Page 1

Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Management Topic

Keyword

Definition

0-9

Marketing Management

3 Ms

Three key resources: Men, Money and Minutes. Men means men and women, money mean budgets and minutes mean time.

A

Marketing Management

AAA

American Academy of Advertising. An association of educators, students, and former educators in advertising.

A

Marketing Management

AAAA

American Association of Advertising Agencies. An association whose members are ad agencies.

A

Marketing Management

Abandonment Rate

The number of unique visitors that leave shopping carts prior to completing an online transaction.

A

Marketing Management

Above the line

―Above the Line‖ is the term commonly used for advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency. Methods of above the line advertising include television and radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.

A

Marketing Management

Above-The-Fold

A term borrowed from print newspapers that references the top portion of a Web page that is visible without scrolling. Important information should be presented above the fold to eliminate the need for scrolling by individuals browsing a web site.

A to Z

Page 1 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Advertising is considered to be above the line. Traditionally, advertising agencies charged commission on advertising which was 'above the line'. Other work by the agency such as design of sales promotions, mail shots and PR activities were charged a fixed fee and appeared on the agency bill 'below the line'.

A

Marketing Management

Above-The-Line

A

Marketing Management

Above-The-Line-Cost Any cost involved in the advertising production process, specifically listed in a budget

A

Marketing Management

Acceptable Price Range

A consumer expectation of the price range for a given product category; pricing below the acceptable price range will be perceived as inferior, pricing above the acceptable price range will be considered too expensive.

A

Marketing Management

Access

Access to library materials and services, on one dimension, is represented in the location of physical facilities. Because libraries are travelled-to outlets, marketing location theories can be applied successfully to library siting.

A

Marketing Management

Accordian insert

An ad inserted in a magazine, folded with an accordian-style fold.

A

Marketing Management

Account classification the summation or grouping of like items into categories such as revenue accounts, liability accounts and expense accounts.

A

Marketing Management

Account Executive

A person in an advertising agency who serves as the principal contact with a client(s), coordinating the work of agency staff members assigned to that account.

Page 2 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Account Management The process by which an agency or supplier manages the needs of a client.

A

Marketing Management

Account Services

The functional area responsible for interacting with clients. Account Supervisors, Account Executives and Project Managers are all part of the Account Services team.

A

Marketing Management

Accountability

Systematic inclusion of critical elements of program planning, implementation, and evaluation in order to achieve results.

A

Marketing Management

Accredited Programmes

Modular study that is assessed by exam or by project based assignments towards achieving a qualification

A

Marketing Management

Acculturation

Acculturation is the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people. The term originally applied only to the process concerning a foreign culture, from the acculturing or accultured recipient point of view, having this foreign culture added and mixed with that of his or her already existing one acquired since birth.

A

Marketing Management

Accumulation

An audience-counting method, where each person exposed to a specific vehicle is counted once within a certain time period.

A

Marketing Management

Acetate

Transparent plastic sheet frequently used for overlays in ad layouts.

Page 3 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

A

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

ACORN

A Classification Of Residential Neighbourhoods: a database which divides up the entire population of the UK in terms of the type of housing in which they live.

A

Marketing Management

Acquisition value

The users' perception of the relative worth of a product or service to them. Formally defined as the subjectively weighted difference between the most a buyer would be willing to pay for the product or service, less the actual price of the item. Time user must spend to 'acquire' is often used as a surrogate for 'relative worth or price paid,' in library research. For example, a user might be willing to expend drive time and a brief time in the library to check out a best seller, but not wait two weeks for a copy to be returned.

A

Marketing Management

Action advertising

Advertising intended to bring about immediate action on the part of the reader or viewer.

A

Marketing Management

Ad

The name used to indicate an advertising message in the print media.

A

Marketing Management

Ad audience

The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

A

Marketing Management

Ad banner

A graphical image used as an advertisement and displayed within an HTML document. The image is most frequently linked to the advertisers' website, where additional information is presented. See sample.

A

Marketing Management

Ad blocker

Software on a user‘s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

Page 4 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Ad campaign audit

An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

A

Marketing Management

Ad centric measurement

Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server's own server logs.

A

Marketing Management

Ad copy

The printed text or spoken words in an advertisement.

A

Marketing Management

Ad hoc market research

Ad-hoc research focuses on specific marketing problems. It involves the collection of data at one point in time from one sample of respondents.

A

Marketing Management

Ad network

An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory from many sites, for example, 24/7 Media.

A

Marketing Management

Ad recall

A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents are exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time are asked if they recall the ad.

A

Marketing Management

Ad serving

Ad serving describes the technology and service that places advertisements on web sites. Ad serving technology companies provide software to web sites and advertisers to serve ads, count them, choose the ads that will make the web site or advertiser most money, and monitor progress of different advertising campaigns.

Page 5 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Ad testing

Any of a variety of methods used to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of an advertisement. Pre-testing involves showing different ad prototypes to groups to determine which is the most effective.

A

Marketing Management

Ad Words

A system to advertise on Google & partner sites on a CPC (cost per click) basis

A

Marketing Management

A

Marketing Management

Added Value

The increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity - in the context of marketing, the activity might be packaging or branding.

A

Marketing Management

Additional Markup

The practice of adding a price increase on top of the original markup.

A

Marketing Management

Add-On

In charge accounts, the purchasing of additional merchandise without paying in full for previous purchases.

A

Marketing Management

Adjacencies

Time periods immediately before and after a television program, normally used as a commercial break between programs.

Adaptive Selling

A sales technique using a sales message and sales behavior adapted for each prospect in response to the specific sales situation. Electronic commerce is an ideal vehicle for this technique because of its ability to gather input from customers through effective interfaces.

Page 6 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

A

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Adnorm

A measure of readership averages for print publications over a two-year period, used as a baseline for comparing specific ads to an average.

A

Marketing Management

Adopter categories

Persons or agencies that adopt an innovation are often classified into five groups according to the sequence of their adoption of it. (To illustrate this think of individual use of the Internet within the library, and for an agency, libraries that offer Internet access to the general public. 1) Innovators (first 2-5%); 2) Early adopters (10-15%)' 3) Early majority (next 35%); 4) Late majority (next 35%); 5) Laggards (final 5-10%). This is important when considering how long it may take for the general public to 'adopt' a product or service.

A

Marketing Management

Adoption

A common model of stages in the purchase process ranging from; awareness, knowledge, evaluation, trial, and finally adoption

A

Marketing Management

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Technology that allows data to be transmitted over copper pair telephone lines at up to 8 Mbps. The technology allows internet access and telephony services to be available simultaneously.

A

Marketing Management

Advance premium

A premium provided to a consumer, on the condition of some later purchase.

A

Marketing Management

Advertisement

A commercial message targeted to an advertiser‘s customer or prospect.

A

Marketing Management

Advertiser

The company paying for the advertisement.

Page 7 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. Marketers see advertising as part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion.

A

Marketing Management

A

Marketing Management

A

Marketing Management

Advertising agency

A

Marketing Management

Advertising allowance Money paid to a retailer by a manufacturer for featuring its brands in the retailer‘s advertising

A

Marketing Management

Advertising budget

The total amount of money that a marketer allocates for advertising over a period of time.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Campaign

A planned sequence of advertisements.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Copy

The written or verbal component of an advertising message

Advertising

Advertising (Ad) Copy

The printed text and/or spoken words that deliver the message contained in an advertisement.

Marketing specialist firm that assists advertisers in planning and implementing advertising programs.

Page 8 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Effectiveness

Degree to which an advertisement or advertising campaign achieves its stated objectives; typically gauged by measuring the campaign's impact on sales, brand awareness, and market share.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising elasticity

The relationship between a change in advertising budget and the resulting change in product sales.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Exposure

A

Marketing Management

Advertising impression

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Media

A

Marketing Management

Advertising message The use of words, symbols and illustrations to communicate to a target audience using prime media

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Objectives

An opportunity for a person to see or hear a marketing message.

A possible exposure of the advertising message to one audience member.

The various channels that advertisers employ to communicate messages to target audiences.

1) The purpose of an advertisement (for example, to inform, to persuade, to remind). 2) The specific goals of the advertiser, such as the amount of products sold or inquiries received.

Page 9 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising page exposure

A measure of the opportunity for readers to see a particular print advertisement, whether or not that actually look at the ad.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising plan

An explicit outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve, how to accomplish those goals, and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising research

Research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. It may focus on a specific ad or campaign, or may be directed at a more general understanding of how advertising works or how consumers use the information in advertising. It can entail a variety of research approaches, including psychological, sociological, economic, and other perspectives.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising response Studies of this indicate that incremental response to advertising actually diminishes-rather than builds-with repeated exposure. curve

A

Marketing Management

Advertising revenue

A

Marketing Management

Advertising specialty A product imprinted with, or otherwise carrying, a logo or promotional message. Also called a promotional product.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising strategy

Revenue realized from the sale of advertising. See interactive advertising revenue.

The methodology advertisers use to achieve their advertising objectives. The strategy is determined by the particular creative mix of advertising elements the advertiser selects, namely: target audience; product concept; communications media; and advertising message.

Page 10 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising strategy research

Used to help define the product concept or to assist in the selection of target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles.

A

Marketing Management

Advertising Value Equivalent (AVE)

A commonly used PR measurement of the value of the space secured by PR executives had they bought that equivalent amount of space in advertising.

A

Marketing Management

Advertorial

An advertorial is an advertisement written in the form of editorial copy in a printed publication. They are usually designed to look like news stories.

A

Marketing Management

Advocacy advertising Advertising used to communicate an organization's views on issues that affect society or business.

A

Marketing Management

Adware

Free software which includes pop-up banner advertisements which cannot be dismissed. See ‗Banner Averts‘ and ‗Pop-up‘.

A

Marketing Management

Affiliate Marketing

A form of marketing or advertising used on the internet. Companies that sell products or services online link to relevant sites. The advertising on the other or 'affiliate' sites is paid for according to results.

A

Marketing Management

Affiliate Network

A grouping of businesses that provide support services to affiliate marketing programs. Services can include tracking commissions and activity, marketing and sales support, etc.

Page 11 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Affinities

A tendency for similar or complementary retail stores to be located in close proximity to one another. Often, retail establishments will be near one another in order to facilitate comparison shopping and attract large consumer audiences.

A

Marketing Management

Affinity Marketing

Marketing targeted at individuals sharing common interests that predispose them towards a product, e.g. an auto accessories manufacturer targeting motoring magazine readers. Also, a campaign jointly sponsored by a number of disparate organisations that are non-competitive but have a particular interest in common.

A

Marketing Management

A disclosure of information in an advertisement, required by the Federal Trade Commission or other authority, that may not be Affirmative disclosure desired by the advertiser. This information frequently admits to some limitation in the product or the offer made in the advertisement.

A

Marketing Management

After Sales Service

Services received after the original goods or service have been paid for.

A

Marketing Management

Agate line

A measure of newspaper advertising space, one column wide and 1/14th inch deep.

A

Marketing Management

Agency commission

The agency's fee for designing and placing advertisements. Historically, this was calculated as 15 percent of the amount spent to purchase space or time in the various media used for the advertising. In recent years the commission has, in many cases, become negotiable, and may even be based on some measure of the campaign's success.

A

Marketing Management

Agency Services

The functional area responsible for activities related to creating and producing each project, including concept development, copywriting, design, public relations, illustration, photography and printing.

Page 12 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Agents

Represent an organisation and sell on their behalf. Usually paid by a percentage commission on sales. Unlike distributors, agents do not hold nor buy stock. They just make contacts, take/win orders and pass the order onto the producer who subsequently delivers the goods.

A

Marketing Management

Aggregate Data

Data that is rolled up from a smaller unit to show summary data.

A

Marketing Management

Aggregation

A concept of market segmentation that assumes that most consumers are alike. Combining buying power in specific categories within the various business units within a company or with other companies in order to secure optimal pricing and service agreements from suppliers.

A

Marketing Management

Aging

The length of time merchandise has been in stock.

A

Marketing Management

AIDA

Attention, Interest, Desire, Action: a model describing the process that advertising or promotion is intended to initiate in the mind of a prospective customer.

A

Marketing Management

Aided recall

A research method frequently used to determine what consumers remember about an advertisement they have seen or heard.

A

Marketing Management

AIO

abbrev. activities, interests and opinions. A measurable series of psychographic (as opposed to demographic) variables involving the interests and beliefs of users.

Page 13 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Airbrush

An artist's technique for creating a smooth gradation of color. It is often used to cover imperfections in a photograph, e.g., in a model's skin.

A

Marketing Management

AIUAPR

Awareness, Interest, Understanding, Attitudes, Purchase, Repeat purchase: a buying decision model.

A

Marketing Management

Ala carte services

Rather than provide all advertising services for one price, an agency may provide only the services that a client wishes to purchase.

A

Marketing Management

Algorithm

The set of rules a search engine applies to web pages to determine which Web pages are displayed in the search results for a search term. Search engines regularly change their algorithms to improve the quality of the search results, require constant research and monitoring of optimization efforts.

A

Marketing Management

Allocation

A sorting process that consists of breaking a uniform supply down into smaller and smaller groupings.

A

Marketing Management

Alt Tag

The alternative text that the browser displays when the surfer does not want to or cannot see the pictures present in a web page. Using alt tags containing key-words can improve the search engine ranking of the page for those keywords.

A

Marketing Management

Altavista

One of the first large scale search engines.

Page 14 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Alternative Advertising

Advertising using vehicles other than traditional mass media; examples include text messaging on mobile phones and signs on supermarket shopping carts, etc.

A

Marketing Management

Ambient Media

Originally known as 'fringe media', ambient media are communications platforms that surround us in everyday life - from petrol pump advertising to advertising projected onto buildings to advertising on theatre tickets, cricket pitches or even pay slips. See also 'buzz'.

A

Marketing Management

Ambush Marketing

A deliberate attempt by an organisation to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship. For example by advertising during broadcasts of the event. See also 'buzz'

A

Marketing Management

ANA

Association of National Advertisers. An association whose members are advertisers, i.e., companies that advertise their products or services.

A

Marketing Management

Analysis of Variance

A statistical test employed with interval data to determine if k (k > 2) samples came from populations with equal means.

A

Marketing Management

Analytical Hierachy Process (AHP)

A mathematical decision making technique that allows consideration of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of decisions. It reduces complex decisions to a series of one-on-one comparisons, then synthesises the results.

A

Marketing Management

Anchor

Refers to a link on a web page, often found at the top or bottom of the page, that allows users to move to specific content on the web page.

Page 15 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Anchor Tag

Code determining the destination of a link.

A

Marketing Management

Animated advertisement

An ad that changes over time.

A

Marketing Management

Animated GIF

A format for graphic images that incorporates several images rotated in sequence. This technique is employed to deliver additional information in a limited space.

A

Marketing Management

Animatic

An animatic, also called a story reel, is a filmed version of a storyboard, created to test dramatic timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence. More commonly, a rough dialogue or sound track is added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working well together.

A

Marketing Management

Animation

Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera.

A

Marketing Management

ANOVA

Stands for analysis of variance. A statistical test used with interval data to determine if samples came from populations with equal means.

A

Marketing Management

Ansoff Matrix

Model relating marketing strategy to general strategic direction. It maps product-market strategies - e.g. market penetration, product development, market development and diversification - on a matrix showing new versus existing products along one axis and new versus existing markets along the other.

Page 16 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Answer print

The composite print of a film with final mixed track(s) and final picture color timings. In many contracts the delivery of the approved answer print is specified because it means that post-production has ended and release printing can begin, although the majority of prints are usually made from an internegative. Should always be distinguished in conversation and film labeling from a blacktrack answer print, which contains no soundtrack.

A

Marketing Management

Antitrust Laws

Federal antitrust policy is set forth in four laws: the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Clayton Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Robinson-Patman Act. These laws are negative in character and outlaw restraints of trade, monopolizing, attempting to

A

Marketing Management

Aperture

The opening in a camera that determines the amount of light that reaches the film or videotape.

A

Marketing Management

Appeal

The advertisement's selling message.

A

Marketing Management

Application Service Provider

The term used to describe companies that provide software or services to a network of customers on an ongoing basis. Customers pay for those services often on a monthly or quarterly basis rather than purchasing software in its entirety from the outset.

A

Marketing Management

Approach

Salesperson's initial contact with a prospective customer.

A

Marketing Management

Approved Vendors

A list of suppliers with whom purchasing agents are allowed to close contracts.

Page 17 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Arbitron

Television and radio rating service that publishes regular reports for selected markets.

A

Marketing Management

Area of dominant influence (ADI)

A geographic designation, used by Arbitron, that specifies which counties fall into a specific television market. See, also, Designated Market Area .

A

Marketing Management

Area Sampling

A method of sampling in which the total area of interest is divided into sub-areas that are then randomly sampled. Each subarea in the sample is completely enumerated.

A

Marketing Management

Armchair shopping

Customers buy from inside their own home or office. And delivery follows suit - directly into the home or the office. This is 'armchair shopping' since customers do not have to get up, go out, shop and traipse wearily home again. Direct mail, door-todoor selling, telesales, network retailing, television shopping channels and, of course, the Internet all facilitate armchair shopping.

A

Marketing Management

Art direction

The act or process of managing the visual presentation of an ad or commercial.

A

Marketing Management

Art Director

Art director in the hierarchical structure of a movie art department, the Art Director works directly below the production designer and a large part of their duties include the administrative aspects of the art department. They are responsible for assigning tasks to personnel, keeping track of the art department budget and scheduling, as well as over all quality control.

A

Marketing Management

Art proof

The artwork for an ad, to be submitted for client approval.

Page 18 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Art studio

Company that designs and produces artwork and illustrations for advertisements, brochures, and other communication devices.

A

Marketing Management

Artwork

The visual components of an ad, not including the typeset text.

A

Marketing Management

A

Marketing Management

Asset Led Marketing

Asset led marketing uses product strengths such as the name and brand image to market both new and existing products. Marketing decisions are based on the needs of the consumer AND the assets of the product.

A

Marketing Management

Assignments

An assessed work based project report. Assignments are part of the assessment procedure when studying for a qualification

A

Marketing Management

Assortment

The range of choice offered to a consumer within a particular classification of merchandise

A

Marketing Management

Atmospherics

the design of an environment via visual communications, lighting, colors, music, and scent to stimulate customers' perceptual and emotional responses and ultimately to affect their purchase behavior.

Aspirational Group

A reference group which a person desires to emulate or be associated with.

Page 19 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Attention

The process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others.

A

Marketing Management

Attention value

A consideration in selecting media based on the degree of attention paid to ads in particular media by those exposed to them.

A

Marketing Management

Attitude

A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object. Such attitudes are a result of experiences, awareness and the wants and needs of individuals. Since an understanding of attitudes helps to understand behaviour, marketers need to be acquainted with the subject in an order to make informed assumptions about future consumer behaviour.

A

Marketing Management

Attributable Costs

Fixed costs or variable costs incurred by and solely for a particular product, department, program, sales territory, or customer account.

A

Marketing Management

Attribution Theory

In the psychology of personality, an explanation of social behavior by attributing to it the core characteristics of the individual rather than the specifics of the situation they might be in.

A

Marketing Management

Auction house

An establishment that gathers buyers and sellers in one location where buyers can examine merchandise before submitting competing purchase offers.

A

Marketing Management

Audience

The number of people or households exposed to a vehicle, without regard to whether they actually saw or heard the material conveyed by that vehicle.

Page 20 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Audience composition

A

Marketing Management

Audience duplication The number of people who saw or heard more than one of the programs or publications in which an ad was placed.

A

Marketing Management

Audience share

A radio or TV station's share is the percent of time people in that market spend with that station - it is not a percentage of people.

A

Marketing Management

Audilog

A diary kept by selected audience members to record which television programs they watched, as a means of rating television shows. Used by A.C. Nielsen.

A

Marketing Management

Audimeter

An electronic recording device used by A.C. Nielsen to track when a television set is in use, and to what station it is set.

A

Marketing Management

Audiovisual materials Non-book materials such as filmstrips, recordings, films, records, video and audio cassettes, and compact discs (CDs).

