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Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

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Management Topic

Keyword

Definition

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Marketing Management

3 Ms

Three key resources: Men, Money and Minutes. Men means men and women, money mean budgets and minutes mean time.

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AAA

American Academy of Advertising. An association of educators, students, and former educators in advertising.

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AAAA

American Association of Advertising Agencies. An association whose members are ad agencies.

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Abandonment Rate

The number of unique visitors that leave shopping carts prior to completing an online transaction.

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Above the line

―Above the Line‖ is the term commonly used for advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency. Methods of above the line advertising include television and radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.

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Above-The-Fold

A term borrowed from print newspapers that references the top portion of a Web page that is visible without scrolling. Important information should be presented above the fold to eliminate the need for scrolling by individuals browsing a web site.

A to Z

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Advertising is considered to be above the line. Traditionally, advertising agencies charged commission on advertising which was 'above the line'. Other work by the agency such as design of sales promotions, mail shots and PR activities were charged a fixed fee and appeared on the agency bill 'below the line'.

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Above-The-Line

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Above-The-Line-Cost Any cost involved in the advertising production process, specifically listed in a budget

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Acceptable Price Range

A consumer expectation of the price range for a given product category; pricing below the acceptable price range will be perceived as inferior, pricing above the acceptable price range will be considered too expensive.

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Access

Access to library materials and services, on one dimension, is represented in the location of physical facilities. Because libraries are travelled-to outlets, marketing location theories can be applied successfully to library siting.

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Accordian insert

An ad inserted in a magazine, folded with an accordian-style fold.

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Account classification the summation or grouping of like items into categories such as revenue accounts, liability accounts and expense accounts.

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Account Executive

A person in an advertising agency who serves as the principal contact with a client(s), coordinating the work of agency staff members assigned to that account.

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Account Management The process by which an agency or supplier manages the needs of a client.

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Account Services

The functional area responsible for interacting with clients. Account Supervisors, Account Executives and Project Managers are all part of the Account Services team.

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Accountability

Systematic inclusion of critical elements of program planning, implementation, and evaluation in order to achieve results.

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Accredited Programmes

Modular study that is assessed by exam or by project based assignments towards achieving a qualification

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Acculturation

Acculturation is the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people. The term originally applied only to the process concerning a foreign culture, from the acculturing or accultured recipient point of view, having this foreign culture added and mixed with that of his or her already existing one acquired since birth.

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Accumulation

An audience-counting method, where each person exposed to a specific vehicle is counted once within a certain time period.

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Acetate

Transparent plastic sheet frequently used for overlays in ad layouts.

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Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

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ACORN

A Classification Of Residential Neighbourhoods: a database which divides up the entire population of the UK in terms of the type of housing in which they live.

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Acquisition value

The users' perception of the relative worth of a product or service to them. Formally defined as the subjectively weighted difference between the most a buyer would be willing to pay for the product or service, less the actual price of the item. Time user must spend to 'acquire' is often used as a surrogate for 'relative worth or price paid,' in library research. For example, a user might be willing to expend drive time and a brief time in the library to check out a best seller, but not wait two weeks for a copy to be returned.

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Action advertising

Advertising intended to bring about immediate action on the part of the reader or viewer.

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Ad

The name used to indicate an advertising message in the print media.

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Ad audience

The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

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Ad banner

A graphical image used as an advertisement and displayed within an HTML document. The image is most frequently linked to the advertisers' website, where additional information is presented. See sample.

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Ad blocker

Software on a user‘s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

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Ad campaign audit

An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

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Ad centric measurement

Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server's own server logs.

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Ad copy

The printed text or spoken words in an advertisement.

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Ad hoc market research

Ad-hoc research focuses on specific marketing problems. It involves the collection of data at one point in time from one sample of respondents.

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Ad network

An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory from many sites, for example, 24/7 Media.

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Ad recall

A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents are exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time are asked if they recall the ad.

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Ad serving

Ad serving describes the technology and service that places advertisements on web sites. Ad serving technology companies provide software to web sites and advertisers to serve ads, count them, choose the ads that will make the web site or advertiser most money, and monitor progress of different advertising campaigns.

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Ad testing

Any of a variety of methods used to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of an advertisement. Pre-testing involves showing different ad prototypes to groups to determine which is the most effective.

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Ad Words

A system to advertise on Google & partner sites on a CPC (cost per click) basis

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Added Value

The increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity - in the context of marketing, the activity might be packaging or branding.

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Additional Markup

The practice of adding a price increase on top of the original markup.

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Add-On

In charge accounts, the purchasing of additional merchandise without paying in full for previous purchases.

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Adjacencies

Time periods immediately before and after a television program, normally used as a commercial break between programs.

Adaptive Selling

A sales technique using a sales message and sales behavior adapted for each prospect in response to the specific sales situation. Electronic commerce is an ideal vehicle for this technique because of its ability to gather input from customers through effective interfaces.

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Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

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Adnorm

A measure of readership averages for print publications over a two-year period, used as a baseline for comparing specific ads to an average.

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Adopter categories

Persons or agencies that adopt an innovation are often classified into five groups according to the sequence of their adoption of it. (To illustrate this think of individual use of the Internet within the library, and for an agency, libraries that offer Internet access to the general public. 1) Innovators (first 2-5%); 2) Early adopters (10-15%)' 3) Early majority (next 35%); 4) Late majority (next 35%); 5) Laggards (final 5-10%). This is important when considering how long it may take for the general public to 'adopt' a product or service.

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Adoption

A common model of stages in the purchase process ranging from; awareness, knowledge, evaluation, trial, and finally adoption

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ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Technology that allows data to be transmitted over copper pair telephone lines at up to 8 Mbps. The technology allows internet access and telephony services to be available simultaneously.

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Advance premium

A premium provided to a consumer, on the condition of some later purchase.

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Advertisement

A commercial message targeted to an advertiser‘s customer or prospect.

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Advertiser

The company paying for the advertisement.

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Advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. Marketers see advertising as part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion.

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Advertising agency

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Advertising allowance Money paid to a retailer by a manufacturer for featuring its brands in the retailer‘s advertising

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Advertising budget

The total amount of money that a marketer allocates for advertising over a period of time.

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Advertising Campaign

A planned sequence of advertisements.

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Advertising Copy

The written or verbal component of an advertising message

Advertising

Advertising (Ad) Copy

The printed text and/or spoken words that deliver the message contained in an advertisement.

Marketing specialist firm that assists advertisers in planning and implementing advertising programs.

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Advertising Effectiveness

Degree to which an advertisement or advertising campaign achieves its stated objectives; typically gauged by measuring the campaign's impact on sales, brand awareness, and market share.

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Advertising elasticity

The relationship between a change in advertising budget and the resulting change in product sales.

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Advertising Exposure

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Advertising impression

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Advertising Media

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Advertising message The use of words, symbols and illustrations to communicate to a target audience using prime media

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Advertising Objectives

An opportunity for a person to see or hear a marketing message.

A possible exposure of the advertising message to one audience member.

The various channels that advertisers employ to communicate messages to target audiences.

1) The purpose of an advertisement (for example, to inform, to persuade, to remind). 2) The specific goals of the advertiser, such as the amount of products sold or inquiries received.

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Advertising page exposure

A measure of the opportunity for readers to see a particular print advertisement, whether or not that actually look at the ad.

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Advertising plan

An explicit outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve, how to accomplish those goals, and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals.

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Advertising research

Research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. It may focus on a specific ad or campaign, or may be directed at a more general understanding of how advertising works or how consumers use the information in advertising. It can entail a variety of research approaches, including psychological, sociological, economic, and other perspectives.

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Advertising response Studies of this indicate that incremental response to advertising actually diminishes-rather than builds-with repeated exposure. curve

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Advertising revenue

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Advertising specialty A product imprinted with, or otherwise carrying, a logo or promotional message. Also called a promotional product.

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Advertising strategy

Revenue realized from the sale of advertising. See interactive advertising revenue.

The methodology advertisers use to achieve their advertising objectives. The strategy is determined by the particular creative mix of advertising elements the advertiser selects, namely: target audience; product concept; communications media; and advertising message.

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Advertising strategy research

Used to help define the product concept or to assist in the selection of target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles.

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Advertising Value Equivalent (AVE)

A commonly used PR measurement of the value of the space secured by PR executives had they bought that equivalent amount of space in advertising.

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Advertorial

An advertorial is an advertisement written in the form of editorial copy in a printed publication. They are usually designed to look like news stories.

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Advocacy advertising Advertising used to communicate an organization's views on issues that affect society or business.

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Adware

Free software which includes pop-up banner advertisements which cannot be dismissed. See ‗Banner Averts‘ and ‗Pop-up‘.

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Affiliate Marketing

A form of marketing or advertising used on the internet. Companies that sell products or services online link to relevant sites. The advertising on the other or 'affiliate' sites is paid for according to results.

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Affiliate Network

A grouping of businesses that provide support services to affiliate marketing programs. Services can include tracking commissions and activity, marketing and sales support, etc.

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Affinities

A tendency for similar or complementary retail stores to be located in close proximity to one another. Often, retail establishments will be near one another in order to facilitate comparison shopping and attract large consumer audiences.

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Affinity Marketing

Marketing targeted at individuals sharing common interests that predispose them towards a product, e.g. an auto accessories manufacturer targeting motoring magazine readers. Also, a campaign jointly sponsored by a number of disparate organisations that are non-competitive but have a particular interest in common.

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A disclosure of information in an advertisement, required by the Federal Trade Commission or other authority, that may not be Affirmative disclosure desired by the advertiser. This information frequently admits to some limitation in the product or the offer made in the advertisement.

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After Sales Service

Services received after the original goods or service have been paid for.

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Agate line

A measure of newspaper advertising space, one column wide and 1/14th inch deep.

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Agency commission

The agency's fee for designing and placing advertisements. Historically, this was calculated as 15 percent of the amount spent to purchase space or time in the various media used for the advertising. In recent years the commission has, in many cases, become negotiable, and may even be based on some measure of the campaign's success.

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Agency Services

The functional area responsible for activities related to creating and producing each project, including concept development, copywriting, design, public relations, illustration, photography and printing.

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Agents

Represent an organisation and sell on their behalf. Usually paid by a percentage commission on sales. Unlike distributors, agents do not hold nor buy stock. They just make contacts, take/win orders and pass the order onto the producer who subsequently delivers the goods.

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Aggregate Data

Data that is rolled up from a smaller unit to show summary data.

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Aggregation

A concept of market segmentation that assumes that most consumers are alike. Combining buying power in specific categories within the various business units within a company or with other companies in order to secure optimal pricing and service agreements from suppliers.

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Aging

The length of time merchandise has been in stock.

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AIDA

Attention, Interest, Desire, Action: a model describing the process that advertising or promotion is intended to initiate in the mind of a prospective customer.

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Aided recall

A research method frequently used to determine what consumers remember about an advertisement they have seen or heard.

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AIO

abbrev. activities, interests and opinions. A measurable series of psychographic (as opposed to demographic) variables involving the interests and beliefs of users.

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Airbrush

An artist's technique for creating a smooth gradation of color. It is often used to cover imperfections in a photograph, e.g., in a model's skin.

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AIUAPR

Awareness, Interest, Understanding, Attitudes, Purchase, Repeat purchase: a buying decision model.

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Ala carte services

Rather than provide all advertising services for one price, an agency may provide only the services that a client wishes to purchase.

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Algorithm

The set of rules a search engine applies to web pages to determine which Web pages are displayed in the search results for a search term. Search engines regularly change their algorithms to improve the quality of the search results, require constant research and monitoring of optimization efforts.

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Allocation

A sorting process that consists of breaking a uniform supply down into smaller and smaller groupings.

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Alt Tag

The alternative text that the browser displays when the surfer does not want to or cannot see the pictures present in a web page. Using alt tags containing key-words can improve the search engine ranking of the page for those keywords.

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Altavista

One of the first large scale search engines.

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Alternative Advertising

Advertising using vehicles other than traditional mass media; examples include text messaging on mobile phones and signs on supermarket shopping carts, etc.

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Ambient Media

Originally known as 'fringe media', ambient media are communications platforms that surround us in everyday life - from petrol pump advertising to advertising projected onto buildings to advertising on theatre tickets, cricket pitches or even pay slips. See also 'buzz'.

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Ambush Marketing

A deliberate attempt by an organisation to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship. For example by advertising during broadcasts of the event. See also 'buzz'

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ANA

Association of National Advertisers. An association whose members are advertisers, i.e., companies that advertise their products or services.

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Analysis of Variance

A statistical test employed with interval data to determine if k (k > 2) samples came from populations with equal means.

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Analytical Hierachy Process (AHP)

A mathematical decision making technique that allows consideration of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of decisions. It reduces complex decisions to a series of one-on-one comparisons, then synthesises the results.

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Anchor

Refers to a link on a web page, often found at the top or bottom of the page, that allows users to move to specific content on the web page.

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Anchor Tag

Code determining the destination of a link.

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Animated advertisement

An ad that changes over time.

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Animated GIF

A format for graphic images that incorporates several images rotated in sequence. This technique is employed to deliver additional information in a limited space.

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Animatic

An animatic, also called a story reel, is a filmed version of a storyboard, created to test dramatic timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence. More commonly, a rough dialogue or sound track is added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working well together.

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Animation

Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera.

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ANOVA

Stands for analysis of variance. A statistical test used with interval data to determine if samples came from populations with equal means.

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Ansoff Matrix

Model relating marketing strategy to general strategic direction. It maps product-market strategies - e.g. market penetration, product development, market development and diversification - on a matrix showing new versus existing products along one axis and new versus existing markets along the other.

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Answer print

The composite print of a film with final mixed track(s) and final picture color timings. In many contracts the delivery of the approved answer print is specified because it means that post-production has ended and release printing can begin, although the majority of prints are usually made from an internegative. Should always be distinguished in conversation and film labeling from a blacktrack answer print, which contains no soundtrack.

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Antitrust Laws

Federal antitrust policy is set forth in four laws: the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Clayton Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Robinson-Patman Act. These laws are negative in character and outlaw restraints of trade, monopolizing, attempting to

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Aperture

The opening in a camera that determines the amount of light that reaches the film or videotape.

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Appeal

The advertisement's selling message.

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Application Service Provider

The term used to describe companies that provide software or services to a network of customers on an ongoing basis. Customers pay for those services often on a monthly or quarterly basis rather than purchasing software in its entirety from the outset.

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Approach

Salesperson's initial contact with a prospective customer.

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Approved Vendors

A list of suppliers with whom purchasing agents are allowed to close contracts.

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Arbitron

Television and radio rating service that publishes regular reports for selected markets.

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Area of dominant influence (ADI)

A geographic designation, used by Arbitron, that specifies which counties fall into a specific television market. See, also, Designated Market Area .

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Area Sampling

A method of sampling in which the total area of interest is divided into sub-areas that are then randomly sampled. Each subarea in the sample is completely enumerated.

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Armchair shopping

Customers buy from inside their own home or office. And delivery follows suit - directly into the home or the office. This is 'armchair shopping' since customers do not have to get up, go out, shop and traipse wearily home again. Direct mail, door-todoor selling, telesales, network retailing, television shopping channels and, of course, the Internet all facilitate armchair shopping.

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Art direction

The act or process of managing the visual presentation of an ad or commercial.

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Art Director

Art director in the hierarchical structure of a movie art department, the Art Director works directly below the production designer and a large part of their duties include the administrative aspects of the art department. They are responsible for assigning tasks to personnel, keeping track of the art department budget and scheduling, as well as over all quality control.

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Art proof

The artwork for an ad, to be submitted for client approval.

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Art studio

Company that designs and produces artwork and illustrations for advertisements, brochures, and other communication devices.

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Artwork

The visual components of an ad, not including the typeset text.

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Asset Led Marketing

Asset led marketing uses product strengths such as the name and brand image to market both new and existing products. Marketing decisions are based on the needs of the consumer AND the assets of the product.

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Assignments

An assessed work based project report. Assignments are part of the assessment procedure when studying for a qualification

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Assortment

The range of choice offered to a consumer within a particular classification of merchandise

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Atmospherics

the design of an environment via visual communications, lighting, colors, music, and scent to stimulate customers' perceptual and emotional responses and ultimately to affect their purchase behavior.

Aspirational Group

A reference group which a person desires to emulate or be associated with.

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Attention

The process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others.

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Attention value

A consideration in selecting media based on the degree of attention paid to ads in particular media by those exposed to them.

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Attitude

A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object. Such attitudes are a result of experiences, awareness and the wants and needs of individuals. Since an understanding of attitudes helps to understand behaviour, marketers need to be acquainted with the subject in an order to make informed assumptions about future consumer behaviour.

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Attributable Costs

Fixed costs or variable costs incurred by and solely for a particular product, department, program, sales territory, or customer account.

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Attribution Theory

In the psychology of personality, an explanation of social behavior by attributing to it the core characteristics of the individual rather than the specifics of the situation they might be in.

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Auction house

An establishment that gathers buyers and sellers in one location where buyers can examine merchandise before submitting competing purchase offers.

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Audience

The number of people or households exposed to a vehicle, without regard to whether they actually saw or heard the material conveyed by that vehicle.

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Audience composition

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Audience duplication The number of people who saw or heard more than one of the programs or publications in which an ad was placed.

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Audience share

A radio or TV station's share is the percent of time people in that market spend with that station - it is not a percentage of people.

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Audilog

A diary kept by selected audience members to record which television programs they watched, as a means of rating television shows. Used by A.C. Nielsen.

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Audimeter

An electronic recording device used by A.C. Nielsen to track when a television set is in use, and to what station it is set.

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Audiovisual materials Non-book materials such as filmstrips, recordings, films, records, video and audio cassettes, and compact discs (CDs).

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Audit

The demographic profile expressed as a percentage of the total audience of a particular advertising vehicle.

the systematic collection, analysis and evaluation of information relating to the internal and external environments that answers the question ‗Where are we now?' for the organisation.

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Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC)

A company that audits the circulation of print publications, to insure that reported circulation figures are accurate.

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Augmented brand

The additional customer services and benefits (―added value‖) that are built around the core product or service offering.

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Augmented Product

On top of the tangible product are more intangibles which augment, or increase the value of the product. This 'augmented product' can include guarantees, and services like credit facilities, delivery, installation, training, advice, servicing, insurance, and more.

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Authorized Dealer

A vendor who has a franchise to sell a manufacturer's goods. The authorized dealer is usually one of a few selected dealers in a geographic trading area.

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Availability

Advertising time on radio or television that is available for purchase, at a specific time.

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Available market

The total group of customers who have an interest in a interest in a product or service, have access to it, and have the ability to buy it.

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Average Audience (AA)

The number of homes or persons tuned to a television program during an average minute, or the number of persons who viewed an average issue of a print publication.

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Average Cost Per Unit

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Average Cost Pricing A practice of adding a reasonable markup (determined by market comparisons) to the average cost of a product.

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Average Variable Cost

Total variable cost divided by the number of units produced and sold.

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Awareness

Advertising or other promotional activity (e.g. public relations) whose primary purpose is to increases general knowledge of the company, and to make people feel more positive towards it.

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Baby Boom

The period from the end of World War II until the early 1960s when the number of births increased significantly, resulting in a population bubble of significant size.

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Back Link

A link from one website to another

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Back Order

An order of products or goods that a vendor has not been able to fill but intends to ship as soon as the goods are available.

Calculated as the sum of fixed costs and variable costs at a given level of output, divided by the number of units.

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Back to back

Running more than one commercial, with one following immediately after another.

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Bait advertising

Advertising a product at a very low price, when it is difficult or even impossible to obtain the product for the price advertised.

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Bait and Switch

A deceptive sales practice whereby a low-priced product is advertised to lure customers to a store. Once a consumer has entered a retail establishment, they are induced to buy higher priced model or good.

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Balance Sheet Method

An approach used by salespeople to gain a commitment from a buyer by asking the buyer to consider pros and cons of various alternatives. This method has been attributed to Ben Franklin.

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Balanced Scorecard

A technique allowing a company to monitor and manage performance against defined objectives. Measurements might typically cover financial performance, customer value, internal business process, innovation performance and employee performance.

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Balanced Stock

Merchandise that is offered by a store in sufficient quantities, colours, styles, sizes and assortment characteristics to meet the customers' needs.

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Marketing Management

Ballot box

A ballot box is a temporarily sealed container, usually cuboid, with a narrow slot in the top sufficient to accept a ballot paper in an election but which prevents anyone from accessing the votes cast until the close of the voting period.

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Marketing Management

Bandwidth

The range of frequencies, expressed in Kilobits per second, that can pass over a given data transmission channel within a frame relay network. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be sent through a channel - the greater the bandwidth

B

Marketing Management

Banner Ad

An online graphical web advertisement that may contain a static or moving image and copy extending across the full page width and offering a hyperlink to the home or landing page. It typically measures 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall.

B

Marketing Management

Banner Adverts

Adverts on web pages used to build brand awareness or drive traffic to the advertisers own website.

B

Marketing Management

BARB

The Broadcasters' Audience Research Board. Responsible for providing estimates of the number of people watching television. This includes the channels and programmes being watched, at what time, and the type of people who are watching.

B

Marketing Management

Barcode

An information technology application that uniquely identifies various aspects of product characteristics, increasing speed, accuracy, and productivity of distribution process

B

Marketing Management

Barriers to Entry

Economic, legal, psychological, technical, and other forces that limit access to markets, thereby reducing the threat of new competition.

B

Marketing Management

Barter

Exchanging merchandise, or something other than money, for advertising time or space.

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Marketing Management

BCG (Boston Consulting Group) Matrix

Model for product portfolio analysis. Products can be classified as: Stars - high growth and market share; Cash Cows - high market share and low growth rate; Question marks ? low market share in high growth rate markets; Dogs - low market share and low growth rate.

B

Marketing Management

Behaviour

The actions of an individual or group in a given situation.

B

Marketing Management

Behavioural segmentation

Behavioural segmentation divides customers into groups based on the way they respond to, use or know of a product.

B

Marketing Management

Below the Line

Non-media advertising or promotion when no commission has been paid to the advertising agency. Includes direct mail, point of sale displays, giveaways. See also, 'above the line' and 'push versus pull promotion'.

B

Marketing Management

Below-The-Line-Cost Any operational cost in that is not specifically itemized in the operational budget.

B

Marketing Management

Ben Day process

A shading or dot pattern on a drawing.

B

Marketing Management

Benchmarking

Process in which an organization continuously compares and measures itself against business leaders anywhere in the world to learn how it could improve performance.

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Marketing Management

Benefit segmentation A form of market segmentation based on the benefits people are seeking from a product.

B

Marketing Management

Bid

Written sales proposal from a vendor.

B

Marketing Management

BIDDY

Buy it – Don‘t Do It Yourself – a demographic grouping.

B

Marketing Management

Bill of Lading

A document in international trade that is required to establish legal ownership and facilitate financial transactions.

B

Marketing Management

Billboards

A billboard or hoarding is a large outdoor signboard, usually wooden, found in places with high traffic such as cities, roads, motorways and highways. Billboards show large advertisements aimed at passing pedestrians and drivers. The vast majority of billboards are rented to advertisers rather than owned by them.

B

Marketing Management

Billings

Total amount charged to clients, including the agency commission, media costs, production costs, etc.

B

Marketing Management

Black Space

The business opportunities that a company has formally targeted and organised itself to capture. Compare with 'white space'.

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Marketing Management

Bleeds

Colors, type, or visuals that run all the way to the edge of the page.

B

Marketing Management

Blended E-Learning

An integrated programme with a blend of interactive online tuition, face-to-face classroom workshops, assignments and a Learning Log

B

Marketing Management

Blinking

A media planning tactic that schedules activity on a week, off a week, for a specified period of time.

B

Marketing Management

Blogs/Blogging

Contraction of Web log. An internet publishing device allowing an individual or company to express their thoughts and opinions. Businesses can use blogs as a marketing communication channel.

B

Marketing Management

Blow-in card

An advertisement, subscription request, or other printed card "blown" into a print publication rather than bound into it.

B

Marketing Management

Blueline

A photoprint made from stripped-up negatives or positives, used as a proof to check position of image elements.

B

Marketing Management

Bluetooth

Open specification for short range communication between wireless devices.

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Marketing Management

Body copy

Text matter which comprises the major content of an article or publication other than mastheads, headlines, sub-heads, callouts, charts and graphs. Sometimes called Body Text.

B

Marketing Management

Body Language

The gestures, poses, movements, and expressions that a person uses to communicate.

B

Marketing Management

Bonus

An added quantity of some product or service that is awarded to the buyer for making a purchase. Also, a cash incentive offered to sales people for reaching or exceeding pre-determined sales goals.

B

Marketing Management

Boston Group Matrix

A means of analysing and categorizing the performance of business units in large diversified firms by reference to market share and growth rates. It was developed by the Boston Consultancy Group (BCG).

B

Marketing Management

Bottom Up Sales Forecasting

Each sales person makes their own forecast for their own product or service in their particular area. These are all then added together to get a bottom-up forecast.

B

Marketing Management

Bottom-Up Marketing

Designing a selling strategy by starting with the very basic needs of the customer, finding the most effective positioning for a product and working up from there.

B

Marketing Management

Bottom-Up Planning

Plans created by lower levels of management or staff without input from higher levels of management.

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Marketing Management

Bounce Back Offer

A coupon or other selling device included in a customer ordered product, premium, refund, or other package that attempts to sell more of the same or different product to the recipient.

B

Marketing Management

Boutique

An agency that provides a limited service, such as one that does creative work but does not provide media planning, research, etc. Usually, this refers to a relatively small company.

B

Marketing Management

Boycott

An unfair trade practice which occurs when someone in the insurance business refuses to have business dealings with another until he or she complies with certain conditions or concessions

B

Marketing Management

BPI

Stands for Buying Power Index. This is a weighted index that converts three population, effective buying income, and retail sales into a measurement of a market's ability to buy and expressed as a percentage of total U.S. potential.

B

Marketing Management

Brainstorming

A problem-solving technique that involves creating a list that includes a wide variety of related ideas.

B

Marketing Management

Brand

The set of physical attributes of a product or service, together with the beliefs and expectations surrounding it - a unique combination which the name or logo of the product or service should evoke in the mind of the audience.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Architecture

The development and implementation of a plan for linking company, brand, product, and feature names to optimize a company‘s brand awareness.

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Marketing Management

Brand Associations

The feelings, beliefs and knowledge that consumers perceive about brands.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Attributes

Brand attributes are the functional and emotional associations which are assigned to a brand by its customers and prospects. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive, and can have different degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments, markets and cultures. Brand attributes are the basic elements for establishing a brand identity.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Audit

A brand audit is a comprehensive and systematic examination of a brand involving activities (both tangible and intangible) to assess the health of the brand, uncover its sources of equity and suggest ways to improve and leverage that equity. The brand audit requires the understanding of brand equity sources from the perspective of both the firm and the consumer.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Awareness

Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Brand awareness is measured as the proportion of target customers which has prior knowledge of the brand. It is measured by two distinct measures; brand recognition and brand recall. Brand recognition is the customers' ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness). Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).

B

Marketing Management

Brand building

Developing a brand's image and standing with a view to creating long term benefits for brand awareness and brand value.

Brand Champion

Brand champions are internal and external story tellers who spread the brand vision, brand values and cultivate the brand in an organisation. Every organisation needs committed and passionate brand champions. The more employees the organisation can turn into brand champions, the better will it be equipped to build and maintain strong brand equity. Singapore Airlines, L'Oreal, Harley Davidson, Nike, Google and LEGO are well-known examples of companies which benefit tremendously from their employees being strong and dedicated brand champions.

