the anesthetic to be placed without hunting for the hole that was just created. The X-Tip has been reported to have more postoperative pain in males, 1 to 3 days after the procedure, which may be contributed to by increased heat formation during perforation because of the X-Tip’s wider diameter of the drill and guide sleeve. The manufacturer (Dentsply International Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA) has discontinued making of X-Tip now. • IntraFlow: The IntraFlow (Pro-Dex Medical Devices, Irvine, CA, USA) device is essentially a dental handpiece equipped with an injection system built into the body. The biggest advantage of the IntraFlow IntraFlow anesthesia system is that it allows entry into the penetration zone, injection, and withdrawal in one continuous step, without the need to relocate the perforation site. This singlestep method can be helpful in penetration zones that are difficult to visualize or access, such as the second and sometimes the first molar areas, or where there is horizontal bone loss or a limited band of attached gingiva in


Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices the desired penetration zone. One recent study found IntraFlow to provide reliable anesthesia of posterior mandibular teeth in 13 of 15 subjects, compared to 9 of 15 with an inferior alveolar nerve block.Disadvantages of the IntraFlow are start-up and maintenance costs, and that the device can occasionally leak anesthetic, especially if not assembled properly.

Local Anesthesia Techniques: Anterior middle superior alveolar and palatal approach-anterior superior alveolar nerve block

CCLAD has made both techniques quite

popular, as the level of patient discomfort is minimal. The AMSA nerve block provides pulpal anesthesia to the maxillary incisors, canines and premolars on the side of injection. Soft tissue anesthesia is achieved for the entire hard palate on both that side and the intraoral mucosa of the five anesthetized teeth. Significantly, no extraoral anesthesia develops with the AMSA, a benefit to both the patient (functionally and esthetically) and the doctor during cosmetic procedures (no drooping of the upper lip). The palatal approach-anterior superior alveolar nerve block provides pulpal anesthesia to the six anterior teeth - canine to canine bilaterally, as well as the palatal and labial gingiva and mucoperiosteum and bone overlying these teeth. As noted with the AMSA, there is no collateral anesthesia extraorally. • P e r i o d o n t a l ligament injection: Another injection technique, the periodontal ligament injection, also known as the intraligamentary injection (ILI) has been extremely useful Injection with the STA needle into the intraligamentary space when anesthesia of a single tooth in the mandible is required. The PDL injection provides pulpal anesthesia


to the tooth, with only localized soft tissue anesthesia developing. When administered in the mandible, there is no associated extraoral or lingual anesthesia like traditional inferior alveolar nerve block. Disadvantages are difficulty in locating the precise site for needle placement (within or at the entrance to the PDL), the chances of leakage of bitter-tasting LA solution into the patient’s mouth. When the traditional syringe is used, the application of high pressure is needed to deliver the LA into the dense oral tissues at the PDL injection site. This has resulted in many patients complaining that the PDL injection was painful. • Single-tooth anesthesia: In 2006, the manufacturers of the original CCLAD, the Wand, introduced a new device, Single Tooth Anesthesia (STA™). STA incorporates dynamic pressure-sensing (DPS) technology that provides a constant monitoring of the exit pressure of the local anesthetic solution in real time during all STA Single Tooth Anesthesia System phases of the drug’s administration. Originally designed for use in medicine in epidural regional anesthesia, STA utilizes an adaptation of DPS to dentistry as a means of overcoming the problems associated with PDL injection, and simplifies AMSA and P-ASA injections. The system can be utilized for all traditional intraoral injection techniques. Unlike earlier variants, the STA includes a training mode that verbally explains how to use the device, and multi-cartridge and auto-cartridge retraction features. Since the pressure of the LA is strictly regulated by the STA system, a greater volume of LA can be administered with increased comfort and less tissue damage than seen with traditional syringes or PDL pressure devices. • Reversing local anesthesia: Prolonged facial and lingual anesthesia is an often unnecessary and unwanted consequence of intraoral local anesthesia. Many dental patients report that prolonged soft tissue anesthesia interferes with normal oral function. Self-inflicted injuries can occur.



Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices

In May 2009, The FDA approved OraVerse (phentolamine mesylate; Novalar Pharmaceuticals Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) for the reversal of soft tissue anesthesia and the associated functional deficits resulting from a local dental anesthetic. Phentolamine seems to be safe and effective in reducing soft tissue local anesthetic recovery time in adults and children as young as 6 years. Limited data support a favorable safety profile in children as young as 4 years. A recent study investigated the pattern of use, dentist evaluation, and patient assessment of OraVerse. Data were collected from 51 dentists reporting on 390 patients 4 to 90 years of age. Patients reported reduced duration of oral numbness (92%) and improved dental experiences (84%) after use. A total of 83% of patients said they would recommend the medication to others and 79% said they would opt for OraVerse in the future. Dentists reported that the medication addressed an existing need (86%), met expectations (82%), was a practice differentiator (55%) and a practice builder (45%), and improved scheduling (29%). Both patient and dentist satisfaction rates were high. • Ph buffering of local anesthesia: Recent technical advances have made it practical to alkalinize dental anesthetic cartridges at chairside immediately prior to injection. Alkalinization hastens the onset of analgesia and reduces injection pain, making the science of buffering local anesthetic worthy of consideration by dentists interested in anesthesia that is more rapid, more efficient, and more predictable, as well as being more comfortable for the patient. Clinical recommendations for practitioners are to buffer cartridge immediately before delivering the injection and to buffer each injection. • Future trends: An area of future interest is the possibility of development of newer improved devices and techniques for achieving profound anesthesia. A nasal spray has shown to anesthetize maxillary anterior six teeth is set to be tested in an FDA Phase 3 trial, which will assess the spray’s effectiveness compared to the current “gold standard” treatment -

painful anesthesia injections. Syringe micro vibrator (SMV), a new device being introduced in dentistry to alleviate pain and anxiety of intraoral injections. Local anesthetics have made a great advancement in dentistry and have changed patients’ perspectives of dental procedures to a great extent. There is still room for the improvement of painless techniques in administrating local anesthetics. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with all the local anesthesia devices and techniques available for dental procedures to best exploit them.



© National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery


IDEM’18 Social Competition

IDEM’18 Social Competition đ&#x;?

Upon agreement with IDEM Singapore, IADS is pleased to announce about the “IDEM 2018 Social Competitionâ€?. đ&#x;“Ž Terms:

đ&#x;—“ Deadline: The student with highest 31.01.2018 - 23:59 GMT number of share for this poster: will be đ&#x;“§ Further inquiries: awarded 1 free seat at IDEM Tan Sze Hao (International 2018 Singapore. Exchange Officer) — with Tan Sze Hao in ďżź Singapore. đ&#x;“Œ Eligibility:


IADS student members are entitled to join such competition.



Oral Thrush


an infection caused by the candida fungus, which is yeast. You can get it in your mouth and other parts of the body. It can cause diaper rash in infants or vaginal yeast infections in women. Anyone can get thrush, but it happens most often to babies and toddlers, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. ⬛ Causes: Small amounts of the candida fungus are in your mouth, digestive tract, and skin. it’s usually kept under control by the other bacteria in your body. But sometimes, certain illnesses or medications, like corticosteroids or antibiotics, can disturb the balance. This can cause the fungus to grow out of control. That’s when you get thrush.

Stress can cause it. So, can a number

▪ Uncontrolled diabetes ▪ HIV infection ▪ Cancer ▪ Dry mouth ▪ Hormonal changes that happen with pregnancy.

If you smoke or wear dentures that

don’t fit right might, you’re also more likely to get thrush. And babies can pass the infection to their mothers while breastfeeding. ⬛ Treatment: To diagnose oral thrush, your doctor or dentist may: ▪ Examine your mouth to look at the lesions. ▪ Take a small scraping of the lesions to examine under a microscope. ▪ If needed, do a physical exam and certain blood tests to identify any possible underlying medical condition that may be the cause of oral thrush.

of medical conditions, like:



What is scientific research?

What is scientific research? It’s

a systematic investigation of scientific theories and hypotheses. A hypothesis is a single assertion, a proposed explanation of something based on available knowledge, for something yet to be explained. One that is subject for further experimentation. • Steps of scientific method: 1. Ask a question: scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe. 2. Do background research: Rather than starting starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering your question, you wat to be savvy scientist using library and internet research to help you find the best way to do things and insure that you don’t repeat mistakes from the past. 3. Construct a hypothesis: which is an educated guess about how things work. 4. Test your hypothesis: by doing experiment to test your predication. 5. Analyze your data and draw conclusion. 6. Communicate results.