A

Marketing Management

Audit

The demographic profile expressed as a percentage of the total audience of a particular advertising vehicle.

the systematic collection, analysis and evaluation of information relating to the internal and external environments that answers the question ‗Where are we now?' for the organisation.

Page 21 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC)

A company that audits the circulation of print publications, to insure that reported circulation figures are accurate.

A

Marketing Management

Augmented brand

The additional customer services and benefits (―added value‖) that are built around the core product or service offering.

A

Marketing Management

Augmented Product

On top of the tangible product are more intangibles which augment, or increase the value of the product. This 'augmented product' can include guarantees, and services like credit facilities, delivery, installation, training, advice, servicing, insurance, and more.

A

Marketing Management

Authorized Dealer

A vendor who has a franchise to sell a manufacturer's goods. The authorized dealer is usually one of a few selected dealers in a geographic trading area.

A

Marketing Management

Availability

Advertising time on radio or television that is available for purchase, at a specific time.

A

Marketing Management

Available market

The total group of customers who have an interest in a interest in a product or service, have access to it, and have the ability to buy it.

A

Marketing Management

Average Audience (AA)

The number of homes or persons tuned to a television program during an average minute, or the number of persons who viewed an average issue of a print publication.

Page 22 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A

Marketing Management

Average Cost Per Unit

A

Marketing Management

Average Cost Pricing A practice of adding a reasonable markup (determined by market comparisons) to the average cost of a product.

A

Marketing Management

Average Variable Cost

Total variable cost divided by the number of units produced and sold.

A

Marketing Management

Awareness

Advertising or other promotional activity (e.g. public relations) whose primary purpose is to increases general knowledge of the company, and to make people feel more positive towards it.

B

Marketing Management

Baby Boom

The period from the end of World War II until the early 1960s when the number of births increased significantly, resulting in a population bubble of significant size.

B

Marketing Management

Back Link

A link from one website to another

B

Marketing Management

Back Order

An order of products or goods that a vendor has not been able to fill but intends to ship as soon as the goods are available.

Calculated as the sum of fixed costs and variable costs at a given level of output, divided by the number of units.

Page 23 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Back to back

Running more than one commercial, with one following immediately after another.

B

Marketing Management

Bait advertising

Advertising a product at a very low price, when it is difficult or even impossible to obtain the product for the price advertised.

B

Marketing Management

Bait and Switch

A deceptive sales practice whereby a low-priced product is advertised to lure customers to a store. Once a consumer has entered a retail establishment, they are induced to buy higher priced model or good.

B

Marketing Management

Balance Sheet Method

An approach used by salespeople to gain a commitment from a buyer by asking the buyer to consider pros and cons of various alternatives. This method has been attributed to Ben Franklin.

B

Marketing Management

Balanced Scorecard

A technique allowing a company to monitor and manage performance against defined objectives. Measurements might typically cover financial performance, customer value, internal business process, innovation performance and employee performance.

B

Marketing Management

Balanced Stock

Merchandise that is offered by a store in sufficient quantities, colours, styles, sizes and assortment characteristics to meet the customers' needs.

B

Marketing Management

Ballot box

A ballot box is a temporarily sealed container, usually cuboid, with a narrow slot in the top sufficient to accept a ballot paper in an election but which prevents anyone from accessing the votes cast until the close of the voting period.

Page 24 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Bandwidth

The range of frequencies, expressed in Kilobits per second, that can pass over a given data transmission channel within a frame relay network. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be sent through a channel - the greater the bandwidth

B

Marketing Management

Banner Ad

An online graphical web advertisement that may contain a static or moving image and copy extending across the full page width and offering a hyperlink to the home or landing page. It typically measures 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall.

B

Marketing Management

Banner Adverts

Adverts on web pages used to build brand awareness or drive traffic to the advertisers own website.

B

Marketing Management

BARB

The Broadcasters' Audience Research Board. Responsible for providing estimates of the number of people watching television. This includes the channels and programmes being watched, at what time, and the type of people who are watching.

B

Marketing Management

Barcode

An information technology application that uniquely identifies various aspects of product characteristics, increasing speed, accuracy, and productivity of distribution process

B

Marketing Management

Barriers to Entry

Economic, legal, psychological, technical, and other forces that limit access to markets, thereby reducing the threat of new competition.

B

Marketing Management

Barter

Exchanging merchandise, or something other than money, for advertising time or space.

Page 25 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

BCG (Boston Consulting Group) Matrix

Model for product portfolio analysis. Products can be classified as: Stars - high growth and market share; Cash Cows - high market share and low growth rate; Question marks ? low market share in high growth rate markets; Dogs - low market share and low growth rate.

B

Marketing Management

Behaviour

The actions of an individual or group in a given situation.

B

Marketing Management

Behavioural segmentation

Behavioural segmentation divides customers into groups based on the way they respond to, use or know of a product.

B

Marketing Management

Below the Line

Non-media advertising or promotion when no commission has been paid to the advertising agency. Includes direct mail, point of sale displays, giveaways. See also, 'above the line' and 'push versus pull promotion'.

B

Marketing Management

Below-The-Line-Cost Any operational cost in that is not specifically itemized in the operational budget.

B

Marketing Management

Ben Day process

A shading or dot pattern on a drawing.

B

Marketing Management

Benchmarking

Process in which an organization continuously compares and measures itself against business leaders anywhere in the world to learn how it could improve performance.

Page 26 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Benefit segmentation A form of market segmentation based on the benefits people are seeking from a product.

B

Marketing Management

Bid

Written sales proposal from a vendor.

B

Marketing Management

BIDDY

Buy it – Don‘t Do It Yourself – a demographic grouping.

B

Marketing Management

Bill of Lading

A document in international trade that is required to establish legal ownership and facilitate financial transactions.

B

Marketing Management

Billboards

A billboard or hoarding is a large outdoor signboard, usually wooden, found in places with high traffic such as cities, roads, motorways and highways. Billboards show large advertisements aimed at passing pedestrians and drivers. The vast majority of billboards are rented to advertisers rather than owned by them.

B

Marketing Management

Billings

Total amount charged to clients, including the agency commission, media costs, production costs, etc.

B

Marketing Management

Black Space

The business opportunities that a company has formally targeted and organised itself to capture. Compare with 'white space'.

Page 27 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Bleeds

Colors, type, or visuals that run all the way to the edge of the page.

B

Marketing Management

Blended E-Learning

An integrated programme with a blend of interactive online tuition, face-to-face classroom workshops, assignments and a Learning Log

B

Marketing Management

Blinking

A media planning tactic that schedules activity on a week, off a week, for a specified period of time.

B

Marketing Management

Blogs/Blogging

Contraction of Web log. An internet publishing device allowing an individual or company to express their thoughts and opinions. Businesses can use blogs as a marketing communication channel.

B

Marketing Management

Blow-in card

An advertisement, subscription request, or other printed card "blown" into a print publication rather than bound into it.

B

Marketing Management

Blueline

A photoprint made from stripped-up negatives or positives, used as a proof to check position of image elements.

B

Marketing Management

Bluetooth

Open specification for short range communication between wireless devices.

Page 28 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Body copy

Text matter which comprises the major content of an article or publication other than mastheads, headlines, sub-heads, callouts, charts and graphs. Sometimes called Body Text.

B

Marketing Management

Body Language

The gestures, poses, movements, and expressions that a person uses to communicate.

B

Marketing Management

Bonus

An added quantity of some product or service that is awarded to the buyer for making a purchase. Also, a cash incentive offered to sales people for reaching or exceeding pre-determined sales goals.

B

Marketing Management

Boston Group Matrix

A means of analysing and categorizing the performance of business units in large diversified firms by reference to market share and growth rates. It was developed by the Boston Consultancy Group (BCG).

B

Marketing Management

Bottom Up Sales Forecasting

Each sales person makes their own forecast for their own product or service in their particular area. These are all then added together to get a bottom-up forecast.

B

Marketing Management

Bottom-Up Marketing

Designing a selling strategy by starting with the very basic needs of the customer, finding the most effective positioning for a product and working up from there.

B

Marketing Management

Bottom-Up Planning

Plans created by lower levels of management or staff without input from higher levels of management.

Page 29 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Bounce Back Offer

A coupon or other selling device included in a customer ordered product, premium, refund, or other package that attempts to sell more of the same or different product to the recipient.

B

Marketing Management

Boutique

An agency that provides a limited service, such as one that does creative work but does not provide media planning, research, etc. Usually, this refers to a relatively small company.

B

Marketing Management

Boycott

An unfair trade practice which occurs when someone in the insurance business refuses to have business dealings with another until he or she complies with certain conditions or concessions

B

Marketing Management

BPI

Stands for Buying Power Index. This is a weighted index that converts three population, effective buying income, and retail sales into a measurement of a market's ability to buy and expressed as a percentage of total U.S. potential.

B

Marketing Management

Brainstorming

A problem-solving technique that involves creating a list that includes a wide variety of related ideas.

B

Marketing Management

Brand

The set of physical attributes of a product or service, together with the beliefs and expectations surrounding it - a unique combination which the name or logo of the product or service should evoke in the mind of the audience.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Architecture

The development and implementation of a plan for linking company, brand, product, and feature names to optimize a company‘s brand awareness.

Page 30 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Associations

The feelings, beliefs and knowledge that consumers perceive about brands.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Attributes

Brand attributes are the functional and emotional associations which are assigned to a brand by its customers and prospects. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive, and can have different degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments, markets and cultures. Brand attributes are the basic elements for establishing a brand identity.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Audit

A brand audit is a comprehensive and systematic examination of a brand involving activities (both tangible and intangible) to assess the health of the brand, uncover its sources of equity and suggest ways to improve and leverage that equity. The brand audit requires the understanding of brand equity sources from the perspective of both the firm and the consumer.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Awareness

Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Brand awareness is measured as the proportion of target customers which has prior knowledge of the brand. It is measured by two distinct measures; brand recognition and brand recall. Brand recognition is the customers' ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness). Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).

B

Marketing Management

Brand building

Developing a brand's image and standing with a view to creating long term benefits for brand awareness and brand value.

Brand Champion

Brand champions are internal and external story tellers who spread the brand vision, brand values and cultivate the brand in an organisation. Every organisation needs committed and passionate brand champions. The more employees the organisation can turn into brand champions, the better will it be equipped to build and maintain strong brand equity. Singapore Airlines, L'Oreal, Harley Davidson, Nike, Google and LEGO are well-known examples of companies which benefit tremendously from their employees being strong and dedicated brand champions.

B

Marketing Management

Page 31 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Culture

Strong brands are managed by organisations characterized by their strong internal brand cultures. A strong brand culture is determined by the internal attitudes towards branding, management behaviour and practices of an organisation. These combined efforts are crucial to build and maintain strong brand equity through competitive advantages from branding. The most prominent person to lead these efforts is the CEO and the senior management team.

B

Marketing Management

Brand development index (BDI)

A comparison of the percent of a brand's sales in a market to the percent of the national population in that same market.

The brand equity concept stresses the importance of a brand in marketing strategies, and has become a leading indicator in measuring the strength and value of a brand. Brand equity is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand. Brand equity relates to the fact that different outcomes result in the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name, as compared to if the same product or service did not have that name. Brand equity can be measured across different dimensions like brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand associations etc.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Equity

B

Marketing Management

Brand Equity Strategy corporate brand. The brand equity strategy serves as a guide for these marketing efforts and illustrates the plans and tactics

B

Marketing Management

Brand Essence

The brand essence is an articulation of the "heart and soul" of the brand. A brand essence is typical three to five short word phrases that capture the core essence or spirit of the brand positioning and the values characterizing the brand. The brand essence is the description which defines a brand and the guiding vision of the brand.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Expansion

The exposure of a brand to a broader target customer market, geographic market, or distribution channels.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Extension

The application of a brand beyond its initial range of products, or outside of its category. This becomes possible when the brand image and attributes have contributed to a perception with the consumer/user where the brand and not the product is the decision driver.

An organisation wants to build and maintain strong brand equity for the respective brands in their portfolio including the needed to meet the brand objectives.

Page 32 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Brand Guidelines

Brand guidelines are internal tools available in an organisation to educate, reinforce and motivate all involved in building and maintaining strong brands. Brand guidelines are crucial in establishing and enhancing a strong and dedicated brand culture. The brand guidelines can take various forms and methods, and could consist of brand vision, brand identity, brand strategy guidelines, a short description of the brand, brand values, brand positioning, positioning guidelines, communication tips, writing style guidelines, design style guidelines, and company-wide contact details to obtain more information from central brand management.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Identity

A unique set of functional and mental associations the brand aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand should ideally stand for in the minds of customers, and imply a potential promise to customers. It is important to keep in mind that the brand identity refers to the strategic goal for a brand while the brand image is what currently resides in the minds of consumers.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Image

A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. The brand image is what is currently in the minds of consumers, whereas brand identity is aspirational from the brand owners' point of view.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Loyalty

Brand loyalty is the strength of preference for a brand compared to other similar available brand options. It is measured through a range of different dimensions e.g. repeat purchase behavior, price sensitivity.

B

Marketing Management

B

Marketing Management

Brand Management

Brand management is the process of managing an organisation's brand or portfolio of brands in order to maintain and increase long-term brand equity and financial value. Brand management is applied by the person or group responsible for designing brand identities, aligning them for maximum effectiveness, ensuring that they are not compromised by tactical actions, evaluating effectiveness of brand communication programs, valuing financial brand value, and designing appropriate brand crisis management plans among many other strategic and tactical tasks.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Manager

Marketing manager responsible for a single brand.

Page 33 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Mapping

Brand mapping is a research technique to identify and visualize the core positioning of a brand compared to competing brands on various dimensions.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Mark

That part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It is usually symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color, or combination of the preceding.

B

Marketing Management

Brand name

The part of a brand consisting of words or letters that form a name to identify and distinguish a firm's offerings.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Personality

The brand personality is the brand image or brand identity expressed in terms of human characteristics. The brand personality must ideally include distinguishing and identifiable characteristics which offer consistent, enduring and predictable messages and mental perceptions.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Positioning

Brand positioning is the "market space" a brand is perceived to occupy in the mind of the target audience. All strong marketing communications programs need to focus on only few messages to achieve better impact in an increasingly noisy environment. The brand positioning is the part of the brand identity that management decides to actively communicate to the market.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Positioning Statement

A brand positioning statement describes the "mental space" a brand should occupy in the minds of a target audience. It serves as an internal document which guides most of a company's marketing communications strategies, programs and tactics. The brand positioning statement focuses on the elements and associations which meaningfully set a brand apart from the competition. It is typically constructed in the following format: "To (target market), Brand X is the brand of (frame of reference) that (point of difference) because (reasons).

B

Marketing Management

Brand Power

A measure of the ability of the brand to dominate its product category.

Page 34 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Recall

Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).

B

Marketing Management

Brand Recognition

Brand recognition is the customers' ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness).

B

Marketing Management

Brand Relevance

Brand relevance is the alignment of a brand, its brand attributes, brand identity and brand personality with the primary needs and wants of the target audience.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Revitalisation

Brand revitalization of a fading brand or a portfolio of brands is sometimes necessary for an organisation. Changes in the marketing environment, competitors' strategies, consumer behaviour, evolutions of cultures and many other factors can lead to erosion of the brand equity over time. A brand revitalization program is involving strategies to recapture lost sources of brand equity and ways to identify and establishing new sources of brand equity for the brand or the brand portfolio.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Slogan/ Brand programs. The brand slogan and tagline helps customers to remember the brand and reinforces mental associations. Consistent and well-known examples are Nike "Just do it", HSBC "The world's local bank", HP "Invent", and Singapore Airlines tagline

An easily and recognisable and memorable phrase which often accompanies a brand name in marketing communications

"A Great Way to Fly".

B

Marketing Management

Brand Strategy

The 'big picture' plans and tactics deployed by an organisation/brand owner to create long-term brand equity and competitive advantages from branding.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Switching

A purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to another.

Page 35 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

B

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Brand Tribe

The modern consumer is buying experiences rather than commodities hence the importance of branding in many product and service categories. Therefore, the consumer decision process involves brand attributes and brand associations, which are largely image driven, intangible and symbolic. The group as a social institution serves as an important part of these consumer decisions as the importance and strengths of intangible brand attributes and brand values are related to how these factors are perceived and ranked in a group or clusters of groups of which the consumer is part of. A brand tribe is a formal or informal group of consumers whom share the same awareness, passion and loyalty for a brand or a portfolio of brands. Brand tribes can be identified as strong drivers of brand strengths for many international brands like LEGO, Bang & Olufsen, Nike, Giorgio Armani, Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts, Singapore Airlines, Timberland and many other unique brands.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Value

Brand value is the financial premium derived from loyal target audiences committed to a brand and willing to pay extra for the brand as compared to a generic product or service in the same category. The brand value can be calculated in financial terms and demonstrates the value of the brand or a portfolio of brands as part of a corporation's intangible assets. The valuation of brands is important for several reasons. Shareholders and advisors can assess the financial value of their corporate brand, an individual brand or a portfolio of brands. Management teams can benefit from the brand value as a useful tool for measuring performance, for taxation purposes, in an event of an acquisition or disposal. Financiers can use the brand value when assessing the borrowing capacity of a company when arranging funding facilities. An increasing number of lending institutions recognize the value of intangible assets such as brands as collateral for loans.

B

Marketing Management

Brand Value Proposition

The functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand that combined provide value to the customer. The brand value propositions provide the rationale (tangible and intangible dimensions and associations) for making one brand choice over other available brand choices.

B

Marketing Management

Brand

An identifying symbol, sign, name, or mark that distinguishes an organization or a product from its competitors; the intangible sum of an organization‘s attributes—it can include its name, its history, its reputation, its packaging, and the way it is advertised.

Branding Excellence

Branding Excellence is both an indicator of brand strength and a unique measure of the brand leadership capabilities of an organisation. Strong brands create profitable businesses, and organisations must seek to obtain branding Excellence to benefit and leverage fully from branding. A strong brand is characterized by a unique brand promise, and an outstanding brand delivery, and branding excellence measures this balance and the outcome including guidance on how to improve. Branding Excellence measures and describes how brand leadership internally in a corporation can add significant value in terms of brand strength and brand value.

B

Marketing Management

Page 36 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Branding

The process of developing and communicating brand attributes and brand identity to build marketplace awareness and acceptance in order to meet sales and revenue goals.

B

Marketing Management

BRC

Business Reply Card. A pre-addressed, postpaid card typically used to generate response to an offer.

B

Marketing Management

BRE

Business Reply Envelope.

B

Marketing Management

Break Even Analysis

A method of examining the relationships between fixed costs, variable costs, volume, and price. The objective of such an analysis is to determine the break-even point (where revenue covers expense) at alternative price points and various costs.

B

Marketing Management

Breakeven

Breakeven is achieved when total contribution is equal to total fixed costs. Addition contribution earned after this point becomes profit.

B

Marketing Management

Break-even pricing

Setting a price to achieve break-even on the costs of making and marketing a product (direct costs). Breakeven is achieved when the total contribution from sales priced in this way at least equal the fixed costs of the business.

B

Marketing Management

Bridge

Transition from one scene to another, in a commercial or program.

Page 37 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Bridge Page

Similar to ―Doorway Page‖, this is a specifically designed entry point for a website

B

Marketing Management

Broadcast Television

A method of distributing television signals by means of stations that broadcast signals over channels assigned to specific geographic areas.

B

Marketing Management

Broadsheet

Standard size newspaper.

B

Marketing Management

Broadside

A direct-mail advertisement printed on large, newspaper-size paper.

B

Marketing Management

Brochure

A folded leaflet with an advertising or promotional message.

B

Marketing Management

B-Roll

Videotaped footage that is not included in the final edited version of a company's video news release (VNR). B-roll is given to television stations along with the VNR to give the stations the option of putting together their own version of the story being

B

Marketing Management

Brown Goods

Electrical goods such as TVs, videos, stereo systems etc, used for home entertainment. So called because they were originally cased in bakelite, a brown plastic.

Page 38 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Browser

An individual searching the internet for information. Also, a software package (Internet Browser) used to view pages on the World Wide Web.