B

Marketing Management

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Marketing Management

Brand Culture

Strong brands are managed by organisations characterized by their strong internal brand cultures. A strong brand culture is determined by the internal attitudes towards branding, management behaviour and practices of an organisation. These combined efforts are crucial to build and maintain strong brand equity through competitive advantages from branding. The most prominent person to lead these efforts is the CEO and the senior management team.

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Marketing Management

Brand development index (BDI)

A comparison of the percent of a brand's sales in a market to the percent of the national population in that same market.

The brand equity concept stresses the importance of a brand in marketing strategies, and has become a leading indicator in measuring the strength and value of a brand. Brand equity is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand. Brand equity relates to the fact that different outcomes result in the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name, as compared to if the same product or service did not have that name. Brand equity can be measured across different dimensions like brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand associations etc.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Equity

B

Marketing Management

Brand Equity Strategy corporate brand. The brand equity strategy serves as a guide for these marketing efforts and illustrates the plans and tactics

B

Marketing Management

Brand Essence

The brand essence is an articulation of the "heart and soul" of the brand. A brand essence is typical three to five short word phrases that capture the core essence or spirit of the brand positioning and the values characterizing the brand. The brand essence is the description which defines a brand and the guiding vision of the brand.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Expansion

The exposure of a brand to a broader target customer market, geographic market, or distribution channels.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Extension

The application of a brand beyond its initial range of products, or outside of its category. This becomes possible when the brand image and attributes have contributed to a perception with the consumer/user where the brand and not the product is the decision driver.

An organisation wants to build and maintain strong brand equity for the respective brands in their portfolio including the needed to meet the brand objectives.

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Brand Guidelines

Brand guidelines are internal tools available in an organisation to educate, reinforce and motivate all involved in building and maintaining strong brands. Brand guidelines are crucial in establishing and enhancing a strong and dedicated brand culture. The brand guidelines can take various forms and methods, and could consist of brand vision, brand identity, brand strategy guidelines, a short description of the brand, brand values, brand positioning, positioning guidelines, communication tips, writing style guidelines, design style guidelines, and company-wide contact details to obtain more information from central brand management.

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Marketing Management

Brand Identity

A unique set of functional and mental associations the brand aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand should ideally stand for in the minds of customers, and imply a potential promise to customers. It is important to keep in mind that the brand identity refers to the strategic goal for a brand while the brand image is what currently resides in the minds of consumers.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Image

A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. The brand image is what is currently in the minds of consumers, whereas brand identity is aspirational from the brand owners' point of view.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Loyalty

Brand loyalty is the strength of preference for a brand compared to other similar available brand options. It is measured through a range of different dimensions e.g. repeat purchase behavior, price sensitivity.

B

Marketing Management

B

Marketing Management

Brand Management

Brand management is the process of managing an organisation's brand or portfolio of brands in order to maintain and increase long-term brand equity and financial value. Brand management is applied by the person or group responsible for designing brand identities, aligning them for maximum effectiveness, ensuring that they are not compromised by tactical actions, evaluating effectiveness of brand communication programs, valuing financial brand value, and designing appropriate brand crisis management plans among many other strategic and tactical tasks.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Manager

Marketing manager responsible for a single brand.

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Marketing Management

Brand Mapping

Brand mapping is a research technique to identify and visualize the core positioning of a brand compared to competing brands on various dimensions.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Mark

That part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It is usually symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color, or combination of the preceding.

B

Marketing Management

Brand name

The part of a brand consisting of words or letters that form a name to identify and distinguish a firm's offerings.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Personality

The brand personality is the brand image or brand identity expressed in terms of human characteristics. The brand personality must ideally include distinguishing and identifiable characteristics which offer consistent, enduring and predictable messages and mental perceptions.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Positioning

Brand positioning is the "market space" a brand is perceived to occupy in the mind of the target audience. All strong marketing communications programs need to focus on only few messages to achieve better impact in an increasingly noisy environment. The brand positioning is the part of the brand identity that management decides to actively communicate to the market.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Positioning Statement

A brand positioning statement describes the "mental space" a brand should occupy in the minds of a target audience. It serves as an internal document which guides most of a company's marketing communications strategies, programs and tactics. The brand positioning statement focuses on the elements and associations which meaningfully set a brand apart from the competition. It is typically constructed in the following format: "To (target market), Brand X is the brand of (frame of reference) that (point of difference) because (reasons).

B

Marketing Management

Brand Power

A measure of the ability of the brand to dominate its product category.

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Marketing Management

Brand Recall

Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).

B

Marketing Management

Brand Recognition

Brand recognition is the customers' ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness).

B

Marketing Management

Brand Relevance

Brand relevance is the alignment of a brand, its brand attributes, brand identity and brand personality with the primary needs and wants of the target audience.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Revitalisation

Brand revitalization of a fading brand or a portfolio of brands is sometimes necessary for an organisation. Changes in the marketing environment, competitors' strategies, consumer behaviour, evolutions of cultures and many other factors can lead to erosion of the brand equity over time. A brand revitalization program is involving strategies to recapture lost sources of brand equity and ways to identify and establishing new sources of brand equity for the brand or the brand portfolio.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Slogan/ Brand programs. The brand slogan and tagline helps customers to remember the brand and reinforces mental associations. Consistent and well-known examples are Nike "Just do it", HSBC "The world's local bank", HP "Invent", and Singapore Airlines tagline

An easily and recognisable and memorable phrase which often accompanies a brand name in marketing communications

"A Great Way to Fly".

B

Marketing Management

Brand Strategy

The 'big picture' plans and tactics deployed by an organisation/brand owner to create long-term brand equity and competitive advantages from branding.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Switching

A purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to another.

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Marketing Management

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Brand Tribe

The modern consumer is buying experiences rather than commodities hence the importance of branding in many product and service categories. Therefore, the consumer decision process involves brand attributes and brand associations, which are largely image driven, intangible and symbolic. The group as a social institution serves as an important part of these consumer decisions as the importance and strengths of intangible brand attributes and brand values are related to how these factors are perceived and ranked in a group or clusters of groups of which the consumer is part of. A brand tribe is a formal or informal group of consumers whom share the same awareness, passion and loyalty for a brand or a portfolio of brands. Brand tribes can be identified as strong drivers of brand strengths for many international brands like LEGO, Bang & Olufsen, Nike, Giorgio Armani, Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts, Singapore Airlines, Timberland and many other unique brands.

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Marketing Management

Brand Value

Brand value is the financial premium derived from loyal target audiences committed to a brand and willing to pay extra for the brand as compared to a generic product or service in the same category. The brand value can be calculated in financial terms and demonstrates the value of the brand or a portfolio of brands as part of a corporation's intangible assets. The valuation of brands is important for several reasons. Shareholders and advisors can assess the financial value of their corporate brand, an individual brand or a portfolio of brands. Management teams can benefit from the brand value as a useful tool for measuring performance, for taxation purposes, in an event of an acquisition or disposal. Financiers can use the brand value when assessing the borrowing capacity of a company when arranging funding facilities. An increasing number of lending institutions recognize the value of intangible assets such as brands as collateral for loans.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Value Proposition

The functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand that combined provide value to the customer. The brand value propositions provide the rationale (tangible and intangible dimensions and associations) for making one brand choice over other available brand choices.

B

Marketing Management

Brand

An identifying symbol, sign, name, or mark that distinguishes an organization or a product from its competitors; the intangible sum of an organization‘s attributes—it can include its name, its history, its reputation, its packaging, and the way it is advertised.

Branding Excellence

Branding Excellence is both an indicator of brand strength and a unique measure of the brand leadership capabilities of an organisation. Strong brands create profitable businesses, and organisations must seek to obtain branding Excellence to benefit and leverage fully from branding. A strong brand is characterized by a unique brand promise, and an outstanding brand delivery, and branding excellence measures this balance and the outcome including guidance on how to improve. Branding Excellence measures and describes how brand leadership internally in a corporation can add significant value in terms of brand strength and brand value.

B

Marketing Management

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Marketing Management

Branding

The process of developing and communicating brand attributes and brand identity to build marketplace awareness and acceptance in order to meet sales and revenue goals.

B

Marketing Management

BRC

Business Reply Card. A pre-addressed, postpaid card typically used to generate response to an offer.

B

Marketing Management

BRE

Business Reply Envelope.

B

Marketing Management

Break Even Analysis

A method of examining the relationships between fixed costs, variable costs, volume, and price. The objective of such an analysis is to determine the break-even point (where revenue covers expense) at alternative price points and various costs.

B

Marketing Management

Breakeven

Breakeven is achieved when total contribution is equal to total fixed costs. Addition contribution earned after this point becomes profit.

B

Marketing Management

Break-even pricing

Setting a price to achieve break-even on the costs of making and marketing a product (direct costs). Breakeven is achieved when the total contribution from sales priced in this way at least equal the fixed costs of the business.

B

Marketing Management

Bridge

Transition from one scene to another, in a commercial or program.

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Marketing Management

Bridge Page

Similar to ―Doorway Page‖, this is a specifically designed entry point for a website

B

Marketing Management

Broadcast Television

A method of distributing television signals by means of stations that broadcast signals over channels assigned to specific geographic areas.

B

Marketing Management

Broadsheet

Standard size newspaper.

B

Marketing Management

Broadside

A direct-mail advertisement printed on large, newspaper-size paper.

B

Marketing Management

Brochure

A folded leaflet with an advertising or promotional message.

B

Marketing Management

B-Roll

Videotaped footage that is not included in the final edited version of a company's video news release (VNR). B-roll is given to television stations along with the VNR to give the stations the option of putting together their own version of the story being

B

Marketing Management

Brown Goods

Electrical goods such as TVs, videos, stereo systems etc, used for home entertainment. So called because they were originally cased in bakelite, a brown plastic.

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B

Marketing Management

Browser

An individual searching the internet for information. Also, a software package (Internet Browser) used to view pages on the World Wide Web.

B

Marketing Management

Budget

Resources required for marketing activities - usually money.

B

Marketing Management

Build share

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company can invest to increase market share (for example turning a "question mark" into a star).

B

Marketing Management

Bulldog edition

An edition of a print publication that is available earlier than other editions. Usually, this is the early edition of a large circulation newspaper.

B

Marketing Management

Bulletin boards

A bulletin board is a place where people can leave public messages, for example, to advertise things to buy or sell, announce events, or provide information. Bulletin boards are often made of a material such as cork to facilitate addition and removal of messages.

B

Marketing Management

Bundling

Offering several complementary products together. The price of a bundle is typically lower than the sum of the collective prices of each individual item included in the bundle. Some products may be bundled together to appeal to different segments.

B

Marketing Management

BUPPIE

Black Urban Professional - a demographic grouping.

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B

Marketing Management

Buried position

Placing an ad between other ads in a print publication, so that readers are less likely to see it.

B

Marketing Management

Business Cycle

Fluctuations in overall business activity accompanied by swings in the unemployment rate, interest rates, and corporate profits. Over a business cycle, real activity rises to a peak (its highest level during the cycle), then falls until it reaches a troug

B

Marketing Management

Business Intelligence

Actionable information that comes out of data review and analysis. The purpose of such analysis is to help users make better, more informed decisions.

B

Marketing Management

Business Plan

A strategic document showing cash flow, forecasts and direction of a company.

B

Marketing Management

Business portfolio

The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the business.

B

Marketing Management

Business Reply Card A postage paid form used by a consumer to request/provide information, subscribe to, or purchase a product or service.

B

Marketing Management

Business Strategy

The means by which a business works towards achieving its stated aims.

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Marketing Management

Business to Business Relating to the sale of a product for any use other than personal consumption. The buyer may be a manufacturer, a reseller, a government body, a non-profit-making institution, or any organisation other than an ultimate consumer. (B2B)

B

Marketing Management

Business to Consumer (B2C)

B

Marketing Management

Business-to-business Advertising directed to other businesses, rather than to consumers. advertising

B

Marketing Management

Buyer‘s Market

Economic conditions that favor the position of the retail buyer (or merchandiser), allowing him to influence price levels, rather than the vendor.

B

Marketing Management

Buyer‘s Remorse

The insecurity a buyer feels about the appropriateness of his/her purchase decision after the purchase has been made.

B

Marketing Management

Buyer's market

Marketplace characterized by an abundance of goods and/or services.

B

Marketing Management

Buying behaviour

Buying behaviour concerns the process that buyers go through when deciding whether or not to purchase goods or services. Buying behaviour can be influenced by a variety of external factors and motivations, including marketing activity.

Relating to the sale of product for personal consumption. The buyer may be an individual, family or other group, buying to use the product themselves, or for end use by another individual.

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B

Marketing Management

Buying Center

A group of organizational members who are involved in any phase of a specific buying decision.

B

Marketing Management

Buying Power Index (BPI)

An indicator the represents the percentage of total U.S. retail sales occurring in a specific geographic area, commonly used to forecast demand for new retail establishments and evaluate performance of existing retail stores.

B

Marketing Management

Buying Signal

A verbal or visual cue that indicates a prospects interest in purchasing a product or service.

B

Marketing Management

Buzz

Buzz marketing uses 'word-of-mouth' advertising: potential customers pass round information about a product. See also 'viral marketing'

C

Marketing Management

Caching

A computer process that stores Web files to your computer for later access. These web pages are displayed without the need to re-download graphics and other elements of the previously visited page.

C

Marketing Management

Call Frequency

The number of sales calls made within a specified period of time on a particular customer.

C

Marketing Management

Call Report

A salesperson's account of a customer interaction or a summary report detailing sales activity for a group of telemarketing representatives.

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C

Marketing Management

Camera-ready art

Artwork that is in sufficiently finished form to be photographed for printing.

C

Marketing Management

Cancellation

Notification to a vendor that a buyer does not wish to accept goods that have been ordered.

C

Marketing Management

Canned Presentation

A presentation that has been standardized which includes key selling points arranged in the order designed to elicit the best response from the customer.

C

Marketing Management

Cannibalization

A decrease in the sales of a product experienced by a business as a result from its own introduction of a new product that is a partial or complete substitute.

C

Marketing Management

Canonical

Authoritative or standard; conforming to an accepted rule or procedure. When referring to programming, canonical means conforming to well-established patterns or rules. The term is typically used to describe whether or not a programming interface follows the already established standard. When referring to IP addressing, canonical means the authoritative host name stored in a DNS database that all of an IP address‘ aliases resolve to.

C

Marketing Management

Capital

Assets available for use in the production of further assets or an owner's investment in a business.

C

Marketing Management

Capital Goods

The instruments of production that make up an organization's plant and operating capacity. Can also refer to the raw materials used to produce finished products.

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C

Marketing Management

Caption

(1) An advertisement's headline; (2) The text accompanying an illustration or photograph.

C

Marketing Management

Car card

A poster placed in buses, subways, etc. Also called a Bus card.

C

Marketing Management

Card rate

Media rates published by a broadcast station or print publication on a "rate card." This is typically the highest rate charged by a vehicle.

C

Marketing Management

Carrying Charge

The sum paid for credit service on certain charge accounts, usually interest charged on the unpaid balance.

C

Marketing Management

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Used to manipulate and easily manage the design of a website.

C

Marketing Management

Cash Cows

A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high market share. These are mature, successful businesses with relatively little need for investment. They need to be managed for continued profit - so that they continue to generate the strong cash flow that the company needs for its Stars.

C

Marketing Management

Cash discount

A price reduction offered to a consumer, industrial user, or marketing intermediary in return for prompt payment.

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C

Marketing Management

Cash Flow

The movement of cash coming in through sales and other revenues, and cash going out to pay for expenditures.

C

Marketing Management

Cash On Delivery

Also termed, C.O.D. It is the practice of collecting payment upon receipt of the merchandise for the price of the goods plus the relevant transportation charges.

C

Marketing Management

Catalogs

Reference books mailed to prospective customers that list, describe, and often picture the products sold by a manufacturer, wholesaler, jobber, or retailer.

C

Marketing Management

Category development index (CDI)

A comparison of the percent of sales of a product category in a market, to the percent of population in that market.

C

Marketing Management

Category Killer

A type of destination store that is usually large and concentrates on a single category, making it possible to carry a broad assortment and deep selection of merchandise at low prices.

C

Marketing Management

Category Management

Products are grouped and managed by strategic business unit categories. These are defined by how consumers views goods rather than by how they look to the seller, e.g. confectionery could be part of either a 'food' or 'gifts' category, and marketed depending on the category into which it?s grouped.

C

Marketing Management

Category Manager

An individual who reports to a marketing manager and is responsible for the marketing and maximization of total profit from a mix of several brands falling under a generic product category.

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C

Marketing Management

Cattle call

A process used to select a vendor in which a company solicits proposals from a number of prospective suppliers.

C

Marketing Management

Cause Related Marketing

Partnership between a company or brand and a charity or 'cause' by which the charity benefits financially from the sale of specific products.

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Marketing Management

CBBB

Council of Better Business Bureaus. A national organization of local business bureaus.

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Marketing Management

Cease-and-desist order

An order by the Federal Trade Commission requiring an advertiser to stop running a deceptive or unfair advertisement, campaign, or claim.

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Marketing Management

Census

It is the collection, compiling, and dissemination of demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to people living within a defined space at a specified time.

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Marketing Management

Census Block

Usually a well-defined rectangular area bounded by streets or roads. It may be irregular in shape and may be bounded by physical features such as railroads or streams. Census block do not cross boundaries of countries, tracts, or block numbering areas.

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Marketing Management

Census Tract

A census tract is a small statistical subdivision of a county. Census tract data identifies population and housing statistics about a specific part of an urban area.

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Marketing Management

Centers of influence

Customers, prospective customers, or opinion leaders whose opinions and actions are respected by others.

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Marketing Management

Chain break

A pause for station identification, and commercials, during a network telecast.

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Marketing Management

Chain Discount

A series of trade discount percentages or their total. For example, if a list price is $100 and carries a 40-10-10 discount to dealers, the total or chain discount is $56.65 (i.e., $100-40% = $60, $60-10% = $54, $54-10% - $49.60).

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Marketing Management

Chain Store

A store that is a single unit of a larger retail system.

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Marketing Management

Chain Store System

A groups of retail stores of essentially the same type, centrally owned and with some degree of centralized control of operation.

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Marketing Management

Channel

Any medium through which an encoded message is sent to a receiver, including oral communication, print media, television, and the Internet.

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Marketing Management

Channel Conflict

Different distribution channel members (e.g. manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers) sometimes fight for the same customer, market control and most of the channel profit. Conflict can occur when a firm uses multiple distribution channels by dealing directly with customers as well as going through intermediaries like distributors.

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Marketing Management

Channels

The methods used by a company to communicate and interact with its customers.

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Marketing Management

Channels of distribution

The routes used by a company to distribute its products, e.g., through wholesalers, retailers, mail order, etc.

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Marketing Management

Chartered Marketer

A marketing professional who has achieved 'individual Chartered Status' awarded by the Chartered Institute of Marketing.

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Marketing Management

Cherry Picking

The practice of selecting only a few items from a vendor's line of products and other products from a different product line, failing to purchase a complete line or classification of merchandise from a single vendor.

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Marketing Management

Child Protection Act

This act states that toys and other children's articles that contain hazardous substances are illegal to manufacture and distribute.

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Marketing Management

Chromalin proof

Chromalins are film proofs made using the DuPont system of mixing coloured dye powders to approximate PMS colours, putting them into solution and applying them to a carrier sheet. The film controls where the image areas will appear. CMYK dyes are used when four-colour proofs are needed. Chromalin proofs are the most expensive off-press proofing system discussed here.

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Marketing Management

Chrome

A color photographic transparency.

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Marketing Management

CIM Training

CIM Training are the Training Arm of The Chartered Institute of Marketing - to train marketing and sales professionals

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Marketing Management

Cinema advertising

Advertising in movie theaters.

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Marketing Management

Circulation

A statistical measure of a print medium's audience; includes subscription and vendor sales and primary and secondary readership.

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Marketing Management

Classic Merchandise The merchandise that is not influenced by style changes for which a demand virtually always exists.

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Marketing Management

Classical Conditioning

Also called "pavlovian conditioning" and "respondent conditioning", is a type of learning caused by the association (or pairing) of two stimuli.

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Marketing Management

Classified ads

Small advertisements in newspapers or magazines, divided into categories.

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Marketing Management

Classifieds

Classified advertising is a form of advertising which is particulalry common in newspapers and other periodicals.

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Marketing Management

Claymation

An animation method that uses clay figurines.

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Marketing Management

Clayton Act

A federal law which is an amendment to the Sherman Act dealing with antitrust regulations and unfair trade practices where business activity may substantially lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly.

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Marketing Management

Clearance

The process by which a vehicle reviews an advertisement for legal, ethical, and taste standards, before accepting the ad for publication.

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Marketing Management

Clearance Sale

An end-of-season sale initiated to make room for new goods. It is also used to accelerate the sale of slow-moving goods or demonstration models.

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Marketing Management

Clearing House

The central processing location where coupons or other sales promotion offers are collected, reviewed, and sorted for payment or fulfillment.

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Marketing Management

Click fraud

A form of theft perpetrated against advertisers who are paying per click for traffic, in which fraudsters may use automated means to click on your ads from spoofed IP addresses over random periods of time.

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Marketing Management

Clicks

Each time a visitor clicks on our web site.

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Click-Stream

The order of pages that people are visiting on a web site. It is used to indicate inform future design, identifying which elements of a site are effective, and which are not.

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Marketing Management

Click-through

The act of a user clicking on an internet advertisement that opens a link to the advertiser's website.

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Marketing Management

Click-Through-Rate

The number of click-throughs per online advertising impression, expressed as a percentage or exposure (often unique visitors to a page or page views). A click on a link that leads to another website.

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Marketing Management

Click-Tracking

The use of scripts in order to track inbound and outbound links

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Marketing Management

Client

The ad agency's term for the advertisers it represents.

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Marketing Management

Cloaking

One of the most popular black hat methods, in which the visitor to the site is shown a page optimized to their search request, while the search engine spiders see a completely different set of pages designed to rank well.

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Marketing Management

Closing A Sale

When the customer agrees to buy and undertakes to pay (e.g. signs an order form). Arguably, it is the most difficult part of selling.

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Closing date

The date when all ad materials are due at a publication for a specific issue.

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Marketing Management

Cluster Analysis

Statistical techniques concerned with the development of natural groupings of objects based on the relationships of the variables describing the objects.

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Marketing Management

Clustering

A statistical method of forming natural groupings in which a number of important characteristics of a large diverse group are identified in order to define target markets. In demographics, clustering refers to the gathering of various populations based on ethnicity, economics or religion.

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Marketing Management

Clutter

When an advertisement is surrounded by other ads, thereby forcing it to compete for the viewer's or listener's attention.

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Marketing Management

Coated stock

Paper with a slick and smooth finish.

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Marketing Management

Cognition

Knowing, awareness, perception.

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Marketing Management

Cognitive dissonance uncertainty about whether the purchase should have been made. Post-purchase promotion (particularly advertising) has a role

Cognitive dissonance is an customer effect commonly observed after a major purchase whereby the customer feels to play to reduce the incidence and effect of cognitive dissonance.

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Cognitive theory

Cognitive psychologist tend to see second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge systems that can eventually be called on automatically for speaking and understanding. At first, learners have to pay attention to any aspect of the language which they are trying to understand or produce.

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Marketing Management

Cohort

A group or band of people or a generational group as defined in demographics, statistics, or market research.

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Marketing Management

Coincidental survey

A survey of viewers or listeners of broadcast programming, conducted during the program.

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Marketing Management

Cold type

Refers to most modern typesetting methods, such as phototypesetting, because they do not involve pouring hot molten metal into molds for different type fonts.

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Marketing Management

Collaborative Selling

A sales technique that utilizes relationship building.

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Marketing Management

Collateral material

Printed information on a product, service or company including brochures, flyers, sales literature and other image pieces.

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Marketing Management

Collectibles

A type of premium that consumers may desire to have as a part of a greater collection of similar goods.

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Collusion

A secret agreement between two or more parties for a fraudulent, illegal, or deceitful purpose.

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Marketing Management

Color proof

An early full-color print of a finished advertisement, used to evaluate the ad's final appearance.

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Marketing Management

Color separation

A full-color ad normally is generated through printing of four separate colors: yellow, cyan, magenta, and black. The color separation consists of four separate screens; one for each of those four colors.

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Marketing Management

Column inch

A common unit of measure by newspapers, whereby ad space is purchased by the width, in columns, and the depth, in inches. For example, an ad that is three standard columns wide and 5 inches tall (or deep) would be 15 column inches.

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Marketing Management

Combination brand

A combination brand name brings together a family brand name and an individual brand name. The idea here is to provide some association for the product with a strong family brand name but maintaining some distinctiveness so that customers know what they are getting.

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Marketing Management

Combination rate

A special media pricing arrangement that involves purchasing space or time on more than one vehicle, in a package deal. This is frequently offered where different vehicles share a common owner.

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Marketing Management

Comment Tag

A tag in HTML that is invisible unless viewed through the source code.

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Commercial advertising

Advertising that involves commercial interests rather than advocating a social or political cause.

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Marketing Management

Commercialization

The last stage in the development cycle for a new product. It is commonly thought to begin when the product is introduced into the marketplace, but actually starts when a management commits to marketing the item.

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Marketing Management

Commission

The compensation paid to salespeople based on a fixed formula related to the salesperson's activity or performance.

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Marketing Management

Communication

The activity of conveying information.

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Marketing Management

Communication media

The nature of the communications medium has a direct impact on the extent and quality of dialogue between instructors and learners. Learning in a one-way television programme, for example, students can make internal (silent) responses only. Correspondence by mail allows two-way interaction - even slow and less spontaneous, but perhaps more thoughtful and reflective.

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Marketing Management

Communication process

A description or explanation of the chain-of-events involved in communicating information from one party to another.

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Marketing Management

Communications mix Advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity, public relations and direct marketing.

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It is the analysis of a set of people. Such analyses enable librarians to know the needs of patrons and hopefully provide better services to them. In a city library district, the set of relevant people would be all those who live in the city or those people elegible to use the library. Analysis may also be restricted to a subset of elegible library users.

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Community Analysis

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Marketing Management

The function of establishing rapport with the community and raising and maintaining the organisation's broad public profile. Includes marketing, advertising, media liaison, exhibitions, celebrations, ceremonies, speeches, official representation at Community Relations functions and participation in community activities. Also includes relationships with professional bodies and industry, the management of customer services, handling reactions to those services, customer consultation and feedback.

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Marketing Management

Company Specific Training

Training programmes specially tailored to meet company requirements for groups of 6 or more people from the same company

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Marketing Management

Comparative advertising

The type of advertising that compares two or more brands on the basis of one or more product attributes.

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Marketing Management

Competition

Rivalry. Similar businesses providing products or services to your potential customers. The rivalry among sellers trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share and sales volume by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product, distribution and promotion.

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Marketing Management

Competition-oriented A pricing strategy that is based upon what the competition does. pricing

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Marketing Management

Competitive advantage

A competitive advantage is a clear performance differential over the competition on factors that are important to customers.

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Competitive Analysis

The analysis of factors that determines how well is a firm doing compared to its competitors. Factors may include: price, product, technical capabilities, quality, customer service, delivery, and other important elements.

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Marketing Management

Competitive Intelligence

The activity of researching and conveying information about a competitor for purposes of strategic positioning or maneuvering.

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Marketing Management

Competitive parity

A method of determining an advertising budget, designed to maintain the current "share of voice."

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Marketing Management

Competitive Position The position of one business relative to others in the same industry.

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Marketing Management

Competitor benchmarking

Competitor benchmarking compares customer satisfaction with the products, services and relationships of the business with those of key competitors.