Dental Fluorosis or Mottled Teeth

Dental Fluorosis or Mottled Teeth ◾ It is a common disorder that is characterized by hypomineralization of the tooth during the period of tooth development. ◾ Mottled teeth are more caries resistant. ◾ There are some causes to this condition which are: drinking water which contains excessive amount of fluoride when the fluoride levels reach more than 1.5 part per million, ingestion of substances which contain fluoride as tooth paste, vegetables and food which contain high amount of fluoride. ◾ The severity of dental fluorosis depends on age, dose, duration and affected by genetic factors. The period when the teeth at the highest risk is when they born up to 6 or 8 years old and many researches approve that the most crucial period is the first 2 years. ◾ There are 4 stages of fluorosis: 1. Very mild: which appears as small chalky patches occupies less than 25% of the tooth surface. 2. Mild: Which appears as opaque areas and occupies about 50% of surface. 3. Moderate: Which appears as chalky and brown areas occupying all surface of tooth. 4. Severe: Enamel is opaque, brown, pitted, easily chipped away from tooth surface. ◾ They can treat by: • Tooth bleaching. • Veneers.

• Crowns. • Composite filling.

Accurate Photos of Enamel Fluorosis



Very Mild






D o a a Malek

1st International Dental Student Photo Contest


1st International Dental Student Photo Contest đ&#x;“¸

International Association of Dental Students -IADS- is pleased to launch the first version of its photography contest for all members and fellows worldwide, under the theme Dent-IsTRY. This year theme is about our experience and efforts which we put in dentistry, that is why the name of theme is dent-is-TRY. It means we must reflect in our photos how much we are Trying here; how hard we are working to get where we want. ⏛ Rules of photography contest ◞ Submission: • The competition is free to enter. • The Competition is open for online submissions on International Association of Dental Students -IADS- Facebook page. • The competition is open for all IADS members. • Submissions will be accepted from February 1st, 2018 until February 25th, 2018. ◞ The photo: • All photos must relate to theme of the competition • Black and White entries are accepted • Submitted Photo must be in JPEG format, with high quality and resolution, of a minimum 1 MB in size and suitable for publication. • Tags, initials, signature, frame, logos or any other references added by the participant are not allowed.



1st International Dental Student Photo Contest

• Basic technical editing of the Photo is acceptable. • Editing must not affect the authenticity of the Photo. Digital manipulation that distorts the reality of the images will not be allowed. • The association has the right to ask for the original/RAW file. • The judges reserve the right to disqualify any participant whose entry that breach any of the Rules. • Intellectual Property Rights: • The photo must be taken by the entrant • The participant, by submitting an image for the competition, will be regarded as having granted the association the right to reproduce and use the image in broadcast, print, and/or electronic media. The Prizes: 1. Sponsor gift (Stay tuned for more information!) 2. The winning photo will be published In IADS magazine with a little bit of information about the winner as well If the winning picture contain recognizable person, participant must secure a model release from the subject or, in the case of a minor, the subject’s parent or guardian. The judge: 1. Dr. Arthur H. L. Partiyan 2. Luis G. Quintero 3. Malek Ghorbel 4. Abanob Yosry 5. Dr. Montri Chantaramungkorn Stay tune for more information!


The Fellowships Program in Laser Dentistry Held by Misr University for Science and Technology & Genova University


The Fellowships Program in Laser Dentistry Held by Misr University for Science and Technology & Genova University The use of laser is the future of dentistry And the Faculty of Medicine and Oral and Dental Surgery, Egypt University of Science and Technology Is playing its leading role at the level of Egypt with a cooperation in the field of laser uses with the University of Genoa, Italy under the care of Dean of the College: Prof. Hani Amin and the Vice Dean for Student Affairs and Education and Director of Clinics and responsible for fellowship programs: Prof. Hala Al-Mnoufi Under the patronage of the President of the Council of Trustees and Pioneers of Special Education in Egypt Engineer: Khaled Toukhi and the President of the University: Dr. Mohammed Al-Azzazi And Dean of Student Affairs. Mokhtar Al-Zawahiri We offer you the diploma of laser applications for the University of Genoa, Italy under the care of Dr. Bassem Emad, Dr. Amr Al-Ganzouri, Dr. Ahmed Emad and with fellowship organizers at the University of Egypt Doctor: Abanoub Wahba, Dr. Amr Raft, Dr. Yusra Bastiusi and Dr. Mohamed Hisham. The Fellowship Post-Graduate Diploma in Laser Dentistry A Program offered by the University of Genoa, Italy in Cooperation with Misr University of Science and Technology The Fellowship Post-Graduate Diploma