B

Marketing Management

Budget

Resources required for marketing activities - usually money.

B

Marketing Management

Build share

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company can invest to increase market share (for example turning a "question mark" into a star).

B

Marketing Management

Bulldog edition

An edition of a print publication that is available earlier than other editions. Usually, this is the early edition of a large circulation newspaper.

B

Marketing Management

Bulletin boards

A bulletin board is a place where people can leave public messages, for example, to advertise things to buy or sell, announce events, or provide information. Bulletin boards are often made of a material such as cork to facilitate addition and removal of messages.

B

Marketing Management

Bundling

Offering several complementary products together. The price of a bundle is typically lower than the sum of the collective prices of each individual item included in the bundle. Some products may be bundled together to appeal to different segments.

B

Marketing Management

BUPPIE

Black Urban Professional - a demographic grouping.

Page 39 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Buried position

Placing an ad between other ads in a print publication, so that readers are less likely to see it.

B

Marketing Management

Business Cycle

Fluctuations in overall business activity accompanied by swings in the unemployment rate, interest rates, and corporate profits. Over a business cycle, real activity rises to a peak (its highest level during the cycle), then falls until it reaches a troug

B

Marketing Management

Business Intelligence

Actionable information that comes out of data review and analysis. The purpose of such analysis is to help users make better, more informed decisions.

B

Marketing Management

Business Plan

A strategic document showing cash flow, forecasts and direction of a company.

B

Marketing Management

Business portfolio

The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the business.

B

Marketing Management

Business Reply Card A postage paid form used by a consumer to request/provide information, subscribe to, or purchase a product or service.

B

Marketing Management

Business Strategy

The means by which a business works towards achieving its stated aims.

Page 40 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Business to Business Relating to the sale of a product for any use other than personal consumption. The buyer may be a manufacturer, a reseller, a government body, a non-profit-making institution, or any organisation other than an ultimate consumer. (B2B)

B

Marketing Management

Business to Consumer (B2C)

B

Marketing Management

Business-to-business Advertising directed to other businesses, rather than to consumers. advertising

B

Marketing Management

Buyer‘s Market

Economic conditions that favor the position of the retail buyer (or merchandiser), allowing him to influence price levels, rather than the vendor.

B

Marketing Management

Buyer‘s Remorse

The insecurity a buyer feels about the appropriateness of his/her purchase decision after the purchase has been made.

B

Marketing Management

Buyer's market

Marketplace characterized by an abundance of goods and/or services.

B

Marketing Management

Buying behaviour

Buying behaviour concerns the process that buyers go through when deciding whether or not to purchase goods or services. Buying behaviour can be influenced by a variety of external factors and motivations, including marketing activity.

Relating to the sale of product for personal consumption. The buyer may be an individual, family or other group, buying to use the product themselves, or for end use by another individual.

Page 41 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

B

Marketing Management

Buying Center

A group of organizational members who are involved in any phase of a specific buying decision.

B

Marketing Management

Buying Power Index (BPI)

An indicator the represents the percentage of total U.S. retail sales occurring in a specific geographic area, commonly used to forecast demand for new retail establishments and evaluate performance of existing retail stores.

B

Marketing Management

Buying Signal

A verbal or visual cue that indicates a prospects interest in purchasing a product or service.

B

Marketing Management

Buzz

Buzz marketing uses 'word-of-mouth' advertising: potential customers pass round information about a product. See also 'viral marketing'

C

Marketing Management

Caching

A computer process that stores Web files to your computer for later access. These web pages are displayed without the need to re-download graphics and other elements of the previously visited page.

C

Marketing Management

Call Frequency

The number of sales calls made within a specified period of time on a particular customer.

C

Marketing Management

Call Report

A salesperson's account of a customer interaction or a summary report detailing sales activity for a group of telemarketing representatives.

Page 42 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Camera-ready art

Artwork that is in sufficiently finished form to be photographed for printing.

C

Marketing Management

Cancellation

Notification to a vendor that a buyer does not wish to accept goods that have been ordered.

C

Marketing Management

Canned Presentation

A presentation that has been standardized which includes key selling points arranged in the order designed to elicit the best response from the customer.

C

Marketing Management

Cannibalization

A decrease in the sales of a product experienced by a business as a result from its own introduction of a new product that is a partial or complete substitute.

C

Marketing Management

Canonical

Authoritative or standard; conforming to an accepted rule or procedure. When referring to programming, canonical means conforming to well-established patterns or rules. The term is typically used to describe whether or not a programming interface follows the already established standard. When referring to IP addressing, canonical means the authoritative host name stored in a DNS database that all of an IP address‘ aliases resolve to.

C

Marketing Management

Capital

Assets available for use in the production of further assets or an owner's investment in a business.

C

Marketing Management

Capital Goods

The instruments of production that make up an organization's plant and operating capacity. Can also refer to the raw materials used to produce finished products.

Page 43 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Caption

(1) An advertisement's headline; (2) The text accompanying an illustration or photograph.

C

Marketing Management

Car card

A poster placed in buses, subways, etc. Also called a Bus card.

C

Marketing Management

Card rate

Media rates published by a broadcast station or print publication on a "rate card." This is typically the highest rate charged by a vehicle.

C

Marketing Management

Carrying Charge

The sum paid for credit service on certain charge accounts, usually interest charged on the unpaid balance.

C

Marketing Management

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Used to manipulate and easily manage the design of a website.

C

Marketing Management

Cash Cows

A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high market share. These are mature, successful businesses with relatively little need for investment. They need to be managed for continued profit - so that they continue to generate the strong cash flow that the company needs for its Stars.

C

Marketing Management

Cash discount

A price reduction offered to a consumer, industrial user, or marketing intermediary in return for prompt payment.

Page 44 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Cash Flow

The movement of cash coming in through sales and other revenues, and cash going out to pay for expenditures.

C

Marketing Management

Cash On Delivery

Also termed, C.O.D. It is the practice of collecting payment upon receipt of the merchandise for the price of the goods plus the relevant transportation charges.

C

Marketing Management

Catalogs

Reference books mailed to prospective customers that list, describe, and often picture the products sold by a manufacturer, wholesaler, jobber, or retailer.

C

Marketing Management

Category development index (CDI)

A comparison of the percent of sales of a product category in a market, to the percent of population in that market.

C

Marketing Management

Category Killer

A type of destination store that is usually large and concentrates on a single category, making it possible to carry a broad assortment and deep selection of merchandise at low prices.

C

Marketing Management

Category Management

Products are grouped and managed by strategic business unit categories. These are defined by how consumers views goods rather than by how they look to the seller, e.g. confectionery could be part of either a 'food' or 'gifts' category, and marketed depending on the category into which it?s grouped.

C

Marketing Management

Category Manager

An individual who reports to a marketing manager and is responsible for the marketing and maximization of total profit from a mix of several brands falling under a generic product category.

Page 45 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Cattle call

A process used to select a vendor in which a company solicits proposals from a number of prospective suppliers.

C

Marketing Management

Cause Related Marketing

Partnership between a company or brand and a charity or 'cause' by which the charity benefits financially from the sale of specific products.

C

Marketing Management

CBBB

Council of Better Business Bureaus. A national organization of local business bureaus.

C

Marketing Management

Cease-and-desist order

An order by the Federal Trade Commission requiring an advertiser to stop running a deceptive or unfair advertisement, campaign, or claim.

C

Marketing Management

Census

It is the collection, compiling, and dissemination of demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to people living within a defined space at a specified time.

C

Marketing Management

Census Block

Usually a well-defined rectangular area bounded by streets or roads. It may be irregular in shape and may be bounded by physical features such as railroads or streams. Census block do not cross boundaries of countries, tracts, or block numbering areas.

C

Marketing Management

Census Tract

A census tract is a small statistical subdivision of a county. Census tract data identifies population and housing statistics about a specific part of an urban area.

Page 46 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Centers of influence

Customers, prospective customers, or opinion leaders whose opinions and actions are respected by others.

C

Marketing Management

Chain break

A pause for station identification, and commercials, during a network telecast.

C

Marketing Management

Chain Discount

A series of trade discount percentages or their total. For example, if a list price is $100 and carries a 40-10-10 discount to dealers, the total or chain discount is $56.65 (i.e., $100-40% = $60, $60-10% = $54, $54-10% - $49.60).

C

Marketing Management

Chain Store

A store that is a single unit of a larger retail system.

C

Marketing Management

Chain Store System

A groups of retail stores of essentially the same type, centrally owned and with some degree of centralized control of operation.

C

Marketing Management

Channel

Any medium through which an encoded message is sent to a receiver, including oral communication, print media, television, and the Internet.

C

Marketing Management

Channel Conflict

Different distribution channel members (e.g. manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers) sometimes fight for the same customer, market control and most of the channel profit. Conflict can occur when a firm uses multiple distribution channels by dealing directly with customers as well as going through intermediaries like distributors.

Page 47 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Channels

The methods used by a company to communicate and interact with its customers.

C

Marketing Management

Channels of distribution

The routes used by a company to distribute its products, e.g., through wholesalers, retailers, mail order, etc.

C

Marketing Management

Chartered Marketer

A marketing professional who has achieved 'individual Chartered Status' awarded by the Chartered Institute of Marketing.

C

Marketing Management

Cherry Picking

The practice of selecting only a few items from a vendor's line of products and other products from a different product line, failing to purchase a complete line or classification of merchandise from a single vendor.

C

Marketing Management

Child Protection Act

This act states that toys and other children's articles that contain hazardous substances are illegal to manufacture and distribute.

C

Marketing Management

Chromalin proof

Chromalins are film proofs made using the DuPont system of mixing coloured dye powders to approximate PMS colours, putting them into solution and applying them to a carrier sheet. The film controls where the image areas will appear. CMYK dyes are used when four-colour proofs are needed. Chromalin proofs are the most expensive off-press proofing system discussed here.

C

Marketing Management

Chrome

A color photographic transparency.

Page 48 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

CIM Training

CIM Training are the Training Arm of The Chartered Institute of Marketing - to train marketing and sales professionals

C

Marketing Management

Cinema advertising

Advertising in movie theaters.

C

Marketing Management

Circulation

A statistical measure of a print medium's audience; includes subscription and vendor sales and primary and secondary readership.

C

Marketing Management

Classic Merchandise The merchandise that is not influenced by style changes for which a demand virtually always exists.

C

Marketing Management

Classical Conditioning

Also called "pavlovian conditioning" and "respondent conditioning", is a type of learning caused by the association (or pairing) of two stimuli.

C

Marketing Management

Classified ads

Small advertisements in newspapers or magazines, divided into categories.

C

Marketing Management

Classifieds

Classified advertising is a form of advertising which is particulalry common in newspapers and other periodicals.

Page 49 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Claymation

An animation method that uses clay figurines.

C

Marketing Management

Clayton Act

A federal law which is an amendment to the Sherman Act dealing with antitrust regulations and unfair trade practices where business activity may substantially lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly.

C

Marketing Management

Clearance

The process by which a vehicle reviews an advertisement for legal, ethical, and taste standards, before accepting the ad for publication.

C

Marketing Management

Clearance Sale

An end-of-season sale initiated to make room for new goods. It is also used to accelerate the sale of slow-moving goods or demonstration models.

C

Marketing Management

Clearing House

The central processing location where coupons or other sales promotion offers are collected, reviewed, and sorted for payment or fulfillment.

C

Marketing Management

Click fraud

A form of theft perpetrated against advertisers who are paying per click for traffic, in which fraudsters may use automated means to click on your ads from spoofed IP addresses over random periods of time.

C

Marketing Management

Clicks

Each time a visitor clicks on our web site.

Page 50 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Click-Stream

The order of pages that people are visiting on a web site. It is used to indicate inform future design, identifying which elements of a site are effective, and which are not.

C

Marketing Management

Click-through

The act of a user clicking on an internet advertisement that opens a link to the advertiser's website.

C

Marketing Management

Click-Through-Rate

The number of click-throughs per online advertising impression, expressed as a percentage or exposure (often unique visitors to a page or page views). A click on a link that leads to another website.

C

Marketing Management

Click-Tracking

The use of scripts in order to track inbound and outbound links

C

Marketing Management

Client

The ad agency's term for the advertisers it represents.

C

Marketing Management

Cloaking

One of the most popular black hat methods, in which the visitor to the site is shown a page optimized to their search request, while the search engine spiders see a completely different set of pages designed to rank well.

C

Marketing Management

Closing A Sale

When the customer agrees to buy and undertakes to pay (e.g. signs an order form). Arguably, it is the most difficult part of selling.

Page 51 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Closing date

The date when all ad materials are due at a publication for a specific issue.

C

Marketing Management

Cluster Analysis

Statistical techniques concerned with the development of natural groupings of objects based on the relationships of the variables describing the objects.

C

Marketing Management

Clustering

A statistical method of forming natural groupings in which a number of important characteristics of a large diverse group are identified in order to define target markets. In demographics, clustering refers to the gathering of various populations based on ethnicity, economics or religion.

C

Marketing Management

Clutter

When an advertisement is surrounded by other ads, thereby forcing it to compete for the viewer's or listener's attention.

C

Marketing Management

Coated stock

Paper with a slick and smooth finish.

C

Marketing Management

Cognition

Knowing, awareness, perception.

C

Marketing Management

Cognitive dissonance uncertainty about whether the purchase should have been made. Post-purchase promotion (particularly advertising) has a role

Cognitive dissonance is an customer effect commonly observed after a major purchase whereby the customer feels to play to reduce the incidence and effect of cognitive dissonance.

Page 52 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Cognitive theory

Cognitive psychologist tend to see second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge systems that can eventually be called on automatically for speaking and understanding. At first, learners have to pay attention to any aspect of the language which they are trying to understand or produce.

C

Marketing Management

Cohort

A group or band of people or a generational group as defined in demographics, statistics, or market research.

C

Marketing Management

Coincidental survey

A survey of viewers or listeners of broadcast programming, conducted during the program.

C

Marketing Management

Cold type

Refers to most modern typesetting methods, such as phototypesetting, because they do not involve pouring hot molten metal into molds for different type fonts.

C

Marketing Management

Collaborative Selling

A sales technique that utilizes relationship building.

C

Marketing Management

Collateral material

Printed information on a product, service or company including brochures, flyers, sales literature and other image pieces.

C

Marketing Management

Collectibles

A type of premium that consumers may desire to have as a part of a greater collection of similar goods.

Page 53 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Collusion

A secret agreement between two or more parties for a fraudulent, illegal, or deceitful purpose.

C

Marketing Management

Color proof

An early full-color print of a finished advertisement, used to evaluate the ad's final appearance.

C

Marketing Management

Color separation

A full-color ad normally is generated through printing of four separate colors: yellow, cyan, magenta, and black. The color separation consists of four separate screens; one for each of those four colors.

C

Marketing Management

Column inch

A common unit of measure by newspapers, whereby ad space is purchased by the width, in columns, and the depth, in inches. For example, an ad that is three standard columns wide and 5 inches tall (or deep) would be 15 column inches.

C

Marketing Management

Combination brand

A combination brand name brings together a family brand name and an individual brand name. The idea here is to provide some association for the product with a strong family brand name but maintaining some distinctiveness so that customers know what they are getting.

C

Marketing Management

Combination rate

A special media pricing arrangement that involves purchasing space or time on more than one vehicle, in a package deal. This is frequently offered where different vehicles share a common owner.

C

Marketing Management

Comment Tag

A tag in HTML that is invisible unless viewed through the source code.

Page 54 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Commercial advertising

Advertising that involves commercial interests rather than advocating a social or political cause.

C

Marketing Management

Commercialization

The last stage in the development cycle for a new product. It is commonly thought to begin when the product is introduced into the marketplace, but actually starts when a management commits to marketing the item.

C

Marketing Management

Commission

The compensation paid to salespeople based on a fixed formula related to the salesperson's activity or performance.

C

Marketing Management

Communication

The activity of conveying information.

C

Marketing Management

Communication media

The nature of the communications medium has a direct impact on the extent and quality of dialogue between instructors and learners. Learning in a one-way television programme, for example, students can make internal (silent) responses only. Correspondence by mail allows two-way interaction - even slow and less spontaneous, but perhaps more thoughtful and reflective.

C

Marketing Management

Communication process

A description or explanation of the chain-of-events involved in communicating information from one party to another.

C

Marketing Management

Communications mix Advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity, public relations and direct marketing.

Page 55 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

It is the analysis of a set of people. Such analyses enable librarians to know the needs of patrons and hopefully provide better services to them. In a city library district, the set of relevant people would be all those who live in the city or those people elegible to use the library. Analysis may also be restricted to a subset of elegible library users.

C

Marketing Management

Community Analysis

C

Marketing Management

The function of establishing rapport with the community and raising and maintaining the organisation's broad public profile. Includes marketing, advertising, media liaison, exhibitions, celebrations, ceremonies, speeches, official representation at Community Relations functions and participation in community activities. Also includes relationships with professional bodies and industry, the management of customer services, handling reactions to those services, customer consultation and feedback.

C

Marketing Management

Company Specific Training

Training programmes specially tailored to meet company requirements for groups of 6 or more people from the same company

C

Marketing Management

Comparative advertising

The type of advertising that compares two or more brands on the basis of one or more product attributes.

C

Marketing Management

Competition

Rivalry. Similar businesses providing products or services to your potential customers. The rivalry among sellers trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share and sales volume by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product, distribution and promotion.

C

Marketing Management

Competition-oriented A pricing strategy that is based upon what the competition does. pricing

C

Marketing Management

Competitive advantage

A competitive advantage is a clear performance differential over the competition on factors that are important to customers.

Page 56 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Competitive Analysis

The analysis of factors that determines how well is a firm doing compared to its competitors. Factors may include: price, product, technical capabilities, quality, customer service, delivery, and other important elements.

C

Marketing Management

Competitive Intelligence

The activity of researching and conveying information about a competitor for purposes of strategic positioning or maneuvering.

C

Marketing Management

Competitive parity

A method of determining an advertising budget, designed to maintain the current "share of voice."

C

Marketing Management

Competitive Position The position of one business relative to others in the same industry.

C

Marketing Management

Competitor benchmarking

Competitor benchmarking compares customer satisfaction with the products, services and relationships of the business with those of key competitors.

C

Marketing Management

Competitors

Companies that sell products or services in the same market place as one another

C

Marketing Management

Complementary Products

The products that are manufactured together, sold together, bought together, or used together. One aids or enhances the other.

Page 57 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Comprehensive layout

A rough layout of an ad designed for presentation only, but so detailed as to appear very much like the finished ad will look.

C

Marketing Management

Concept

A briefly stated idea or theme for possible use as the organizing idea for an advertisement or marketing campaign.

C

Marketing Management

Concept Test

A qualitative or quantitative examination of consumer reactions to a proposed advertising idea.

C

Marketing Management

Confirmation

Refers to a situation in which a product performs exactly as it was expected to. Also, a written or electronic acknowledgement of a transaction.

C

Marketing Management

Confusion Marketing market, where pricing plans can be so complicated that it becomes impossible to make direct comparisons between competing

C

Marketing Management

Conjoint Analysis

Measures the individual as well as joint effects of a set of variables (Bradley); helps to identify the best combination of, say, product benefits to present to a target market. Conjoint analysis allows different combinations of prices, features, benefits and brand names to be evaluated so that the marketers can identify the best marketing mix for any particular segment.

C

Marketing Management

Consent order

Also called a consent decree, this is a Federal Trade Commission order, by which an advertiser agrees to make changes in an advertisement or campaign, without the need for a legal hearing.

Controversial strategy of deliberately confusing the customer. Examples are alleged to be found in the telecommunications offers

Page 58 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Consignment

A method of selling whereby a manufacturer or owner provides an intermediary with the merchandise while retaining title to the goods. The intermediary is free to sell the product and to pay only for goods actually sold.

C

Marketing Management

Consolidated Buying

A type of central market representation in which the authority and responsibility for product/service selection and purchase rest with a central office, rather than in the individual store units.

C

Marketing Management

Consolidation

Small shipments combined into a larger shipment to reduce transportation expenditures or the joining of two or more independent business firms into a new organization.