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Marketing Management

Competitors

Companies that sell products or services in the same market place as one another

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Marketing Management

Complementary Products

The products that are manufactured together, sold together, bought together, or used together. One aids or enhances the other.

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Comprehensive layout

A rough layout of an ad designed for presentation only, but so detailed as to appear very much like the finished ad will look.

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Marketing Management

Concept

A briefly stated idea or theme for possible use as the organizing idea for an advertisement or marketing campaign.

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Marketing Management

Concept Test

A qualitative or quantitative examination of consumer reactions to a proposed advertising idea.

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Marketing Management

Confirmation

Refers to a situation in which a product performs exactly as it was expected to. Also, a written or electronic acknowledgement of a transaction.

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Marketing Management

Confusion Marketing market, where pricing plans can be so complicated that it becomes impossible to make direct comparisons between competing

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Marketing Management

Conjoint Analysis

Measures the individual as well as joint effects of a set of variables (Bradley); helps to identify the best combination of, say, product benefits to present to a target market. Conjoint analysis allows different combinations of prices, features, benefits and brand names to be evaluated so that the marketers can identify the best marketing mix for any particular segment.

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Marketing Management

Consent order

Also called a consent decree, this is a Federal Trade Commission order, by which an advertiser agrees to make changes in an advertisement or campaign, without the need for a legal hearing.

Controversial strategy of deliberately confusing the customer. Examples are alleged to be found in the telecommunications offers

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Marketing Management

Consignment

A method of selling whereby a manufacturer or owner provides an intermediary with the merchandise while retaining title to the goods. The intermediary is free to sell the product and to pay only for goods actually sold.

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Marketing Management

Consolidated Buying

A type of central market representation in which the authority and responsibility for product/service selection and purchase rest with a central office, rather than in the individual store units.

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Marketing Management

Consolidation

Small shipments combined into a larger shipment to reduce transportation expenditures or the joining of two or more independent business firms into a new organization.

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Marketing Management

Consolidator

A person or firm who provides the service of combining small shipments into larger ones, reducing overall transportation expense.

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Marketing Management

Conspicuous Consumption

A term implying utilization for the sake of displaying to others wealth, power, or prestige.

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Marketing Management

Constant Dollar Method

The adjustment of dollar values, by purchasing power, in order to eliminate or allow for the effects of price changes over time.

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Marketing Management

Consultative Selling

A customized sales approach in which the salesperson is viewed as an expert and serves as a consultant to the prospect or customer. The salesperson identifies the prospects' needs and recommends the best solution - even if it means recommending a differen

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Marketing Management

Consumer

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Marketing Management

Consumer advertising Advertising directed at a person who will actually use the product for his or her own benefit, rather than to a business or dealer.

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Marketing Management

Consumer behavior

Study of how people behave when obtaining, using, and disposing of products (and services).

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Marketing Management

Consumer Bill of Rights

President John F. Kennedy's directive to the Consumer Advisory Council in 1962, setting forth the federal government's role in consumerism, aiding consumers to exercise their rights to safety, information, choice, and advocacy.

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Marketing Management

Consumer buyers

Consumer buyers are those who purchase items for their personal consumption.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Characteristics

The demographic, lifestyle and personality characteristics of the consumer.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Choice Model

A model attempting to represent how consumers use and combine information about alternatives in order to make choices.

The end user of a product or service. Not always the buyer.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Credit

Credit used by individuals or families for the satisfaction of their own wants.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Credit Protection Act

Also known as the Truth-in-Lending Act, requires full disclosure of terms and conditions of finance charges, and restricts the garnishment of wages.

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Marketing Management

Consumer decision making process

The series of steps a consumer goes through in deciding to make a purchase.

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Marketing Management

Consumer durables

Consumer durables have low volume but high unit value. Consumer durables are often further divided into White goods (e.g. fridge-freezers; cookers; dishwashers; microwaves) and Brown goods (e.g. DVD players; games consoles; personal computers).

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Marketing Management

Consumer Education

Formalized teaching efforts to provide consumers with skills and knowledge to allocate their resources wisely in the marketplace. Additionally, to have full knowledge of issues associated with specific products or services, trends, and issues.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Information

Policies aimed at providing consumers with marketplace information and fostering effective utilization leading to improved consumer choice.

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Marketing Management

Consumer jury test

A method of testing advertisements that involves asking consumers to compare, rank, and otherwise evaluate the ads.

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Marketing Management

Consumer markets

Consumer markets are the markets for products and services bought by individuals for their own or family use.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Price Index

A statistical measure maintained by the U.S. government that shows the trend of prices of products and services purchased by consumers.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Product Safety Act

This act established the Consumer Product Safety Commission and transferred a variety of product safety functions previously assigned to other agencies to this commission.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Protection

The body of federal, state, and local government legislation designed to assure safety, purity, quality, and efficacy of many products and services and the reliability of statements in advertising about them.

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Marketing Management

Consumer Satisfaction

The degree to which a consumer's expectations are fulfilled or surpassed by a product.

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Marketing Management

Consumer stimulants

Promotional efforts designed to stimulate short-term purchasing behavior. Coupons, premiums, and samples are examples of consumer stimulants.

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Marketing Management

Consumer

An individual who buys and uses a product or service.

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Marketing Management

Consumerism

Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption.

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Marketing Management

Consumption

The direct and final use of goods or services in satisfying an individual‘s wants.

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Marketing Management

Container premium

Special product packaging, where the package itself acts as a premium of value to the consumer.

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Marketing Management

Content cloaking

A sort of bait-and-switch tactic in which Web pages are designed with codes, keywords, and other verbiage that are hidden to general users and visible only to search engines; in other words, the site visitor sees one page, and the search engine spider views something else. Most engines penalize or ban sites that practice content cloaking.

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Marketing Management

Content Validity

The ability of the items in a measuring instrument or test to adequately measure or represent the content of the property that the investigator wishes to measure.

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Marketing Management

Contest

A consumer sales promotion technique requiring the participant to use specific skills or abilities to solve or complete a problem in order to qualify for an award.

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Marketing Management

Contextual Advertising

Online advertising that appears next to related non-search-engine-generated content, such as news articles.

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Marketing Management

Contingency Planning

The development of a management plan that uses alternative strategies to ensure project success if specified risk events occur.

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Marketing Management

Contingency Plans

Alternative plans prepared in case things do not go according to the main marketing plan.

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Marketing Management

Continuity

Scheduling advertisements to appear at regular intervals over a period of time.

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Marketing Management

Continuity Program

Any type of consumer sales promotion technique that encourages customers to purchase products on a continuing basis or over time. Some examples include: frequent flyer miles, points, coupons, etc.

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Marketing Management

Continuous advertising

Scheduling advertisements to appear regularly, even during times when consumers are not likely to purchase the product or service, so that consumers are constantly reminded of the brand.

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Marketing Management

Continuous market research

Continuous research involves interviewing the same sample of people, repeatedly.

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Marketing Management

Continuous tone art

Where a photograph or other art depicts smooth gradations from one level of gray to another.

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Contract

The agreement between two or more people that creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Its essentials are competent parties, subject matter, legal consideration, mutuality of agreement, and mutuality of obligation.

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Marketing Management

Contribution

Contribution per unit can be defined as selling price less variable costs. Overall contribution is the difference between total sales revenues and variable costs.

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Marketing Management

Control Group

A group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to any of the experimental treatments or alternatives.

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Marketing Management

Controlled (qualified) Publications, generally business-oriented, that are delivered only to readers who have some special qualifications. Generally, publications are free to the qualified recipients. circulation

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Marketing Management

Convenience Product

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Marketing Management

Convenience Sample A nonprobability sample of individuals who just happen to be where the study is being conducted when it is being conducted.

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Marketing Management

Convergence

A consumer good and/or service (such as soap, candy bar, and shoe shine) that is bought frequently, often on impulse, with little time effort spent on the buying process. A convenience product usually is low-priced and is widely available.

A marketing strategy that relies on the merging of two or more techniques, such as online and offline strategies.

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Convergent Validity

The general agreement among ratings, gathered independently of one another, where measures should be theoretically related.

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Marketing Management

Conversion Rate

1) The percentage of a specified audience that takes a desired action such as responding to a direct mail campaign or making a purchase. 2) Percentage of visitors to a Web site that make a purchase or perform a pre-determined task, such as signing up for a newsletter or registering to receive additional information.

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Marketing Management

Cookie

Small data file downloaded on to an end-user‘s computer which allows a web site to identify the visitor. Cookies can be used to build profiles of repeat users of a website.

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Marketing Management

Cooperative (Co-op) program

A system by which ad costs are divided between two or more parties. Usually, such programs are offered by manufacturers to their wholesalers or retailers, as a means of encouraging those parties to advertise the product.

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Marketing Management

Cooperative advertising

Advertising paid for by both the national (brand name) and the local advertiser. Also, advertising in which several normally competing firms get together to do a common selling job.

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Marketing Management

Cooperative Marketing

The process by which independent producers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers, or combinations of them act collectively in buying or selling or both.

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Marketing Management

Copy

The words that make up the headline and message of an advertisement or commercial.

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Copy platform

See Creative Strategy , below.

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Marketing Management

Copy testing

Research to determine an ad's effectiveness, based on consumer responses to the ad.

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Marketing Management

Copyright

The law that protects an author's original material, usually (in the UK) for 70 years after the author's death. Similar law covers logos and brand names

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Marketing Management

Copywriter

A copywriter is a person who writes text, or copy, for clients. Most copywriters work in advertising or marketing, producing copy that's intended to persuade a reader to buy a product or service or otherwise take action.

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Marketing Management

Copywriting

Creative process by which written content is prepared for advertisements or marketing material

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Marketing Management

Core product

The set of problem-solving or need-meeting benefits that customers are buying when they purchase a product. Customers are rarely prepared to pay a premium for these elements of a product.

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Marketing Management

Corporate advertising Building the image of a responsible corporate entity, attracting good talent and reinforcing the corporate mission.

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Corporate advertising A campaign that promotes a corporation, rather than a product or service sold by that corporation. campaign

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Marketing Management

Corporate Culture

The patterns and norms that govern the behavior of a corporation and its employees, particularly shared values, beliefs, and customs.

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Marketing Management

Corporate identity

A company's name, logo, typeface, colors, slogan, etc., are elements that help comprise its corporate identity. Motto Advertising has produced effective corporate identity packages for many new and long-established organizations.

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Marketing Management

Corporate Relations

The use of communication and public relations techniques to build favorable attitudes toward a particular company with competitors, consumers, the financial community, stockholders, and other publics.

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Marketing Management

Corporate Reputation Corporate reputation hinges on investor confidence, unlike brand reputation which is contingent on customer confidence and

A complex mix of characteristics, such as ethos, identity and image, that go to make up a company's public personality. reflected in sales. See also 'corporate identity'

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Corporate Strategy

Setting down of long term plans of development in a methodical manner, based upon all the available facts, in relating them to the ultimate goals of a company and the ways it intends to achieve them. Time scales vary from three to ten years (even more in certain industries). Fundamental to the preparation of a corporate plan is the need to define exactly the area of business in which to be operative. A second requirement is that any such plan must be flexible, subject to regular updating as events move to change the criteria upon which it is based.

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Corrective advertising

Advertisements or messages within advertisements that the Federal Trade Commission orders a company to run, for the purpose of correcting consumers' mistaken impressions created by prior advertising.

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Correlation

A statistical relationship between variables such as sales of ice cream and the weather.

Correlation Analysis

A statistical technique used to measure the closeness of the linear relationship between two or more intervally scaled variables. The purpose of correlation analysis is to measure the strength of the relationship between two variables. The correlation coefficient cannot be greater than 1 or less than -1. As defined, correlation is a number between +1 and -1 that reflects the degree to which two variables have a linear relationship.

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Marketing Management

Cost Analysis

A sales management evaluation and control method for monitoring sales force performance. A cost analysis involves monitoring selling costs across individual salespeople, districts, products, and customer types. When combined with the data from a sales ana

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Marketing Management

Cost Center

A division, department, or subdivision or any other unit of activity into which a business is divided for cost assignment and allocation.

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Marketing Management

Cost efficiency

For a media schedule, refers to the relative balance of effectively meeting reach and frequency goals at the lowest price.

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Marketing Management

Cost leadership

A strategy of producing goods at a lower cost than the competition. This usually requires the business to enjoy higher economies of scale or have some kind of productivity advantage.

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Marketing Management

Cost per Acquisition/Action (CPA)

Online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying actions such as sales or registrations.

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Cost per Click (CPC) A specific type of cost-per-action program where advertisers pay for each time a user clicks on an ad or link.

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Marketing Management

Cost per inquiry

The cost of getting one person to inquire about your product or service. This is a standard used in direct response advertising.

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Marketing Management

Cost per rating point (CPP)

The cost, per one percent of a specified audience, of buying advertising space in a given media vehicle.

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Marketing Management

Cost per thousand (CPT)

This is a standard measurement used for determining the cost effectiveness for a specific medium. It compares the cost of the advertisement to the number of impressions to your target audience.

C

Marketing Management

Cost Plus

A common method of setting price is to estimate the costs of a product and add a percentage to achieve a certain margin of profit. This is known as Cost-plus Pricing, and there are several problems with it. Most companies don't actually know what their real costs are product by product. As the volume of production, distribution and selling activity increases, costs change. Even then, what percentage should be added to set a price ? 10% ? 20% ? 50% ?

C

Marketing Management

Cost Plus Pricing

A method of determining the price of a product or service that uses direct costs, indirect costs, and fixed costs. These costs are converted to per unit costs for the product and then a predetermined percentage is added to provide a profit margin.

C

Marketing Management

Cost-Per-Action

Where you pay for a specified action such as a purchase.

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C

Marketing Management

Cost-Per-Click

A specific type of cost-per-action program where advertisers pay each time a user clicks on an ad or a web link.

C

Marketing Management

Counter

A program or script that counts hits/visits to a page.

C

Marketing Management

Counter advertising

Advertising that takes a position contrary to an advertising message that preceded it. Such advertising may be used to take an opposing position on a controversial topic, or to counter an impression that might be made by another party's advertising.

C

Marketing Management

Coupon Redemption The use of a seller's value certificate at the time of purchase to obtain a lower price than normal.

C

Marketing Management

Coverage

A measure of a media vehicle's reach, within a specific geographic area.

C

Marketing Management

CPM

Stands for Cost-Per-Thousand. It is the cost of using the media vehicle to reach 1,000 people or households.

C

Marketing Management

Crawler

A component of a search engine that explores web site content and indexes relevant information such as keywords and links.

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Marketing Management

Creative director

Creative Director is a job usually found within the advertising, media or entertainment industries. The job entails overlooking the design of branding for a client and ensuring that the new branding fits in with the clients requirements and the image they wish to promote for their company or product.

C

Marketing Management

Creative Process

The cognitive process of generating ideas, usually for promotional purposes.

C

Marketing Management

Creative strategy

An outline of what message should be conveyed, to whom, and with what tone. This provides the guiding principles for copywriters and art directors who are assigned to develop the advertisement. Within the context of that assignment, any ad that is then created should conform to that strategy. The written statement of creative strategy is sometimes called a "copy platform."

C

Marketing Management

Creative Strategy

An outline of the targeted messages that will provide the guiding principles for the development of marketing materials.

C

Marketing Management

Creatives

The art directors and copywriters in an ad agency.

C

Marketing Management

Credence Qualities

Credence values' are those values that are hard to evaluate even after the service. Even with experience, performance may still be difficult to measure. How do you know if your car service, face lift, or rewiring is of high quality? These are 'credence qualities' - features that are hard to evaluate even after the event. These often abstract variables make buying services more risky.

C

Marketing Management

Crisis Management

An attempt by an organization to reduce, minimize, or control the impact of a negative event through various communication techniques.

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Marketing Management

CRM

Also referred to as customer relationship management, CRM is an information industry term for methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage customer relationships in an organized way.

C

Marketing Management

Crop

To eliminate or cut off specific portions of a photograph or illustration.

C

Marketing Management

Crop marks

Marks to indicate which portions a photograph or illustration are to be used, and which are to be eliminated.

C

Marketing Management

Cross Linking

Multiple sites linking to each other.

C

Marketing Management

Cross promotion

A technique in which marketing partners share the cost of a promotional campaign that meets their mutual needs.

C

Marketing Management

Cross Selling

A consumer sales promotion technique in which the manufacturer or retailer attempts to sell the consumer products related to a product the consumer already uses or which the marketer has available.

C

Marketing Management

Cross Tabulation

A count of the number of cases that fall into each of several categories when the categories are based on two or more variables being simultaneously considered.

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Marketing Management

Cross-selling

Using a customer‘s buying history to select them for related offers, e.g. a car alarm for new car buyers.

C

Marketing Management

Culture

The philosophy of a company, reflected in aims such as the maximisation of customer satisfaction

C

Marketing Management

Cume persons

The total number of different persons who listen to a Radio station during a daypart for at least five consecutive minutes.

C

Marketing Management

Cume rating

The Cume Persons audience expressed as a percentage of all persons estimated to be in the specified demographic group. Formula: Cume Persons divided by the population x 100 = Cume Rating (%)

C

Marketing Management

Cumes

An abbreviation for net cumulative audience. Refers to the number of unduplicated people or homes in a broadcast program's audience within a specified time period. This term is used by A.C. Nielsen. It also is used by many advertising practitioners to refer to the unduplicated audience of a print vehicle, or an entire media schedule.

C

Marketing Management

Customer

A person or company who purchases goods or services (not necessarily the end ?consumer?)

C

Marketing Management

Customer Defection

When a customer no longer purchases your product or service, rather he/she purchases the product or service of a competitor.

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Marketing Management

Customer demand

Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)

The profitability of customers during the lifetime of the relationship, as opposed to profitability on one transaction.

C

Marketing Management

Customer loyalty

Feelings or attitudes that incline a customer either to return to a company, shop or outlet to purchase there again, or else to repurchase a particular product, service or brand.

C

Marketing Management

Customer need

A need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

The coherent management of contacts and interactions with customers. (This term is often used as if it related purely to the use of IT, but IT should in fact be regarded as a facilitator of CRM.)

C

Marketing Management

Customer satisfaction

The provision of goods or services which fulfil the customer‘s expectations in terms of quality and service, in relation to price paid.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Segment

A group of customers who share similar characteristics and are differentiated from other customer groups by qualities that are unique.

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Marketing Management

Customer Service Programme

Strategy for assuring customers a positive buying experience in order to improve customer loyalty, increase cross-selling and promote advertising by word-of-mouth. See also 'customer satisfaction'

C

Marketing Management

Customer Service

Full range of activities utilized by a company for delivery of customer communications and responding to requests, inquiries, and complaints.

C

Marketing Management

Customer wants

A want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy the underlying need.

C

Marketing Management

Customization

Tailoring a product or service to the unique needs of a customer. Each buyer is a unique segment requiring its own product.

C

Marketing Management

Cut

An antiquated term that refers to a photograph or illustration.

C

Marketing Management

Cutting

A film editing technique that creates a quick transition from one scene to another.

C

Marketing Management

Cyber-stealth marketing

Covert attempts using the internet to boost brand image, to make websites appear more popular than they are or to manipulate search engine listings.

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Marketing Management

DAGMAR

Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Response - a model for planning advertising in such a way that its success can be quantitatively monitored

D

Marketing Management

Dailies

Also called rushes , this refers to unedited film. These are called Dailies because the film typically is viewed from a single day's shooting, even if the final commercial or program will take many days or weeks of shooting.

D

Marketing Management

Damaged Goods

Products that have been compromised in some way and do not function properly. Damage may be caused during the production, shipping, storage, or distribution.

D

Marketing Management

Dashboard

A monitoring tool that sits on a desktop computer and displays the status of varying metrics. The result is a snapshot of performance as well as comparison against an established baseline.

D

Marketing Management

Data Cleansing

The process of improving the quality of data by modifying its form or content, removing or correcting data values that are incorrect.

D

Marketing Management

Data mining

The process of searching through customer information files to detect patterns that guide marketing decision-making.

D

Marketing Management

Data Processing

The obtaining, recording and holding of information which can then be retrieved, used, disseminated or erased. The term tends to be used in connection with computer systems, and today is often used interchangeably with 'Information Technology'.

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Marketing Management

Data Protection Act

A law which makes organisations responsible for protecting the privacy of personal data. The current act (Data Protection Act 1998) is the United Kingdom's response to the requirement to implement National legislation in accordance with the European Directive 95/46/EC.

D

Marketing Management

Database

A compilation of information on current and prospective customers that generally includes demographic and psychographic data as well as purchase history.

D

Marketing Management

Database Marketing

Whereby customer information, stored in an electronic database, is utilised for targeting marketing activities. Information can be a mixture of what is gleaned from previous interactions with the customer and what is available from outside sources. See also 'CRM - Customer Relationship Management'

D

Marketing Management

Day-after recall test

A research method that tests consumers' memories the day after they have seen an ad, to assess the ad's effectiveness.

D

Marketing Management

Daypart

Broadcast media divide the day into several standard time periods, each of which is called a "daypart." Cost of purchasing advertising time on a vehicle varies by the daypart selected.

D

Marketing Management

Dead Link

A link that produces a 404 error, page not found.

D

Marketing Management

Deadlines

Schedules and delivery dates/times.

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D

Marketing Management

Decay constant

An estimate of the decline in product sales if advertising were discontinued.

D

Marketing Management

Decentralized Management

The practice of delegating decision-making authority to lower levels of management or non-managers authorized to make decisions.

D

Marketing Management

Deceptive advertising A representation, omission, act or practice that is likely to mislead consumers acting reasonably under the circumstances.

D

Marketing Management

Decision Maker

D

Marketing Management

Decision Making Unit The team of people in an organisation who make the final buying decision (DMU)

D

Marketing Management

Decision Support System

A decision support system (marketing definition) is a systematic collection of data, techniques and supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and the environment and turns it into a basis for making management decisions. A DSS differs from a management information system in that it is designed to answer precise questions and what/if questions.

D

Marketing Management

Decline stage

The fourth and final stage in the product life cycle, when falling sales and profits persist.

The individual or body of individuals who have the authority to make a ―yes‖ and/or ―no‖ decision.

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Marketing Management

Decoding

The interpretation of a message by the receiver.

D

Marketing Management

Deep Linking

Connecting to a web page other than a site's home page.

D

Marketing Management

Deep submitting

Submitting all of your Website's URLs- in other words, every single page of your site- to a search engine. Most search engines forbid this practice.

D

Marketing Management

Deferred Billing

An invoicing method that enables customers to buy merchandise and not pay for a specific time period (e.g. 30 days), with no interest charge.

D

Marketing Management

Deflation

A contraction in the volume of available money or credit that results in a general decline in prices.

D

Marketing Management

Delegate

A participant at a professional training course, workshop or seminar

D

Marketing Management

De-listing/Deindexing

If search engines detect that you are using unscrupulous methods to get your site ranked, or if they regards your site as "spammy", then they will remove your site from their index and it will no longer appear when users search for it.

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Marketing Management

Delivery Period

The normal time between the placing of an order and the receipt of the product, service, or stock.

D

Marketing Management

Delphi Technique

The Delphi method is a technique aimed at building an agreement, or consensus about an opinion or view, without necessarily having people meet face to face, such as through surveys, questionaires, emails etc. This technique, if used effectively, can be highly efficient and generate new knowledge.

D

Marketing Management

Demand

A schedule of the amounts that buyers would be willing to purchase at a corresponding schedule of prices, in a given market at a given time.

D

Marketing Management

Demand Analysis

A study of the reasons underlying the demand for a product with the intent of forecasting and anticipating sales.

D

Marketing Management

Demand and Supply

Demand is the desire for a product at the market price: supply is the quantity available at that price.

D

Marketing Management

Demand Creation

The use of price reductions or other incentives to create or increase immediate sales response for a product or service among consumers or resellers.

D

Marketing Management

Demarketing

The process of reducing the demand for a product--or decreasing consumption.

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Marketing Management

Demographic Data

Information describing and segmenting a population in terms of age, sex, income and so on, which can be used to target marketing campaigns.

D

Marketing Management

Demographic segmentation

A method of dividing markets based on vaiables, such as age, ethnic background, gender and income.

D

Marketing Management

Demographics

The statistical characteristics of the population.

D

Marketing Management

Departmentalizing

The process of classifying merchandise into sub-groups known as departments.

D

Marketing Management

Depression

A phase of the business cycle characterized by a rapid decline in gross national product and employment.

D

Marketing Management

Depth interview

A lengthy, one-to-one structured interview, examining in detail a consumer's views about a product.

D

Marketing Management

Descriptive Labeling

The use of information on labels (e.g. ingredients).

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D

Marketing Management

Descriptive Research A research design in which the major emphasis is on determining the frequency with which something occurs.

D

Marketing Management

Designated market areas (DMA)

The geographical areas in which TV stations attract most of their viewers.

D

Marketing Management

Desire

A consumer‘s longing for goods or services and the third step in the AIDA model (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action).

D

Marketing Management

Desk Research

Checks secondary sources before carrying out the more expensive primary research.

D

Marketing Management

Destination Merchandise

A type of merchandise that motivates or triggers a trip to a specific store.

D

Marketing Management

Detailing

The personal sampling and other promotional work among doctors, dentists, and other professional persons relating primarily to pharmaceuticals, in order to secure distribution of a particular product.

D

Marketing Management

Differential Advantage

Is an advantage which (a) customers perceive and want (b) competition does not have.

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D

Marketing Management

Differentiation

A marketing strategy aimed at ensuring that products and services have a unique element to allow them to stand out from the rest.

D

Marketing Management

Diffusion Model

A model representing the contagion or spread of something through a population. Mathematical formulations to predict spread/growth.

D

Marketing Management

Diffusion of Innovation

a concept suggesting that customers first enter a market at different times, depending on their attitude to innovation and new products, and their willingness to take risks. Customers can thus be classified as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards.

D

Marketing Management

Diminishing Return

A law stating that if one factor of production is increased while the others remain the same, overall returns will relatively decrease after a certain point in time or quantity produced.

D

Marketing Management

DINKY

Double Income No Kids Yet - a demographic grouping

D

Marketing Management

Direct Advertising

A mass promotion issued from an advertiser by mail, email, television, salesperson, or other distribution method to individual customers or prospects.

D

Marketing Management

Direct Costs

Expenses incurred by and solely for a particular product, department, program, or sales territory. These costs may be fixed or variable.

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Marketing Management

Direct house

An advertising specialties company that manufactures and then sells its goods directly with its own sales force, rather than through retailers.

D

Marketing Management

Direct mail

The delivery of an advertising or promotional message to customers or potential customers by mail.

D

Marketing Management

Direct marketing

The planned recording, analysis and tracking of customer behaviour to develop a relational marketing strategies.

D

Marketing Management

Direct premium

A premium provided to the consumer at the same time as the purchase.

D

Marketing Management

Direct questioning

A method of pretesting designed to elicit a full range of responses to the advertising. It is especially effective for testing alternative advertisements in the early stages of development.

D

Marketing Management

Direct response

Promotions that permit or request consumers to directly respond to the advertiser, by mail, telephone, e-mail, or some other means of communication. Some practitioners use this as a synonym for Direct Marketing.

D

Marketing Management

Direct response advertising

An advertising message that asks the reader, listener, or viewer to provide feedback straight to the sender. Direct-response advertising can take the form of direct mail, or it can use a wide range of other media, from matchbook covers or magazines to radio, TV, or billboards.

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Marketing Management

Direct Selling

A marketing approach that involves the sale of goods and services to consumers through personal explanation and demonstrations, frequently in their home or place of work. Direct selling also refers to the practice of a manufacturer selling direct to the e

D

Marketing Management

Directory advertising

Advertising that appears in a directory (telephone directory, tourism brochure, etc.). This frequently connotes advertising that consumers intentionally seek.