in Laser Dentistry of the University of Genoa, Italy is a one-year course of study and examination in the use of lasers as an adjunct to clinical dental surgery and medicine. Fellowship shall define a level of competence that is consistent with an experienced laser user. The course is designed to provide evidence-based core knowledge in laser use in dentistry and to refine practical skills. Emphasis is placed on the integration of this course into the on-going practice of dentistry for each participant and the future benefit of laser use for dental patients. Elements of the course are didactic theoretical and applied clinical knowledge of laser use in all aspects of dental surgery and medicine. Additional aspects shall include the practical use of lasers and the compilation of clinical case presentations. The teaching faculty is selected from members of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Genoa and accredited International specialists in laser dentistry. Successful completion of the course and examination shall be recognized by the presentation of a certificate: “Fellowship in Laser Dentistry” The course is composed of four threeday modules. Subjects to be covered shall be taken from the syllabus of ‘laser use in dentistry”, University of Genoa.



The Fellowships Program in Laser Dentistry Held by Misr University for Science and Technology & Genova University

Preliminary Program: Module I. Laser photonic energy. Historical aspects of laser development. Relationship of laser emission to “ordinary” light. Production of laser photonic energy by solid-state, gas and semi-conductorbased laser machines. Emission modes. Laser wavelengths in use in dentistry and an overview of their application. Laser-tissue interaction. Clinical case design. Laser Safety. Low-level laser energy use in dentistry. Module II. Laser use in oral hard tissue management. Laser wavelengths and consideration of optimal power parameters relative to absorption phenomena. Laser interaction with enamel, dentine, cementum, dental caries. Laser interaction with alveolar bone. Laser use in endodontics – orthograde and retrograde applications. Module III. Laser use in oral soft tissue management. Laser wavelengths and consideration of optimal power parameters relative to absorption phenomena. Laser use in the management of nonkeratinised or “loose” soft tissue structures – lining mucosa, frenula, ventral tongue. Laser use in the management of keratinised or “fixed” soft tissue – gingiva, dorsal tongue.

Laser use in periodontology – surgical and non-surgical applications. Laser use in implantology. Module IV. Integration of lasers into dental practice – clinical and marketing aspects. Practical sessions in laser use. Presentation of clinical cases. LIVE OPERATIONS. Multiple-choice examination – Diploma Closing ceremony. The four modules will be held at the Campus of Misr University of Science and Technology (MUST) in 6th October City- Egypt, Fellowship fees are 2500 USD.


The Fellowships Program in Laser Dentistry Held by Misr University for Science and Technology & Genova University




Humans of DSSA-MUST

Humans of DSSA-MUST When I first joined DSSA

we were nothing but a small group of students sharing big hopes and goals that we wanted to achieve during our time in this collage, we wanted to be memorable by something good and useful we did for all other students, we wanted to share what we think is useful for dental students and others. For me they were such a big goals with a lot of excitement, work and only few of us . But as time passed this organization grew in its members and I achieved those goals and learned more things I couldn’t learn in other places, things like how different and amazing this energy that you get during working with such an active group, how I get to know people I have never thought I’m going to meet and learn from their different experiences and

different stories and most importantly and recently I’m learning how to be a leader . Being a part of this actively working group of DSSA MUST from its early beginnings has taught me that building something with a lot of faith and honesty in working, no matter how hard it gets I will always receive better results more than I ever expected .



B a s m a Abdul-Wahab


Latest Events

Latest Events 1st GA of DSSA-MUST

Medicine Capsule

As a scientific organization, it's our pleasure to start with you our first event "medical capsule" there is nothing more important than our health to care about. As a student in a scientific college which depends mainly on mental and physical methods, or if you are just an ordinary person who is interested in medical knowledge, or even if you ignore this stuff. There are some important medical things

that should be in your awareness: • How many persons know about "AIDS" and how to get precautions from it? • What do you know about "Diabetes" and what is its signs? • Can you differentiate between virus C & B?



Latest Events

1st School Visiting

World Oral Health Day 2017

In the celebration of

World Oral Health Day, DSSA MUST organized many events which include: 1. What Is dentistry and its various branches and specialties. 2. Publicize different ways of dental care by explaining the toothbrush technique and using of dental floss, also motivating students to care about periodic visit to the dentist.

The events included: 1. School visit to "Leaders school". 2. Inclusive day at MUST university to provide awareness of oral and dental care to university students.

Our DSSA heroes celebrating with Leaders School students for the world oral health day 2017.