C

Marketing Management

Consolidator

A person or firm who provides the service of combining small shipments into larger ones, reducing overall transportation expense.

C

Marketing Management

Conspicuous Consumption

A term implying utilization for the sake of displaying to others wealth, power, or prestige.

C

Marketing Management

Constant Dollar Method

The adjustment of dollar values, by purchasing power, in order to eliminate or allow for the effects of price changes over time.

C

Marketing Management

Consultative Selling

A customized sales approach in which the salesperson is viewed as an expert and serves as a consultant to the prospect or customer. The salesperson identifies the prospects' needs and recommends the best solution - even if it means recommending a differen

Page 59 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer

C

Marketing Management

Consumer advertising Advertising directed at a person who will actually use the product for his or her own benefit, rather than to a business or dealer.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer behavior

Study of how people behave when obtaining, using, and disposing of products (and services).

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Bill of Rights

President John F. Kennedy's directive to the Consumer Advisory Council in 1962, setting forth the federal government's role in consumerism, aiding consumers to exercise their rights to safety, information, choice, and advocacy.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer buyers

Consumer buyers are those who purchase items for their personal consumption.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Characteristics

The demographic, lifestyle and personality characteristics of the consumer.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Choice Model

A model attempting to represent how consumers use and combine information about alternatives in order to make choices.

The end user of a product or service. Not always the buyer.

Page 60 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Credit

Credit used by individuals or families for the satisfaction of their own wants.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Credit Protection Act

Also known as the Truth-in-Lending Act, requires full disclosure of terms and conditions of finance charges, and restricts the garnishment of wages.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer decision making process

The series of steps a consumer goes through in deciding to make a purchase.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer durables

Consumer durables have low volume but high unit value. Consumer durables are often further divided into White goods (e.g. fridge-freezers; cookers; dishwashers; microwaves) and Brown goods (e.g. DVD players; games consoles; personal computers).

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Education

Formalized teaching efforts to provide consumers with skills and knowledge to allocate their resources wisely in the marketplace. Additionally, to have full knowledge of issues associated with specific products or services, trends, and issues.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Information

Policies aimed at providing consumers with marketplace information and fostering effective utilization leading to improved consumer choice.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer jury test

A method of testing advertisements that involves asking consumers to compare, rank, and otherwise evaluate the ads.

Page 61 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer markets

Consumer markets are the markets for products and services bought by individuals for their own or family use.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Price Index

A statistical measure maintained by the U.S. government that shows the trend of prices of products and services purchased by consumers.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Product Safety Act

This act established the Consumer Product Safety Commission and transferred a variety of product safety functions previously assigned to other agencies to this commission.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Protection

The body of federal, state, and local government legislation designed to assure safety, purity, quality, and efficacy of many products and services and the reliability of statements in advertising about them.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer Satisfaction

The degree to which a consumer's expectations are fulfilled or surpassed by a product.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer stimulants

Promotional efforts designed to stimulate short-term purchasing behavior. Coupons, premiums, and samples are examples of consumer stimulants.

C

Marketing Management

Consumer

An individual who buys and uses a product or service.

Page 62 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Consumerism

Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption.

C

Marketing Management

Consumption

The direct and final use of goods or services in satisfying an individual‘s wants.

C

Marketing Management

Container premium

Special product packaging, where the package itself acts as a premium of value to the consumer.

C

Marketing Management

Content cloaking

A sort of bait-and-switch tactic in which Web pages are designed with codes, keywords, and other verbiage that are hidden to general users and visible only to search engines; in other words, the site visitor sees one page, and the search engine spider views something else. Most engines penalize or ban sites that practice content cloaking.

C

Marketing Management

Content Validity

The ability of the items in a measuring instrument or test to adequately measure or represent the content of the property that the investigator wishes to measure.

C

Marketing Management

Contest

A consumer sales promotion technique requiring the participant to use specific skills or abilities to solve or complete a problem in order to qualify for an award.

C

Marketing Management

Contextual Advertising

Online advertising that appears next to related non-search-engine-generated content, such as news articles.

Page 63 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Contingency Planning

The development of a management plan that uses alternative strategies to ensure project success if specified risk events occur.

C

Marketing Management

Contingency Plans

Alternative plans prepared in case things do not go according to the main marketing plan.

C

Marketing Management

Continuity

Scheduling advertisements to appear at regular intervals over a period of time.

C

Marketing Management

Continuity Program

Any type of consumer sales promotion technique that encourages customers to purchase products on a continuing basis or over time. Some examples include: frequent flyer miles, points, coupons, etc.

C

Marketing Management

Continuous advertising

Scheduling advertisements to appear regularly, even during times when consumers are not likely to purchase the product or service, so that consumers are constantly reminded of the brand.

C

Marketing Management

Continuous market research

Continuous research involves interviewing the same sample of people, repeatedly.

C

Marketing Management

Continuous tone art

Where a photograph or other art depicts smooth gradations from one level of gray to another.

Page 64 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Contract

The agreement between two or more people that creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Its essentials are competent parties, subject matter, legal consideration, mutuality of agreement, and mutuality of obligation.

C

Marketing Management

Contribution

Contribution per unit can be defined as selling price less variable costs. Overall contribution is the difference between total sales revenues and variable costs.

C

Marketing Management

Control Group

A group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to any of the experimental treatments or alternatives.

C

Marketing Management

Controlled (qualified) Publications, generally business-oriented, that are delivered only to readers who have some special qualifications. Generally, publications are free to the qualified recipients. circulation

C

Marketing Management

Convenience Product

C

Marketing Management

Convenience Sample A nonprobability sample of individuals who just happen to be where the study is being conducted when it is being conducted.

C

Marketing Management

Convergence

A consumer good and/or service (such as soap, candy bar, and shoe shine) that is bought frequently, often on impulse, with little time effort spent on the buying process. A convenience product usually is low-priced and is widely available.

A marketing strategy that relies on the merging of two or more techniques, such as online and offline strategies.

Page 65 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Convergent Validity

The general agreement among ratings, gathered independently of one another, where measures should be theoretically related.

C

Marketing Management

Conversion Rate

1) The percentage of a specified audience that takes a desired action such as responding to a direct mail campaign or making a purchase. 2) Percentage of visitors to a Web site that make a purchase or perform a pre-determined task, such as signing up for a newsletter or registering to receive additional information.

C

Marketing Management

Cookie

Small data file downloaded on to an end-user‘s computer which allows a web site to identify the visitor. Cookies can be used to build profiles of repeat users of a website.

C

Marketing Management

Cooperative (Co-op) program

A system by which ad costs are divided between two or more parties. Usually, such programs are offered by manufacturers to their wholesalers or retailers, as a means of encouraging those parties to advertise the product.

C

Marketing Management

Cooperative advertising

Advertising paid for by both the national (brand name) and the local advertiser. Also, advertising in which several normally competing firms get together to do a common selling job.

C

Marketing Management

Cooperative Marketing

The process by which independent producers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers, or combinations of them act collectively in buying or selling or both.

C

Marketing Management

Copy

The words that make up the headline and message of an advertisement or commercial.

Page 66 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Copy platform

See Creative Strategy , below.

C

Marketing Management

Copy testing

Research to determine an ad's effectiveness, based on consumer responses to the ad.

C

Marketing Management

Copyright

The law that protects an author's original material, usually (in the UK) for 70 years after the author's death. Similar law covers logos and brand names

C

Marketing Management

Copywriter

A copywriter is a person who writes text, or copy, for clients. Most copywriters work in advertising or marketing, producing copy that's intended to persuade a reader to buy a product or service or otherwise take action.

C

Marketing Management

Copywriting

Creative process by which written content is prepared for advertisements or marketing material

C

Marketing Management

Core product

The set of problem-solving or need-meeting benefits that customers are buying when they purchase a product. Customers are rarely prepared to pay a premium for these elements of a product.

C

Marketing Management

Corporate advertising Building the image of a responsible corporate entity, attracting good talent and reinforcing the corporate mission.

Page 67 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Corporate advertising A campaign that promotes a corporation, rather than a product or service sold by that corporation. campaign

C

Marketing Management

Corporate Culture

The patterns and norms that govern the behavior of a corporation and its employees, particularly shared values, beliefs, and customs.

C

Marketing Management

Corporate identity

A company's name, logo, typeface, colors, slogan, etc., are elements that help comprise its corporate identity. Motto Advertising has produced effective corporate identity packages for many new and long-established organizations.

C

Marketing Management

Corporate Relations

The use of communication and public relations techniques to build favorable attitudes toward a particular company with competitors, consumers, the financial community, stockholders, and other publics.

C

Marketing Management

Corporate Reputation Corporate reputation hinges on investor confidence, unlike brand reputation which is contingent on customer confidence and

A complex mix of characteristics, such as ethos, identity and image, that go to make up a company's public personality. reflected in sales. See also 'corporate identity'

C

Marketing Management

Corporate Strategy

Setting down of long term plans of development in a methodical manner, based upon all the available facts, in relating them to the ultimate goals of a company and the ways it intends to achieve them. Time scales vary from three to ten years (even more in certain industries). Fundamental to the preparation of a corporate plan is the need to define exactly the area of business in which to be operative. A second requirement is that any such plan must be flexible, subject to regular updating as events move to change the criteria upon which it is based.

C

Marketing Management

Corrective advertising

Advertisements or messages within advertisements that the Federal Trade Commission orders a company to run, for the purpose of correcting consumers' mistaken impressions created by prior advertising.

Page 68 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

C

Marketing Management

C

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Correlation

A statistical relationship between variables such as sales of ice cream and the weather.

Correlation Analysis

A statistical technique used to measure the closeness of the linear relationship between two or more intervally scaled variables. The purpose of correlation analysis is to measure the strength of the relationship between two variables. The correlation coefficient cannot be greater than 1 or less than -1. As defined, correlation is a number between +1 and -1 that reflects the degree to which two variables have a linear relationship.

C

Marketing Management

Cost Analysis

A sales management evaluation and control method for monitoring sales force performance. A cost analysis involves monitoring selling costs across individual salespeople, districts, products, and customer types. When combined with the data from a sales ana

C

Marketing Management

Cost Center

A division, department, or subdivision or any other unit of activity into which a business is divided for cost assignment and allocation.

C

Marketing Management

Cost efficiency

For a media schedule, refers to the relative balance of effectively meeting reach and frequency goals at the lowest price.

C

Marketing Management

Cost leadership

A strategy of producing goods at a lower cost than the competition. This usually requires the business to enjoy higher economies of scale or have some kind of productivity advantage.

C

Marketing Management

Cost per Acquisition/Action (CPA)

Online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying actions such as sales or registrations.

Page 69 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Cost per Click (CPC) A specific type of cost-per-action program where advertisers pay for each time a user clicks on an ad or link.

C

Marketing Management

Cost per inquiry

The cost of getting one person to inquire about your product or service. This is a standard used in direct response advertising.

C

Marketing Management

Cost per rating point (CPP)

The cost, per one percent of a specified audience, of buying advertising space in a given media vehicle.

C

Marketing Management

Cost per thousand (CPT)

This is a standard measurement used for determining the cost effectiveness for a specific medium. It compares the cost of the advertisement to the number of impressions to your target audience.

C

Marketing Management

Cost Plus

A common method of setting price is to estimate the costs of a product and add a percentage to achieve a certain margin of profit. This is known as Cost-plus Pricing, and there are several problems with it. Most companies don't actually know what their real costs are product by product. As the volume of production, distribution and selling activity increases, costs change. Even then, what percentage should be added to set a price ? 10% ? 20% ? 50% ?

C

Marketing Management

Cost Plus Pricing

A method of determining the price of a product or service that uses direct costs, indirect costs, and fixed costs. These costs are converted to per unit costs for the product and then a predetermined percentage is added to provide a profit margin.

C

Marketing Management

Cost-Per-Action

Where you pay for a specified action such as a purchase.

Page 70 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Cost-Per-Click

A specific type of cost-per-action program where advertisers pay each time a user clicks on an ad or a web link.

C

Marketing Management

Counter

A program or script that counts hits/visits to a page.

C

Marketing Management

Counter advertising

Advertising that takes a position contrary to an advertising message that preceded it. Such advertising may be used to take an opposing position on a controversial topic, or to counter an impression that might be made by another party's advertising.

C

Marketing Management

Coupon Redemption The use of a seller's value certificate at the time of purchase to obtain a lower price than normal.

C

Marketing Management

Coverage

A measure of a media vehicle's reach, within a specific geographic area.

C

Marketing Management

CPM

Stands for Cost-Per-Thousand. It is the cost of using the media vehicle to reach 1,000 people or households.

C

Marketing Management

Crawler

A component of a search engine that explores web site content and indexes relevant information such as keywords and links.

Page 71 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Creative director

Creative Director is a job usually found within the advertising, media or entertainment industries. The job entails overlooking the design of branding for a client and ensuring that the new branding fits in with the clients requirements and the image they wish to promote for their company or product.

C

Marketing Management

Creative Process

The cognitive process of generating ideas, usually for promotional purposes.

C

Marketing Management

Creative strategy

An outline of what message should be conveyed, to whom, and with what tone. This provides the guiding principles for copywriters and art directors who are assigned to develop the advertisement. Within the context of that assignment, any ad that is then created should conform to that strategy. The written statement of creative strategy is sometimes called a "copy platform."

C

Marketing Management

Creative Strategy

An outline of the targeted messages that will provide the guiding principles for the development of marketing materials.

C

Marketing Management

Creatives

The art directors and copywriters in an ad agency.

C

Marketing Management

Credence Qualities

Credence values' are those values that are hard to evaluate even after the service. Even with experience, performance may still be difficult to measure. How do you know if your car service, face lift, or rewiring is of high quality? These are 'credence qualities' - features that are hard to evaluate even after the event. These often abstract variables make buying services more risky.

C

Marketing Management

Crisis Management

An attempt by an organization to reduce, minimize, or control the impact of a negative event through various communication techniques.

Page 72 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

CRM

Also referred to as customer relationship management, CRM is an information industry term for methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage customer relationships in an organized way.

C

Marketing Management

Crop

To eliminate or cut off specific portions of a photograph or illustration.

C

Marketing Management

Crop marks

Marks to indicate which portions a photograph or illustration are to be used, and which are to be eliminated.

C

Marketing Management

Cross Linking

Multiple sites linking to each other.

C

Marketing Management

Cross promotion

A technique in which marketing partners share the cost of a promotional campaign that meets their mutual needs.

C

Marketing Management

Cross Selling

A consumer sales promotion technique in which the manufacturer or retailer attempts to sell the consumer products related to a product the consumer already uses or which the marketer has available.

C

Marketing Management

Cross Tabulation

A count of the number of cases that fall into each of several categories when the categories are based on two or more variables being simultaneously considered.

Page 73 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Cross-selling

Using a customer‘s buying history to select them for related offers, e.g. a car alarm for new car buyers.

C

Marketing Management

Culture

The philosophy of a company, reflected in aims such as the maximisation of customer satisfaction

C

Marketing Management

Cume persons

The total number of different persons who listen to a Radio station during a daypart for at least five consecutive minutes.

C

Marketing Management

Cume rating

The Cume Persons audience expressed as a percentage of all persons estimated to be in the specified demographic group. Formula: Cume Persons divided by the population x 100 = Cume Rating (%)

C

Marketing Management

Cumes

An abbreviation for net cumulative audience. Refers to the number of unduplicated people or homes in a broadcast program's audience within a specified time period. This term is used by A.C. Nielsen. It also is used by many advertising practitioners to refer to the unduplicated audience of a print vehicle, or an entire media schedule.

C

Marketing Management

Customer

A person or company who purchases goods or services (not necessarily the end ?consumer?)

C

Marketing Management

Customer Defection

When a customer no longer purchases your product or service, rather he/she purchases the product or service of a competitor.

Page 74 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Customer demand

Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)

The profitability of customers during the lifetime of the relationship, as opposed to profitability on one transaction.

C

Marketing Management

Customer loyalty

Feelings or attitudes that incline a customer either to return to a company, shop or outlet to purchase there again, or else to repurchase a particular product, service or brand.

C

Marketing Management

Customer need

A need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

The coherent management of contacts and interactions with customers. (This term is often used as if it related purely to the use of IT, but IT should in fact be regarded as a facilitator of CRM.)

C

Marketing Management

Customer satisfaction

The provision of goods or services which fulfil the customer‘s expectations in terms of quality and service, in relation to price paid.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Segment

A group of customers who share similar characteristics and are differentiated from other customer groups by qualities that are unique.

Page 75 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

C

Marketing Management

Customer Service Programme

Strategy for assuring customers a positive buying experience in order to improve customer loyalty, increase cross-selling and promote advertising by word-of-mouth. See also 'customer satisfaction'

C

Marketing Management

Customer Service

Full range of activities utilized by a company for delivery of customer communications and responding to requests, inquiries, and complaints.

C

Marketing Management

Customer wants

A want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy the underlying need.

C

Marketing Management

Customization

Tailoring a product or service to the unique needs of a customer. Each buyer is a unique segment requiring its own product.

C

Marketing Management

Cut

An antiquated term that refers to a photograph or illustration.

C

Marketing Management

Cutting

A film editing technique that creates a quick transition from one scene to another.

C

Marketing Management

Cyber-stealth marketing

Covert attempts using the internet to boost brand image, to make websites appear more popular than they are or to manipulate search engine listings.

Page 76 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

DAGMAR

Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Response - a model for planning advertising in such a way that its success can be quantitatively monitored

D

Marketing Management

Dailies

Also called rushes , this refers to unedited film. These are called Dailies because the film typically is viewed from a single day's shooting, even if the final commercial or program will take many days or weeks of shooting.

D

Marketing Management

Damaged Goods

Products that have been compromised in some way and do not function properly. Damage may be caused during the production, shipping, storage, or distribution.

D

Marketing Management

Dashboard

A monitoring tool that sits on a desktop computer and displays the status of varying metrics. The result is a snapshot of performance as well as comparison against an established baseline.

D

Marketing Management

Data Cleansing

The process of improving the quality of data by modifying its form or content, removing or correcting data values that are incorrect.

D

Marketing Management

Data mining

The process of searching through customer information files to detect patterns that guide marketing decision-making.

D

Marketing Management

Data Processing

The obtaining, recording and holding of information which can then be retrieved, used, disseminated or erased. The term tends to be used in connection with computer systems, and today is often used interchangeably with 'Information Technology'.

Page 77 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Data Protection Act

A law which makes organisations responsible for protecting the privacy of personal data. The current act (Data Protection Act 1998) is the United Kingdom's response to the requirement to implement National legislation in accordance with the European Directive 95/46/EC.

D

Marketing Management

Database

A compilation of information on current and prospective customers that generally includes demographic and psychographic data as well as purchase history.

D

Marketing Management

Database Marketing

Whereby customer information, stored in an electronic database, is utilised for targeting marketing activities. Information can be a mixture of what is gleaned from previous interactions with the customer and what is available from outside sources. See also 'CRM - Customer Relationship Management'

D

Marketing Management

Day-after recall test

A research method that tests consumers' memories the day after they have seen an ad, to assess the ad's effectiveness.

D

Marketing Management

Daypart

Broadcast media divide the day into several standard time periods, each of which is called a "daypart." Cost of purchasing advertising time on a vehicle varies by the daypart selected.

D

Marketing Management

Dead Link

A link that produces a 404 error, page not found.

D

Marketing Management

Deadlines

Schedules and delivery dates/times.

Page 78 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Decay constant

An estimate of the decline in product sales if advertising were discontinued.

D

Marketing Management

Decentralized Management

The practice of delegating decision-making authority to lower levels of management or non-managers authorized to make decisions.

D

Marketing Management

Deceptive advertising A representation, omission, act or practice that is likely to mislead consumers acting reasonably under the circumstances.

D

Marketing Management

Decision Maker

D

Marketing Management

Decision Making Unit The team of people in an organisation who make the final buying decision (DMU)

D

Marketing Management

Decision Support System

A decision support system (marketing definition) is a systematic collection of data, techniques and supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and the environment and turns it into a basis for making management decisions. A DSS differs from a management information system in that it is designed to answer precise questions and what/if questions.