D

Marketing Management

Directory

1) A systematically organized list of persons, businesses, organizations, or associations that provides addresses, affiliations, telephone numbers, and similar information. 2) A listing of categorized Web sites that can help improve the search engine standing of included sites.

D

Marketing Management

Disclaimer

A denial or disavowal of legal claim, removing liability of the issuing party.

D

Marketing Management

Discount

A reduction in price of a particular item or service.

D

Marketing Management

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

A method of estimating an investment's current value based on the discounting of projected future revenues and costs. The further into the future the flow occurs, the more heavily it will be discounted.

D

Marketing Management

Discretionary Income

The amount of annual income remaining in the hands of consumers after the payment of taxes and the purchase of necessities.

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Marketing Management

Discriminate Analysis

The science of determining significant differences, and the nature of these differences, between two or more subjects or groups. These subjects or groups are defined in terms of many variables.

D

Marketing Management

Disintermediation

Cutting out the middleman (for example, wholesalers and retail stores) and selling from the manufacturer directly to the customer.

D

Marketing Management

Display

A special exhibit of a product at the point of sale.

D

Marketing Management

Display advertising

Display advertising is a type of advertising in periodicals which can appear on the same page with, or a page adjacent to, general editorial content as opposed to classified advertising, which generally appears in a distinct section. It is also further differentiated from classified advertising in that it may, and most frequently does, contain graphic information beyond text such as logos, photographs or other pictures, location maps, and similar items.

D

Marketing Management

Display type

Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page which attracts attention of the reader.

D

Marketing Management

Disposable Income

An individual‘s or household‘s annual income less federal, state, and local taxes.

D

Marketing Management

Dissatisfaction

A lack of fulfillment which occurs when pre-purchase expectations are not met.

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D

Marketing Management

Dissolve

Fading from one scene to another in a film or television production.

D

Marketing Management

Distance Learning

study at home via CD-Rom and workbooks

D

Marketing Management

Distribution

The process of getting the goods from the manufacturer or supplier to the user.

D

Marketing Management

Distribution channel

The network of organisations necessary to distribute goods or services from the manufacturers to the consumers; the distribution channel therefore potentially consists of manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, and retailers.

D

Marketing Management

Distribution Penetration

Penetrating the distribution network to a certain level to ensure its availability to customers.

D

Marketing Management

Distributor

A company or person that distributes a manufacturer's goods to retailers. The terms "wholesaler" and "jobber" are sometimes used to describe distributors.

D

Marketing Management

Diversification

An increase in the variety of goods and services produced by an individual enterprise or conglomerate. It may be encouraged, either by business owners or by governments, in order to reduce the risk of relying on a narrow range of products.

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D

Marketing Management

Divest

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company can divest the SBU by phasing it out or selling it - in order to use the resources elsewhere (e.g. investing in the more promising "question marks").

D

Marketing Management

Dogs

A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Unsurprisingly, the term "dogs" refers to businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive, low-growth markets. Dogs may generate enough cash to break-even, but they are rarely, if ever, worth investing in.

D

Marketing Management

Domain Name

The name assigned to a particular web site (e.g. MarketingScoop.com).

D

Marketing Management

Donut

A recorded radio or television commercial distributed to local stations and having a blank central section to be filled with a local advertiser‘s message.

D

Marketing Management

Door-opener

A product or advertising specialty given by a sales person to consumers to induce them to listen to a sales pitch.

D

Marketing Management

Doorway Domain

A tool used to increase a Web site's position in search engine rankings. The doorway domain page is designed to score well on search engine processes, but the page itself takes users to the main domain when clicked.

D

Marketing Management

Doorway page

A Web page with content that's meaningful or visible only to the search engines; also called a bridge page or a gateway page.

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D

Marketing Management

Double truck

A two-page spread in a print publication, where the ad runs across the middle gutter.

D

Marketing Management

Downsizing

Reducing the total number of employees at a company through terminations, retirements, or spin-offs.

D

Marketing Management

DRIP Framework

Differentiate - Reinforce - Inform - Persuade.

D

Marketing Management

Drip Marketing

Promotional strategies that target an audience with promotional pieces many times over the life of a campaign

D

Marketing Management

Drive time

Used in radio, this refers to morning and afternoon times when consumers are driving to and from work. See Daypart , above.

D

Marketing Management

Drop Shipment

The physical sending of products direct from the supplier to the customer.

D

Marketing Management

Dubs

Duplicates of radio commercials made from the master tape and sent to stations for broadcast.

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D

Marketing Management

Dummy

A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp.

D

Marketing Management

Dumping

The practice of selling a product at a lower price overseas than domestically.

D

Marketing Management

Dupes

Copies of a finished television commercial that are delivered to the networks or TV stations for airing.

D

Marketing Management

Duplicated audience

That portion of an audience that is reached by more than one media vehicle.

D

Marketing Management

Durables

Consumer products can be categorised by perishability or durability. Consumer durables like TVs and fridges are very different from non-durables like soft drinks and detergents - fmcg's - fast moving consumer goods.

D

Marketing Management

Dwell Time

The amount of time a customer/user spends in time waiting in line.

D

Marketing Management

Dwelling Unit

A single home or other unit in which a cohesive set of individuals reside, and typically many good s are purchased in common.

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D

Marketing Management

Dynamic Content

A page using dynamic content will change that content depending on what search phrase is used. The pages use scripting languages such as PHP combined with a database to display a number of variables.

D

Marketing Management

Dynamic Page

A page that generates content ―on-the-fly‖ as a user requests the page.

E

Marketing Management

Early adopters

People who choose new products carefully and are often consulted by people from the remaining adopter categories.

E

Marketing Management

Early majority

People who adopt products just prior to the average person.

E

Marketing Management

Earned Income

The income resulting from work or services performed as compared to income from different sources such as investments or rent.

E

Marketing Management

Earned rate

A discounted media rate, based on volume or frequency of media placement.

E

Marketing Management

E-commerce or Emarketing

Marketing conducted electronically, usually over the Internet.

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E

Marketing Management

Economic Environment

Part of the macroenvironment encompassing wealth, income, productivity, inflation, credit, employment, etc. which affect the agency/library's markets and opportunities.

E

Marketing Management

Economic Value Added (EVA)

EVA is an estimate of true economic profit after making corrective adjustments to GAAP accounting, including deducting the opportunity cost of equity capital.

E

Marketing Management

Economics

The branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management.

E

Marketing Management

Economies of scale

The savings derived from producing a large number of units of a particular product.

E

Marketing Management

Economy Pack

A merchandising phrase pointing out savings by bundling several products as a single item in one package.

E

Marketing Management

EDI

An inter-company application-to-application exchange of business transactions in a standard data format. Often a computer-tocomputer transfer of information, usually orders, between or among retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers.

E

Marketing Management

Editing

The review and correction of written text.

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Marketing Management

Effective reach

The percentage of the target audience that is exposed to the advertising schedule a sufficient number of times to produce a positive change in awareness, attitude or purchasing action-- based on the concept that exposure below the effective frequency has little or no value.

E

Marketing Management

Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)

Having the right product in the right place at the right price with the right promotions. See also 'category management', with its emphasis on how products look to the customer - is seen as an integral part of achieving ECR.

E

Marketing Management

EFQM

The EFQM Excellence Model is a framework for organisational management systems, promoted by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and designed for helping organizations in their drive towards being more competitive.

E

Marketing Management

Ego

Based upon Freudian Theory, the ego is one aspect of the three parts of the personality. The ego is the executive, or the planner, compromising between the demands for immediate gratification of the id and the pristine rigidity of the superego (conscience

E

Marketing Management

Eighty-twenty rule

A rule-of-thumb that, for the typical product category, eighty percent of the products sold will be consumed by twenty percent of the customers.

E

Marketing Management

Elastic Demand

A situation in which a cut in price increases the quantity consumed in the market enough to increase the total revenue generated.

E

Marketing Management

Elastic Supply

A situation in which a percentage increase in price attracts a greater percentage of' products offered to the market.

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Marketing Management

Elasticity

E

Marketing Management

Elasticity Co-efficient A measure of the responsiveness of the quantity of a product consumed in a market to price changes.

E

Marketing Management

E-Learning

Interactive online tutorials, accessed via the internet or a company intranet

E

Marketing Management

Electric spectacular

Outdoor signs or billboards composed largely of lighting or other electrical components.

E

Marketing Management

Electronic Commerce electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or services, to place or receive orders, to provide or obtain (E-commerce) information, and to complete financial transactions.

E

Marketing Management

Electronic data interchange (EDI)

Computer-to-computer exchanges of invoices, orders, and other business documents.

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Marketing Management

Electronic media

Any of the media used to publish information electronically (as opposed to print). Some examples are: presentation packages, annotated image catalogues, World Wide Web pages.

Price elasticity, or price sensitivity, suggests the sales changes in unit sales affected by changes in price.

Business transacted through electronic networks, generally over the internet. E-commerce activities generally involve the

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A system whereby electronic tills are used to process customer transactions in a retail outlet. Local EPOS systems are usually

E

Marketing Management

Electronic Point of connected to a central computer system, so that financial and inventory-related data can be exchanged between the store and Sale (EPOS) System head office, allowing automatic accounting and replenishment.

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Marketing Management

Em

A unit of type measurement, based on the "M" character.

E

Marketing Management

eMail

A communication format that involves sending computer-based messages over telecommunication technology. E-mail can include a letter-style text message or more elaborate HTML messages. Users can also attach other files to the e-mail and transmit elements s

E

Marketing Management

E-marketing

General term for marketing conducted by electronic media, usually over the Internet or by e-mail.

E

Marketing Management

Embargo

The prohibition of shipment of goods or services to specified countries.

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Marketing Management

Emotional Selling Preposition (ESP)

The unique associations established by consumers with particular products. For example, the emotional response to certain car marques ensures their continual success, even though other makers may offer superior performance at the same price.

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Marketing Management

Emotional-Rational Dichotomy

The reasons for buying are sometimes split between emotional reasons and rational reasons.

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Employee Discount

A percentage discount from retail price offered by merchandise retailers to employees. Retailers often grant a larger percentage discount on apparel that employees may be required to wear during working hours.

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Marketing Management

Encoding

Translating an idea or message into words, symbols, and illustrations.

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Marketing Management

End Cap

An exhibit of a product set up at the end of the aisle in a retail store to call attention to a special offering or price.

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Marketing Management

End User

A person or organization that consumes a good or service that may consist of the input of numerous manufacturers or service providers.

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Marketing Management

Endorsement

The promotion of some kind of product recommendation or affirmation, usually from a celebrity, implying to the potential customer that a product is good.

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Marketing Management

End-user

The person who actually uses a product, whether or not they are the one who purchased the product.

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Entrepreneur

Someone who sees an opportunity and risks their own money to set up a business organisation in order to respond to it.

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Envelope stuffer

A direct mail advertisement included with another mailed message (such as a bill).

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Marketing Management

Environment

A complex set of physical and social stimuli in the external world of consumers.

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Marketing Management

Environmental Analysis

An analysis of alternative actions and their predictable short-term and long-term environmental effects, incorporating physical, biological, economic, and social considerations.

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Marketing Management

Environmental Monitoring

The process of checking, observing, or keeping track of something for a specified period of time or at specified intervals.

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Marketing Management

EPA

The Environmental Protection Agency, a federal agency formed in 1970 that regulates the amount of pollutants manufacturers can emit.

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Marketing Management

Equal time

A Federal Communications Commission requirement that when a broadcaster allows a political candidate broadcast a message, opposing candidates must be offered equal broadcast time.

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Marketing Management

Equilibrium Point

A point at which the quantity and price offered by sellers equals the quantity and price taken by purchasers.

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Erratic Demand

A pattern of demand for a product that is varied and unpredictable.

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Marketing Management

Error Log File

A server log file which records errors encountered.

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Marketing Management

Ethical Marketing

Marketing that takes account of the moral aspects of decisions.

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Marketing Management

Ethics

In philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a pa

E

Marketing Management

Ethnography

A detailed, descriptive study of a group and its behavior, characteristics, and culture.

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Marketing Management

Evaluative criteria

The standards a consumer uses for judging the features and benefits of alternative products.

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Marketing Management

Evoked set

The shortlist of potential products that the consumer has to choose from within the purchasing decision-making process.

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Ex Parte

A regulatory practice of pre-testing proposed regulatory rules in an effort to get reactions and comments from shippers, carriers, and other interested parties.

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Marketing Management

Exchange

A central marketplace with established rules and regulations where buyers and sellers meet to trade.

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Marketing Management

Exclusive distribution can have two different meanings: 1. When intermediaries like agents or distributors want to be the only Exclusive Distribution distributors, the sole distributors, or have the 'exclusive distribution rights' to sell a product or service within a certain area. 2. Restricted Distribution - to upmarket exclusive retail outlets as in the case of certain fashion clothes.

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Marketing Management

Exhibitions

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Marketing Management

Expansionistic pricing establishing mass markets, possibly at the expense of other suppliers. Under this strategy, the product enjoys a high price

E

Marketing Management

Expediter

A service provider who works to speed up a shipment for delivery.

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Marketing Management

Expense Center

A collection of controllable costs that are related to one particular area of work or kind of store service.

A display of goods by one or more organisations to potential customers. A form of sales promotion. e.g. the motor show at Birmingham NEC.

Expansionistic pricing is a more exaggerated form of penetration pricing and involves setting very low prices aimed at elasticity of demand so that the adoption of a low price leads to significant increases in sales volumes.

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Experience Curve

Reductions in unit costs comes from the Experience Curve. As the organisation produces more, it becomes more efficient. Better sourcing of materials, new production processes, labour efficiencies, economies of scale and improved product designs all reduce costs. More customers with more loyalty, mean less promotion costs.

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Marketing Management

Experience Qualities

Experience qualities - Buyers with experience draw upon experience qualities - previous experiences of the service in terms of say, speed, friendliness, performance etc.

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Marketing Management

Experience Survey

A series of interviews with people knowledgeable about the general subject being investigated.

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Marketing Management

Experiential Marketing

A type of marketing that attempts to evoke a strong emotional response, often by the use of sensory techniques, to create an affinity between a product and a potential buyer. Used by companies such as Apple Computer to create an aesthetically driven consu

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Marketing Management

Experimental Design

A research investigation in which the investigator has direct control over at least one independent variable and manipulates at least one independent variable.

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Marketing Management

Experimental method

Research method using random assignment of subjects and the manipulation of variables in order to determine cause and effect.

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Marketing Management

Exploratory research

# Exploratory research often represents a poorly defined problem area. It is difficult to produce concrete, focused results, and it will be more difficult to find relevant references to existing body of knowledge.

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Exploratory Research Searches for the issues which sometimes need to be included in a bigger quantitative survey.

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Marketing Management

Export Marketing

The marketing of goods or services to overseas customers.

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Marketing Management

Exposure

Consumers who have seen (or heard) a media vehicle, whether or not they paid attention to it.

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Marketing Management

Expressed Warranty

A guarantee supplied by a retailer or manufacturer, detailing the terms of a warranty in simple and easily understood language. This helps customers understand what is and what is not covered by the warranty itself.

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Marketing Management

Extensive Problem Solving

Process of searching for, collecting and carefully evaluating information about a product or service before deciding on which brand to buy. See High Involvement.

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Marketing Management

External Analysis

Study of the external marketing environment, including factors such as customers, competition, and social change.

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Marketing Management

External Data

Data that originate outside the organization for which research is being done.

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Marketing Management

External Environment

Factors (conditions, trends, and forces) essentially outside the control of organizational members. External environmental scans are conducted to identify important factors in the external environment.

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Marketing Management

External Stimulus

A cue to action that is outside an individual‘s self and/or control.

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Marketing Management

Extinction pricing

Extinction pricing has the overall objective of eliminating competition, and involves setting very low prices in the short term in order to ‗under-cut‘ competition, or alternatively repel potential new entrants.

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Marketing Management

Extrinsic Reward

A reward that is external to the individual. Common examples include such things as money or food.

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Marketing Management

Eye tracking

A research method that determines what part of an advertisement consumers look at, by tracking the pattern of their eye movements.

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Marketing Management

Face Value

The printed financial value of a coupon. The face value can be a specific monetary amount, a percentage discount, or combination offer with another product.

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Marketing Management

Facings

Refers to the number of billboards used for an advertisement.

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Marketing Management

Fact Sheet

A document that provides basic information about a product or service including its specifications and features.

F

Marketing Management

Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical technique that originated in psychometrics. It is used in the social sciences and in marketing, product management, operations research, and other applied sciences that deal with large quantities of data.

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Marketing Management

Factory pack

A premium attached to a product, in or on the packaging.

F

Marketing Management

Fair Credit Reporting Established in 1970, this act is designed to ensure accuracy of credit reports and to allow consumers the right to learn the nature of the information available and challenge incorrect information for purposes of correction. Act

F

Marketing Management

Fair Packaging and Labeling Act

This act requires that labels on consumer products identify the type of product being sold, the name and address of the supplier, and if appropriate, the quality and contents of each serving.

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Marketing Management

Fairness Doctrine

Until the mid-1980s, a Federal Communications Commission policy that required broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints any time they broadcast an opinion supporting one side of a controversial issue.

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Marketing Management

Family brand

A brand name that is used for more than one product, ie, a family of products.

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Marketing Management

Family life cycle

The stages of family life based on demographic data that are useful in defining the markets for certain goods and services. Each group has its own specific and distinguishable needs and interests.

F

Marketing Management

FAST Marketing

Focused Advertising Sampling Technique: an approach concentrating promotions into a short space of time to saturate the market.

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Marketing Management

Fast-moving consumer goods

Fast-moving consumer goods are those that sell in high volumes, with low unit value, and have fast consumer repurchase. Good examples include ready meals, baked beans, newspapers etc.

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Marketing Management

Fax Preference Service (FPS)

A database of business and individual telecoms subscribers who have elected not to receive unsolicited direct marketing faxes.

F

Marketing Management

FCC

Federal Communications Commission. The federal agency responsible for regulating broadcast and electronic communications.

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Marketing Management

Feature

The use of advertising, displays, or other promotional activity by a retailer to call special attention to a product for a limited time.

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Marketing Management

Feature Story

A type of publicity material that can be used by the media at their convenience because it is not tied to a specific time period or deadline. Feature stories are often human interest-related and contain more background information than typically found in

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Federal Communications Commission

A federal regulatory agency responsible for supervising radio and television broadcasting.

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Marketing Management

Federal Trade Commission

The FTC is responsible for enforcing the Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits "unfair methods of competition" and "unfair or deceptive acts or practices."

F

Marketing Management

Feedback

Response to an inquiry or experiment.

F

Marketing Management

Feel-Felt-Found Method

A method used by salespeople to helpfully respond to prospect objections by showing how other prospects have held similar views before buying the same product or service.

F

Marketing Management

Field Experiment

A research study in a realistic situation in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter under carefully controlled conditions.

F

Marketing Management

Field Marketing

Field sales force is an organisation's sales force. Some organisations hire contract sales forces from a 'field marketing' agency. These agencies supply a temporary sales team for a fixed period of time, typically during seasonal peaks and during special promotions.

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Marketing Management

Field Salesperson

A sales representative who is responsible for contacting and selling goods and services to customers in their place of business or residence.

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Fill Rate

An inventory's availability goal used when setting customer service objectives, for example 80 out of 100 reference questions were answered in a workday.

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Marketing Management

Financial Marketing

The process of planning and executing a financial concept including the development of pricing, promotion, and distribution strategies to create exchanges that satisfy the needs of the financial organization and their retail and/or institutional clients. Financial marketing generally requires industry specific expertise since each industry (i.e., banking, brokerage, investment management, insurance) must abide by the strict regulations of its various governing bodies.

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Marketing Management

First to Market (Product)

Developing and launching a new product before competition launch their version.

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Marketing Management

Fixed Costs

Fixed Costs are costs which basically remain fixed, in the short term at least, regardless of how many units are produced and sold. They include rent and rates, management salaries and so on. These are also called Fixed Overheads Costs, say ÂŁ10,000.

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Marketing Management

Fixed-sum-per-unit method

A method of determining an advertising budget, which is based directly on the number of units sold.

F

Marketing Management

Flagging

Special graphic techniques used on a product package or store shelf to call attention to particular offers such as a reduced price, bonus pack, or increased size.

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Marketing Management

Flagship Store

The leading store within a group, usually the biggest in size and stock holding and used as a benchmark against which other stores are measured.

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Flanking

An indirect strategy aimed at capturing customers within given market segments whose needs are not being served by competitors.

F

Marketing Management

Flash Report

A daily, un-audited report that is released to management, summarizing the day's sales figures for comparison with budget or perhaps last year's sales figure.

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Marketing Management

Flat rate

A media rate that allows for no discounts.

F

Marketing Management

Flexible Pricing

A practice of selling the same product at different prices to different customers.

F

Marketing Management

Flighting

A media schedule that involves more advertising at certain times and less advertising during other time periods.

F

Marketing Management

Floating Target

A target market whose profile remains constant but whose members change over time as they drift in and out of the buying window.

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Marketing Management

Floor Audit

The use of floor sales registers for all transactions, both cash and credit, so as to obtain from the register database, the total sales for each salesperson, department, and type of sale.

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FMCG

Fast Moving Consumer Goods - such as packaged food, beverages, toiletries, and tobacco.

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Marketing Management

Focus group

A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitude towards a product, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. In the world of marketing, focus groups are an important tool for acquiring feedback regarding new products.

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Marketing Management

Focus group interview

A research method that brings together a small group of consumers to discuss the product or advertising, under the guidance of a trained interviewer.

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Marketing Management

Follow-up

Post sale activities that often determine whether a one-time purchase will lead a buyer to become a repeat customer.

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Marketing Management

Font

A typeface style, such as Helvetica, Times Roman, etc., in a single size. A single font includes all 26 letters, along with punctuation, numbers, and other characters.

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Marketing Management

Food and Drug Administration

A legislative body that has the power to set standards for foods and food additives, to establish tolerances for deleterious substances and pesticides in foods, and to prohibit the sale of adulterated and misbranded foods, drugs, cosmetics, and devices.

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Marketing Management

Forced Sale

The sale of products at less than market price due to the urgent need for a merchant to liquidate assets. This type of sale is often done in and effort to meet the demand of creditors.

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Forecasting

The process of estimating future demand by anticipating what buyers are likely to do under a given set of marketing conditions (e.g. economic confidence, disposal income, pricing levels).

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Marketing Management

Forecasting Models

In forecasting sales, or library use, or other objectives, a variety of statistical models are used and available, offering insights otherwise difficult to obtain.

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Marketing Management

Foreign Trade Zones An area where goods can be made, stored, assembled, or repackaged, and then exported without incurring duties or taxes.

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Marketing Management

Formal research

Collecting primary data directly from the marketplace using qualitative or quantitative methods.

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Marketing Management

Formative Research

The market research, usually on target customers, carried out before a marketing program is begun to help formulate effective strategy and tactics.

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Marketing Management

Formula Selling

A selling approach in which the sales presentation is designed to move the customer through the stages of the decisionmaking process (AIDA).

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Marketing Management

Forward Stock

Inventory placed in a channel of distribution in advance of a customer‘s commitment.

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Marketing Management

Four M's

Money, Material, Machine and Manpower - traditional framework for viewing the resources available to a business, which can be useful when designing a marketing plan.

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Marketing Management

Four P's

See 'marketing mix'

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Marketing Management

Four-color process

A printing process that combines differing amounts of each of four colors (red, yellow, blue & black) to provide a full-color print.

F

Marketing Management

Frames

An HTML technique that will allow you to display two distinct pages within one web page. It can cause problems for search engines and should be avoided if possible.

F

Marketing Management

Franchise

A form of business organization in which a firm which already has a successful product or service (the franchisor) enters into a continuing contractual relationship with other businesses (franchisees) operating under the franchisor's trade name and usuall

F

Marketing Management

Franchised position

An ad position in a periodic publication (e.g., back cover) to which an advertiser is given a permanent or long-term right of use.

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Marketing Management

Franchising

Franchising (from the French for free) is a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring royalty fee.

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Marketing Management

Free Merchandise

A trade sales promotion technique in which an additional amount of the product is offered without additional cost as an incentive to purchase.

F

Marketing Management

Free Standing Insert

A preprinted advertising page commonly offering coupons or other promotional activities, inserted into a separate publication, such as a newspaper.

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Marketing Management

Free-For-All

A links page with nothing but links added by visitors.

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Marketing Management

Free-On-Board

This implies loading on a transportation vehicle at some designated point.

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Marketing Management

Free-standing insert (FSI)

An advertisement or group of ads inserted - but not bound - in a print publication, on pages that contain only the ads and are separate from any editorial or entertainment matter.

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Marketing Management

Freight Bill

The document used by carriers to charge for transportation services provided.

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Marketing Management

Freight Classification

All products transported by common carriers are grouped together into common freight classifications based upon the characteristic of the product that determines cost of handling and transport.

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Marketing Management

Frequency

(1) Number of times an average person or home is exposed to a media vehicle (or group of vehicles), within a given time period. (2) The position of a television or radio station's broadcast signal within the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Marketing Management

Frequent Shopper Program

An ongoing incentive program offered by retailers to reward customers and encourage repeat business. The reward is usually based on purchase volume or number of store visits.

F

Marketing Management

Freshbot

This is the name for the Google crawlers that are known to add pages to the

F

Marketing Management

Fringe Sizes

Sizes that are either very large or very small, usually offered in very limited depth because of limited market demand.

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Marketing Management

Fringe time

A time period directly preceding and directly following prime time, on television.

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Marketing Management

FTC

Federal Trade Commission. The federal agency primarily responsible for regulating national advertising.

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Marketing Management

Fulfillment

The process of gathering orders and distributing items purchased.

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Marketing Management

Fulfillment house

A coupon clearing house. A company that receives coupons and manages their accounting, verification and redemption.

F

Marketing Management

Full cost pricing

Full cost plus pricing seeks to set a price that takes into account all relevant costs of production.

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Marketing Management

Full position

A premium space in newspaper advertising in which an ad is run at the top of the column, with editorial on one side, or with editorial on the top and side of the ad.

F

Marketing Management

Full-Cost Pricing

An approach whereby prices are determined after all functional costs have been properly allocated.

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Marketing Management

Full-service agency

An agency that handles all aspects of the advertising process, including planning, design, production, and placement. Today, full-service generally suggests that the agency also handles other aspects of marketing communication, such as public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing.

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Marketing Management

Functional Discount

The discount given to wholesalers or others who act in the capacity of performing distributive services that would otherwise have to be performed by the manufacturer who produced the product.

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Marketing Management

Fundraising

The techniques used to solicit contributions or other forms of support for an organization from outside interests.

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Galley Proof

A copy of the individual pages of an ad, brochure, poster or other printed material used for final proofreading of the text before final negatives are made for the printing process.

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Marketing Management

Galvanometer test

A research method that measures physiological changes in consumers when asked a question or shown some stimulus material (such as an ad).

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Marketing Management

Garbology

The study of examining disposed goods and other items found in the garbage to learn about consumer behavior and preferences for foods or other disposable products.

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Marketing Management

Gatefold

Double or triple-sized pages, generally in magazines, that fold out into a large advertisement.

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Marketing Management

Gatekeeper

Usually the individual who controls the flow of information from the mass media to the group or individual.

G

Marketing Management

Gateway Page

A method once used to enable a site to rank well for a variety of keywords. It was frowned upon by the search engines and is no longer useful, as the search engines now base much of their algorithms on linking strategies.