Latest Events

Mother's Day

Orphan's Day

DSSA-MUST didn't forget to celebrate "Mother's Day". We found that our college cleaners are the most appropriate people we could celebrate with. They always show love to us. They treat us as if they are our mothers and they always tell us sweet words and prayers before entering our exams. We celebrated with them by giving a small souvenir and treating them how to take care of their teeth that made them so happy. We always seek to do the best and let people feel happy.

Nothing can describe happiness, those who have pure hearts and not contaminated by any factors by time ... let you all go visit those who will let you feel happy. You will feel as if you have returned to your childhood and you will merge automatically with their innocence.



Latest Events

Social Gathering

Orientation Day The introduction tour and the welcome

day to our newcomers' students, to prepare them for their first collage week, organized by Dental students' scientific association DSSA-MUST, Dentistry Voice and EADS MUST. All thanks and gratitude for: Prof. Hany Ameen - The dean of the faculty of dentistry. Prof. Hala Salem Al-Monoufy - The representative of students' affairs and education. Prof. Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Husary - The representative of the faculty for environmental and community affairs.

We know that

the university is not only for sciences and studies, as the university student can extract any needed information easily from the internet. The university is a place to build personalities and get the students ready to face their careers with all its necessities, and to provide a favorable environment for contact between the generations. The university is the summit of education and cultivation.

That's why we seek, as an entity, to

create a full understanding of the university. It's a diverse pool of different ideologies, cultures, and ideas coming together to create a community free from extremism towards one idea. It creates a community open to all opinions and directions. Wednesday is the weekly meeting for DSSAMUST members, where everyone will speak about himself and his ambitions and goals. As a member of DSSA-MUST, you're living the full meaning of university being a beacon for education.



Latest Events

Egypt Without Bad Oral Habits

Outing Gathering has latent power ,it inspires us

to think and make a plan and to fulfill it. Here in DSSA gathering is part of us to achieve harmony between all the members in the organization ,so in that day we were keen to gather and make a great outing to renew our souls and be away of work place so we can communicate in a sociable way full of happiness and joy, to achieve a good work in the future.


sound of laughing from an innocent child, prays from a mother, an old woman staring with happy eyes, all of this draw a pure smile on your face no one can feel it if he didn’t live it.

Monshaat Dahshour

The members of “DSSA-MUST” lived all this positive moments which fall of all this positive energy. “DSSA-MUST” made a huge awareness campaign in “Monshaat Dahshour” in Giza to aware 1200 person in this place.



Latest Events


2nd School Visiting

The Second Annual General Assembly of DSSA-MUST

Our DSSA heroes with Genuis International School students


Latest Events

Pre-GA of DSSA-Egypt

Misr University of Science and Technology under the supervision Dental Students' Scientific Association of Misr University for Science & Technology University (DSSA-MUST). Honoring the President of Dentists in Egypt Dr. Yasser Al-Jundi, for his winning the position of Secretary-General of the Union of Arab Dentists and his continuing role in supporting the College. • Dr. Nahawad Thabet Member of the Board of the Bar and representative of FDI World Dental Federation. • Prof. Hala Al-Menoufy Vice Dean for Education Affairs, Faculty of Medicine and Oral and Dental Surgery.

31 Dr. Yasser Al-Jundi

Dr. Nahawand Thabet

Prof. Hala Al-Menoufi

• The most active students in the college were honored. He was honored by Prof. Prof. Mokhtar Al-Zawahri Mukhtar Al-Zawahri, Vice President for Students Affairs.

Pre-Annual General Assembly of DSSA-Egypt



Upcoming Events

Upcoming Events Thought we stayed for too

long with no work? đ&#x;¤” This is us DSSA preparing for our upcoming event which sends very important message and spread awareness among our fellow students about mouth cancer. We carefully prepare and construct these ideas by ourselves to share team work and build something that has all our vision in fun, professional and out of the box ways, so that every idea can take its own space and every thought is build and delivered correctly. And to always aim for building the perfect events.

EDITORIAL BOARD Mahmoud Mashhadi

Mohammed Hanourah

Mohammed Abo-Dahab




2017 / 2018 Magazine


DSSA.MUST Dental Students' Scientific Association of Misr University for Science & Technology University

DSSA-MUST Magazine (1st Issue - 2018)  

1st Issue of DSSA-MUST Magazine You can read in this issue: ◼ Dental Photography. ◼ App Eldof3a. ◼ Advances in dental local anesthesia tech...

DSSA-MUST Magazine (1st Issue - 2018)  

1st Issue of DSSA-MUST Magazine You can read in this issue: ◼ Dental Photography. ◼ App Eldof3a. ◼ Advances in dental local anesthesia tech...