D

Marketing Management

Decline stage

The fourth and final stage in the product life cycle, when falling sales and profits persist.

The individual or body of individuals who have the authority to make a ―yes‖ and/or ―no‖ decision.

Page 79 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Decoding

The interpretation of a message by the receiver.

D

Marketing Management

Deep Linking

Connecting to a web page other than a site's home page.

D

Marketing Management

Deep submitting

Submitting all of your Website's URLs- in other words, every single page of your site- to a search engine. Most search engines forbid this practice.

D

Marketing Management

Deferred Billing

An invoicing method that enables customers to buy merchandise and not pay for a specific time period (e.g. 30 days), with no interest charge.

D

Marketing Management

Deflation

A contraction in the volume of available money or credit that results in a general decline in prices.

D

Marketing Management

Delegate

A participant at a professional training course, workshop or seminar

D

Marketing Management

De-listing/Deindexing

If search engines detect that you are using unscrupulous methods to get your site ranked, or if they regards your site as "spammy", then they will remove your site from their index and it will no longer appear when users search for it.

Page 80 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Delivery Period

The normal time between the placing of an order and the receipt of the product, service, or stock.

D

Marketing Management

Delphi Technique

The Delphi method is a technique aimed at building an agreement, or consensus about an opinion or view, without necessarily having people meet face to face, such as through surveys, questionaires, emails etc. This technique, if used effectively, can be highly efficient and generate new knowledge.

D

Marketing Management

Demand

A schedule of the amounts that buyers would be willing to purchase at a corresponding schedule of prices, in a given market at a given time.

D

Marketing Management

Demand Analysis

A study of the reasons underlying the demand for a product with the intent of forecasting and anticipating sales.

D

Marketing Management

Demand and Supply

Demand is the desire for a product at the market price: supply is the quantity available at that price.

D

Marketing Management

Demand Creation

The use of price reductions or other incentives to create or increase immediate sales response for a product or service among consumers or resellers.

D

Marketing Management

Demarketing

The process of reducing the demand for a product--or decreasing consumption.

Page 81 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Demographic Data

Information describing and segmenting a population in terms of age, sex, income and so on, which can be used to target marketing campaigns.

D

Marketing Management

Demographic segmentation

A method of dividing markets based on vaiables, such as age, ethnic background, gender and income.

D

Marketing Management

Demographics

The statistical characteristics of the population.

D

Marketing Management

Departmentalizing

The process of classifying merchandise into sub-groups known as departments.

D

Marketing Management

Depression

A phase of the business cycle characterized by a rapid decline in gross national product and employment.

D

Marketing Management

Depth interview

A lengthy, one-to-one structured interview, examining in detail a consumer's views about a product.

D

Marketing Management

Descriptive Labeling

The use of information on labels (e.g. ingredients).

Page 82 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Descriptive Research A research design in which the major emphasis is on determining the frequency with which something occurs.

D

Marketing Management

Designated market areas (DMA)

The geographical areas in which TV stations attract most of their viewers.

D

Marketing Management

Desire

A consumer‘s longing for goods or services and the third step in the AIDA model (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action).

D

Marketing Management

Desk Research

Checks secondary sources before carrying out the more expensive primary research.

D

Marketing Management

Destination Merchandise

A type of merchandise that motivates or triggers a trip to a specific store.

D

Marketing Management

Detailing

The personal sampling and other promotional work among doctors, dentists, and other professional persons relating primarily to pharmaceuticals, in order to secure distribution of a particular product.

D

Marketing Management

Differential Advantage

Is an advantage which (a) customers perceive and want (b) competition does not have.

Page 83 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Differentiation

A marketing strategy aimed at ensuring that products and services have a unique element to allow them to stand out from the rest.

D

Marketing Management

Diffusion Model

A model representing the contagion or spread of something through a population. Mathematical formulations to predict spread/growth.

D

Marketing Management

Diffusion of Innovation

a concept suggesting that customers first enter a market at different times, depending on their attitude to innovation and new products, and their willingness to take risks. Customers can thus be classified as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards.

D

Marketing Management

Diminishing Return

A law stating that if one factor of production is increased while the others remain the same, overall returns will relatively decrease after a certain point in time or quantity produced.

D

Marketing Management

DINKY

Double Income No Kids Yet - a demographic grouping

D

Marketing Management

Direct Advertising

A mass promotion issued from an advertiser by mail, email, television, salesperson, or other distribution method to individual customers or prospects.

D

Marketing Management

Direct Costs

Expenses incurred by and solely for a particular product, department, program, or sales territory. These costs may be fixed or variable.

Page 84 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Direct house

An advertising specialties company that manufactures and then sells its goods directly with its own sales force, rather than through retailers.

D

Marketing Management

Direct mail

The delivery of an advertising or promotional message to customers or potential customers by mail.

D

Marketing Management

Direct marketing

The planned recording, analysis and tracking of customer behaviour to develop a relational marketing strategies.

D

Marketing Management

Direct premium

A premium provided to the consumer at the same time as the purchase.

D

Marketing Management

Direct questioning

A method of pretesting designed to elicit a full range of responses to the advertising. It is especially effective for testing alternative advertisements in the early stages of development.

D

Marketing Management

Direct response

Promotions that permit or request consumers to directly respond to the advertiser, by mail, telephone, e-mail, or some other means of communication. Some practitioners use this as a synonym for Direct Marketing.

D

Marketing Management

Direct response advertising

An advertising message that asks the reader, listener, or viewer to provide feedback straight to the sender. Direct-response advertising can take the form of direct mail, or it can use a wide range of other media, from matchbook covers or magazines to radio, TV, or billboards.

Page 85 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Direct Selling

A marketing approach that involves the sale of goods and services to consumers through personal explanation and demonstrations, frequently in their home or place of work. Direct selling also refers to the practice of a manufacturer selling direct to the e

D

Marketing Management

Directory advertising

Advertising that appears in a directory (telephone directory, tourism brochure, etc.). This frequently connotes advertising that consumers intentionally seek.

D

Marketing Management

Directory

1) A systematically organized list of persons, businesses, organizations, or associations that provides addresses, affiliations, telephone numbers, and similar information. 2) A listing of categorized Web sites that can help improve the search engine standing of included sites.

D

Marketing Management

Disclaimer

A denial or disavowal of legal claim, removing liability of the issuing party.

D

Marketing Management

Discount

A reduction in price of a particular item or service.

D

Marketing Management

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

A method of estimating an investment's current value based on the discounting of projected future revenues and costs. The further into the future the flow occurs, the more heavily it will be discounted.

D

Marketing Management

Discretionary Income

The amount of annual income remaining in the hands of consumers after the payment of taxes and the purchase of necessities.

Page 86 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Discriminate Analysis

The science of determining significant differences, and the nature of these differences, between two or more subjects or groups. These subjects or groups are defined in terms of many variables.

D

Marketing Management

Disintermediation

Cutting out the middleman (for example, wholesalers and retail stores) and selling from the manufacturer directly to the customer.

D

Marketing Management

Display

A special exhibit of a product at the point of sale.

D

Marketing Management

Display advertising

Display advertising is a type of advertising in periodicals which can appear on the same page with, or a page adjacent to, general editorial content as opposed to classified advertising, which generally appears in a distinct section. It is also further differentiated from classified advertising in that it may, and most frequently does, contain graphic information beyond text such as logos, photographs or other pictures, location maps, and similar items.

D

Marketing Management

Display type

Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page which attracts attention of the reader.

D

Marketing Management

Disposable Income

An individual‘s or household‘s annual income less federal, state, and local taxes.

D

Marketing Management

Dissatisfaction

A lack of fulfillment which occurs when pre-purchase expectations are not met.

Page 87 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Dissolve

Fading from one scene to another in a film or television production.

D

Marketing Management

Distance Learning

study at home via CD-Rom and workbooks

D

Marketing Management

Distribution

The process of getting the goods from the manufacturer or supplier to the user.

D

Marketing Management

Distribution channel

The network of organisations necessary to distribute goods or services from the manufacturers to the consumers; the distribution channel therefore potentially consists of manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, and retailers.

D

Marketing Management

Distribution Penetration

Penetrating the distribution network to a certain level to ensure its availability to customers.

D

Marketing Management

Distributor

A company or person that distributes a manufacturer's goods to retailers. The terms "wholesaler" and "jobber" are sometimes used to describe distributors.

D

Marketing Management

Diversification

An increase in the variety of goods and services produced by an individual enterprise or conglomerate. It may be encouraged, either by business owners or by governments, in order to reduce the risk of relying on a narrow range of products.

Page 88 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Divest

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company can divest the SBU by phasing it out or selling it - in order to use the resources elsewhere (e.g. investing in the more promising "question marks").

D

Marketing Management

Dogs

A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Unsurprisingly, the term "dogs" refers to businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive, low-growth markets. Dogs may generate enough cash to break-even, but they are rarely, if ever, worth investing in.

D

Marketing Management

Domain Name

The name assigned to a particular web site (e.g. MarketingScoop.com).

D

Marketing Management

Donut

A recorded radio or television commercial distributed to local stations and having a blank central section to be filled with a local advertiser‘s message.

D

Marketing Management

Door-opener

A product or advertising specialty given by a sales person to consumers to induce them to listen to a sales pitch.

D

Marketing Management

Doorway Domain

A tool used to increase a Web site's position in search engine rankings. The doorway domain page is designed to score well on search engine processes, but the page itself takes users to the main domain when clicked.

D

Marketing Management

Doorway page

A Web page with content that's meaningful or visible only to the search engines; also called a bridge page or a gateway page.

Page 89 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Double truck

A two-page spread in a print publication, where the ad runs across the middle gutter.

D

Marketing Management

Downsizing

Reducing the total number of employees at a company through terminations, retirements, or spin-offs.

D

Marketing Management

DRIP Framework

Differentiate - Reinforce - Inform - Persuade.

D

Marketing Management

Drip Marketing

Promotional strategies that target an audience with promotional pieces many times over the life of a campaign

D

Marketing Management

Drive time

Used in radio, this refers to morning and afternoon times when consumers are driving to and from work. See Daypart , above.

D

Marketing Management

Drop Shipment

The physical sending of products direct from the supplier to the customer.

D

Marketing Management

Dubs

Duplicates of radio commercials made from the master tape and sent to stations for broadcast.

Page 90 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Dummy

A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp.

D

Marketing Management

Dumping

The practice of selling a product at a lower price overseas than domestically.

D

Marketing Management

Dupes

Copies of a finished television commercial that are delivered to the networks or TV stations for airing.

D

Marketing Management

Duplicated audience

That portion of an audience that is reached by more than one media vehicle.

D

Marketing Management

Durables

Consumer products can be categorised by perishability or durability. Consumer durables like TVs and fridges are very different from non-durables like soft drinks and detergents - fmcg's - fast moving consumer goods.

D

Marketing Management

Dwell Time

The amount of time a customer/user spends in time waiting in line.

D

Marketing Management

Dwelling Unit

A single home or other unit in which a cohesive set of individuals reside, and typically many good s are purchased in common.

Page 91 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

D

Marketing Management

Dynamic Content

A page using dynamic content will change that content depending on what search phrase is used. The pages use scripting languages such as PHP combined with a database to display a number of variables.

D

Marketing Management

Dynamic Page

A page that generates content ―on-the-fly‖ as a user requests the page.

E

Marketing Management

Early adopters

People who choose new products carefully and are often consulted by people from the remaining adopter categories.

E

Marketing Management

Early majority

People who adopt products just prior to the average person.

E

Marketing Management

Earned Income

The income resulting from work or services performed as compared to income from different sources such as investments or rent.

E

Marketing Management

Earned rate

A discounted media rate, based on volume or frequency of media placement.

E

Marketing Management

E-commerce or Emarketing

Marketing conducted electronically, usually over the Internet.

Page 92 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Economic Environment

Part of the macroenvironment encompassing wealth, income, productivity, inflation, credit, employment, etc. which affect the agency/library's markets and opportunities.

E

Marketing Management

Economic Value Added (EVA)

EVA is an estimate of true economic profit after making corrective adjustments to GAAP accounting, including deducting the opportunity cost of equity capital.

E

Marketing Management

Economics

The branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management.

E

Marketing Management

Economies of scale

The savings derived from producing a large number of units of a particular product.

E

Marketing Management

Economy Pack

A merchandising phrase pointing out savings by bundling several products as a single item in one package.

E

Marketing Management

EDI

An inter-company application-to-application exchange of business transactions in a standard data format. Often a computer-tocomputer transfer of information, usually orders, between or among retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers.

E

Marketing Management

Editing

The review and correction of written text.

Page 93 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Effective reach

The percentage of the target audience that is exposed to the advertising schedule a sufficient number of times to produce a positive change in awareness, attitude or purchasing action-- based on the concept that exposure below the effective frequency has little or no value.

E

Marketing Management

Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)

Having the right product in the right place at the right price with the right promotions. See also 'category management', with its emphasis on how products look to the customer - is seen as an integral part of achieving ECR.

E

Marketing Management

EFQM

The EFQM Excellence Model is a framework for organisational management systems, promoted by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and designed for helping organizations in their drive towards being more competitive.

E

Marketing Management

Ego

Based upon Freudian Theory, the ego is one aspect of the three parts of the personality. The ego is the executive, or the planner, compromising between the demands for immediate gratification of the id and the pristine rigidity of the superego (conscience

E

Marketing Management

Eighty-twenty rule

A rule-of-thumb that, for the typical product category, eighty percent of the products sold will be consumed by twenty percent of the customers.

E

Marketing Management

Elastic Demand

A situation in which a cut in price increases the quantity consumed in the market enough to increase the total revenue generated.

E

Marketing Management

Elastic Supply

A situation in which a percentage increase in price attracts a greater percentage of' products offered to the market.

Page 94 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Elasticity

E

Marketing Management

Elasticity Co-efficient A measure of the responsiveness of the quantity of a product consumed in a market to price changes.

E

Marketing Management

E-Learning

Interactive online tutorials, accessed via the internet or a company intranet

E

Marketing Management

Electric spectacular

Outdoor signs or billboards composed largely of lighting or other electrical components.

E

Marketing Management

Electronic Commerce electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or services, to place or receive orders, to provide or obtain (E-commerce) information, and to complete financial transactions.

E

Marketing Management

Electronic data interchange (EDI)

Computer-to-computer exchanges of invoices, orders, and other business documents.

E

Marketing Management

Electronic media

Any of the media used to publish information electronically (as opposed to print). Some examples are: presentation packages, annotated image catalogues, World Wide Web pages.

Price elasticity, or price sensitivity, suggests the sales changes in unit sales affected by changes in price.

Business transacted through electronic networks, generally over the internet. E-commerce activities generally involve the

Page 95 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

A system whereby electronic tills are used to process customer transactions in a retail outlet. Local EPOS systems are usually

E

Marketing Management

Electronic Point of connected to a central computer system, so that financial and inventory-related data can be exchanged between the store and Sale (EPOS) System head office, allowing automatic accounting and replenishment.

E

Marketing Management

Em

A unit of type measurement, based on the "M" character.

E

Marketing Management

eMail

A communication format that involves sending computer-based messages over telecommunication technology. E-mail can include a letter-style text message or more elaborate HTML messages. Users can also attach other files to the e-mail and transmit elements s

E

Marketing Management

E-marketing

General term for marketing conducted by electronic media, usually over the Internet or by e-mail.

E

Marketing Management

Embargo

The prohibition of shipment of goods or services to specified countries.

E

Marketing Management

Emotional Selling Preposition (ESP)

The unique associations established by consumers with particular products. For example, the emotional response to certain car marques ensures their continual success, even though other makers may offer superior performance at the same price.

E

Marketing Management

Emotional-Rational Dichotomy

The reasons for buying are sometimes split between emotional reasons and rational reasons.

Page 96 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Employee Discount

A percentage discount from retail price offered by merchandise retailers to employees. Retailers often grant a larger percentage discount on apparel that employees may be required to wear during working hours.

E

Marketing Management

Encoding

Translating an idea or message into words, symbols, and illustrations.

E

Marketing Management

End Cap

An exhibit of a product set up at the end of the aisle in a retail store to call attention to a special offering or price.

E

Marketing Management

End User

A person or organization that consumes a good or service that may consist of the input of numerous manufacturers or service providers.

E

Marketing Management

Endorsement

The promotion of some kind of product recommendation or affirmation, usually from a celebrity, implying to the potential customer that a product is good.

E

Marketing Management

End-user

The person who actually uses a product, whether or not they are the one who purchased the product.

E

Marketing Management

Entrepreneur

Someone who sees an opportunity and risks their own money to set up a business organisation in order to respond to it.

Page 97 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Envelope stuffer

A direct mail advertisement included with another mailed message (such as a bill).

E

Marketing Management

Environment

A complex set of physical and social stimuli in the external world of consumers.

E

Marketing Management

Environmental Analysis

An analysis of alternative actions and their predictable short-term and long-term environmental effects, incorporating physical, biological, economic, and social considerations.

E

Marketing Management

Environmental Monitoring

The process of checking, observing, or keeping track of something for a specified period of time or at specified intervals.

E

Marketing Management

EPA

The Environmental Protection Agency, a federal agency formed in 1970 that regulates the amount of pollutants manufacturers can emit.

E

Marketing Management

Equal time

A Federal Communications Commission requirement that when a broadcaster allows a political candidate broadcast a message, opposing candidates must be offered equal broadcast time.

E

Marketing Management

Equilibrium Point

A point at which the quantity and price offered by sellers equals the quantity and price taken by purchasers.

Page 98 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Erratic Demand

A pattern of demand for a product that is varied and unpredictable.

E

Marketing Management

Error Log File

A server log file which records errors encountered.

E

Marketing Management

Ethical Marketing

Marketing that takes account of the moral aspects of decisions.

E

Marketing Management

Ethics

In philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a pa

E

Marketing Management

Ethnography

A detailed, descriptive study of a group and its behavior, characteristics, and culture.

E

Marketing Management

Evaluative criteria

The standards a consumer uses for judging the features and benefits of alternative products.

E

Marketing Management

Evoked set

The shortlist of potential products that the consumer has to choose from within the purchasing decision-making process.

Page 99 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Ex Parte

A regulatory practice of pre-testing proposed regulatory rules in an effort to get reactions and comments from shippers, carriers, and other interested parties.

E

Marketing Management

Exchange

A central marketplace with established rules and regulations where buyers and sellers meet to trade.

E

Marketing Management

Exclusive distribution can have two different meanings: 1. When intermediaries like agents or distributors want to be the only Exclusive Distribution distributors, the sole distributors, or have the 'exclusive distribution rights' to sell a product or service within a certain area. 2. Restricted Distribution - to upmarket exclusive retail outlets as in the case of certain fashion clothes.

E

Marketing Management

Exhibitions

E

Marketing Management

Expansionistic pricing establishing mass markets, possibly at the expense of other suppliers. Under this strategy, the product enjoys a high price

E

Marketing Management

Expediter

A service provider who works to speed up a shipment for delivery.

E

Marketing Management

Expense Center

A collection of controllable costs that are related to one particular area of work or kind of store service.

A display of goods by one or more organisations to potential customers. A form of sales promotion. e.g. the motor show at Birmingham NEC.

Expansionistic pricing is a more exaggerated form of penetration pricing and involves setting very low prices aimed at elasticity of demand so that the adoption of a low price leads to significant increases in sales volumes.

Page 100 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Experience Curve

Reductions in unit costs comes from the Experience Curve. As the organisation produces more, it becomes more efficient. Better sourcing of materials, new production processes, labour efficiencies, economies of scale and improved product designs all reduce costs. More customers with more loyalty, mean less promotion costs.

E

Marketing Management

Experience Qualities

Experience qualities - Buyers with experience draw upon experience qualities - previous experiences of the service in terms of say, speed, friendliness, performance etc.

E

Marketing Management

Experience Survey

A series of interviews with people knowledgeable about the general subject being investigated.