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Marketing Management

Gender segmentation

The segmentation of markets based on the sex of the customer. The cosmetic industry is a good example of widespread use of gender segmentation.

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General Store

An establishment that sells a general line of merchandise, the most important being food. Other items may include; apparel, farm supplies, and gasoline.

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Marketing Management

Generic brand

Products not associated with a private or national brand name.

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Marketing Management

Geodemographic segmentation

The segmentation of consumers on the combined basis of location and certain demographic and socio-economic data

G

Marketing Management

Geodemographics

Geodemographics mixes geographic and demographic data together to find clusters of demographic groups within certain geographical areas.

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Marketing Management

GLAM

Greying, Leisured, Affluent, Middle-aged - a demographic grouping.

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Marketing Management

Global Advertising

The use of promotional appeals, messages, art, copy, photographs, stories, and video and film segments throughout the world.

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Marketing Management

Global Brand

A brand that is marketed, based upon a unifying strategy, in every part of the world.

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Global Competition

Global competition refers to all forms of competition on a world-wide scale.

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Marketing Management

Global Marketing

A marketing campaign that is aimed at markets all over the world.

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Marketing Management

Global Retailing

Any retailing activity that spans national boundaries.

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Marketing Management

Global sourcing

Contracting to purchase goods and services from suppliers worldwide.

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Marketing Management

Global Strategy

An approach that seeks competitive advantage with well developed strategic moves that are highly interdependent across countries.

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Marketing Management

Goals

Specific targets for a period of time.

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Marketing Management

Going-rate pricing

A pricing strategy that sets price largely based on the prices of competitors.

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Goods

In the purchasing sense, usually refers to a physical asset or consumable being purchased (eg. stationery).

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Marketing Management

Goodwill

An intangible asset valued according to the advantage or reputation a business has acquired (over and above its tangible assets).

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Marketing Management

Google

The largest and most popular search engine on the web. The search engine also offers PPC and contextual advertising through its AdWords program.

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Marketing Management

Google Bot

The crawlers which index pages into Google.

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Marketing Management

Google Everfiux

This denotes the continuous changes in the Google search results pages.

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Marketing Management

Grade Labeling

A system of identification that describes products by their quality, using agreed-upon numbers or letters.

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Marketing Management

Grassroots Marketing

A strategy primarily used by small businesses without large marketing budgets. It is high-touch and focuses on customers' personal experience with a brand.

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Gravity Model

A theory about the structure of market areas. The model states that the volume of purchases by consumers/users the frequency of trips to the outlets are a function of the size of the stores.

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Marketing Management

Gravure

A printing process that uses an etched printing cylinder.

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Marketing Management

Gray Market Good

Merchandise with a valid U.S. registered trademark that is made by a foreign manufacturer, but is imported into the United States without permission of the U.S. trademark owner.

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Marketing Management

Green Marketing

The promotion of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe (e.g. made from recycled products).

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Marketing Management

Greeter

A person who welcomes customers when entering a store, often providing information or assistance.

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Marketing Management

Grey Market

Sometimes called 'silver market'. Term used to define population over a certain age - usually 65

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Marketing Management

Grey Marketing (also The illicit sale of imported products contrary to the interests of a holder of a trademark, patent or copyright in the country of called Parallel sale. Importing)

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Grid card

A broadcast media rate card that lists rates on a grid, according to the time periods that might be selected for the ad.

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Marketing Management

Gross audience

The audiences of all vehicles or media in a campaign, combined. Some or much of the gross audience may actually represent duplicated audience.

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Marketing Management

Gross Domestic Product

A national estimate of the total output of goods and services produced in a single country in a given period of time.

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Marketing Management

Gross impressions

The sum of all exposures to an advertiser's message by way of all vehicles used in a media plan.

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Marketing Management

Gross Margin

The difference between net sales and total cost of goods sold.

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Marketing Management

Gross Markdown

The original amount of a markdown taken before subtraction of any markdown cancellations.

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Marketing Management

Gross National Product

The money value of a nation's entire output of final commodities and services in a given period

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Marketing Management

Gross Profit

Net sales minus cost of goods sold.

G

Marketing Management

Gross rating points (GRPs)

The sum of ratings achieved by a specific media vehicle or schedule.

G

Marketing Management

Group Buying

The consolidating of purchasing requirements of several to many individuals.

G

Marketing Management

Group Product Managers

Marketing managers responsible for a group of products and brands.

G

Marketing Management

Growth stage

The second stage of the product life cycle. This stage is marked by a rapid surge in sales, market acceptance and overall opportunity for the good or service.

G

Marketing Management

Growth State of Product Life Cycle

Second stage during which sales/use are increasing.

G

Marketing Management

Guarantee

The declaration, expressed or implied, of the quality of goods offered for sale.

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Guaranteed circulation

A media rate that comes with the guarantee that the publication will achieve a certain circulation.

G

Marketing Management

Guarantees and Warranties

Legal documents committing a company to deal with faulty goods or services by a variety of methods including repair, replacement or compensation.

G

Marketing Management

Guerrilla Marketing

The strategy of targeting small and specialised customer groups in such a way that bigger companies will not find it worthwhile to retaliate.

G

Marketing Management

Gulliver

The name of the web crawler for Northern Light.

G

Marketing Management

GUPPIE

Green YUPPIE - a demographic grouping. See also 'YUPPIE'

G

Marketing Management

Gutter

The inside margins of two pages that face each other in a print publication.

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Marketing Management

Habit

A learned response to a stimulus that has become automatic and routine, requiring little or no cognitive effort.

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Halftone

A method of reproducing a black and white photograph or illustration, by representing various shades of gray as a series of black and white dots.

H

Marketing Management

Halftone screen

Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.

H

Marketing Management

Hall Tests

Respondents are invited into a hall or room where research is then carried out on the new products, packs, or advertisements which are on show.

H

Marketing Management

Halo effect

In ad pretesting, the fact that consumers are likely to rate the one or two ads that make the best first impression as the highest in all categories.

H

Marketing Management

Handbill

The term commonly used to identify a promotional piece that is either distributed to shoppers at a store or passed out door-todoor by a messenger.

H

Marketing Management

Hard Goods

Products comprised mainly of; hardware, home furnishings, and furniture and appliances as compared to soft goods, which have a textiles base.

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Marketing Management

Hard-Sell

An approach to selling in which a salesperson attempts to control the interaction with a prospective customer and pressure him into making a purchase.

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Harvest

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company reduces the amount of investment in order to maximise the shortterm cash flows and profits from the SBU. This may have the effect of turning Stars into Cash Cows.

H

Marketing Management

Harvesting Strategy

The maximization of short-term cash flow from a business in expectation of a deterioration of market share and eventual withdrawal from the market.

H

Marketing Management

Header Tag

An HTML tag which is commonly used for page headers.

H

Marketing Management

Header Tag

Not to be confused with heading tags used within the main content area of a site, the header tag appears at the top of a page and contains information about the page such as title description and keywords.

H

Marketing Management

Headline

A headline is text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it.

H

Marketing Management

Hedging

The sale or purchase of a currency in forward markets for future delivery to satisfy a future obligation or obtain future payment.

H

Marketing Management

Heterogeneous

Heterogeneity - variability, or heterogeneity means that not everything or everyone is the same. In services heterogeneity makes every service delivered at least a little bit different. This variability, or heterogeneity, makes it difficult to standardise the quality of services.

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Heuristic

Of or relating to a usually speculative formulation serving as a guide in the investigation or solution of a problem.

H

Marketing Management

Hidden Text

Text which is invisible to the human eye because it is the same color as the background.

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchical Organization

A classic form of business structure that was adapted by business from historical religious and military organizations whereby authority flows from the person in charge through various levels of supervision.

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchy of Effects Model

An early model that depicted consumer purchasing as a series of stages including awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchy of Needs

A theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 concerning the specific order of the development of human needs. Maslow proposed that needs develop in an individual sequentially from lower to higher needs including physiological needs to safety needs, belongi

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchy-of-effects theory

A series of steps by which consumers receive and use information in reaching decisions about what actions they will take (e.g., whether or not to buy a product).

High Contact Activities

High and Low Contact Activities - Most services have a mixture of High and Low Contact with customers. For example, the bulk of dry cleaning services are done without the customer being present (maybe in a back room) while acupuncture services are performed in the presence of the customer. The invoicing (low contact activity) and appointment making may be done again in back room without the customer's presence.

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High Income Countries

Countries whose income per capita are high compared to the rest of the world.

H

Marketing Management

High Involvement

High Involvement Purchases are expensive, high risk, infrequently bought products or services. Here the buyer goes through the Extensive Problem Solving process.

H

Marketing Management

Hit

When a person visits a Web page, that Web page receives a number of ‗hits‘— one hit for the page itself, and one for every graphic on the page. The number of hits is not regarded as an accurate measurement of a Web site‘s popularity.

H

Marketing Management

Hit Rate

Also considered the conversion rate, it is the percentage of the desired number of outcomes received by a salesperson relative to the total activity level.

H

Marketing Management

Hold

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company invests just enough to keep the SBU in its present position.

H

Marketing Management

Holding power

The ability to keep an audience throughout a broadcast, rather than having them change channels. It is represented as a percent of the total audience.

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Marketing Management

Holdover audience

The percent of a program's audience that watched or listened to the immediately preceding program on the same station. Also called Inherited audience (see below).

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Holistic Marketing

Creating a consistent and integrated marketing message across many channels and campaigns.

H

Marketing Management

Hologram

A three-dimensional photograph or illustration, created with an optical process that uses lasers.

H

Marketing Management

Home Page

The main page of a Web site.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal Buy

A purchase made from a direct competitor.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal discount

A discount on a media purchase resulting from a promise to advertise over an extended period of time.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal Integration The expansion of a business by acquiring or developing businesses engaged in the same stage of marketing or distribution.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal Marketing Horizontal marketing systems allow/encourage different organisations to share their expertise and give each other access to new customer segments. Systems

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Horizontal publications

Business publications designed to appeal to people of similar interests or responsibilities in a variety of companies or industries.

H

Marketing Management

Host/Hostess gift

A gift to a consumer who sponsors a sales demonstration party or meeting.

H

Marketing Management

Hot composition

A method of typesetting that uses molten metal to form the letters for a typeface. See Cold type, above.

H

Marketing Management

House Account

A customer, usually of considerable size, that is not assigned to a field salesperson. Rather, the customer is handled directly by executives or home-office personnel.

H

Marketing Management

House agency

An advertising agency owned and operated by an advertiser, which handles the advertiser's account.

H

Marketing Management

House organs

In-house publications that communicate happenings in the company and among the company's employees.

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Marketing Management

House to House Distribution

Delivery of goods or literature to the consumer's front door or mailbox.

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Households using television (HUT)

The number of households in a given market watching television at a certain time. This term is used by A.C. Nielsen.

H

Marketing Management

HTML

(Hypertext Markup Language) The coded format language used for creating hypertext documents on the World Wide Web and controlling how Web pages appear.

H

Marketing Management

HTML Email

An e-mail that is formatted using hypertext markup language, as opposed to plain text.

H

Marketing Management

Hypermarket

An unusually large, limited service combination discount store, supermarket, and warehouse contained under a single roof.

H

Marketing Management

Hypertext

Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.

H

Marketing Management

Hypothesis

A statement that specifies how two or more measurable variables are related.

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i-Coach

Online support service for marketing students and delegates, offering online tutorials, case studies and exercises

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ID

Station identification during a commercial break in a television or radio program.

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Idea Generation

That stage of the new product development cycle in which ideas are sought for new products or services.

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Illustrator

An illustrator is a graphic artist that specializes in enhancing written text by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated concepts or objects that are difficult to describe textually, or the illustration may be intended for entertainment (such as illustrations in children's literature).

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Marketing Management

Image advertising

Promoting the image, or general perception, of a product or service, rather than promoting its functional attributes. Commonly used for differentiating brands of parity products (eg, "This is a woman's cigarette").

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Marketing Management

IMC - Integrated Marketing Communications

All communications and messages are carefully linked together to produce a coherent, distinctive, harmonic image which differentiates the product/brand against competition. It brings together all forms of communications within an organisation into a single 'Seamless Solution'. Un-integrated, or disintegrated communications send disjointed messages, dilute impact and sometimes confuse, frustrate and arguably arouse anxiety in customers. Integrated communications present a reassuring sense of order.

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Marketing Management

Imitative Strategy

A plan that relies on products or designs produced by other companies as the foundation for its growth.

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Implementation

The stage in the strategic market planning process in which an action plan is designed to meet strategic objectives that uses available resources and given existing constraints.

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Implicit Alternative

A different answer to a question that is not expressed in the available options.

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Implicit Cost

The value of an economic resource that is not explicitly charged on accounting records of a business.

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Implied Warranty

A promise of performance that is extended to the customer but unstated.

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Import Agent

A manufacturers' representative who specializes in the introduction of products into non-domestic nations.

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Import Broker

A dealer who specializes in international marketing.

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Impressions

The actual number of people who‘ve seen a specific Web page. Impres-sions are sometimes called ―page views.‖

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Imprinted product

A promotional product, this is a product with a company logo or advertising message printed on it.

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Impulse Buy

Purchase behavior that is assumed to be made without prior planning or thought.

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Impulse buying

Behaviour that involves no conscious planning but results from a powerful, persistent urge to buy something immediately.

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In House Teams

Staff from within the organisation as opposed to an outside agency e.g. in public relations team as opposed to using an outside PR agency. In reality, they are sometimes mixed together i.e. the in-house team may be supplemented by an outside agency and its resources.

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Inbound Links

Hyperlinks pointing to a given site from other, usually thematically related sites. Also called "backward links," they are an important component of online marketing.

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Incentive

An inducement (money, premiums, prizes) offered by sellers to reward or motivate salespeople, distributors, and/or consumers to sell orpurchase their products or services.

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Incentive catalog company

A company that creates an incentive program for sales people, and provides them with a catalog from which they can select their prize or premium.

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Incentive Compensation

Sales compensation based on performance.

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Incentive Plan

The offering rewards or inducements to stimulate the sales force or channel members to achieve predetermined sales, profit, distribution, or other goals.

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Income

A flow of money, goods, and benefits to a person or an organization.

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Income Differential

The difference in income levels among people of various categories, such as different jobs, geographic areas, age classes, sexes, races and the like.

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Income Effect

A change in various patterns of consumption for a product as consumers have an increase in real income.

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Income elasticity of demand

Income elasticity of demand measures the relationship between a change in quantity demanded and a change in income.

I

Marketing Management

In-Company Training Training programmes specially tailored to meet company requirements for groups of 6 or more people from the same company

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Incremental Sales

Units of product sold to retailers or consumers through a sales promotion in addition to the amount that would have been sold in the absence of the promotional offer.

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Incrementalism

The concept that strategies are the outcome of a series of minor tactical decisions in response to problems and opportunities rather than through systematic, formal, prepared plans.

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Independent Carrier

An owner-operator or individual transporter who provides hauling services for others.

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Independent contractor

A person who is hired by a company, but works for himself/herself. The company is a client, rather than an employer.

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Independent station

A broadcast station that is not affiliated with a national network of stations.

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Independent Store

A retail outlet that is owned individually and is not part of a retail chain.

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In-Depth Interviews

A qualitative research method which involves discussions on a one-to-one basis.

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Index

The collected information in a search engine or directory that search users can query against.

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Indexing

Behind-the-scenes creation of an ever-changing database based on the con-tents of web documents; search engines and filtering software use indexing to find and/or block documents containing certain words or phrases.

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Indirect Channel

A channel whereby goods and services are sold indirectly from a producer through independent wholesalers to final users.

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Marketing Management

Indirect Costs

Costs related to expenses incurred while conducting or supporting research or other externally-funded activities but not directly attributable to a specific project.

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Individual Brand

The brand identity given to an individual product, as separate from other products in the market and from other items in the product's own line.

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Inducements

Incentives offered to overcome resistance to purchase, for example 'special offers' or money-back guarantees.

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Industrial advertising

A form of business-to-business advertising (see above), this is advertising aimed at manufacturers. This advertising typically promotes parts, equipment, and raw materials used in the manufacturing process.

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Industrial buyers

Industrial buyers are those who purchase items on behalf of their business or organisation.

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Industrial market

Industrial markets involve the sale of goods between businesses. These are goods that are not aimed directly at consumers.

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Industrial marketing

The marketing of industrial products.

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Marketing Management

Industrialized Country A country with a market economy comprising a significant portion of world production and trade markets.

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Inelastic Demand

A situation in which a cut in price yields a very small increase in quantity taken by the market that total revenue decreases.

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Marketing Management

Inelastic Supply

A situation in which the quantity offered to the market increases less than proportionately to an increase in price.

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Marketing Management

Inferior goods

Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand. Demand falls as income rises.

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Infiltration marketing

Marketers joining chat rooms posing as ordinary users in order to spread marketing messages, usually as personal endorsements.

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Inflation

An economic condition characterized by a continuous upward movement of the general price level.

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Influencer

A person in a group buying situation (e.g. a family) who exerts significant influence in the final buying decision.

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Infomediary

A person or business that collects user-preference information in order to match users with vendors' products or services while protecting that information from direct access by the vendors (the term was coined by business theorist John Hagel).

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Infomercial

Infomercials are television commercials that run as long as a typical television program (roughly thirty minutes or an hour). Infomercials, also known as paid programming, are normally shown outside of peak hours, such as late at night or early in the morning.

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Marketing Management

Informal research

The second step in the research process, designed to explore a problem by reviewing secondary data and interviewing a few key people with the most information to share. Also called exploratory research.

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Marketing Management

Information Audit

Specifies who needs what information when. The audit can also list sources of information.

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Information Search

The process by which a buyer seeks to select the most appropriate supplier(s) once a need has been identified.

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Informational Advertising

Marketing that presents factual information about a product or product usage.

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Infrastructure

Refers to the systems, facilities, and installations used for purposes of conducting the basic and advanced operations of an entity.

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Inherited audience

Same as Holdover audience, above.

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Marketing Management

Initial Markup

The difference between the cost of merchandise and the original retail price of the good expressed as a percentage of the retail value.

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Initiator

A person in a group buying situation (e.g. a family) who first suggests buying a particular product or service.

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Inktomi

A database of search results used to power multiple search engines.

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Innovation

Development of new products, services or ways of working

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Innovators

Innovators are those who adopt new products first. They are usually relatively young, lively, intelligent, socially and geographically mobile. They are often of a high socioeconomic group (―AB‘s‖).

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In-pack premium

A premium included in the packaging of another product (e.g., buy a can of shaving cream and get a free razor in the same package). The term Package enclosure is also used.

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Inquiries

Consumer response to a company's advertising or other promotional activities, such as coupons. Used for measuring the effectiveness of some promotions.

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Insert

An advertisement, collection of advertisements, or other promotional matter published by an advertiser or group of advertisers, to be inserted in a magazine or newspaper. It may be bound into the publication, or be inserted without binding. See Freestanding insert, above.

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Insertion

Refers to an ad in a print publication.

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Marketing Management

Insertion order

Written instructions from an ad agency/advertiser indicating day/date an ad is to appear, its cost, requested positioning, etc.

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Installed Base

The number of units of a durable product in use at the customer‘s premises.

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Installment Account

The resulting charge account of a customer who has bought an item on a plan, providing a down payment, and pays a specified amount per month until an item is paid for in full (including a service charge).

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Institutional advertising

Advertising to promote an institution or organization, rather than a product or service, in order to create public support and goodwill.

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Institutional Market

A market for goods or services consisting of universities, schools, charities clubs and the like.

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Institutional Marketing

The marketing of products and services to both for-profit and non-profit organizations, such as corporations, universities, charitable organizations, government entities and other non-profit organizations.

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Marketing Management

Institutional Signage

The presentation of missions, customer service policies, and other messages on behalf of a retail institution.

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In-Store Coupon

A certificate redeemable only at one specific retail store or chain. These coupons are generally distributed through newspaper advertisements, flyers, or in-store.

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Instrumental Values

Preferred modes of conduct or patterns of behavior.

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Intaglio

A form of printing that results in a raised or engraved print surface.

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Integrated Approach

A management style which seeks to take account of marketing (or something else) in all decisions. Thereby marketing thinking is integrated (part of) all decision making.

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Marketing Management

Integrated Communications

With careful planning, communications tools such as advertising, direct mail, sales promotions, point-of-sale etc. can be integrated so that the message is consistent, overall impact is increased and costs reduced. See IMC - Integrated Marketing Communications.

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Integrated Development

A process of combining diverse organizational talents and functional groups to support the creative of a new product.

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Integrated Marketing A management concept that is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication (e.g., advertising, sales promotion, Communication (IMC) public relations, and direct marketing) work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation.

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Integrated Service Provider

for-hire firm that performs a range of logistics service activities such as warehousing, transportation, and other functional activities that constitute a total service package.

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Integration

The acquisition or development of businesses that are related to the company's current businesses as a means of increasing sales and/or profit and gaining greater control.

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Intellectual Property

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Intensive distribution Distributing a product through a wide variety of outlets.

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Intention

Anticipated or planned future behavior.

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Interactive Agency

A marketing agency offering a mix of Web design and development, Internet marketing, or e-business and e-commerce consulting.

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Marketing Management

Interactive marketing

Buyer-seller communications in which the customer controls the amount and type of information received from a marketer through such channels as the Internet, CD-ROM disks, interactive 800 telephone numbers, and virtual reality kiosks.

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Interactive media

Communications channels that induce message recipients to participate actively in the promotional effort.

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Interactive TV

Enables viewers to interact with the television set in ways other than simply controlling the channel and the volume and handling videotapes. Typical interactive TV uses are selecting a video film to view from a central bank of films, playing games, voting or providing other immediate feedback through the television connection, banking from home, and shopping from home.

Abstract forms of property that are distinct from the physical form of property including patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

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Intercept Store

A place of business that stops consumers passing by it o engage in some type of transaction.

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Inter-media comparison

Rarely used comparison of the cost effectiveness, advertising effectiveness, target demographics, etc of various media (eg television Vs radio, newspapers Vs magazines) to ascertain their overall effectiveness.

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Intermediaries

Organisations or individuals in the distribution channel e.g. wholesalers and retailers.

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Intermodal Transportation

The movement of goods that combines two or more modes of transportation.

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Internal Analysis

The study of a company's internal marketing resources in order to assess opportunities, strengths or weaknesses

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Internal Customers

Employees within an organisation viewed as consumers of a product or service provided by another part of the organisation products or services which the employees need to do their own work. For example, the marketing department could be internal customers of the IT department.

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Internal marketing

The process of eliciting support for a company and its activities among its own employees, in order to encourage them to promote its goals. This process can happen at a number of levels, from increasing awareness of individual products or marketing campaigns, to explaining overall business strategy.

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Internal Validity

One criterion by which an experiment is evaluated; the criterion focuses on obtaining evidence demonstrating that the variation in the criterion variable was the result of exposure to the treatment or experimental variable.

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International advertising

Advertising aimed at foreign markets.

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International Marketing

The conduct and co-ordination of marketing activities in more than one country

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International Monetary Fund

A multinational organization whose objective is to promote international financial cooperation and coordinate the stabilization of exchange rates.

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International Retailing Selling activity by a business that reaches across national boundaries.

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Internet

An all-purpose global network composed of 48,000 or more different networks around the globe that, within limits, let anyone with access to a personal computer send and receive images and data anywhere.

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Internet marketing

The use of the Internet to advertise and sell goods and services. Internet Marketing includes pay per click advertising, banner ads, e-mail marketing, search engine marketing (including search engine optimization), blog marketing, and article marketing.

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Internet Service Provider (ISP)

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Interpersonal Factors Influences or forces on the consumer due to other individuals his or her physical space or sphere of activity.

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Inter-selling

The process of exchanging goods at specific prices between and among departments to facilitate larger transactions and to make it more convenient for the customer to accessorize.

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Interval Scale

A measurement in which the numbers assigned to the attributes of an object or class of objects allow comparison of the size of the differences among and between objects.

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Intra-media comparison

Rarely used comparison of the various promotional options for a given medium, eg The Times Vs The Independent.

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In-Transit

A condition that exists when merchandise has been shipped from the vendor and has not yet arrived at the buyer's receiving dock.

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Intrinsic Reward

A benefit that is internal such as feeling satisfied or pleased after the completion of a difficult task.

Short for Internet Service Provider, an ISP is a company that provides access to the Internet.

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Introduction stage

A product's first appearance in the marketplace, before any sales or profits have been made.

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Introductory phase

The initial phase of the product life cycle (also called the pioneering phase) when a new product is introduced, costs are highest, and profits are lowest.

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Invention

A new device, process, etc., that has been created.

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Inventory

Goods or merchandise available for resale.

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Inventory Analysis

the classification of goods held in inventory according to sales volume; the classification is used primarily to determine stock location within the warehouse.

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Inventory Control

Procedures used to ensure that desired levels of stock are maintained

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Inventory Management

The process of acquiring and maintaining a proper assortment of merchandise while keeping ordering, shipping, handling, and other related costs in check.

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Inventory Turnover

The number of times that average inventory is sold during a specific period of time.

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Investment Strategy

A plan that specifies the requirements for funds needed to achieve a competitive advantage. Also, the outcomes expected from the allocation of these funds.

I

Marketing Management

Involvement

The level of interest, emotion and activity which the consumer is prepared to expend on a particular purchase.

I

Marketing Management

IP Address

A unique number which identifies a computer or system IP Spoofing An illegal process of faking an IP address

I

Marketing Management

IPS

Institute of Professional Sales, sister institute to The Chartered Institute of Marketing. IPS provide in-depth training and development at every stage of the sales career

I

Marketing Management

IPTV

Internet Protocol Television. Technology allowing television and video signals to be received via an internet connection.

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Marketing Management

Island display

An in-store product display situated away from competing products, typically in the middle or at the end of an aisle.

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Island position

A print ad that is completely surrounded by editorial material, or a broadcast ad surrounded by program content, with no adjoining advertisements to compete for audience attention.

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Marketing Management

JavaScript

A scripting language developed by Netscape and used to create interactive Web sites.

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Marketing Management

Jingle

A jingle is a memorable advertising slogan usually set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio and television commercials. Jingles are memes constructed to stay in one's memory and people often nostalgically remember them decades after, even after the brand has ceased to exist.

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Marketing Management

JIT

Just In Time delivery is a system which delivers exact quantities only when they are required and ready to be used immediately.

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Marketing Management

Job Lot

A promotional grouping of merchandise through which some vendors dispose of end-of-season surpluses and incomplete assortments.

J

Marketing Management

Jobber

Synonymous with a wholesaler, a middleman who buys from manufacturers domestic or foreign and sells to retailers.

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Marketing Management

Joint Venture

A business entity or partnership formed by two or more parties for a specific purpose; for example, Virgin Mobile is a 50:50 joint venture company between Virgin Group and Deutsche Telekom's One 2 One.

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Jumble display

A mixture of products or brands on a single display, such as a clearance table.

J

Marketing Management

Junket

A publicity device in which members of the media are invited to a company to observe a product being made.

J

Marketing Management

JUPPIE

Japanese YUPPIE - a demographic grouping. See also 'YUPPIE'

J

Marketing Management

Just-In-Time Delivery An inventory control system that replenishes and delivers products to a retailer just as the current supply is depleted.

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Marketing Management

Kaizen

The Japanese refer to continuous year-to-year improvement as 'Kaizen'.

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Marketing Management

Keeper

A premium used to induce a consumer to take some action, such as completing a survey or trying a product.

K

Marketing Management

Kelly Grids

See 'repertory grids'

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Kerning

Adjusting the measure between type characters so they appear evenly spaced.

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Marketing Management

Key Account

A large account receiving special treatment from salespeople, usually generating more than a pre-defined annual sales amount.

K

Marketing Management

Key Account Management

Account management as applied to a company's most important customers. See also 'account management'

K

Marketing Management

Key Success Factors Those factors that are a necessary condition for success in a given market. That is, a company that does poorly on one of the factors critical to success in its market is certain to fail. (KSF)

K

Marketing Management

Keystone Markup

An increase in price in which the cost amount is doubled on an item to achieve a 50% product margin.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword

A word that is entered into the se arch form or se arch ―window‖ o fan Internet search engine to search the Web for p ages or sites about or including the keyword and information related to it.

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Marketing Management

Keyword buying

Advertisers paying for links to their websites to appear on internet search engines along side search results, sometimes as ‖sponsored links‖, based on keywords entered into the search engine. See ‗Search Marketing‘.

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Keyword Density

Keywords as a percentage of text words that can be indexed.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword Marketing

Placing a marketing message in front of users based on the keywords they‘re using to search.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword Stuffing

Placing excessive keywords into page copy and coding such as meta tags; this may hurt the usability of a page but is meant to boost the page's search engine ranking. Hiding keywords on a page by making them the same color as the page background and loading tags with repeated keyword phrases are examples.

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Marketing Management

Keyword Weight

Keyword weight refers to the number of keywords appearing in the page area divided by the total number of words appearing in that area. Weight also depends on whether the keyword is a single word or a multi-word phrase. Weight formula: (number of words in the keyword phrase * frequency) / total words in area

K

Marketing Management

Keyword

A word or phrase that a user types into the search window of a search engine to find Web sites containing relevant information. Incorporating applicable Keywords into a Web site is a crucial component of optimization. See Search Term.

K

Marketing Management

Kickback

A payment made by a salesperson or business to a buyer based on the size or number of orders placed for the salesperson's products or services.

K

Marketing Management

Kicker

A subhead that appears above the headline.

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Kidults

Adults who buy products that are predominantly aimed at children

K

Marketing Management

Kiosks

Touch sensitive robust PCs used as public access points either on the street or within public buildings.

K

Marketing Management

Knowledge

Consumers' meanings or beliefs about products, brands, stores, that are stored in memory.

K

Marketing Management

Knowledge Management

The collection, organisation and distribution of information in a form that lends itself to practical application. Knowledge management often relies on information technology to facilitate the storage and retrieval of information.

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Marketing Management

Label

The information attached to or on a product for the purpose of naming it and describing its use, dangers, ingredients, manufacturer, etc.

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Marketing Management

Labelling

Packaging information that can be used for a variety of promotional, informational and legal purposes.

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Marketing Management

Labor Intensive

A product or industry in which labor requirements are large relative to requirements for capital goods.

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Laddering

A technique to discover the associations consumers have between specific product attributes and more general end states or consequences.

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Marketing Management

Laggards

The group of consumers who are typically last to buy a new product.

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Marketing Management

Laissez Faire Leadership

A management style wherein sales managers supervise their sales personnel minimally and therefore have a low degree of involvement with them on a regular basis.

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Marketing Management

Landed Cost Price

The quoted or invoiced price of a commodity, plus any inbound transportation charges.

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Marketing Management

Landing Page

The Web page to which a link from a search result or online promotion directs search engine traffic.

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Marketing Management

Lanham Act

Federal trademark law.

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Marketing Management

Late majority

People who are quite sceptical about new products but eventually adopt them because of economic necessity or social pressure.

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Launch Control

The process by which a management plans for and supervises the introduction of a new product, making corrections to the product as variances are detected so that original goals are achieved.

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Marketing Management

Law of Comparative Advantage

This law states that a country tends to export those economic goods in which it has a comparative advantage and to import those economic goods in which it has a disadvantage.

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Marketing Management

Law of Demand

The law that, other things being equal, consumers will buy more of a product at a low price than at a high price.

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Marketing Management

Law of Diminishing Return

After a certain point has been reached, each successive application of a factor of production will add less to total output than before.

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Marketing Management

Lawsuit

A legal action which is filed by one party against another when a contract has been breached.

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Marketing Management

Lay-Away

The purchase of an article with a down payment, while the store retains the article until full payment is made.

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Marketing Management

Layout

A design for graphic advertising production, roughly depicting the look of the finished advertisement.

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Lead Generation

The process of collecting contact information and identifying potential sales leads.

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Marketing Management

Lead Time

The amount of time determined by a merchandiser to be necessary to add on to the purchasing period, assuring that sufficient merchandise will be on hand until a particular order is received.

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Marketing Management

Leader Pricing

The pricing of products at lower than usual prices in order to attract shoppers.

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Marketing Management

Leading

The space between lines of type.

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Marketing Management

Leading Economic Indicators

Financial indicators that reach peaks or troughs ahead of aggregate economic activity.

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Marketing Management

Leading Question

A question framed in such a manner as to give the respondent a clue as to how he or she should answer.

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Marketing Management

Leads

Possible customers; prospective customers; prospects; enquirers; enquiries or leads generated from mail shots, advertisements and exhibitions. The quality of the lead should be checked so that the best leads, called 'hot prospects', or hot leads, get special attention.

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Leapfrog Routing

A method for scheduling calls that requires salespeople to call on a cluster of customers that are in close geographic proximity.

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Marketing Management

Learning Curve

A graph that depicts rate of learning, especially a graph of progress in the mastery of a skill against the time required for such mastery.

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Marketing Management

Learning Log

An assignment that charts a personal development plan and achievements of a delegate during a period of study

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Marketing Management

Learnings

Marketers constantly seek to learn from their experience and to improve their performances. Some companies formalise this process and incorporate what the key things a marketing manager learns into their next set of plans.

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Marketing Management

Leasing

A contract through which the asset owner (lessor) extends the right to use the asset to another party (lessee) in return for periodic payment of rent over a specific period.

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Marketing Management

Leave-behind

A premium left with prospective customers by a sales person, to remind them of the product or service being sold.

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Marketing Management

Letter of Credit

A correspondence by which a bank substitutes its creditworthiness for that of the buyer.

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Letter shop

A firm that personalizes, labels, sorts & stuffs envelopes in preparation for Standard Mail.

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Marketing Management

Letterpress

A printing method that stamps ink onto paper, using raised lettering.

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Marketing Management

Leverage

The ability to control large dollar amounts of a commodity with a comparatively small amount of capital.

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Marketing Management

Licensing

A method of entering a foreign market in which the company enters into an agreement with a licensee, offering the right to use a manufacturing process, trademark, patent, trade secret, or other item of value for a fee or royalty.

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Life-Cycle Costs

The realized cost of a durable good over its entire operating life.

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Marketing Management

Lifestyle

Lifestyle is a person‘s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests and opinions.

Lifestyle segmentation

Lifestyle segmentation of a market is based on identifying lifestyle characteristics of customers that enable target customer groups to be identified. Many businesses now segment their markets by lifestyles, as these are increasingly seen as good predictors of consumer behaviour. Most companies use off-the-shelf research-agency classifications (such as the Target Group Index), because of the high cost and complexity of developing their own.

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Lifetime Customers

Customers who repeatedly buy the same brand throughout their buying life.

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Lifetime Value

It is the total amount spent by one customer on a product or service during her/his lifetime.

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Likert Scale

A scale in which the respondent specifies a level of agreement or disagreement with statements that express a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the concept under study (usually a 5 or 7 point scale).

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Marketing Management

Limited Problem Solving

A situation where the buyer has some experience of buying a particular product or service. See Extensive Problem Solving.

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Marketing Management

Linage

Refers to the size of an ad, based on the number of lines of type taken up by the ad.

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Marketing Management

Line Authority

The influence managers need to direct individuals assigned to them in order to achieve the goals for which they are held responsible by management.

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Marketing Management

Line conversion

A high-contrast reproduction of an illustration, where all shading is reduced to either black or white.

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Line Extension

See Product Line.

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Marketing Management

Link Checker

A tool used to check Web pages for broken links.

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Marketing Management

Link Farm

A series of websites linking to each other in order to increase rankings.

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Marketing Management

Link Popularity

A measure of how many other Web pages are linked to a given Web page. Several search engines include this factor in determining their search results.

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Marketing Management

Liquidation

When a company becomes insolvent it goes bust! Its assets are liquidated or sold off for cash. Bankrupt.

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Marketing Management

List broker

An agent who sells lists of sales prospects.

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Marketing Management

List Explosion

It is the proliferation of a vast array of different types of direct mail lists.

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List Price

The selling price for an item before any discounts or reductions in price.

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Marketing Management

Listserv

An e-mail-based system designed to support group discussions of a particular topic.

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Marketing Management

Literature Search

Systematic search, utilizing various indexes and catalogs, for materials on a specific problem or topic, often done with an aim to be comprehensive.

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Marketing Management

Lithography

A printing method in which the printing and non-printing areas exist on the same plane, as opposed to a bi-leveled reproduction.

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Marketing Management

Live Rack

A storage bracket designed to allow products to automatically advance forward to the desired position.

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Marketing Management

Living Standard

A measure of the possession and distribution of material goods among members of a society.

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Marketing Management

Lobbying

The process of trying to influence policymakers in favor of a specific cause.

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Local advertising

Advertising to a local merchant or business as opposed to regional or national advertising.

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Marketing Management

Local rate

An advertising rate charged to a local advertiser , typically a retailer, by local media and publications, as distinguished from a national rate that is charged to a national advertiser, typically a manufacturer.

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Marketing Management

Location Affinities

The clustering of similar or complementary retail stores.

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Marketing Management

Logistics

A single logic covering all activities relating to the procurement, transport, shipment and storage of goods. Logistics as generally understood is concerned particularly with material flow (raw materials, interim and final products), but also involves pro

L

Marketing Management

Logo

A graphic, usually consisting of a symbol and/or group of letters that identifies a company or brand.

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Marketing Management

Logotype

A personalized type or design symbol for a company or product.

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Marketing Management

Longitudinal Study

An investigation involving a sample of elements that is measured repeatedly through time.

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Loss Leaders

Loss Leaders are products or services offered at low prices (often below cost) to entice customers into buying other products or services.

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Marketing Management

Lottery

A scheme in which making a required purchase gives a person a chance to win a prize which is awarded at random, usually through an electronic drawing. Lotteries may not be used as promotion devices under U.S. laws.

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Marketing Management

Low Contact Activities

High and Low Contact Activities - Most services have a mixture of High and Low Contact with customers. For example, the bulk of dry cleaning services are done without the customer being present (maybe in a back room) while acupuncture services are performed in the presence of the customer. The invoicing (low contact activity) and appointment making may be done again in a back room without the customer's presence.

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Marketing Management

Low Income Countries

Countries with the lowest income per capita compared with the rest of the world. The bottom quartile is often considered low income.

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Marketing Management

Low Involvement

Low Involvement Purchases are frequently bought, low value purchases like a can of beans. There is little risk and hence the buyer spends less time and effort making the decision. See High Involvement.

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Marketing Management

Loyalty index

Frequency of listenership of a particular broadcast station.

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Marketing Management

Loyalty Programs

Programs which seek to identify, maintain and increase the yield from best customers through long-term, interactive, valueadded relationships where recognition and reward is based on activity level.

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Loyalty

A measure of the preference consumers have for a product or service compared to other similar, available options. This is often measured in terms of repeat purchase behavior or price sensitivity.

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Marketing Management

LTV

Long Term Value.

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Marketing Management

Macro Environment

The external factors which affect a company's planning and performance, and are beyond its control: for example, socioeconomic, legal and technological change. Compare 'micro environment'

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Marketing Management

Macro Environment

The external factors, such as socio-economic, legal and technological forces that can impact the success of an organization's business and marketing strategies.

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Marketing Management

Macro Factors

Those factors affecting an organisation which are beyond the control of that organisation but which the organisation must take account of.

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Marketing Management

Macro forecasting

Macro forecasting is concerned with forecasting markets in total. This is about determining the existing level of Market Demand and considering what will happen to market demand in the future.

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Marketing Management

Macromarketing

A type of marketing in which a company adapts itself to uncontrollable factors within the industry.

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Mail panels

Groups of consumers selected to represent a market or market segment who agree to be regularly interviewed by mail.

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Marketing Management

Mail-in premium

A premium obtained by mailing in a suitable response to the manufacturer or distributor, with or without money.

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Marketing Management

Mailing Preference Service (MPS)

A database of individual home addresses where the occupiers have elected not to receive unsolicited direct (marketing) mail.

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Marketing Management

Mail-order advertising Advertising which supplies paperwork for the purpose of soliciting a purchase made through the mail.

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Marketing Management

Mail-Order House

An establishment primarily engaged in distributing merchandise through the mail as a result of orders received.

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Marketing Management

Mailshot

Sending letters to a target audience - i.e. distribution of information to potential customers via the post with the purpose of increasing sales and profit.

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Marketing Management

Make good

(1) To present a commercial announcement after it ‖s scheduled time because of an error. (2) To rerun a commercial announcement because of technical difficulties the previous time it was run. (3) To rerun a print advertisement due to similar circumstances.

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Mall Intercept

A method of data collection in which interviewers in a shopping mall stop or intercept individuals passing by to ask if they would be willing to participate in a research study.

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Marketing Management

Management by Exception

A leadership style wherein sales managers intervene only when their salespeople have failed to meet performance standards.

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Marketing Management

Management A set of procedures and methods for the regular, planned collection, analysis, and presentation of information for use in Information Systems making management decisions.

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Marketing Management

Manual Submission

That addition of a URL to a search engine directory individually by hand.

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Marketing Management

Manufacturer brand

Manufacturer brands are created by producers and bear their chosen brand name. The producer is responsible for marketing the brand. The brand is owned by the producer. By building their brand names, manufacturers can gain widespread distribution (for example by retailers who wants to sell the brand) and build customer.

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Marketing Management

Manufacturer‘s Agent

An independent business person who is paid a commission to sell a manufacturer's product(s) or service(s) but does not receive a title to the products.

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Marketing Management

Margin

The difference between the selling price and total unit costs for an item.

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Marginal analysis

Technique of setting the advertising budget by assuming the point at which an additional dollar spent on advertising equals additional profit.

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Marketing Management

Marginal Cost

Marginal cost is the extra cost of making one extra unit. It is, for example, the difference in total costs when you produce 101 units instead of 100.

M

Marketing Management

Marginal Pricing

Marginal Pricing, looks at sales forecasts and sets a price based on the lower marginal costs which can be achieved in the future. This enables you to set prices below competitors.

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Marketing Management

Marginal Revenue

The net change in total revenue that results from producing and marketing one additional unit.

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Marketing Management

Marginal Unit

The last unit in a series of items.

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Marketing Management

Markdown

The amount of a reduction from the selling price of an item.

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Marketing Management

Marker leader

The business in a market with the largest market share. The market leader, particularly one with a dominant market share, is often ―followed‖ by competitors in terms of pricing and product strategy.

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Market

A market is the demand for a particular product or service, often measured by sales during a specified period.

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Marketing Management

Market Analysis

Research used to assist in predicting the direction of the markets based on technical data relating to price movements of the market, or on fundamental data such as corporate earnings.

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Marketing Management

Market Area

A regional area from which one can expect the greatest demand for a specific product or service.

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Marketing Management

Market Attractiveness

A measure of the profit potential inherent in the structure of a market or industry which is determined by factors including: growth rate, market size, economy, technology, environment, etc.

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Marketing Management

Market challenger

A business in a market that is fighting hard to increase its market share.

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Marketing Management

Market concentration is the proportion of market value that is owned by the leading brands or products/companies in the market. Where the market leaders own a large part of the overall market, the market is said to be highly concentrated. By Market concentration contrast, where the market leader has a relatively small market share and there are many other competitors, a market is said to be "fragmented".

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Marketing Management

Market Coverage

Ensuring that the product is made available through appropriate intermediaries so that: (a) the potential customer can access it as easily as possible; and (b) the product is properly displayed, sold and supported within the channel of distribution.

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Market Demand

The total volume of a given product or service bought by a specific group of customers in a specified market area, within a defined period of time.

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Marketing Management

Market development

The process of growing sales by offering existing products (or new versions of them) to new customer groups (as opposed to simply attempting to increase the company‘s share of current markets).

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Marketing Management

Market Economy

An economy that allocates resources primarily through the interaction of individuals (households) and private firms.

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Marketing Management

Market entry

The launch of a new product into a new or existing market. A different strategy is required depending on whether the product is an early or late entrant to the market; the first entrant usually has an automatic advantage, while later entrants need to demonstrate that their products are better, cheaper and so on.

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Marketing Management

Market Extension

The process of growing sales by offering existing or modified products to new market segments.

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Marketing Management

Market follower

A firm that is happy to follow the leaders in a market place without challenging them, perhaps taking advantages of opportunities created by leaders without the need for much marketing investment of its own - see also 'market challenger' and 'market leader'.

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Marketing Management

Market Fragmentation

A term used to describe a market which has many different clearly identifying segments.

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Market Leader

Seller of the product or service with the largest market share in its field - see also 'market challenger' and 'market follower'

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Marketing Management

Market Penetration

The attempt to grow one's business by obtaining a larger market share in an existing market - see 'market share' and 'market development'

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Marketing Management

Market positioning

A marketing strategy that will position a business‘ products and services against those of its competitors in the minds of consumers.

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Marketing Management

Market Profile

A summary of the characteristics of a market, including information of typical purchasers and competitors, and often general information on the economy and retailing patterns of an area.

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Marketing Management

Market Reports

Provides information on markets, their size, structure, key players, their market share, trends, prices and more. These reports are published annually and are available as secondary sources.

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Marketing Management

Market research

The systematic gathering, recording and analysing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.

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Marketing Management

Market segment

A customer group within the market that has special characteristics which are significant to marketing strategy.

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Market segmentation

Segmentation involves subdividing markets, channels or customers into groups with different needs, to deliver tailored propositions which meet these needs as precisely as possible.

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Marketing Management

Market share

Market share can be defined as the percentage of all sales within a market that is held by one brand / product or company.

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Marketing Management

Market targeting

Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment and selecting the most attractive segments to enter with a particular product or product line.

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Marketing Management

Market Testing

The phase of new product development in which a new product and its marketing plan are tested together in a manner that simulates the eventual marketing of the product.

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Marketing Management

Market Value Added (MVA)

Market Value Added (MVA) is the difference between the equity market valuation of a listed/quoted company and the sum of the adjusted book value of debt and equity invested in the company.

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Marketing Management

Marketer

Traditionally, "marketing" has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers (or potential producers) of a product or service with customers, both existing and potential. This general definition fails to provide any direction to someone hoping to market his products or services effectively.

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Marketing Management

Marketing

The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time‖.

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Marketing Acronyms Usually, abbreviations such as YUPPIE, BUPPIE, and GLAM. See individual acronyms for a description.

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Marketing Management

Marketing audit

A systematic examination of a business‘s marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities with a view to identifying key strategic issues, threats and opportunities.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Calendar

A tool for marketers to track a campaign along a timeline.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Channel

A set of institutions necessary to transfer the title to goods and to move goods from the point of consumption. (Vendors, publishers, library facilities.)

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Marketing Management

Marketing Communications

All methods used by a firm to communicate with its customers and prospective customers.

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Marketing Management

Marketing concept

The marketing concept is about matching a business‘ capabilities with customer wants.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Cost Analysis

An attempt to determine the actual costs incurred for marketing and distributing a product.

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Marketing Ethics

The use of moral codes, values, and standards to determine whether marketing actions are right or wrong.

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Marketing Management

Marketing firm

A business that affects the distribution and sales of goods and services from producer to consumer; including products or service development, pricing, packaging, advertising, merchandising, and distribution.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Information

Any information used or required to support marketing decisions - often drawn from a computerised 'Marketing Information System'.

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Marketing Management

Marketing intelligence The composite of all data and ideas available within an organisation that assists in decision-making.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Management

The process of setting marketing objectives for an organization, the planning and execution of activities to meet these objectives, and measuring progress toward their achievement.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Manager

A generic title for the line executive responsible for designated marketing functions such as marketing research, product planning , pricing, distribution, and the promotion mix. This individual may also coordinate activities with other departments that p

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Marketing Management

Marketing Metrics

Measurements that help with the quantification of marketing performance, such as market share, advertising spend, and response rates elicited by advertising and direct marketing

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Marketing Mix

The combination of marketing inputs that affect customer motivation and behaviour. These inputs traditionally encompass four controllable variables 'the 4 Ps': product, price, promotion and place. The list has subsequently been extended to 7 Ps, the additions being people, process and 'physical evidence'.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Myopia

Lack of vision on the part of companies, particularly in failing to spot customers' desires through excessive product focus. Term derives from the title of a seminal article by Theodore Levitt published in Harvard Business Review in 1960.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Objectives

A statement setting forth the specific marketing goals to be accomplished. Objectives can be stated in such terms as products sold, the number of trial purchases, the number of repeat purchases, audience reached, and percentage of the audience made aware of the product.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Opportunity

An attractive arena of relevant marketing action in which a particular organization is likely to enjoy a superior and competitive advantage.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Orientation

A business strategy whereby customers' needs and wants, as identified by the marketing function, determine corporate direction.

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Marketing Management

Marketing plan

A detailed statement (usually prepared annually) of how a company's marketing mix will be used to achieve its market objectives. A marketing plan is usually prepared following a marketing audit.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Planning

The selection and scheduling of activities to support the company's chosen marketing strategy or goals. See also 'marketing strategy'.

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Marketing Research

See 'market research'

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Marketing Management

Marketing Return on Investment (MROI)

See Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI).

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Marketing Management

Marketing Services

An inclusive term that refers to various sets of marketing specific functions such design, public relations, tradeshow management, etc.

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Marketing Management

Marketing Strategy

The set of objectives which an organisation allocates to its marketing function in order to support the overall corporate strategy, together with the broad methods chosen to achieve these objectives.

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Marketing Management

Markup

The difference between the merchandise cost and the retail price.

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Marketing Management

Maslow‘s Need Hierarchy

A popular theory of human motivation developed by Abraham Maslow, suggesting that humans satisfy their needs in a sequential order beginning with physiological needs, and ranging through safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and lastly

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Marketing Management

Mass Markets

Markets which include a very large number of potential and actual customers - e.g. the fast moving consumer goods market.

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Mass Media

Communication technology such as radio, television, internet, etc. that can reach mass populations.

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Marketing Management

Master tape

The finished, edited, videotape of a program or project.

M

Marketing Management

Materialism

A desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters.

M

Marketing Management

Materiality

The FTC theoretically will not regulate a deceptive advertisement unless the deceptive claim is also material. This means, in simple terms, that the claim must be important to consumers, rather than trivial. The FTC requires that the deception be likely to affect consumers' "choice of, or conduct regarding, a product."

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Marketing Management

Materials Handling

A term applied to the study of physical flow in a logistics system.

M

Marketing Management

Materials Management

Either an organizational component or an approach to managing the material flow process of a business.

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Marketing Management

Matrix Organization

Any organizational structure in which a project manager shares responsibility with a functional manager for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to a project.

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Matte shot

A camera shot made with a matte or mask in part of the frame to allow another shot to be printed in the opaque area.

M

Marketing Management

Maturity Stage of Product Life Cycle

Initial rapid growth is over and use/sales level off. microenvironment The set of forces close to an organization that have direct impact on its ability to serve its customers, including channel member organizations, competitors, user markets, publics and the capabilities of the organization.

M

Marketing Management

McKinsey Seven S's A framework for considering business strategy with reference to seven interrelated, aspects of the organisation: Systems, of Management (or 7Structure, Skills, Style, Staff, Strategy, and Shared values. S Model)

M

Marketing Management

MDSS

Marketing Decision Support System.

M

Marketing Management

Me Too Product

A similar type of product.

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Marketing Management

Measurement

See 'marketing metrics'

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Marketing Management

Mechanical (pasteup)

A finished layout that is photographed for offset printing.

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Media

The forms of publication. Traditional advertising media include newspapers, magazines, billboards, radio and television. Digital interactive advertising media started with the Internet, accessed at an indoor computer, but is quickly spreading to television, cellular devices and outdoor locations.

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Marketing Management

Media analysis

Media analysis is a term used in advertising. It refers to an investigation into the relative effectiveness and the relative costs of using the various advertising media in an advertising campaign.

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Marketing Management

Media buyer

An individual working directly for an advertiser, or for an advertising agency, charged with the responsibility of purchasing advertising space. An interactive media buyer makes online ad space purchases, sometimes through an ad network.

M

Marketing Management

Media buying service Agency that specializes in the services of media buying.

M

Marketing Management

Media concentration theory

Technique of scheduling media that involves buying space in one medium only and developing strength through concentration.

M

Marketing Management

Media dominance theory

Technique of scheduling media that involves buying a large amount of space in one medium, and shifting to another medium after achieving optimum coverage and frequency.

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Marketing Management

Media Kit

A package of promotional materials relating to a specific advertising media vehicle, including a rate card, audience statistics, case studies showing success stories, and related materials showing the value of the medium.

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Media Marketing

A term coined by Suasion Resources to describe its proprietary alternative to traditional public relations, a cost-effective method that uses highly concentrated efforts to garner targeted media coverage.

M

Marketing Management

Media Mix

The specific combination of various advertising media (including network television, local television, magazines, newspapers, etc.) used by a particular advertiser and the advertising budget to be allocated to each medium.

M

Marketing Management

Media Neutral Planning

A customer focussed review of media options during communications planning based on research, analysis and insight, not habit and preference

M

Marketing Management

Media plan

A plan designed to select the proper demographics for an advertising campaign through proper media selection.

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Marketing Management

Media planning

The process that directs advertising messages to the right people in the right place at the right time.

M

Marketing Management

Media Relations

The set of activities involved in working with the media to generate publicity for a product, service, or organization.

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Marketing Management

Media Representatives

A person or company specializing in selling time or space in advertising vehicles to advertisers and advertising agencies.

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Media research

A study of radio, television and print media for the purpose of reaching the optimal consumer audience.

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Marketing Management

Media Schedule

A specific schedule that shows the media vehicles to be used during an advertising campaign including dates, positions in the publication, and size of ad space or duration of commercials.

M

Marketing Management

Media strategy

A plan of action by an advertiser for bringing advertising messages to the attention of consumers through the use of appropriate media.

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Marketing Management

Media Weight

A measure of the amount of advertising media used in an advertising campaign. This can be expressed in terms of dollar amounts, gross rating points, circulation data, etc.

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Marketing Management

Medium (plural, Media)

A vehicle or group of vehicles used to convey information, news, entertainment, and advertising messages to an audience. These include television, cable television, magazines, radio, billboards, etc.

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Marketing Management

Mercantilism

An economic philosophy of the 16th and 17th centuries that international commerce should primarily serve to increase a country's financial wealth, especially of gold and foreign currency. To that end, exports are viewed as desirable and imports as undesir

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Marketing Management

Merchandise Classification

A subdivision of a selling department; a dissection of a department's inventory, purchase, and/or sales figures for the purpose of closer control.

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Merchandise Control The determination and direction of merchandising activities, both in terms of dollars and units.

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Marketing Management

Merchandise Mix

The ratio of the types, styles, sizes, colors, prices, etc. to the quantities of the merchandise kept in a store to satisfy its target market.

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Marketing Management

Merchandising the advertising

The promoting of a firm‖s advertising abilities to distributors.

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Marketing Management

Merchant

A business unit that buys, takes title to, and resells merchandise.

M

Marketing Management

Merger/Acquisition

Merger: the formation of one company from two existing companies. Acquisition: one company acquiring control of another by purchase of a majority shareholding.

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Marketing Management

Meta Search Engine

A search engine that displays results from multiple search engines.

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Marketing Management

Meta Tags

HTML coding which the user does not see, used to describe various features of a Web page.