E

Marketing Management

Experiential Marketing

A type of marketing that attempts to evoke a strong emotional response, often by the use of sensory techniques, to create an affinity between a product and a potential buyer. Used by companies such as Apple Computer to create an aesthetically driven consu

E

Marketing Management

Experimental Design

A research investigation in which the investigator has direct control over at least one independent variable and manipulates at least one independent variable.

E

Marketing Management

Experimental method

Research method using random assignment of subjects and the manipulation of variables in order to determine cause and effect.

E

Marketing Management

Exploratory research

# Exploratory research often represents a poorly defined problem area. It is difficult to produce concrete, focused results, and it will be more difficult to find relevant references to existing body of knowledge.

Page 101 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

Exploratory Research Searches for the issues which sometimes need to be included in a bigger quantitative survey.

E

Marketing Management

Export Marketing

The marketing of goods or services to overseas customers.

E

Marketing Management

Exposure

Consumers who have seen (or heard) a media vehicle, whether or not they paid attention to it.

E

Marketing Management

Expressed Warranty

A guarantee supplied by a retailer or manufacturer, detailing the terms of a warranty in simple and easily understood language. This helps customers understand what is and what is not covered by the warranty itself.

E

Marketing Management

Extensive Problem Solving

Process of searching for, collecting and carefully evaluating information about a product or service before deciding on which brand to buy. See High Involvement.

E

Marketing Management

External Analysis

Study of the external marketing environment, including factors such as customers, competition, and social change.

E

Marketing Management

External Data

Data that originate outside the organization for which research is being done.

Page 102 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

E

Marketing Management

External Environment

Factors (conditions, trends, and forces) essentially outside the control of organizational members. External environmental scans are conducted to identify important factors in the external environment.

E

Marketing Management

External Stimulus

A cue to action that is outside an individual‘s self and/or control.

E

Marketing Management

Extinction pricing

Extinction pricing has the overall objective of eliminating competition, and involves setting very low prices in the short term in order to ‗under-cut‘ competition, or alternatively repel potential new entrants.

E

Marketing Management

Extrinsic Reward

A reward that is external to the individual. Common examples include such things as money or food.

E

Marketing Management

Eye tracking

A research method that determines what part of an advertisement consumers look at, by tracking the pattern of their eye movements.

F

Marketing Management

Face Value

The printed financial value of a coupon. The face value can be a specific monetary amount, a percentage discount, or combination offer with another product.

F

Marketing Management

Facings

Refers to the number of billboards used for an advertisement.

Page 103 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Fact Sheet

A document that provides basic information about a product or service including its specifications and features.

F

Marketing Management

Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical technique that originated in psychometrics. It is used in the social sciences and in marketing, product management, operations research, and other applied sciences that deal with large quantities of data.

F

Marketing Management

Factory pack

A premium attached to a product, in or on the packaging.

F

Marketing Management

Fair Credit Reporting Established in 1970, this act is designed to ensure accuracy of credit reports and to allow consumers the right to learn the nature of the information available and challenge incorrect information for purposes of correction. Act

F

Marketing Management

Fair Packaging and Labeling Act

This act requires that labels on consumer products identify the type of product being sold, the name and address of the supplier, and if appropriate, the quality and contents of each serving.

F

Marketing Management

Fairness Doctrine

Until the mid-1980s, a Federal Communications Commission policy that required broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints any time they broadcast an opinion supporting one side of a controversial issue.

F

Marketing Management

Family brand

A brand name that is used for more than one product, ie, a family of products.

Page 104 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Family life cycle

The stages of family life based on demographic data that are useful in defining the markets for certain goods and services. Each group has its own specific and distinguishable needs and interests.

F

Marketing Management

FAST Marketing

Focused Advertising Sampling Technique: an approach concentrating promotions into a short space of time to saturate the market.

F

Marketing Management

Fast-moving consumer goods

Fast-moving consumer goods are those that sell in high volumes, with low unit value, and have fast consumer repurchase. Good examples include ready meals, baked beans, newspapers etc.

F

Marketing Management

Fax Preference Service (FPS)

A database of business and individual telecoms subscribers who have elected not to receive unsolicited direct marketing faxes.

F

Marketing Management

FCC

Federal Communications Commission. The federal agency responsible for regulating broadcast and electronic communications.

F

Marketing Management

Feature

The use of advertising, displays, or other promotional activity by a retailer to call special attention to a product for a limited time.

F

Marketing Management

Feature Story

A type of publicity material that can be used by the media at their convenience because it is not tied to a specific time period or deadline. Feature stories are often human interest-related and contain more background information than typically found in

Page 105 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Federal Communications Commission

A federal regulatory agency responsible for supervising radio and television broadcasting.

F

Marketing Management

Federal Trade Commission

The FTC is responsible for enforcing the Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits "unfair methods of competition" and "unfair or deceptive acts or practices."

F

Marketing Management

Feedback

Response to an inquiry or experiment.

F

Marketing Management

Feel-Felt-Found Method

A method used by salespeople to helpfully respond to prospect objections by showing how other prospects have held similar views before buying the same product or service.

F

Marketing Management

Field Experiment

A research study in a realistic situation in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter under carefully controlled conditions.

F

Marketing Management

Field Marketing

Field sales force is an organisation's sales force. Some organisations hire contract sales forces from a 'field marketing' agency. These agencies supply a temporary sales team for a fixed period of time, typically during seasonal peaks and during special promotions.

F

Marketing Management

Field Salesperson

A sales representative who is responsible for contacting and selling goods and services to customers in their place of business or residence.

Page 106 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

F

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Fill Rate

An inventory's availability goal used when setting customer service objectives, for example 80 out of 100 reference questions were answered in a workday.

F

Marketing Management

Financial Marketing

The process of planning and executing a financial concept including the development of pricing, promotion, and distribution strategies to create exchanges that satisfy the needs of the financial organization and their retail and/or institutional clients. Financial marketing generally requires industry specific expertise since each industry (i.e., banking, brokerage, investment management, insurance) must abide by the strict regulations of its various governing bodies.

F

Marketing Management

First to Market (Product)

Developing and launching a new product before competition launch their version.

F

Marketing Management

Fixed Costs

Fixed Costs are costs which basically remain fixed, in the short term at least, regardless of how many units are produced and sold. They include rent and rates, management salaries and so on. These are also called Fixed Overheads Costs, say ÂŁ10,000.

F

Marketing Management

Fixed-sum-per-unit method

A method of determining an advertising budget, which is based directly on the number of units sold.

F

Marketing Management

Flagging

Special graphic techniques used on a product package or store shelf to call attention to particular offers such as a reduced price, bonus pack, or increased size.

F

Marketing Management

Flagship Store

The leading store within a group, usually the biggest in size and stock holding and used as a benchmark against which other stores are measured.

Page 107 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Flanking

An indirect strategy aimed at capturing customers within given market segments whose needs are not being served by competitors.

F

Marketing Management

Flash Report

A daily, un-audited report that is released to management, summarizing the day's sales figures for comparison with budget or perhaps last year's sales figure.

F

Marketing Management

Flat rate

A media rate that allows for no discounts.

F

Marketing Management

Flexible Pricing

A practice of selling the same product at different prices to different customers.

F

Marketing Management

Flighting

A media schedule that involves more advertising at certain times and less advertising during other time periods.

F

Marketing Management

Floating Target

A target market whose profile remains constant but whose members change over time as they drift in and out of the buying window.

F

Marketing Management

Floor Audit

The use of floor sales registers for all transactions, both cash and credit, so as to obtain from the register database, the total sales for each salesperson, department, and type of sale.

Page 108 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

F

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

FMCG

Fast Moving Consumer Goods - such as packaged food, beverages, toiletries, and tobacco.

F

Marketing Management

Focus group

A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitude towards a product, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. In the world of marketing, focus groups are an important tool for acquiring feedback regarding new products.

F

Marketing Management

Focus group interview

A research method that brings together a small group of consumers to discuss the product or advertising, under the guidance of a trained interviewer.

F

Marketing Management

Follow-up

Post sale activities that often determine whether a one-time purchase will lead a buyer to become a repeat customer.

F

Marketing Management

Font

A typeface style, such as Helvetica, Times Roman, etc., in a single size. A single font includes all 26 letters, along with punctuation, numbers, and other characters.

F

Marketing Management

Food and Drug Administration

A legislative body that has the power to set standards for foods and food additives, to establish tolerances for deleterious substances and pesticides in foods, and to prohibit the sale of adulterated and misbranded foods, drugs, cosmetics, and devices.

F

Marketing Management

Forced Sale

The sale of products at less than market price due to the urgent need for a merchant to liquidate assets. This type of sale is often done in and effort to meet the demand of creditors.

Page 109 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Forecasting

The process of estimating future demand by anticipating what buyers are likely to do under a given set of marketing conditions (e.g. economic confidence, disposal income, pricing levels).

F

Marketing Management

Forecasting Models

In forecasting sales, or library use, or other objectives, a variety of statistical models are used and available, offering insights otherwise difficult to obtain.

F

Marketing Management

Foreign Trade Zones An area where goods can be made, stored, assembled, or repackaged, and then exported without incurring duties or taxes.

F

Marketing Management

Formal research

Collecting primary data directly from the marketplace using qualitative or quantitative methods.

F

Marketing Management

Formative Research

The market research, usually on target customers, carried out before a marketing program is begun to help formulate effective strategy and tactics.

F

Marketing Management

Formula Selling

A selling approach in which the sales presentation is designed to move the customer through the stages of the decisionmaking process (AIDA).

F

Marketing Management

Forward Stock

Inventory placed in a channel of distribution in advance of a customer‘s commitment.

Page 110 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Four M's

Money, Material, Machine and Manpower - traditional framework for viewing the resources available to a business, which can be useful when designing a marketing plan.

F

Marketing Management

Four P's

See 'marketing mix'

F

Marketing Management

Four-color process

A printing process that combines differing amounts of each of four colors (red, yellow, blue & black) to provide a full-color print.

F

Marketing Management

Frames

An HTML technique that will allow you to display two distinct pages within one web page. It can cause problems for search engines and should be avoided if possible.

F

Marketing Management

Franchise

A form of business organization in which a firm which already has a successful product or service (the franchisor) enters into a continuing contractual relationship with other businesses (franchisees) operating under the franchisor's trade name and usuall

F

Marketing Management

Franchised position

An ad position in a periodic publication (e.g., back cover) to which an advertiser is given a permanent or long-term right of use.

F

Marketing Management

Franchising

Franchising (from the French for free) is a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring royalty fee.

Page 111 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Free Merchandise

A trade sales promotion technique in which an additional amount of the product is offered without additional cost as an incentive to purchase.

F

Marketing Management

Free Standing Insert

A preprinted advertising page commonly offering coupons or other promotional activities, inserted into a separate publication, such as a newspaper.

F

Marketing Management

Free-For-All

A links page with nothing but links added by visitors.

F

Marketing Management

Free-On-Board

This implies loading on a transportation vehicle at some designated point.

F

Marketing Management

Free-standing insert (FSI)

An advertisement or group of ads inserted - but not bound - in a print publication, on pages that contain only the ads and are separate from any editorial or entertainment matter.

F

Marketing Management

Freight Bill

The document used by carriers to charge for transportation services provided.

F

Marketing Management

Freight Classification

All products transported by common carriers are grouped together into common freight classifications based upon the characteristic of the product that determines cost of handling and transport.

Page 112 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Frequency

(1) Number of times an average person or home is exposed to a media vehicle (or group of vehicles), within a given time period. (2) The position of a television or radio station's broadcast signal within the electromagnetic spectrum.

F

Marketing Management

Frequent Shopper Program

An ongoing incentive program offered by retailers to reward customers and encourage repeat business. The reward is usually based on purchase volume or number of store visits.

F

Marketing Management

Freshbot

This is the name for the Google crawlers that are known to add pages to the

F

Marketing Management

Fringe Sizes

Sizes that are either very large or very small, usually offered in very limited depth because of limited market demand.

F

Marketing Management

Fringe time

A time period directly preceding and directly following prime time, on television.

F

Marketing Management

FTC

Federal Trade Commission. The federal agency primarily responsible for regulating national advertising.

F

Marketing Management

Fulfillment

The process of gathering orders and distributing items purchased.

Page 113 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

F

Marketing Management

Fulfillment house

A coupon clearing house. A company that receives coupons and manages their accounting, verification and redemption.

F

Marketing Management

Full cost pricing

Full cost plus pricing seeks to set a price that takes into account all relevant costs of production.

F

Marketing Management

Full position

A premium space in newspaper advertising in which an ad is run at the top of the column, with editorial on one side, or with editorial on the top and side of the ad.

F

Marketing Management

Full-Cost Pricing

An approach whereby prices are determined after all functional costs have been properly allocated.

F

Marketing Management

Full-service agency

An agency that handles all aspects of the advertising process, including planning, design, production, and placement. Today, full-service generally suggests that the agency also handles other aspects of marketing communication, such as public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing.

F

Marketing Management

Functional Discount

The discount given to wholesalers or others who act in the capacity of performing distributive services that would otherwise have to be performed by the manufacturer who produced the product.

F

Marketing Management

Fundraising

The techniques used to solicit contributions or other forms of support for an organization from outside interests.

Page 114 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Galley Proof

A copy of the individual pages of an ad, brochure, poster or other printed material used for final proofreading of the text before final negatives are made for the printing process.

G

Marketing Management

Galvanometer test

A research method that measures physiological changes in consumers when asked a question or shown some stimulus material (such as an ad).

G

Marketing Management

Garbology

The study of examining disposed goods and other items found in the garbage to learn about consumer behavior and preferences for foods or other disposable products.

G

Marketing Management

Gatefold

Double or triple-sized pages, generally in magazines, that fold out into a large advertisement.

G

Marketing Management

Gatekeeper

Usually the individual who controls the flow of information from the mass media to the group or individual.

G

Marketing Management

Gateway Page

A method once used to enable a site to rank well for a variety of keywords. It was frowned upon by the search engines and is no longer useful, as the search engines now base much of their algorithms on linking strategies.

G

Marketing Management

Gender segmentation

The segmentation of markets based on the sex of the customer. The cosmetic industry is a good example of widespread use of gender segmentation.

Page 115 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

General Store

An establishment that sells a general line of merchandise, the most important being food. Other items may include; apparel, farm supplies, and gasoline.

G

Marketing Management

Generic brand

Products not associated with a private or national brand name.

G

Marketing Management

Geodemographic segmentation

The segmentation of consumers on the combined basis of location and certain demographic and socio-economic data

G

Marketing Management

Geodemographics

Geodemographics mixes geographic and demographic data together to find clusters of demographic groups within certain geographical areas.

G

Marketing Management

GLAM

Greying, Leisured, Affluent, Middle-aged - a demographic grouping.

G

Marketing Management

Global Advertising

The use of promotional appeals, messages, art, copy, photographs, stories, and video and film segments throughout the world.

G

Marketing Management

Global Brand

A brand that is marketed, based upon a unifying strategy, in every part of the world.

Page 116 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Global Competition

Global competition refers to all forms of competition on a world-wide scale.

G

Marketing Management

Global Marketing

A marketing campaign that is aimed at markets all over the world.

G

Marketing Management

Global Retailing

Any retailing activity that spans national boundaries.

G

Marketing Management

Global sourcing

Contracting to purchase goods and services from suppliers worldwide.

G

Marketing Management

Global Strategy

An approach that seeks competitive advantage with well developed strategic moves that are highly interdependent across countries.

G

Marketing Management

Goals

Specific targets for a period of time.

G

Marketing Management

Going-rate pricing

A pricing strategy that sets price largely based on the prices of competitors.

Page 117 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Goods

In the purchasing sense, usually refers to a physical asset or consumable being purchased (eg. stationery).

G

Marketing Management

Goodwill

An intangible asset valued according to the advantage or reputation a business has acquired (over and above its tangible assets).

G

Marketing Management

Google

The largest and most popular search engine on the web. The search engine also offers PPC and contextual advertising through its AdWords program.

G

Marketing Management

Google Bot

The crawlers which index pages into Google.

G

Marketing Management

Google Everfiux

This denotes the continuous changes in the Google search results pages.

G

Marketing Management

Grade Labeling

A system of identification that describes products by their quality, using agreed-upon numbers or letters.

G

Marketing Management

Grassroots Marketing

A strategy primarily used by small businesses without large marketing budgets. It is high-touch and focuses on customers' personal experience with a brand.

Page 118 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Gravity Model

A theory about the structure of market areas. The model states that the volume of purchases by consumers/users the frequency of trips to the outlets are a function of the size of the stores.

G

Marketing Management

Gravure

A printing process that uses an etched printing cylinder.

G

Marketing Management

Gray Market Good

Merchandise with a valid U.S. registered trademark that is made by a foreign manufacturer, but is imported into the United States without permission of the U.S. trademark owner.

G

Marketing Management

Green Marketing

The promotion of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe (e.g. made from recycled products).

G

Marketing Management

Greeter

A person who welcomes customers when entering a store, often providing information or assistance.

G

Marketing Management

Grey Market

Sometimes called 'silver market'. Term used to define population over a certain age - usually 65

G

Marketing Management

Grey Marketing (also The illicit sale of imported products contrary to the interests of a holder of a trademark, patent or copyright in the country of called Parallel sale. Importing)

Page 119 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Grid card

A broadcast media rate card that lists rates on a grid, according to the time periods that might be selected for the ad.

G

Marketing Management

Gross audience

The audiences of all vehicles or media in a campaign, combined. Some or much of the gross audience may actually represent duplicated audience.

G

Marketing Management

Gross Domestic Product

A national estimate of the total output of goods and services produced in a single country in a given period of time.

G

Marketing Management

Gross impressions

The sum of all exposures to an advertiser's message by way of all vehicles used in a media plan.

G

Marketing Management

Gross Margin

The difference between net sales and total cost of goods sold.

G

Marketing Management

Gross Markdown

The original amount of a markdown taken before subtraction of any markdown cancellations.

G

Marketing Management

Gross National Product

The money value of a nation's entire output of final commodities and services in a given period

Page 120 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Gross Profit

Net sales minus cost of goods sold.

G

Marketing Management

Gross rating points (GRPs)

The sum of ratings achieved by a specific media vehicle or schedule.

G

Marketing Management

Group Buying

The consolidating of purchasing requirements of several to many individuals.

G

Marketing Management

Group Product Managers

Marketing managers responsible for a group of products and brands.

G

Marketing Management

Growth stage

The second stage of the product life cycle. This stage is marked by a rapid surge in sales, market acceptance and overall opportunity for the good or service.

G

Marketing Management

Growth State of Product Life Cycle

Second stage during which sales/use are increasing.

G

Marketing Management

Guarantee

The declaration, expressed or implied, of the quality of goods offered for sale.

Page 121 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

G

Marketing Management

Guaranteed circulation

A media rate that comes with the guarantee that the publication will achieve a certain circulation.

G

Marketing Management

Guarantees and Warranties

Legal documents committing a company to deal with faulty goods or services by a variety of methods including repair, replacement or compensation.

G

Marketing Management

Guerrilla Marketing

The strategy of targeting small and specialised customer groups in such a way that bigger companies will not find it worthwhile to retaliate.

G

Marketing Management

Gulliver

The name of the web crawler for Northern Light.

G

Marketing Management

GUPPIE

Green YUPPIE - a demographic grouping. See also 'YUPPIE'

G

Marketing Management

Gutter

The inside margins of two pages that face each other in a print publication.

H

Marketing Management

Habit

A learned response to a stimulus that has become automatic and routine, requiring little or no cognitive effort.

Page 122 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

Halftone

A method of reproducing a black and white photograph or illustration, by representing various shades of gray as a series of black and white dots.

H

Marketing Management

Halftone screen

Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.

H

Marketing Management

Hall Tests

Respondents are invited into a hall or room where research is then carried out on the new products, packs, or advertisements which are on show.

H

Marketing Management

Halo effect

In ad pretesting, the fact that consumers are likely to rate the one or two ads that make the best first impression as the highest in all categories.

H

Marketing Management

Handbill

The term commonly used to identify a promotional piece that is either distributed to shoppers at a store or passed out door-todoor by a messenger.