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Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

An urban area with a population of at least 50,000 that is designated by the Office of Management and Budget for statistical reporting purposes and used in audience measurement studies. This is generally synonymous with the former term Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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Marketing Management

Micro Environment

The immediate context of a company's operations, including such elements as suppliers, customers and competitors compare 'macro environment'

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Marketing Management

Micro Factors

The elements of the environment within which an organisation operates for which it has a significant degree of control. E.g. its products or services, its staff.

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Marketing Management

Micro forecasting

Micro forecasting is concerned with detailed unit sales forecasts. This is about determining a product‘s market share in a particular industry and considering what will happen to that market share in the future.

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Marketing Management

Micromarketing

The activities a firm practices in order to react controllably to external forces, e.g., setting objectives and selecting target markets.

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Marketing Management

Middle Class

The social class between the lower class and upper class.

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Marketing Management

Middleman

slang description for a person who acts to bring together the parties to a transaction.

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Milline rate

Used to determine the cost effectiveness of advertising in a newspaper; reached by multiplying the cost per agate line by one million, then dividing by the circulation. Also referred to as Milline.

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Marketing Management

Mind-share

The share of a distributor's mind that your product or service gets. Winning the battle for the distributor's share of mind can be more important than many other marketing strategies. It requires the maintenance of high levels of motivation among distributors so that they are interested in and motivated by your products or services.

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Marketing Management

Minimum Charge

The lowest price at which a carrier will accept a shipment for delivery.

M

Marketing Management

MIS

Marketing Information Systems should provide all the information for effective marketing decisions. This will vary from market research to reading the paper but it must be recorded and be available.

M

Marketing Management

Mission

A mission describes the organisation‘s basic function in society, in terms of the products and services it produces for its customers.

M

Marketing Management

Mission statement

A mission statement is a formal description of the mission of a business.

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Marketing Management

Mixed Bundling

The practice of offering for sale two or more products or services at individual prices or for one price.

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MMS

Multimedia Message Service. Text, audio, graphic and video messages sent by mobile phones, or other compatible devices, over a wireless network.

M

Marketing Management

Mobile billboard

Wrap advertising is the practice of completely covering (wrapping) a vehicle in an advertisement or livery. Large vehicles effectively become "mobile billboards" afterward. This can be achieved by simply painting the vehicle surface, but it is becoming more common today to use large vinyl sheets used as decals.

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Marketing Management

Model Stock List

An assortment of fashion merchandise indicating in very general terms (colors, sizes, etc.) what should be carried in a particular merchandise category.

M

Marketing Management

Models (or Marketing simulation of scenarios based on different assumptions about changes to the macro environment and micro environment. See Models) also 'macro environment' and 'micro environment'

M

Marketing Management

Modular Training

A training programme that is studied over a period of time, delivered in modules that are linked together

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Marketing Management

Monetary Policy

A macroeconomic policy tool used to influence interest rates, inflation, and credit availability through changes in the supply of money available in the economy.

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Marketing Management

Monopoly

A market situation where one firm markets all the goods or services available and can significantly influence price.

Graphical representations of a process designed to aid in understanding and/or forecasting. Computerised models allow the

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Mood

An emotional state of an individual at a particular point in time.

M

Marketing Management

Mood Board

A visual illustration tool used either to represent the atmosphere or feel of an intended advertisement, or to research a consumer‘s experience of a brand or product.

M

Marketing Management

MOSAIC

Geodemographic segmentation model classifying neighbourhoods into 10 lifestyle types ie: Elite Suburbs; Average Areas; Luxury Flats.

M

Marketing Management

Motivation

The positive or negative needs, goals, desires and forces that impel an individual toward or away from certain actions, activities, objects or conditions. The inner needs and wants of an individual what affects behavior.

M

Marketing Management

Motivation research

Used to investigate the psychological reasons why individuals buy specific types of merchandise, or why they respond to specific advertising appeals, to determine the base of brand choices and product preferences.

M

Marketing Management

Mousetrapping

The use of browser tricks to keep a visitor on a website, such as disabling the back button or generating repeated pop-up windows.

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Marketing Management

Ms – Resources

What a manager needs to do his/her job. Marketing plans must contain at least three resources - 3Ms Men, Money and Minutes. Men means men and women, money means budgets and minutes means time.

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MSRP

M

Marketing Management

Multi-Brand Strategy In this strategy, the company has more than one brand of product, each competing with one other, in a given market.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-channel marketing

When a business distributes its products through more than one distribution channel, this is known as multi-channel marketing. Retail chains, for example Argos, besides using the shops to distribute their products, quite often also use catalogue selling. The main purpose of multi-channel marketing is to more effectively reach different customer segments.

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Marketing Management

Multi-Channel Network

Basically mixes different distribution channels together - some direct and others indirect. This can involve the supplier's own sales force as well as a network of intermediaries and their sales forces.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-Channel Systems

Basically mixes different distribution channels together using both direct and indirect channels. This can involve the supplier's own sales force as well as a network of intermediaries and their sales forces. See channel conflict.

M

Marketing Management

Multidimensional Scaling

A measurement approach in which people's perceptions of the similarity of objects and their preferences among the objects are measured. These relationships are then plotted in a multidimensional space to form an illustration.

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Marketing Management

Multi-level Marketing

Network retailing; network marketing; multi-level marketing. This is where sales people recruit other salespeople so that they sell for them and so on.

An acronym for Manufacturers Suggested Retail Price.

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Multi-Level Selling

Selling by products and services by more than one level of Direct Sellers with elements of the sale reward being given upward to the originator(s) of the Direct Seller and not being a Pyramid Scheme as defined by the Fair Trading Act 1986.

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Marketing Management

Multimedia presentation

A speech that uses computer software to combine several kinds of visual and/or audio aids in the same talk.

M

Marketing Management

Multinational

An organisation which operates in several countries.

M

Marketing Management

Multiple Channels

Selling and distributing to customers directly, as well as distributing through vending machines, independent retailers and mainstream retail chains. See channel conflict.

M

Marketing Management

Multiple Purpose Trip

A key concept in central place theory that argues consumers prefer to visit more than one store per trip, generating positive externalities for neighboring stores.

M

Marketing Management

Multiple-Unit Pricing

The combination of several like products, involving a slightly different markup than is obtained when the items are sold separately.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-segment strategy

A strategy by which a business directs its marketing efforts towards two or more market segments by developing a marketing mix for each.

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Mutual Benefit

The outcome of an action whereby all parties involved are subsequently better off.

M

Marketing Management

Mystery Shoppers

Customer service can be measured by fake customers (mystery shoppers) who report directly back to the organisation.

N

Marketing Management

NAB

National Association of Broadcasters. An association whose membership is largely composed of radio and television stations.

N

Marketing Management

NAD

National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. This organization serves as a major self-regulatory mechanism for advertising.

N

Marketing Management

NARB

National Advertising Review Board of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. When an alleged problem arises with an advertisement, and a satisfactory solution is not obtained via the NAD, above, the NARB acts in the capacity of an appeals board. It reviews the decision of the NAD, and passes judgment on it.

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Marketing Management

Narrowcasting

Using a broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests. For example, the "All Knitting Station" would be a narrowcast, because it appeals to an audience with a specific interest.

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Marketing Management

National Account

A prospect or customer with locations in several sales territories that are sold, using a coordinated national strategy rather than strategies that focus on specific locations.

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Marketing Management

National advertising

Advertising which is aimed at a National Market, as opposed to Local Advertising.

N

Marketing Management

National brand

A nationally distributed product brand name. May also be distributed regionally or locally.

N

Marketing Management

National Change of Address (NCOA)

Database that helps locate forwarding addresses.

N

Marketing Management

National Character

The values, beliefs, and personality characteristics that describe the people of a country in general terms.

N

Marketing Management

National Readership Survey (NRS)

A commercial organisation which provides estimates of the number and nature of the people reading UK newspapers and consumer magazines.

N

Marketing Management

Nationalism

A devotion and allegiance to a group defined by the shared characteristics of a race, language, history, or culture.

N

Marketing Management

Natural Environment

The physical forces in nature including climate, weather, and natural resources that affect a firm's market or its ability to carry out marketing activities.

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Marketing Management

Navigation

Elements of a web site that facilitate movement from one page to another.

N

Marketing Management

Near Environment

The Near Environment is closer to the organisation than the Far Environment (see STEP1). Although external to the organisation the Near Environment is close to the organisation and it includes STEP2 variables: Structure of the Industry, Trends in the Market Place, Micro Economic and Power Forces shaping the industry.

N

Marketing Management

Near-pack (Near Pack Premium)

An item offered free or at a discount with the purchase of another product. The item can be positioned close to but may not touch the purchased product. A type of product promotion.

N

Marketing Management

Negative

Developed film that contains an image that has reversed shadows and light areas.

N

Marketing Management

Negative Advertising

The use of advertising messages that concentrate on pointing out undesirable aspects of competing products, services, organizations, or ideas.

N

Marketing Management

Negligence

Failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances.

N

Marketing Management

Negotiation

The process of trying to find mutually agreeable terms in an exchange. Negotiation leads either to mutually acceptable terms or a decision not to transact.

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Marketing Management

Net cost

The costs associated with services rendered by an advertising agency excluding the agency commission.

N

Marketing Management

Net Operating Income

Net sales less net cost of goods sold and operating expenses.

N

Marketing Management

Net Present Value

The future stream of benefits and costs converted into equivalent values today. This is done by assigning monetary values to benefits and costs, discounting future benefits and costs using an appropriate discount rate, and subtracting the sum total of dis

N

Marketing Management

Net promoter score (NPS)

Percentage of promoters minus percentage of detractors.

N

Marketing Management

Net Terms

Terms calling for the billed amount of the invoice that do not include cash discounts.

N

Marketing Management

Net unduplicated audience

The combined cumulative audience exposed to an advertisement.

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Marketing Management

Network

A national or regional group of affiliated broadcast stations contractually bound to distribute radio or television programs for simultaneous transmission.

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Marketing Management

Network Effect

The phenomenon whereby a service becomes more valuable as more people use it, encouraging even greater numbers of adopters.

N

Marketing Management

Network option time

Programming time the network controls on each of its affiliate stations. Also referred to as network time.

N

Marketing Management

Neuromarketing

Technique to quantify how consumers will respond to brands and advertising. The brain is mapped, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), to record conscious and subconscious responses to advertising, products or brands.

N

Marketing Management

New product

A new product can be defined as a good, service or idea that is ―perceived‖ by some potential customers as new. It may have been available for some time, but many potential customers have not yet adopted the product nor decided to become a regular user of the product.

N

Marketing Management

New Product Development (NPD)

The creation of new products, from evaluation of proposals through to launch.

N

Marketing Management

News Clip

A type of film presentation in which editorial content is controlled by the sponsor and is provided to broadcast media for their use as deemed appropriate.

News release

# A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. Typically, it is mailed or faxed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, and/or television networks. Commercial newswire services are also used to distribute news releases. Sometimes news releases are sent for the purpose of announcing news conferences.

N

Marketing Management

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Newsletter

A periodically distributed publication focusing on a specific subject and containing articles and information that are of interest to its subscribers. Newsletters are a popular vehicle for communicating with audiences in the financial marketing arena.

N

Marketing Management

Newsprint

A soft, course wood pulp paper used in printing newspapers.

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Marketing Management

Niche marketing

Niche marketing refers to the exploitation of comparatively small market segments by businesses that decide to concentrate their efforts. Niche segments exist in nearly all markets – for example the self-build sports car segment of the motor industry.

N

Marketing Management

Niche Strategy

A plan employed by a firm that specializes in serving particular market segments in order to avoid conflicting with the major competitors in the market.

N

Marketing Management

Nielsen rating

A measurement of the percentage of U.S. television households tuned to a network program for a minute of its telecast.

N

Marketing Management

NILKIE

No Income, Lots of Kids - a demographic grouping.

N

Marketing Management

Noframes tags

Coding used to render text visible only to non-frames-capable browsers. A typical Website visitor therefore most likely would not see the text set off by the tags- but a search engine spider would, since most spiders can't crawl frames.

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Nominal Scale

A measurement scale in which numbers are used to classify, name or label an individual, attribute or category.

N

Marketing Management

Noncommercial advertising

Radio and television advertising that is designed to educate and promote ideas or institutions, e.g., public service announcements.

N

Marketing Management

Nondurable Good

A product that is rather quickly consumed or worn out, or becomes dated, unfashionable, or in some other way no longer popular.

N

Marketing Management

Non-personal communication

Methods of promotion that do not generate any personal feedback. Advertising is the best example of this.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Price Competition

The competition among firms on the basis of variables other than price, such as quality, brand, assortment, or services.

N

Marketing Management

Nonprobability Sample

A sample selected without regard to the laws of mathematical probability.

N

Marketing Management

Nonprofit Marketing

The marketing of a product or service in which the offer itself is not intended to make a monetary profit for the marketer.

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Non-Profit Organization

An incorporated organization which exists for educational or charitable reasons, and from which its shareholders or trustees do not benefit financially.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Store Retailing

A form of retailing in which consumer contact occurs outside of a retail store, such as vending machines, online shopping, at home personal selling, and catalog buying.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Verbal Communications

The non spoken forms of expression that communicate thought and emotion including body language, space between the communicators, speech, and appearance.

N

Marketing Management

Normal goods

Normal goods have a positive income elasticity of demand so as income rise more is demand at each price level.

N

Marketing Management

Norms

Statistics or tabular data that summarize the distribution of test performance for one or more specified groups, such as participants of various ages or grades. Norms are usually designed to represent some larger population, such as participants throughou

N

Marketing Management

Northern Light

An older search engine, once very popular.

N

Marketing Management

Noscript tags

As is the case with noframe tags, coding used to render text visible only to browsers that are not using JavaScript. A typical consumer most likely would not see the text set off by the noscript tags, but a search engine spider would.

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Marketing Management

O & O station

Radio and television stations owned and operated by a network.

O

Marketing Management

Objection

A concern or question raised by a prospect to a salesperson during an interaction.

O

Marketing Management

Objectives

Measurable aims of a business set for a given period (e.g. marketing objectives for the next year).

O

Marketing Management

Observation

A method of data collection in which the situation of interest is watched and the relevant facts, actions, or behaviors are recorded.

O

Marketing Management

Observation Error

A non-sampling error that arises because inaccurate information is secured from sample elements or because errors are introduced in the processing of data or in reporting the findings.

O

Marketing Management

Observation method

A research technique in which the behavior of research subjects is watched and recorded without any direct contact or interaction.

O

Marketing Management

Obsolescence

The act or process of a product's becoming out-of-date, discarded, or no longer in use.

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Occasion segmentation

A basis of segmenting a market based on occasions when buyers get the idea to make a purchase, actually buy, or use a purchased item.

O

Marketing Management

Odd Lot

Dealing with broken lots or unbalanced assortments that have been reduced in price for quick turnover.

O

Marketing Management

Off card

Refers to advertising time sold at a rate that does not appear on the rate card.

O

Marketing Management

Offensive Marketing

A competitive marketing strategy, the purpose of which is to win market share away from other players in the market.

O

Marketing Management

Offer

The terms and conditions (price, quantity, delivery date, etc.) under which a product or service is presented for sale to potential customers in direct response advertising.

O

Marketing Management

Off-Invoice Allowance

A type of trade sales promotion in which a manufacturer offers the retailer a price reduction on a product‘s price at the time of billing, usually for a limited period of time.

O

Marketing Management

Off-Retail Percentage

A markdown as a percentage of the original price. For example, an item originally retails for $20 and is marked down to $10, the off-retail percentage would be 50%.

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Marketing Management

Offset lithography

A planographic printing process. A photographic image from a printing plate is transferred to a rubber blanket, which, in turn, transfers or prints the image onto the paper.

O

Marketing Management

OINK

One income, no kids - a demographic grouping.

O

Marketing Management

OLAP

Acronym for Online Analytical Processing, which allows the user to quickly analyze information that has been summarized into multidimensional views and hierarchies.

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Marketing Management

Oligopolistic Competition

A market condition in which only a few large sellers account for a relatively large market share.

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Marketing Management

Oligopoly

Where market availability is held by a limited number of firms.

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On Order

When a retailer has financially committed to the purchase of merchandise that is yet to be received.

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On-air tests

Tests recall among viewers of a commercial or program during a real broadcast of the tested communication.

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One-Price Policy

A policy that, at a given time, all customers pay the same price for a given item of merchandise.

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Marketing Management

One-To-One Marketing

A marketing technique in which each customer has direct input into the way a company interacts with him.

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Marketing Management

Online Learning

Course material accessed via the internet or a company intranet

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Marketing Management

Online Marketing

Communications and marketing initiatives that employ the Internet and e-mail based tools of a marketing campaign, such as banner ads, e-mail marketing, search engine optimization, Pay-Per-Click advertising.

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Marketing Management

On-pack (On-pack Premium)

Used to promote sales of a product. Discount coupons or gifts that are attached to or accompany the product to be purchased.

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Marketing Management

On-Pack Offers

A sales promotion on a pack.

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OPAL

Older People with Active Lifestyles - a demographic grouping.

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Open Account

The sale of goods on credit. The seller gives the buyer no written evidence of indebtedness.

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Marketing Management

Open Dating

The practice of putting information on a product that reveals the date beyond which it should no longer be sold or used (applies primarily to perishable products).

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Marketing Management

Open Directory Project

A large directory of websites run by volunteers. Their data-base is used by many website across the internet.

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Marketing Management

Open end

(1) Time left at the end of a commercial or program which is provided for the use of local advertising or station identification. (2) A radio or television program with no specific time to end.

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Open Order

An order sent by a store to a market representative to be placed with any vendor the rep finds who can best fill it.

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Open rate

The open rate is the percentage of e-mails that are opened by your subscribers.

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Open Stock

The items kept on hand in retail stores and sold either in complete sets or in separate pieces.

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Open-Ended Question

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Marketing Management

Operant Conditioning The process of altering the probability of a behavior being emitted by changing the consequences of the behavior.

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Marketing Management

Operational Definition A definition of a construct that describes the operations to be carried out in order for the construct to be measured empirically.

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Marketing Management

Opinion

A belief or emotionally neutral thought an individual holds about some aspect or object in the environment.

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Marketing Management

Opinion Leader

Not all individuals in a group or all consumers in a society wield equal personal influence on the attitudes, opinions, and behavior of others.

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Opportunities

Opportunities are any feature of the external environment which creates conditions that a business can exploit to its advantage. If the business is successful in exploiting opportunities, then it will be better placed to achieve its objectives.

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Opportunity Cost

The cost of passing up the next best choice when making a decision. For example, if an asset such as capital is used for one purpose, the opportunity cost is the value of the next best purpose the asset could have been used for. Opportunity cost analysis

A question characterized by the condition that respondents are free to reply in their own words rather than being limited to choosing from a set of alternatives.

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Optical Character Recognition

An industry-wide classification system for coding information onto merchandise. It enables retailers to record information on each SKU, when it is sold, and transmit the information to a computer for collection and analysis.

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Opticals

Visual effects used to instill interest as well as portray mood and continuity to a commercial. Dissolves, Cross fades, and Montages are all opticals.

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Optimization

Fine tuning a website or webpage with the ultimate goal being to as-certain a higher position in all or a specific search engine‘s results.

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Opt-In

A program where membership is restricted to users who specifically requested to take part

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Option

A contract that allows the holder to buy or sell a specific stock at a fixed price at or before a stated maturity date.

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Opt-Out

A type of program that assumes inclusion unless stated otherwise. The term also refers to the process of removing one's name from a program.

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ORCHID

One recent child, heavily in debt – a demographic grouping.

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Order Entry

The beginning phase of the order cycle process. Order entry refers to the process of actually entering an order into the seller's order processing system.

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Order Getter

A sales representative who likes to go after and 'get' new business. An 'order taker', on the other hand, is a sales representative who likes to service existing customers.

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Order processing

Selling, mostly at the wholesale and retail levels, that involves identifying customer needs, pointing them out to customers, and completing orders.

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Marketing Management

Order Register

A form or computerized record of orders placed with vendors.

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Marketing Management

Order Taker

A sales representative who likes to service existing customers. An order getter, on the other hand, is a sales representative who likes to go after and 'get' new business.

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Ordinal Scale

A measuring system in which the numbers used are monotonically related to the magnitude of the objects being measured.

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Organic A company's expansion by the growth of its activities and ploughing back of profits, rather than by mergers/acquisitions. See Growth/Development 'mergers/acquisitions'

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Organic listings

Listings that appear on a search engine solely because of merit, applicablility, etc. In other words, listings that are not paid for; also called natural listings.

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Organisational Objectives

These are the goals of the organisation.

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Organization

The framework or structure within which people are assigned to positions and their work is completed in a coordinated manner in order to carry out plans and achieve goals.

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Organization Chart

A visual representation of an organization‘s structure. It identifies the business unit and portrays each position in relation to others.

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Organizational Behavior

The management theory and practice relating to how and why people behave as they do within organizational structures and how managers can bring about improvements in individual and group performance.

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Organized Market

A group of traders operating under recognized rules in buying and selling a single commodity or related commodities.

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OTH

Opportunities To Hear.

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OTR

Opportunities To Read.

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OTS

Opportunities To See is one way of measuring the size of the audience. The number of exposures or opportunities which a particular audience has to see a specific ad. An audience of seven million viewers delivers seven million OTSs.

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Out Sizes

The sizes that are either very large or very small and, if offered at all, are offered in very limited depth because of the thin market demand for them.

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Out Supplier

A firm not currently supplying the company nor currently on its approved vendor list.

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Outbound Link

Linking from our website to another website

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Outdoor advertising

Any form of advertising visible in the outdoors, such as billboards, transit cards, and even sky writing by airplanes.

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Outlet Store

A store specializing in job lots and clearance merchandise.

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Outlier

An observation so different in magnitude from the rest of the observations that the analyst chooses to treat it as a special case.

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Out-of-home advertising

Exposure to advertising and mass media away from one's home. Included are outdoor, point-of-purchase, and radio.

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Output Evaluation Measure

An objective assessment of sales force performance including number of orders; average size of orders; number of canceled orders; and number of active, new, lost, overdue, and prospective accounts.

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Outsourcing

Acquiring inputs from outside vendors for goods and services formerly produced in-house.

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Overage

The amount by which a physical inventory exceeds book inventory figures.

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Overbought

A condition in which a buyer has become committed to purchases in excess of planned purchase allotments for a merchandising period.

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Overhead Costs

An accounting term that refers to resources covering more than one department or center in an organization.

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Overlay

An image compositing method where an image is displayed over a background image.

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Overrun

Additional numbers of a print vehicle that are produced in excess of those needed for distribution. Overruns may take place to meet unexpected needs or demands.

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Overture

The most widely used pay per click search engine. Overture supplies re-sults for some of the most popular search engines and search portals, including Alta-Vista, GO, HotBot, iWon, Lycos, MSN Search and NBC.

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Ownership

The relation of an owner to the thing possessed; possession with the right to transfer possession to others.

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Own-label brand

Own-label brands are created and owned by businesses that operate in the distribution channel – often referred to as ―distributors‖. Often these distributors are retailers, but not exclusively. Sometimes the retailer‘s entire product range will be own-label. However, more often, the distributor will mix own-label and manufactures brands.

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Package

(1) A combination of programs or commercials offered by a network that is available for purchase by advertisers either singly or as a discounted package deal. (2) A merchandise enclosure or container.

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Package enclosure

Same as In-pack premium, above.

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Package insert

Separate advertising material included in merchandise packages that advertises goods or services; also referred to as Package Stuffer.

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Packaged Good

A product that is usually sold in smaller packages, carries a low unit price, is distributed through food and drug stores, is heavily promoted and consumed frequently.

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Packaging

The activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.

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Page Rank

Part of Google's search algorithm, it measures a page's popularity and is calculated in part by analyzing the number of links to a page from other sites and factoring in the importance of those pages. The highest rank is a score of 10 out of 10. The high

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Page View

A request to load a single HTML page. Indicative of the number of times an ad was potentially seen, or ―gross impressions.‖ Page views may overstate ad impressions if users choose to turn off graphics (often done to speed browsing).

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Pagejacking

Stealing pages from other sites and using them as fodder for search engines.

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PageRank (PR)

A numerical value assigned by Google to indicate a Web page's relevance or importance. Based on a scale of 0-10, it is one of many factors that determine a Web site's placement within search engine results pages.

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Paid Inclusion

A program that enables companies to pay for guaranteed inclusion in a search engine's organic search results.

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Marketing Management

Paid Placement

A program that enables a company to place an online advertisement in a search engine's sponsored links section in connection with agreed upon keywords.

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Marketing Management

Painted bulletin

A freestanding steel or wooden structure, approximately 50' wide by 15' high, with molding around the outer edges similar to a poster panel, and including a hand painted copy message. Bulletins are generally found near highways or roofs of buildings in high traffic areas.

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Pallet

A platform made out of wood or material, upon which product is stacked to provide a unit load in the transportation and distribution system.

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Panels

This includes regular and illuminated types of outdoor advertising. A regular panel is only seen during the daytime, while an illuminated panel is seen also from dusk until dawn.

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Pan-European Marketing

A marketing campaign that is aimed at the whole of Europe.

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Marketing Management

PANSES

Politically Active and Not Seeking Employment - a demographic grouping

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Pantone Matching System (PMS)

A system that precisely characterizes a color, so that a color can be matched, even by different printers. By knowing the Pantone color specifications, a printer does not even need to see a sample of the color in order to match it.

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Marketing Management

Parallel Importing

See 'grey marketing'

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Parallel Pricing

The practice of following the pricing practices of other organizations, particularly competitors.

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Marketing Management

Parasite Store

A retail outlet that lives on existing traffic flow originating from circumstances other than its own promotional effort, store personality, merchandising effort, or customer service.

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Marketing Management

Parity products

Product categories where the several brands within that category possess functionally equivalent attributes, making one brand a satisfactory substitute for most other brands in that category.

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Participation

Announcements made inside the context of a program as opposed to those shown during station breaks. (2) An announcement or amount of broadcasting time which is shared by several advertisers.

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Party Selling

A direct selling approach that involves demonstrating and selling products to a group of consumers attending a party at a neighbor's or friend's house.

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Pass Strategy

A public relations strategy designed to move past government policy makers, public interest groups, and other special interest gatekeepers in order to communicate directly with the public.

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Pass Up Method

A technique used by salespeople to respond to a prospect objections by letting the prospect talk, acknowledging that the concern was heard, and then moving on to another topic without trying to resolve the concern.

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Pass-Along Deal

A seller's offer in which an item of value such as a price reduction, gift, premium, coupon, etc., is offered to the intermediary channel member with the intent that the incentive be re-offered to others in the channel.

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Pass-along readers

A reader which becomes familiar with a publication without the purchase of a publication. These readers are taken into account when calculating the total number of readers of a publication.

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Marketing Management

Pasteup

Preparation of type and illustrations, sometimes pasted, on flats or boards for photomechanical reproduction.

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Patent

A patent legally protects a product against being duplicated by anyone other than the patent holder for a fixed time period.

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Patronage Motives

The motives that drive an individual/user toward selection of a particular outlet, retailer, or supplier of services.

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Pay Per Click (PPC)

An online advertising payment model under which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad.

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Payback

The amount of time, usually in years, from the point of full scale market introduction of a new product until it has recovered its development and marketing costs.

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Marketing Management

Pay-For-Inclusion

This is where a site must pay to be listed.

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Marketing Management

Payment By Results (PBR)

Remuneration of an employee or service provider according to productivity or other measure of performance

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Marketing Management

Payment Threshold

The minimum accumulated commission an affiliate must earn to trigger payment from an affiliate program.

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Marketing Management

Payout planning

Approach to advertising budgeting in which the dollars spent to advertise are represented as an investment toward sales and profits.

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Marketing Management

Pay-Per-Click

An online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying click-throughs

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Pay-Per-Sale

An online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely based on qualifying sales.

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Marketing Management

Peer to Peer (P2P) Marketing

Technique of encouraging customers to promote your product to one another, particularly on the Internet. An example might be a web site that offers users a discount on products in return for recruiting new customers for the site. See also 'word of mouth'; 'viral marketing'.

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Marketing Management

PEEST

Political, Economic, Environmental, Socio-cultural and Technological - a framework for viewing the macro environment. See 'macro-environment'

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Marketing Management

Penetrated Market

Actual set of users actually consuming the product/service.

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Marketing Management

Penetration Price Policy

A pricing policy that sets a low initial price for an item in an attempt to increase market share. The price is later revised once sufficient share is gained.

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Marketing Management

Penetration pricing

Penetration pricing involves the setting of lower, rather than higher prices in order to achieve a large, if not dominant market share.

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Penetration strategy

A marketing strategy based on low prices and extensive advertising to increase a product's market share. For penetration strategy to be effective the market will have to be large enough for the seller to be able to sustain low profit margins.

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Per Capita Income

The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the number of people. Per capita income is usually reported in units of currency per year.

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Per inquiry

An agreement between a media representative and an advertiser in which all advertising fees are paid based on a percentage of all money received from an advertiser's sales or inquires.

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Marketing Management

Perceived risk

A functional or psychosocial risk a consumer feels he/she is taking when purchasing a product.

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Marketing Management

Perceived Value Pricing

A method of pricing in which the seller attempts to set a price at the level that intended buyers value the product.

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Marketing Management

Percentage-of-sales method

Allocating funds for promotion during a given time period based on a specified percentage of either past or forecasted sales.

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Perception

Awareness of the effects of single or multiple sensory stimuli .

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Perfect Competition

A market model that assumes pure competition, perfect knowledge, perfect freedom of movement, and perfect substitutability of production factors.

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Performance Objectives

Specific requirements set that must be attained in order to receive some type of benefit (continued employment, monetary compensation, etc.)

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Performance Prism

A performance measurement and management framework. It addresses all of an organisation‘s stakeholders - principally investors, customers, intermediaries, employees, suppliers, regulators and communities.

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Marketing Management

Performance Review

A session in which a manager provides an employee candid analysis of his work related performance over a given period of time.

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Marketing Management

Permission Marketing A type of marketing that is focused on getting customer's consent to receive information from a given company or business.

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Marketing Management

Personal Data

Data related to a living individual who can be identified from the information; includes any expression of opinion about the individual.

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Personal Influence

The affect that one individual has upon another during face-to-face interactions.

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Personal Interview

A direct, face-to-face conversation between a representative of an organization (the interviewer) and a respondent (interviewee).

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Personal selling

Interpersonal communication, often face to face, between a sales representative and an individual or group, usually with the objective of making a sale.

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Personality

The collection of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person..

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Personalize

To add a name or other personal information about the recipient on direct mail advertising.

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Marketing Management

Persons using television (PUT)

A percentage of all persons in a certain viewing area that are viewing television during a specific amount of time. Used by A.C. Nielson.

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Marketing Management

Persons viewing television (PVT)

Same meaning as above, except this term is used by Arbitron.

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Persuasion

The type of speaking or writing that is intended to make its audience adopt a certain opinion or pursue an action or do both.

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Persuasion process

The process used by advertising to influence audience or prospect attitudes, especially purchase intent and product perception by appealing to reason or emotion.

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PEST

Political, Economic, Socio-cultural and Technological - a framework for viewing the macro environment. See also 'macroenvironment'

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Pester Power

The influence children have over purchases by adults: an influence which, controversially, advertisers may seek to stimulate

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Marketing Management

PESTLE

Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Legal and Environmental - a framework for viewing the macro environment. See 'macro-environment'

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Phantom

An illustration showing the exterior of an object as if it were transparent, while revealing interior detailing.

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Philanthropy

Voluntary promotion of human welfare

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Photoanimation

A process of creating animation through the use of still photographs.

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Photoboards

A set of still photographs made from a television commercial, accompanied with a script, to be kept as records by an agency or client.

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Photocomposition

A method of setting type by using negatives of the characters of film or photographic paper rather than metal type slugs, also referred to as Cold type.

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Photoengraving

(1) The process of making letterpress printing plates by photochemical means. (2) A picture printed from a plate made by this process.

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Marketing Management

Photoplatemaking

A process which converts original art material into printing plates that are required to print ads.

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Marketing Management

Photostat

A type of high contrast photographic negative or positive in the form of paper. Also referred to as Stat.

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Physical Distribution

A concept or approach to managing finished goods inventory that typically includes transportation, warehousing, inventory, and order processing functions.

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Physical Evidence

The elements of 'marketing mix' which customers can actually see or experience when they use a service, and which contribute to the perceived quality of the service, e.g. the physical evidence of a retail bank could include the state of the branch premises, as well as the delivery of the banking service itself.

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Physical Inventory

The determination of inventory quantity by actual count. Physical inventories can be taken on a continuous, periodic, or annual basis.

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Pica

(1) A unit of measurement for type specification and printing which measures width; 6 picas to one inch. (2) A size of type, 12 points.

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Marketing Management

Picture window

An ad layout in which the picture is placed at the top of the page, and the copy is placed below.

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Piecemeal Processing

A cognitive process in which an individual considers each piece of information separately in order to arrive at a conclusion.

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Piggyback

(1) A direct mail offer that is included free with another offer. (2) Two commercials which are shown back-to-back by the same sponsor.

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Marketing Management

Pilferage

The stealing of a store's merchandise.

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Marketing Management

PIMS

Profit Impact of Marketing Strategies: a US database supplying data such as environment, strategy, competition and internal data with respect to 3000 business. This data can be used for benchmarking purposes.

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Pioneer Selling

Offering for sale a new and different product, service, or idea.

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Pioneering Stage

A nonspecific period early in the life cycle of a new type of product during which the individuals are trying to build primary demand for a product type versus particular brands.

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Pipeline

Identification of prospects who have some likelihood of converting into customers.

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Pipeline Report

Documentation of the prospects who have been engaged in sales dialogue with some opportunity of conversion to customers.

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Place

The process of getting a product from the place it was manufactured into the hands of consumers in the right location at the right time.

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Place Marketing

Marketing efforts to attract people and organizations to a particular geographic area.

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Place Utility

The increased usefulness created by making a product available at the place consumers want.

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Planned Economy

A financial system in which a governmental authority decides what, when, and how much is to be produced and distributed.

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Planned Obsolescence

A product strategy that seeks new products that will make prior products obsolete.

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Planning

The process of anticipating future events and conditions and determining the courses of action necessary to achieve organizational objectives.

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Planogram

A visual diagram showing the physical allocation of product display space within a product grouping that is used for standardizing the presentation of merchandise.

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Marketing Management

Plus-One Dialing

A technique used in studies employing telephone interviews in which a single randomly determined digit is added to numbers selected from the telephone directory.

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Marketing Management

Podcast/Podcasting

Term used to define the broadcasting of multimedia files to iPods or other similar devices. Subscribers are able to view or listen to podcasts online.

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Marketing Management

Point

(1) A small unit of measurement for type, equal to 1/72 of an inch. (2) A small unit for measuring the thickness of paper, equaling 0.001 inch.

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Point of Diminishing Return

A yield rate that after a certain point fails to increase proportionately to additional outlays of capital or investments of time and labor.

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Point Size

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Marketing Management

point-of-purchase (P- Signs, displays, and other techniques of attracting attention and promoting products at their location of sale. In-store advertising designed to sell more and different products to shoppers once they are in the store. O-P) advertising

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Marketing Management

Point-of-Purchase (POP) displays

Advertising display material located at the retail store, usually placed in an area where payment is made, such as a check-out counter.

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Point-Of-Sale

The physical location at which goods are sold to customers.

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Marketing Management

Point-Of-Sale Display Merchandising display material provided by manufacturers or distributors to retailers in order to promote particular products.

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Marketing Management

Policy Adjustment

An exception to the usual complaint adjustment policy that is made for the purpose of retaining the customer's goodwill.

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Political Marketing

Promotional activities designed to influence target audiences to vote for a particular person, party, or proposition.

The unit of measure of printing type. Also called font size. The height of a printed character specified in points.

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Polycentric Orientation

The unconscious bias or belief that it is necessary to adopt local culture and practices.

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Pool

A group of advertisements or commercials for a product or service that an advertiser has ready for use as part of an advertising campaign.

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Pooled Buying

The practice of independent merchants informally gathering their orders to gain preferential terms.

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Pool-Out

A commercial written in a fashion similar to an earlier commercial in an advertising campaign.

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Popularity

One of several criteria used by search engines to determine ranking in search results.

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Population

A group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed.

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Pop-under

Automatically launched internet advertisement that appears in a small window behind another webpage. See ‗Pop-up'.

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Pop-Under Ad

An online advertisement that displays in a new browser window behind the current browser window and is seen when an individual closes his/her current browser window.

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Marketing Management

Pop-up

Automatically launched internet advertisement that appears in a small window in front of another webpage. See ‗Pop-under'.

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Marketing Management

Pop-Up Ad

An online advertisement that displays in a new browser window without an overt action by the web site user.

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Marketing Management

Portal

A marketing term used to describe a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a ‗Portal site‘ has a catalogue of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service

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Marketing Management

Porter‘s Five Forces Model

An analytic model developed by Michael E. Porter. The five forces in terms of which the model analyses businesses and industries are: Buyers, Suppliers, Substitutes, New Entrants and Rivals.

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Marketing Management

Portfolio (and Portfolio Analysis)

The set of products or services which a company decides to develop and market. Portfolio analysis is the process of comparing the contents of the portfolio to see which products or services are the most promising and deserving of further investment, and which should be discontinued.

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Marketing Management

Portfolio planning

Portfolio planning is the process of managing groups of brands and product lines.

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POS - Point Of Sale

Point Of Sale (also known in the US as Point Of Purchase); whether it is a tailored display rack, dump bin, bobble card, bottle collar or something more inventive, Point Of Sale materials offer a last chance to grab a customer. Who knows what goes through a customer's mind during the last 30 seconds before a purchase? We do know it can be influenced by a clever piece of POS.

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Marketing Management

Position Description

A written description that helps the incumbent of a position know what is expected of him or her in a given role.

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Marketing Management

Positioning

Positioning is how a product appears in relation to other products in the market.

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Marketing Management

Positioning strategy

A creative advertising strategy in which an advertiser implants in the consumer‘s mind a clear understanding of what the brand is and how it compares to competitive offerings.

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Marketing Management

Positive

A photographic image which appears as the original image, as opposed to a negative which reverses the black and white.

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Marketing Management

Possession Utility

The increased usefulness created by promotion through making it possible for a consumer to own, use, or consume a product.

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Post Buy Analysis

A comparison of the actual advertising schedule to the original expectations of the schedule as purchased, actual audience achieved as measured by audience ratings services, and conformity to standard industry practices.

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Post Exchange

Often referred to as the PX, a retail store operated by the armed forces primarily for the convenience of military base personnel and their families.

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Post Testing

The testing of advertising effectiveness after the audience is exposed to an advertising message.

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Marketing Management

POSTAR

Poster Audience Research - the UK Outdoor advertising industry audience measurement organisation.

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Marketing Management

Postcards

A postcard or post card is a typically rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope and at a lower rate than a letter. It is distinguished by stamp collectors from a postal card in that the postage is preprinted on the latter, whereas a postcard requires a stamp.

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Marketing Management

Poster panel

An outdoor billboard in which advertising is displayed on printed paper sheets rather than being painted. The most widely used form of outdoor advertising; standard size approximately 25' x 12' with the image printed on sections of 24 to 30 sheets.

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Marketing Management

Posters

A Poster is any large piece of paper which hangs from a wall or other such surface. They are a frequent tool of advertisers, propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message, and they also see personal use by people, especially the young, who wish to decorate in a relatively low-cost manner.

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Postindustrial Society

A concept referring to the next stage in our societal evolution in which the production of knowledge will be the major activity and most employment opportunities will be in the services sector.

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Postpone Method

A method used by salespeople to respond to prospect objections by asking permission to address the prospect's concerns at a later time.

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Marketing Management

Postponement

This concept holds that changes in the form and identity of a product and inventory location should be moved to the latest possible point in the marketing process for purposes of reducing marketing costs.

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Marketing Management

Posttesting

Testing the effects of an ad after it has appeared in the media.

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Marketing Management

Potential Market

Set of users who profess some level of interest in a designed market offer.

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Marketing Management

Potential Rating A database combining Census data, nationwide consumer surveys, and cross-country interviews with individuals into a geoIndex for Zip Markets demographic segmentation system. (PRIZM)

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Marketing Management

Potential Value

A measure of unrealized opportunity comprised of how much of a customer's share-of-wallet is going to competitors and spending potential yet to be realized.

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Poverty Level

The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. People who have an income below the poverty line have no discretionary disposable income, by definition.

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Pragmatic Validity

An approach measure validation based on the usefulness of the measuring instrument as a predictor of some other characteristic or behavior of an individual.

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Marketing Management

Pre-Approach

The activities preceding a sales call which often include prospecting, collecting information, and planning the presentation.

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Predatory Pricing

The practice of selectively pricing a product below that of competition in order to take market share, while pricing the product higher in markets where competition does not exist or is less prevalent.

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Predictive Validity

Refers to empirical evidence that a scale has predictive power over the unobservable construct that it is intended to measure.

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Preemptible rate

A usually discounted rate for commercial time which is sold to an advertiser and is not guaranteed. Time may be sold to another advertiser who is willing to pay more; therefore, the advertiser buying this rate gambles to save money on the spot.

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Pre-emptive pricing

Pre-emptive pricing is a strategy involves setting low prices in order to discourage or deter potential new entrants to the suppliers market. It is especially suited to markets in which the supplier does not hold a patent, or other market privilege and entry to the market is relatively straightforward.

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Preference

The selecting of someone or something over another or others.

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Preferential Tariff

A reduced tariff rate applied to imports from certain countries.

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Marketing Management

Preferred position

A position in a printed publication that is thought to attract most reader attention and is sold at a higher rate; for example, the back cover of a magazine.

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Marketing Management

Premium

An item, other than the product itself, which is offered free or at a nominal price as an incentive to purchase the advertised product or service.

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Marketing Management

Premium Price

A higher price paid for an item of better quality or perceived value.

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Marketing Management

Prepaid Rate

A transportation charge that is paid prior to a shipment being delivered, usually by the shipper or seller.

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Marketing Management

Preprint

A reproduction of an advertisement which is viewed before actual publication and is created by an advertiser for special purposes, e.g., to serve as retail displays or to gain support from retailers.

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Pre-retailing

The practice of determining prices and placing them on a copy of the purchase order at the time that goods are bought.

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Press Clipping Bureau

An organization that monitors a wide range of media sources (newspapers, magazines, television and radio talk shows and newscasts) in order to collect and log mentions of the publicist's product, service, or organization.

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Marketing Management

Press Conference

The convening of media representatives by a person or organization to explain, announce, or expand on a particular subject.

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Marketing Management

Press kit

A Press Kit is a packaged set of promotional materials of a person or persons represented for promotional use. The kit will usually include a cd or demo along with reviews, photos, and background information on the person, band or group and is distributed among media sources, i.e., radio stations for publicity reasons. They are often distributed to announce a release or for a news conference.

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Marketing Management

Press release

A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. Typically, it is mailed or faxed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, and/or television networks. Commercial newswire services are also used to distribute news releases. Sometimes news releases are sent for the purpose of announcing news conferences.

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Marketing Management

Prestige pricing

Prestige pricing refers to the practice of setting a high price for an product, throughout its entire life cycle – as opposed to the short term ‗opportunistic‘, high price of price ‗skimming‘. This is done in order to evoke perceptions of quality and prestige with the product or service.

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Marketing Management

Pretest

The use of a questionnaire or observation form in a small pilot study to determine how well a questionnaire works.

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Marketing Management

Pretesting

Testing an advertisement on an audience sample prior to placing the ad in the media.

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Price

The amount of money which is required in exchange for a product/service. Product Anything capable of satisfying a want, need or desire.

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Marketing Management

Price Awareness

The degree to which buyers are knowledgeable of the prices of alternative products and services that they may be interested in buying.

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Marketing Management

Price Bundling

The practice of offering two or more products or services for sale at one price.

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Marketing Management

Price Code

A symbol placed on a price ticket to indicate the price of an item.

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Marketing Management

Price Competition

The rivalry among firms seeking to attract customers on the basis of price, rather than other marketing factors.

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Price Consciousness The degree to which buyers are sensitive to differences in price between alternative choices.

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Price Control

A legal limitation placed on market prices or price increases by a government.

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Price Cutting

The practice of reducing the prices of established products or services.

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Marketing Management

Price discrimination

Price discrimination occurs when a firm charges a different price to different groups of consumers for an identical good or service, for reasons not associated with costs.

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Marketing Management

Price elasticity of demand

Price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of a change in demand for a product following a change in its own price.

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Marketing Management

Price Fixing

The practice of two or more sellers agreeing on the price to charge for similar products or services.

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Marketing Management

Price Guarantee

The practice of vendors offering their customers guarantees against price declines.

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Marketing Management

Price Leader

In competitive situations, the seller who normally initiates price changes in the market, and whose pricing change is quickly followed by competitors.

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Marketing Management

Price Lining

The offering of merchandise at a number of specific but predetermined prices.

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Price Off

A stated reduction in the price of a product usually offered by the manufacturer and printed directly on the product package.

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Marketing Management

Price Promotion

The advertising of a price for a product or service. Usually, the price being promoted is a reduction from a previously established price and may take the form of a lower price, a coupon to be redeemed, or rebate.

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Marketing Management

Price sensitivity

Price sensitivity is the effect a change in price will have on customers.

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Marketing Management

Price skimming

Price skimming involves charging a relatively high price for a short time where a new, innovative, or much-improved product is launched onto a market.

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Marketing Management

Price Structure

A framework for the time and conditions of payment, the nature of discounts to be allowed the buyer, and where and when title is to be taken by the buyer.

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Marketing Management

Price Thresholds

The lowest and highest prices that buyers are willing to pay for a particular good or service.

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Price Transparency

The ability of all parties involved in a transaction to see the market price of the selling item.

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Primary Advertising

An approach to an advertising message that emphasizes the basic attributes of the product category.

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Marketing Management

Primary data

Data collected by the researcher specifically for the research project. Data is collected directly from people and organisations via questionnaires or surveys before being analysed to reach conclusions concerning the issues covered in the questionnaire or survey.

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Marketing Management

Primary demand

Demand for a type of product instead of a specific company's product or brand.

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Marketing Management

Primary demand advertising

Advertising designed for the generic product category, as opposed to selective demand advertising.

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Primary Metropolitan A geography of at least one million people that includes a large urbanized county or a group of counties that have strong economic and social ties to neighboring communities. Statistical Area

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Marketing Management

Primary research data

Primary market data is data collected specifically for the market research project and obtained directly from the relevant source.

Prime time

Prime time is the block of programming on television during the middle of the evening. In the United States, television networks broadcast their prime time programming in two blocks: One for the Eastern, Central, and Mountain time zones, and one for the Pacific, Alaskan, and Hawaiian time zones. The generally accepted times considered to be traditional prime time are 8:00pm to 11:00pm Eastern and Pacific and 7:00pm to 10:00pm Central and Mountain Monday–Saturday.

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Principal

A person or firm who empowers another person or firm to act as a representative or agent.

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Marketing Management

Print media

Print media includes newspapers, magazines, and the like.

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Marketing Management

Privacy Policy

A written document from a company that defines the intended use for customer data, including names, contact information, transactional data, etc.

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Marketing Management

Private brand

Product brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to a manufacturer or producer, and bearing it's own company name or another name it owns exclusively. Also referred to as Private label.

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Marketing Management

Private Sector

The private sector of a nation's economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i.e., a variety of entities such as private firms and companies, corporations, private banks, non-governmental organizations, etc.

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Marketing Management

Proactive

An approach which seeks to anticipate events and plan accordingly.

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Marketing Management

Proactive Pricing

The managerial practice of deliberately analyzing the factors that influence price before setting prices.

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Probability Sample

A sample chosen in such a manner that the probabilities of including the selected units in the sample are known, and all population units have a positive probability of selection.

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Marketing Management

Probe

A question or verbal expression made by a salesperson to elicit information from a potential customer.

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Marketing Management

Probit Model

A probabilistic model for representing the brand choice behavior of individuals. On any choice occasion the individual is assumed to choose the item for which he or she has the highest preference.

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Marketing Management

Problem/Need recognition

The first stage in the buying process where the potential customer recognises that a problem or a need can be met by buying a product or a service.

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Marketing Management

Processed Materials

Manufactured materials that have been partially processed before reaching an ultimate producer.

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Marketing Management

Procurement

The function in the material acquisition cycle from the time an item is requisitioned until it is delivered. It includes responsibility for selection of vendor, negotiation of price, and assurance of quality and delivery, transportation, receiving, inspec

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Marketing Management

Producer Price Index

A monthly price index of about 2,800 commodities prepared by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, formerly known as the wholesale price index.

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Product

In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. However it is much more than just a physical object. It is the complete bundle of benefits or satisfactions that buyers perceive they will obtain if they purchase the product. It is the sum of all physical, psychological, symbolic, and service attributes.

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Marketing Management

Product Adaptation

The strategy of developing new products by modifying or improving on the product innovations of others.

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Marketing Management

Product Adoption Process

The sequence of stages that individuals and firms go through in the process of accepting new products. The stages vary greatly in usage, but tend to include; awareness, information gathering, developing a favorable attitude, trial, experiencing satisfacti

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Marketing Management

Product advertising

The type of advertising that promotes goods and services.

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Marketing Management

Product Approach

A method used by salespeople in which they demonstrate product features and benefits while walking directly up to prospects.

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Marketing Management

Product Assortment

The collection of products that comprise the offering of a given seller. Such product collections may include items, families, or lines.

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Marketing Management

Product Attributes

The characteristics by which products are identified and differentiated, usually in the form of features, functions, benefits, and uses.

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Product Champion

A person who takes an inordinate interest in seeing that a particular process or product is fully developed and marketed.

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Marketing Management

Product class

Product class is a broad category of product such as cars, washing machines, newspapers.

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Marketing Management

Product Concept

A verbal or pictorial version of a proposed new product. The concept consists of one or more benefits it will yield, its general form, and the technology used to achieve the form.

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Marketing Management

Product Development

The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product.

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Marketing Management

Product differentiation

Developing unique product differences with the intent to influence demand.

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Product Evolution

The gradual change in a product, as it is modified by its seller, to keep it competitive or to permit expansion into new markets.

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Product form

Within a product class, there are different forms that the product can take. For example, people carriers or two-seater sports cars are product forms within the motor cars product class.

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Product group

A product group (or product line) is a group of brands that are closely related in terms of their functions and the benefits they provide.

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Marketing Management

Product Innovation

The act of creating a new product or process that includes invention as well as the work required to bring an idea or concept into completed form.

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Marketing Management

Product Introduction

The first stage of the product life cycle, during which the new item is announced to the market and offered for sale.

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Marketing Management

Product Launch

The release of a new product or service into the market place is usually supported by a range of promotional activities.

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Marketing Management

Product Liability

Product liability is concerned with injuries caused by products that are defectively manufactured, processed, or distributed. Liability for such injuries attaches to all members of the distributive chain from manufacturers to retailers.

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Marketing Management

Product life cycle

A marketing theory in which products or brands follow a sequence of stages including introduction, growth, maturity, and sales decline.

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Product Line

A product line is a string of products grouped together for marketing or technical reasons. E.g. Guinness started as a single product company. Since then Guinness have extended the product line to fill market needs as they emerged.

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Product management Assigning specific products or brands to be managed by single managers within an advertising agency.

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Marketing Management

Product Manager

This manager is responsible for the planning, coordination, and monitoring of performance of a product in a multi-product company or division.

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Marketing Management

Product map

A product map defines the market in terms of the way buyers perceive key characteristics of competing products.

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Marketing Management

Product Mix

The full range of products on offer. The number of individual products produced or sold by an organization. The mix is defined by the industry and manufacturing environment, and management strategies that position the company as a specialty, niche or broad-based supplier of goods and services.

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Marketing Management

Product placement

Product placement is a promotional tactic used by marketers in which characters in a fictional play, movie, television series, or book use a real commercial product. Typically either the product and logo is shown or favourable qualities of the product are mentioned. The product price is not mentioned nor are any negative features or comparisons to similar products.

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Product Planning

A term of many meanings, but generally it is used to designate a staff position charged with the task of managing product innovation.

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Product Positioning

A product‘s position represents how it is perceived relative to the competition on the determinant attributes desired by each segment.

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Product quality

The ability of a product to perform its functions (―fit for purpose‖). Quality is a function of several factors including reliability and ease of use.

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Marketing Management

Product Specification

A document that defines the precise content and format of a specific product. It may contain technical requirements, special relationships between components, and so forth.

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Marketing Management

Product Transformation

This occurs when the same physical product ends up serving a different function than what was originally intended.

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Production

Process of physically preparing the advertising idea into a print or broadcast advertisement.

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Marketing Management

Production Cost

The cost of producing a print ad, radio commercial, television commercial, or other advertising materials.

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Production Era

A time period in the United States during which firms emphasized manufacturing and producing products, usually at the expense of marketing strategy.

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Marketing Management

Production Function

Specifies the maximum output that can be produced from any given amount of inputs.

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Production Orientation

A business philosophy that emphasizes the output of products, usually at the expense of marketing strategy.

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Marketing Management

Productivity

A measure of the economic output per unit of input of some resource.

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Product-related segmentation

A method of identifying consumers by the amount of product usage, usually categorized demographically or psychographically.

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Marketing Management

Professional advertising

Advertising directed toward professionals such as doctors, dentists, and pharmacists, etc., who are in a position to promote products to their patients or customers.

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Professional Discount

A reduction in price for a product or service granted to people in a specified professional field, especially those who are users of products in that field.

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Marketing Management

Professional CIM's grid of marketing competencies required to achieve business aims. CIM's new syllabus structure is mapped out against Marketing Standards each marketing level as identified in the grid.

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Professional Services

The services of individuals or companies that are accredited by professional bodies, such as accountants, lawyers and chartered marketers. See also 'Chartered Marketers'

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Professional Services The marketing of advisory services offered by licensed or accredited individuals or organizations. Marketing

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Profit

The excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time.

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Profiteering

The taking advantage of a situation, often a dire circumstance, to charge exorbitant prices and realize excessive profits.

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Profits

The excess of total revenues over total costs in a given time period.

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Program delivery (rate)

Percentage of a sample group of people tuned in to a particular program at a particular time.

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Progressive proofs (Progs)

Set of proofs made during the four-color printing process which shows each color plate separately and in combination. Also referred to as Color proofs.

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Project

A unit of activity in the product development process that usually deals with creating and marketing a new product. A project involves a cross-functional group of people, tightly or loosely organized, dedicated to the new product assignment that created t

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Projection

A prediction made by extrapolating from past observations. In psychology, it is a mode of coping with these perceived undesirable feelings.

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Marketing Management

Promotion

One of the four ―P‘s‖ of the marketing mix. Promotion is all about businesses communicating with customers.

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Promotion Mix

The various communication techniques such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations, available to a marketer that are combined to achieve specific goals.

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Promotion Models

Models to estimate the effect of a promotion based on market response functions, or a combination of empirical data combined with subjective judgment.