H

Marketing Management

Hard Goods

Products comprised mainly of; hardware, home furnishings, and furniture and appliances as compared to soft goods, which have a textiles base.

H

Marketing Management

Hard-Sell

An approach to selling in which a salesperson attempts to control the interaction with a prospective customer and pressure him into making a purchase.

Page 123 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

Harvest

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company reduces the amount of investment in order to maximise the shortterm cash flows and profits from the SBU. This may have the effect of turning Stars into Cash Cows.

H

Marketing Management

Harvesting Strategy

The maximization of short-term cash flow from a business in expectation of a deterioration of market share and eventual withdrawal from the market.

H

Marketing Management

Header Tag

An HTML tag which is commonly used for page headers.

H

Marketing Management

Header Tag

Not to be confused with heading tags used within the main content area of a site, the header tag appears at the top of a page and contains information about the page such as title description and keywords.

H

Marketing Management

Headline

A headline is text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it.

H

Marketing Management

Hedging

The sale or purchase of a currency in forward markets for future delivery to satisfy a future obligation or obtain future payment.

H

Marketing Management

Heterogeneous

Heterogeneity - variability, or heterogeneity means that not everything or everyone is the same. In services heterogeneity makes every service delivered at least a little bit different. This variability, or heterogeneity, makes it difficult to standardise the quality of services.

Page 124 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

Heuristic

Of or relating to a usually speculative formulation serving as a guide in the investigation or solution of a problem.

H

Marketing Management

Hidden Text

Text which is invisible to the human eye because it is the same color as the background.

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchical Organization

A classic form of business structure that was adapted by business from historical religious and military organizations whereby authority flows from the person in charge through various levels of supervision.

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchy of Effects Model

An early model that depicted consumer purchasing as a series of stages including awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchy of Needs

A theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 concerning the specific order of the development of human needs. Maslow proposed that needs develop in an individual sequentially from lower to higher needs including physiological needs to safety needs, belongi

H

Marketing Management

Hierarchy-of-effects theory

A series of steps by which consumers receive and use information in reaching decisions about what actions they will take (e.g., whether or not to buy a product).

High Contact Activities

High and Low Contact Activities - Most services have a mixture of High and Low Contact with customers. For example, the bulk of dry cleaning services are done without the customer being present (maybe in a back room) while acupuncture services are performed in the presence of the customer. The invoicing (low contact activity) and appointment making may be done again in back room without the customer's presence.

H

Marketing Management

Page 125 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

High Income Countries

Countries whose income per capita are high compared to the rest of the world.

H

Marketing Management

High Involvement

High Involvement Purchases are expensive, high risk, infrequently bought products or services. Here the buyer goes through the Extensive Problem Solving process.

H

Marketing Management

Hit

When a person visits a Web page, that Web page receives a number of ‗hits‘— one hit for the page itself, and one for every graphic on the page. The number of hits is not regarded as an accurate measurement of a Web site‘s popularity.

H

Marketing Management

Hit Rate

Also considered the conversion rate, it is the percentage of the desired number of outcomes received by a salesperson relative to the total activity level.

H

Marketing Management

Hold

A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. Here the company invests just enough to keep the SBU in its present position.

H

Marketing Management

Holding power

The ability to keep an audience throughout a broadcast, rather than having them change channels. It is represented as a percent of the total audience.

H

Marketing Management

Holdover audience

The percent of a program's audience that watched or listened to the immediately preceding program on the same station. Also called Inherited audience (see below).

Page 126 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

Holistic Marketing

Creating a consistent and integrated marketing message across many channels and campaigns.

H

Marketing Management

Hologram

A three-dimensional photograph or illustration, created with an optical process that uses lasers.

H

Marketing Management

Home Page

The main page of a Web site.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal Buy

A purchase made from a direct competitor.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal discount

A discount on a media purchase resulting from a promise to advertise over an extended period of time.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal Integration The expansion of a business by acquiring or developing businesses engaged in the same stage of marketing or distribution.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal Marketing Horizontal marketing systems allow/encourage different organisations to share their expertise and give each other access to new customer segments. Systems

Page 127 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

Horizontal publications

Business publications designed to appeal to people of similar interests or responsibilities in a variety of companies or industries.

H

Marketing Management

Host/Hostess gift

A gift to a consumer who sponsors a sales demonstration party or meeting.

H

Marketing Management

Hot composition

A method of typesetting that uses molten metal to form the letters for a typeface. See Cold type, above.

H

Marketing Management

House Account

A customer, usually of considerable size, that is not assigned to a field salesperson. Rather, the customer is handled directly by executives or home-office personnel.

H

Marketing Management

House agency

An advertising agency owned and operated by an advertiser, which handles the advertiser's account.

H

Marketing Management

House organs

In-house publications that communicate happenings in the company and among the company's employees.

H

Marketing Management

House to House Distribution

Delivery of goods or literature to the consumer's front door or mailbox.

Page 128 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

H

Marketing Management

Households using television (HUT)

The number of households in a given market watching television at a certain time. This term is used by A.C. Nielsen.

H

Marketing Management

HTML

(Hypertext Markup Language) The coded format language used for creating hypertext documents on the World Wide Web and controlling how Web pages appear.

H

Marketing Management

HTML Email

An e-mail that is formatted using hypertext markup language, as opposed to plain text.

H

Marketing Management

Hypermarket

An unusually large, limited service combination discount store, supermarket, and warehouse contained under a single roof.

H

Marketing Management

Hypertext

Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.

H

Marketing Management

Hypothesis

A statement that specifies how two or more measurable variables are related.

I

Marketing Management

i-Coach

Online support service for marketing students and delegates, offering online tutorials, case studies and exercises

Page 129 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

ID

Station identification during a commercial break in a television or radio program.

I

Marketing Management

Idea Generation

That stage of the new product development cycle in which ideas are sought for new products or services.

I

Marketing Management

Illustrator

An illustrator is a graphic artist that specializes in enhancing written text by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated concepts or objects that are difficult to describe textually, or the illustration may be intended for entertainment (such as illustrations in children's literature).

I

Marketing Management

Image advertising

Promoting the image, or general perception, of a product or service, rather than promoting its functional attributes. Commonly used for differentiating brands of parity products (eg, "This is a woman's cigarette").

I

Marketing Management

IMC - Integrated Marketing Communications

All communications and messages are carefully linked together to produce a coherent, distinctive, harmonic image which differentiates the product/brand against competition. It brings together all forms of communications within an organisation into a single 'Seamless Solution'. Un-integrated, or disintegrated communications send disjointed messages, dilute impact and sometimes confuse, frustrate and arguably arouse anxiety in customers. Integrated communications present a reassuring sense of order.

I

Marketing Management

Imitative Strategy

A plan that relies on products or designs produced by other companies as the foundation for its growth.

I

Marketing Management

Implementation

The stage in the strategic market planning process in which an action plan is designed to meet strategic objectives that uses available resources and given existing constraints.

Page 130 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Implicit Alternative

A different answer to a question that is not expressed in the available options.

I

Marketing Management

Implicit Cost

The value of an economic resource that is not explicitly charged on accounting records of a business.

I

Marketing Management

Implied Warranty

A promise of performance that is extended to the customer but unstated.

I

Marketing Management

Import Agent

A manufacturers' representative who specializes in the introduction of products into non-domestic nations.

I

Marketing Management

Import Broker

A dealer who specializes in international marketing.

I

Marketing Management

Impressions

The actual number of people who‘ve seen a specific Web page. Impres-sions are sometimes called ―page views.‖

I

Marketing Management

Imprinted product

A promotional product, this is a product with a company logo or advertising message printed on it.

Page 131 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Impulse Buy

Purchase behavior that is assumed to be made without prior planning or thought.

I

Marketing Management

Impulse buying

Behaviour that involves no conscious planning but results from a powerful, persistent urge to buy something immediately.

I

Marketing Management

In House Teams

Staff from within the organisation as opposed to an outside agency e.g. in public relations team as opposed to using an outside PR agency. In reality, they are sometimes mixed together i.e. the in-house team may be supplemented by an outside agency and its resources.

I

Marketing Management

Inbound Links

Hyperlinks pointing to a given site from other, usually thematically related sites. Also called "backward links," they are an important component of online marketing.

I

Marketing Management

Incentive

An inducement (money, premiums, prizes) offered by sellers to reward or motivate salespeople, distributors, and/or consumers to sell orpurchase their products or services.

I

Marketing Management

Incentive catalog company

A company that creates an incentive program for sales people, and provides them with a catalog from which they can select their prize or premium.

I

Marketing Management

Incentive Compensation

Sales compensation based on performance.

Page 132 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Incentive Plan

The offering rewards or inducements to stimulate the sales force or channel members to achieve predetermined sales, profit, distribution, or other goals.

I

Marketing Management

Income

A flow of money, goods, and benefits to a person or an organization.

I

Marketing Management

Income Differential

The difference in income levels among people of various categories, such as different jobs, geographic areas, age classes, sexes, races and the like.

I

Marketing Management

Income Effect

A change in various patterns of consumption for a product as consumers have an increase in real income.

I

Marketing Management

Income elasticity of demand

Income elasticity of demand measures the relationship between a change in quantity demanded and a change in income.

I

Marketing Management

In-Company Training Training programmes specially tailored to meet company requirements for groups of 6 or more people from the same company

I

Marketing Management

Incremental Sales

Units of product sold to retailers or consumers through a sales promotion in addition to the amount that would have been sold in the absence of the promotional offer.

Page 133 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Incrementalism

The concept that strategies are the outcome of a series of minor tactical decisions in response to problems and opportunities rather than through systematic, formal, prepared plans.

I

Marketing Management

Independent Carrier

An owner-operator or individual transporter who provides hauling services for others.

I

Marketing Management

Independent contractor

A person who is hired by a company, but works for himself/herself. The company is a client, rather than an employer.

I

Marketing Management

Independent station

A broadcast station that is not affiliated with a national network of stations.

I

Marketing Management

Independent Store

A retail outlet that is owned individually and is not part of a retail chain.

I

Marketing Management

In-Depth Interviews

A qualitative research method which involves discussions on a one-to-one basis.

I

Marketing Management

Index

The collected information in a search engine or directory that search users can query against.

Page 134 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Indexing

Behind-the-scenes creation of an ever-changing database based on the con-tents of web documents; search engines and filtering software use indexing to find and/or block documents containing certain words or phrases.

I

Marketing Management

Indirect Channel

A channel whereby goods and services are sold indirectly from a producer through independent wholesalers to final users.

I

Marketing Management

Indirect Costs

Costs related to expenses incurred while conducting or supporting research or other externally-funded activities but not directly attributable to a specific project.

I

Marketing Management

Individual Brand

The brand identity given to an individual product, as separate from other products in the market and from other items in the product's own line.

I

Marketing Management

Inducements

Incentives offered to overcome resistance to purchase, for example 'special offers' or money-back guarantees.

I

Marketing Management

Industrial advertising

A form of business-to-business advertising (see above), this is advertising aimed at manufacturers. This advertising typically promotes parts, equipment, and raw materials used in the manufacturing process.

I

Marketing Management

Industrial buyers

Industrial buyers are those who purchase items on behalf of their business or organisation.

Page 135 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Industrial market

Industrial markets involve the sale of goods between businesses. These are goods that are not aimed directly at consumers.

I

Marketing Management

Industrial marketing

The marketing of industrial products.

I

Marketing Management

Industrialized Country A country with a market economy comprising a significant portion of world production and trade markets.

I

Marketing Management

Inelastic Demand

A situation in which a cut in price yields a very small increase in quantity taken by the market that total revenue decreases.

I

Marketing Management

Inelastic Supply

A situation in which the quantity offered to the market increases less than proportionately to an increase in price.

I

Marketing Management

Inferior goods

Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand. Demand falls as income rises.

I

Marketing Management

Infiltration marketing

Marketers joining chat rooms posing as ordinary users in order to spread marketing messages, usually as personal endorsements.

Page 136 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Inflation

An economic condition characterized by a continuous upward movement of the general price level.

I

Marketing Management

Influencer

A person in a group buying situation (e.g. a family) who exerts significant influence in the final buying decision.

I

Marketing Management

Infomediary

A person or business that collects user-preference information in order to match users with vendors' products or services while protecting that information from direct access by the vendors (the term was coined by business theorist John Hagel).

I

Marketing Management

Infomercial

Infomercials are television commercials that run as long as a typical television program (roughly thirty minutes or an hour). Infomercials, also known as paid programming, are normally shown outside of peak hours, such as late at night or early in the morning.

I

Marketing Management

Informal research

The second step in the research process, designed to explore a problem by reviewing secondary data and interviewing a few key people with the most information to share. Also called exploratory research.

I

Marketing Management

Information Audit

Specifies who needs what information when. The audit can also list sources of information.

I

Marketing Management

Information Search

The process by which a buyer seeks to select the most appropriate supplier(s) once a need has been identified.

Page 137 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Informational Advertising

Marketing that presents factual information about a product or product usage.

I

Marketing Management

Infrastructure

Refers to the systems, facilities, and installations used for purposes of conducting the basic and advanced operations of an entity.

I

Marketing Management

Inherited audience

Same as Holdover audience, above.

I

Marketing Management

Initial Markup

The difference between the cost of merchandise and the original retail price of the good expressed as a percentage of the retail value.

I

Marketing Management

Initiator

A person in a group buying situation (e.g. a family) who first suggests buying a particular product or service.

I

Marketing Management

Inktomi

A database of search results used to power multiple search engines.

I

Marketing Management

Innovation

Development of new products, services or ways of working

Page 138 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Innovators

Innovators are those who adopt new products first. They are usually relatively young, lively, intelligent, socially and geographically mobile. They are often of a high socioeconomic group (―AB‘s‖).

I

Marketing Management

In-pack premium

A premium included in the packaging of another product (e.g., buy a can of shaving cream and get a free razor in the same package). The term Package enclosure is also used.

I

Marketing Management

Inquiries

Consumer response to a company's advertising or other promotional activities, such as coupons. Used for measuring the effectiveness of some promotions.

I

Marketing Management

Insert

An advertisement, collection of advertisements, or other promotional matter published by an advertiser or group of advertisers, to be inserted in a magazine or newspaper. It may be bound into the publication, or be inserted without binding. See Freestanding insert, above.

I

Marketing Management

Insertion

Refers to an ad in a print publication.

I

Marketing Management

Insertion order

Written instructions from an ad agency/advertiser indicating day/date an ad is to appear, its cost, requested positioning, etc.

I

Marketing Management

Installed Base

The number of units of a durable product in use at the customer‘s premises.

Page 139 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Installment Account

The resulting charge account of a customer who has bought an item on a plan, providing a down payment, and pays a specified amount per month until an item is paid for in full (including a service charge).

I

Marketing Management

Institutional advertising

Advertising to promote an institution or organization, rather than a product or service, in order to create public support and goodwill.

I

Marketing Management

Institutional Market

A market for goods or services consisting of universities, schools, charities clubs and the like.

I

Marketing Management

Institutional Marketing

The marketing of products and services to both for-profit and non-profit organizations, such as corporations, universities, charitable organizations, government entities and other non-profit organizations.

I

Marketing Management

Institutional Signage

The presentation of missions, customer service policies, and other messages on behalf of a retail institution.

I

Marketing Management

In-Store Coupon

A certificate redeemable only at one specific retail store or chain. These coupons are generally distributed through newspaper advertisements, flyers, or in-store.

I

Marketing Management

Instrumental Values

Preferred modes of conduct or patterns of behavior.

Page 140 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Intaglio

A form of printing that results in a raised or engraved print surface.

I

Marketing Management

Integrated Approach

A management style which seeks to take account of marketing (or something else) in all decisions. Thereby marketing thinking is integrated (part of) all decision making.

I

Marketing Management

Integrated Communications

With careful planning, communications tools such as advertising, direct mail, sales promotions, point-of-sale etc. can be integrated so that the message is consistent, overall impact is increased and costs reduced. See IMC - Integrated Marketing Communications.

I

Marketing Management

Integrated Development

A process of combining diverse organizational talents and functional groups to support the creative of a new product.

I

Marketing Management

Integrated Marketing A management concept that is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication (e.g., advertising, sales promotion, Communication (IMC) public relations, and direct marketing) work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation.

I

Marketing Management

Integrated Service Provider

for-hire firm that performs a range of logistics service activities such as warehousing, transportation, and other functional activities that constitute a total service package.

I

Marketing Management

Integration

The acquisition or development of businesses that are related to the company's current businesses as a means of increasing sales and/or profit and gaining greater control.

Page 141 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Intellectual Property

I

Marketing Management

Intensive distribution Distributing a product through a wide variety of outlets.

I

Marketing Management

Intention

Anticipated or planned future behavior.

I

Marketing Management

Interactive Agency

A marketing agency offering a mix of Web design and development, Internet marketing, or e-business and e-commerce consulting.

I

Marketing Management

Interactive marketing

Buyer-seller communications in which the customer controls the amount and type of information received from a marketer through such channels as the Internet, CD-ROM disks, interactive 800 telephone numbers, and virtual reality kiosks.

I

Marketing Management

Interactive media

Communications channels that induce message recipients to participate actively in the promotional effort.

I

Marketing Management

Interactive TV

Enables viewers to interact with the television set in ways other than simply controlling the channel and the volume and handling videotapes. Typical interactive TV uses are selecting a video film to view from a central bank of films, playing games, voting or providing other immediate feedback through the television connection, banking from home, and shopping from home.

Abstract forms of property that are distinct from the physical form of property including patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

Page 142 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Intercept Store

A place of business that stops consumers passing by it o engage in some type of transaction.

I

Marketing Management

Inter-media comparison

Rarely used comparison of the cost effectiveness, advertising effectiveness, target demographics, etc of various media (eg television Vs radio, newspapers Vs magazines) to ascertain their overall effectiveness.

I

Marketing Management

Intermediaries

Organisations or individuals in the distribution channel e.g. wholesalers and retailers.

I

Marketing Management

Intermodal Transportation

The movement of goods that combines two or more modes of transportation.

I

Marketing Management

Internal Analysis

The study of a company's internal marketing resources in order to assess opportunities, strengths or weaknesses

I

Marketing Management

Internal Customers

Employees within an organisation viewed as consumers of a product or service provided by another part of the organisation products or services which the employees need to do their own work. For example, the marketing department could be internal customers of the IT department.

I

Marketing Management

Internal marketing

The process of eliciting support for a company and its activities among its own employees, in order to encourage them to promote its goals. This process can happen at a number of levels, from increasing awareness of individual products or marketing campaigns, to explaining overall business strategy.

Page 143 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Internal Validity

One criterion by which an experiment is evaluated; the criterion focuses on obtaining evidence demonstrating that the variation in the criterion variable was the result of exposure to the treatment or experimental variable.

I

Marketing Management

International advertising

Advertising aimed at foreign markets.

I

Marketing Management

International Marketing

The conduct and co-ordination of marketing activities in more than one country

I

Marketing Management

International Monetary Fund

A multinational organization whose objective is to promote international financial cooperation and coordinate the stabilization of exchange rates.

I

Marketing Management

International Retailing Selling activity by a business that reaches across national boundaries.

I

Marketing Management

Internet

An all-purpose global network composed of 48,000 or more different networks around the globe that, within limits, let anyone with access to a personal computer send and receive images and data anywhere.

I

Marketing Management

Internet marketing

The use of the Internet to advertise and sell goods and services. Internet Marketing includes pay per click advertising, banner ads, e-mail marketing, search engine marketing (including search engine optimization), blog marketing, and article marketing.

Page 144 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

I

Marketing Management

Interpersonal Factors Influences or forces on the consumer due to other individuals his or her physical space or sphere of activity.

I

Marketing Management

Inter-selling

The process of exchanging goods at specific prices between and among departments to facilitate larger transactions and to make it more convenient for the customer to accessorize.

I

Marketing Management

Interval Scale

A measurement in which the numbers assigned to the attributes of an object or class of objects allow comparison of the size of the differences among and between objects.

I

Marketing Management

Intra-media comparison

Rarely used comparison of the various promotional options for a given medium, eg The Times Vs The Independent.

I

Marketing Management

In-Transit

A condition that exists when merchandise has been shipped from the vendor and has not yet arrived at the buyer's receiving dock.

I

Marketing Management

Intrinsic Reward

A benefit that is internal such as feeling satisfied or pleased after the completion of a difficult task.

Short for Internet Service Provider, an ISP is a company that provides access to the Internet.

Page 145 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Introduction stage

A product's first appearance in the marketplace, before any sales or profits have been made.

I

Marketing Management

Introductory phase

The initial phase of the product life cycle (also called the pioneering phase) when a new product is introduced, costs are highest, and profits are lowest.

I

Marketing Management

Invention

A new device, process, etc., that has been created.

I

Marketing Management

Inventory

Goods or merchandise available for resale.

I

Marketing Management

Inventory Analysis

the classification of goods held in inventory according to sales volume; the classification is used primarily to determine stock location within the warehouse.

I

Marketing Management

Inventory Control

Procedures used to ensure that desired levels of stock are maintained

I

Marketing Management

Inventory Management

The process of acquiring and maintaining a proper assortment of merchandise while keeping ordering, shipping, handling, and other related costs in check.

Page 146 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Inventory Turnover

The number of times that average inventory is sold during a specific period of time.

I

Marketing Management

Investment Strategy

A plan that specifies the requirements for funds needed to achieve a competitive advantage. Also, the outcomes expected from the allocation of these funds.

I

Marketing Management

Involvement

The level of interest, emotion and activity which the consumer is prepared to expend on a particular purchase.

I

Marketing Management

IP Address

A unique number which identifies a computer or system IP Spoofing An illegal process of faking an IP address

I

Marketing Management

IPS

Institute of Professional Sales, sister institute to The Chartered Institute of Marketing. IPS provide in-depth training and development at every stage of the sales career

I

Marketing Management

IPTV

Internet Protocol Television. Technology allowing television and video signals to be received via an internet connection.

I

Marketing Management

Island display

An in-store product display situated away from competing products, typically in the middle or at the end of an aisle.

Page 147 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

I

Marketing Management

Island position

A print ad that is completely surrounded by editorial material, or a broadcast ad surrounded by program content, with no adjoining advertisements to compete for audience attention.

J

Marketing Management

JavaScript

A scripting language developed by Netscape and used to create interactive Web sites.

J

Marketing Management

Jingle

A jingle is a memorable advertising slogan usually set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio and television commercials. Jingles are memes constructed to stay in one's memory and people often nostalgically remember them decades after, even after the brand has ceased to exist.

J

Marketing Management

JIT

Just In Time delivery is a system which delivers exact quantities only when they are required and ready to be used immediately.

J

Marketing Management

Job Lot

A promotional grouping of merchandise through which some vendors dispose of end-of-season surpluses and incomplete assortments.

J

Marketing Management

Jobber

Synonymous with a wholesaler, a middleman who buys from manufacturers domestic or foreign and sells to retailers.

J

Marketing Management

Joint Venture

A business entity or partnership formed by two or more parties for a specific purpose; for example, Virgin Mobile is a 50:50 joint venture company between Virgin Group and Deutsche Telekom's One 2 One.

Page 148 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

J

Marketing Management

Jumble display

A mixture of products or brands on a single display, such as a clearance table.

J

Marketing Management

Junket

A publicity device in which members of the media are invited to a company to observe a product being made.

J

Marketing Management

JUPPIE

Japanese YUPPIE - a demographic grouping. See also 'YUPPIE'

J

Marketing Management

Just-In-Time Delivery An inventory control system that replenishes and delivers products to a retailer just as the current supply is depleted.

K

Marketing Management

Kaizen

The Japanese refer to continuous year-to-year improvement as 'Kaizen'.

K

Marketing Management

Keeper

A premium used to induce a consumer to take some action, such as completing a survey or trying a product.

K

Marketing Management

Kelly Grids

See 'repertory grids'

Page 149 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

K

Marketing Management

Kerning

Adjusting the measure between type characters so they appear evenly spaced.

K

Marketing Management

Key Account

A large account receiving special treatment from salespeople, usually generating more than a pre-defined annual sales amount.

K

Marketing Management

Key Account Management

Account management as applied to a company's most important customers. See also 'account management'

K

Marketing Management

Key Success Factors Those factors that are a necessary condition for success in a given market. That is, a company that does poorly on one of the factors critical to success in its market is certain to fail. (KSF)

K

Marketing Management

Keystone Markup

An increase in price in which the cost amount is doubled on an item to achieve a 50% product margin.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword

A word that is entered into the se arch form or se arch ―window‖ o fan Internet search engine to search the Web for p ages or sites about or including the keyword and information related to it.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword buying

Advertisers paying for links to their websites to appear on internet search engines along side search results, sometimes as ‖sponsored links‖, based on keywords entered into the search engine. See ‗Search Marketing‘.

Page 150 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword Density

Keywords as a percentage of text words that can be indexed.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword Marketing

Placing a marketing message in front of users based on the keywords they‘re using to search.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword Stuffing

Placing excessive keywords into page copy and coding such as meta tags; this may hurt the usability of a page but is meant to boost the page's search engine ranking. Hiding keywords on a page by making them the same color as the page background and loading tags with repeated keyword phrases are examples.

K

Marketing Management

Keyword Weight

Keyword weight refers to the number of keywords appearing in the page area divided by the total number of words appearing in that area. Weight also depends on whether the keyword is a single word or a multi-word phrase. Weight formula: (number of words in the keyword phrase * frequency) / total words in area

K

Marketing Management

Keyword

A word or phrase that a user types into the search window of a search engine to find Web sites containing relevant information. Incorporating applicable Keywords into a Web site is a crucial component of optimization. See Search Term.

K

Marketing Management

Kickback

A payment made by a salesperson or business to a buyer based on the size or number of orders placed for the salesperson's products or services.

K

Marketing Management

Kicker

A subhead that appears above the headline.

Page 151 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

K

Marketing Management

Kidults

Adults who buy products that are predominantly aimed at children

K

Marketing Management

Kiosks

Touch sensitive robust PCs used as public access points either on the street or within public buildings.

K

Marketing Management

Knowledge

Consumers' meanings or beliefs about products, brands, stores, that are stored in memory.

K

Marketing Management

Knowledge Management

The collection, organisation and distribution of information in a form that lends itself to practical application. Knowledge management often relies on information technology to facilitate the storage and retrieval of information.

L

Marketing Management

Label

The information attached to or on a product for the purpose of naming it and describing its use, dangers, ingredients, manufacturer, etc.

L

Marketing Management

Labelling

Packaging information that can be used for a variety of promotional, informational and legal purposes.

L

Marketing Management

Labor Intensive

A product or industry in which labor requirements are large relative to requirements for capital goods.

Page 152 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Laddering

A technique to discover the associations consumers have between specific product attributes and more general end states or consequences.

L

Marketing Management

Laggards

The group of consumers who are typically last to buy a new product.

L

Marketing Management

Laissez Faire Leadership

A management style wherein sales managers supervise their sales personnel minimally and therefore have a low degree of involvement with them on a regular basis.

L

Marketing Management

Landed Cost Price

The quoted or invoiced price of a commodity, plus any inbound transportation charges.

L

Marketing Management

Landing Page

The Web page to which a link from a search result or online promotion directs search engine traffic.

L

Marketing Management

Lanham Act

Federal trademark law.

L

Marketing Management

Late majority

People who are quite sceptical about new products but eventually adopt them because of economic necessity or social pressure.

Page 153 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Launch Control

The process by which a management plans for and supervises the introduction of a new product, making corrections to the product as variances are detected so that original goals are achieved.

L

Marketing Management

Law of Comparative Advantage

This law states that a country tends to export those economic goods in which it has a comparative advantage and to import those economic goods in which it has a disadvantage.

L

Marketing Management

Law of Demand

The law that, other things being equal, consumers will buy more of a product at a low price than at a high price.

L

Marketing Management

Law of Diminishing Return

After a certain point has been reached, each successive application of a factor of production will add less to total output than before.

L

Marketing Management

Lawsuit

A legal action which is filed by one party against another when a contract has been breached.

L

Marketing Management

Lay-Away

The purchase of an article with a down payment, while the store retains the article until full payment is made.

L

Marketing Management

Layout

A design for graphic advertising production, roughly depicting the look of the finished advertisement.

Page 154 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Lead Generation

The process of collecting contact information and identifying potential sales leads.

L

Marketing Management

Lead Time

The amount of time determined by a merchandiser to be necessary to add on to the purchasing period, assuring that sufficient merchandise will be on hand until a particular order is received.

L

Marketing Management

Leader Pricing

The pricing of products at lower than usual prices in order to attract shoppers.

L

Marketing Management

Leading

The space between lines of type.

L

Marketing Management

Leading Economic Indicators

Financial indicators that reach peaks or troughs ahead of aggregate economic activity.

L

Marketing Management

Leading Question

A question framed in such a manner as to give the respondent a clue as to how he or she should answer.

L

Marketing Management

Leads

Possible customers; prospective customers; prospects; enquirers; enquiries or leads generated from mail shots, advertisements and exhibitions. The quality of the lead should be checked so that the best leads, called 'hot prospects', or hot leads, get special attention.

Page 155 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Leapfrog Routing

A method for scheduling calls that requires salespeople to call on a cluster of customers that are in close geographic proximity.

L

Marketing Management

Learning Curve

A graph that depicts rate of learning, especially a graph of progress in the mastery of a skill against the time required for such mastery.

L

Marketing Management

Learning Log

An assignment that charts a personal development plan and achievements of a delegate during a period of study

L

Marketing Management

Learnings

Marketers constantly seek to learn from their experience and to improve their performances. Some companies formalise this process and incorporate what the key things a marketing manager learns into their next set of plans.

L

Marketing Management

Leasing

A contract through which the asset owner (lessor) extends the right to use the asset to another party (lessee) in return for periodic payment of rent over a specific period.

L

Marketing Management

Leave-behind

A premium left with prospective customers by a sales person, to remind them of the product or service being sold.

L

Marketing Management

Letter of Credit

A correspondence by which a bank substitutes its creditworthiness for that of the buyer.

Page 156 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Letter shop

A firm that personalizes, labels, sorts & stuffs envelopes in preparation for Standard Mail.

L

Marketing Management

Letterpress

A printing method that stamps ink onto paper, using raised lettering.

L

Marketing Management

Leverage

The ability to control large dollar amounts of a commodity with a comparatively small amount of capital.

L

Marketing Management

Licensing

A method of entering a foreign market in which the company enters into an agreement with a licensee, offering the right to use a manufacturing process, trademark, patent, trade secret, or other item of value for a fee or royalty.

L

Marketing Management

Life-Cycle Costs

The realized cost of a durable good over its entire operating life.

L

Marketing Management

Lifestyle

Lifestyle is a person‘s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests and opinions.

Lifestyle segmentation

Lifestyle segmentation of a market is based on identifying lifestyle characteristics of customers that enable target customer groups to be identified. Many businesses now segment their markets by lifestyles, as these are increasingly seen as good predictors of consumer behaviour. Most companies use off-the-shelf research-agency classifications (such as the Target Group Index), because of the high cost and complexity of developing their own.

L

Marketing Management

Page 157 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Lifetime Customers

Customers who repeatedly buy the same brand throughout their buying life.

L

Marketing Management

Lifetime Value

It is the total amount spent by one customer on a product or service during her/his lifetime.

L

Marketing Management

Likert Scale

A scale in which the respondent specifies a level of agreement or disagreement with statements that express a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the concept under study (usually a 5 or 7 point scale).

L

Marketing Management

Limited Problem Solving

A situation where the buyer has some experience of buying a particular product or service. See Extensive Problem Solving.

L

Marketing Management

Linage

Refers to the size of an ad, based on the number of lines of type taken up by the ad.

L

Marketing Management

Line Authority

The influence managers need to direct individuals assigned to them in order to achieve the goals for which they are held responsible by management.

L

Marketing Management

Line conversion

A high-contrast reproduction of an illustration, where all shading is reduced to either black or white.

Page 158 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Line Extension

See Product Line.

L

Marketing Management

Link Checker

A tool used to check Web pages for broken links.

L

Marketing Management

Link Farm

A series of websites linking to each other in order to increase rankings.

L

Marketing Management

Link Popularity

A measure of how many other Web pages are linked to a given Web page. Several search engines include this factor in determining their search results.

L

Marketing Management

Liquidation

When a company becomes insolvent it goes bust! Its assets are liquidated or sold off for cash. Bankrupt.

L

Marketing Management

List broker

An agent who sells lists of sales prospects.

L

Marketing Management

List Explosion

It is the proliferation of a vast array of different types of direct mail lists.

Page 159 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

List Price

The selling price for an item before any discounts or reductions in price.

L

Marketing Management

Listserv

An e-mail-based system designed to support group discussions of a particular topic.

L

Marketing Management

Literature Search

Systematic search, utilizing various indexes and catalogs, for materials on a specific problem or topic, often done with an aim to be comprehensive.

L

Marketing Management

Lithography

A printing method in which the printing and non-printing areas exist on the same plane, as opposed to a bi-leveled reproduction.

L

Marketing Management

Live Rack

A storage bracket designed to allow products to automatically advance forward to the desired position.

L

Marketing Management

Living Standard

A measure of the possession and distribution of material goods among members of a society.

L

Marketing Management

Lobbying

The process of trying to influence policymakers in favor of a specific cause.

Page 160 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Local advertising

Advertising to a local merchant or business as opposed to regional or national advertising.

L

Marketing Management

Local rate

An advertising rate charged to a local advertiser , typically a retailer, by local media and publications, as distinguished from a national rate that is charged to a national advertiser, typically a manufacturer.

L

Marketing Management

Location Affinities

The clustering of similar or complementary retail stores.

L

Marketing Management

Logistics

A single logic covering all activities relating to the procurement, transport, shipment and storage of goods. Logistics as generally understood is concerned particularly with material flow (raw materials, interim and final products), but also involves pro

L

Marketing Management

Logo

A graphic, usually consisting of a symbol and/or group of letters that identifies a company or brand.

L

Marketing Management

Logotype

A personalized type or design symbol for a company or product.

L

Marketing Management

Longitudinal Study

An investigation involving a sample of elements that is measured repeatedly through time.

Page 161 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Loss Leaders

Loss Leaders are products or services offered at low prices (often below cost) to entice customers into buying other products or services.

L

Marketing Management

Lottery

A scheme in which making a required purchase gives a person a chance to win a prize which is awarded at random, usually through an electronic drawing. Lotteries may not be used as promotion devices under U.S. laws.

L

Marketing Management

Low Contact Activities

High and Low Contact Activities - Most services have a mixture of High and Low Contact with customers. For example, the bulk of dry cleaning services are done without the customer being present (maybe in a back room) while acupuncture services are performed in the presence of the customer. The invoicing (low contact activity) and appointment making may be done again in a back room without the customer's presence.

L

Marketing Management

Low Income Countries

Countries with the lowest income per capita compared with the rest of the world. The bottom quartile is often considered low income.

L

Marketing Management

Low Involvement

Low Involvement Purchases are frequently bought, low value purchases like a can of beans. There is little risk and hence the buyer spends less time and effort making the decision. See High Involvement.

L

Marketing Management

Loyalty index

Frequency of listenership of a particular broadcast station.

L

Marketing Management

Loyalty Programs

Programs which seek to identify, maintain and increase the yield from best customers through long-term, interactive, valueadded relationships where recognition and reward is based on activity level.

Page 162 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

L

Marketing Management

Loyalty

A measure of the preference consumers have for a product or service compared to other similar, available options. This is often measured in terms of repeat purchase behavior or price sensitivity.

L

Marketing Management

LTV

Long Term Value.

M

Marketing Management

Macro Environment

The external factors which affect a company's planning and performance, and are beyond its control: for example, socioeconomic, legal and technological change. Compare 'micro environment'

M

Marketing Management

Macro Environment

The external factors, such as socio-economic, legal and technological forces that can impact the success of an organization's business and marketing strategies.

M

Marketing Management

Macro Factors

Those factors affecting an organisation which are beyond the control of that organisation but which the organisation must take account of.

M

Marketing Management

Macro forecasting

Macro forecasting is concerned with forecasting markets in total. This is about determining the existing level of Market Demand and considering what will happen to market demand in the future.

M

Marketing Management

Macromarketing

A type of marketing in which a company adapts itself to uncontrollable factors within the industry.

Page 163 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Mail panels

Groups of consumers selected to represent a market or market segment who agree to be regularly interviewed by mail.

M

Marketing Management

Mail-in premium

A premium obtained by mailing in a suitable response to the manufacturer or distributor, with or without money.

M

Marketing Management

Mailing Preference Service (MPS)

A database of individual home addresses where the occupiers have elected not to receive unsolicited direct (marketing) mail.

M

Marketing Management

Mail-order advertising Advertising which supplies paperwork for the purpose of soliciting a purchase made through the mail.

M

Marketing Management

Mail-Order House

An establishment primarily engaged in distributing merchandise through the mail as a result of orders received.

M

Marketing Management

Mailshot

Sending letters to a target audience - i.e. distribution of information to potential customers via the post with the purpose of increasing sales and profit.

M

Marketing Management

Make good

(1) To present a commercial announcement after it ‖s scheduled time because of an error. (2) To rerun a commercial announcement because of technical difficulties the previous time it was run. (3) To rerun a print advertisement due to similar circumstances.

Page 164 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Mall Intercept

A method of data collection in which interviewers in a shopping mall stop or intercept individuals passing by to ask if they would be willing to participate in a research study.

M

Marketing Management

Management by Exception

A leadership style wherein sales managers intervene only when their salespeople have failed to meet performance standards.

M

Marketing Management

Management A set of procedures and methods for the regular, planned collection, analysis, and presentation of information for use in Information Systems making management decisions.

M

Marketing Management

Manual Submission

That addition of a URL to a search engine directory individually by hand.

M

Marketing Management

Manufacturer brand

Manufacturer brands are created by producers and bear their chosen brand name. The producer is responsible for marketing the brand. The brand is owned by the producer. By building their brand names, manufacturers can gain widespread distribution (for example by retailers who wants to sell the brand) and build customer.

M

Marketing Management

Manufacturer‘s Agent

An independent business person who is paid a commission to sell a manufacturer's product(s) or service(s) but does not receive a title to the products.

M

Marketing Management

Margin

The difference between the selling price and total unit costs for an item.

Page 165 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Marginal analysis

Technique of setting the advertising budget by assuming the point at which an additional dollar spent on advertising equals additional profit.

M

Marketing Management

Marginal Cost

Marginal cost is the extra cost of making one extra unit. It is, for example, the difference in total costs when you produce 101 units instead of 100.

M

Marketing Management

Marginal Pricing

Marginal Pricing, looks at sales forecasts and sets a price based on the lower marginal costs which can be achieved in the future. This enables you to set prices below competitors.

M

Marketing Management

Marginal Revenue

The net change in total revenue that results from producing and marketing one additional unit.

M

Marketing Management

Marginal Unit

The last unit in a series of items.

M

Marketing Management

Markdown

The amount of a reduction from the selling price of an item.

M

Marketing Management

Marker leader

The business in a market with the largest market share. The market leader, particularly one with a dominant market share, is often ―followed‖ by competitors in terms of pricing and product strategy.

Page 166 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Market

A market is the demand for a particular product or service, often measured by sales during a specified period.

M

Marketing Management

Market Analysis

Research used to assist in predicting the direction of the markets based on technical data relating to price movements of the market, or on fundamental data such as corporate earnings.

M

Marketing Management

Market Area

A regional area from which one can expect the greatest demand for a specific product or service.

M

Marketing Management

Market Attractiveness

A measure of the profit potential inherent in the structure of a market or industry which is determined by factors including: growth rate, market size, economy, technology, environment, etc.

M

Marketing Management

Market challenger

A business in a market that is fighting hard to increase its market share.

M

Marketing Management

Market concentration is the proportion of market value that is owned by the leading brands or products/companies in the market. Where the market leaders own a large part of the overall market, the market is said to be highly concentrated. By Market concentration contrast, where the market leader has a relatively small market share and there are many other competitors, a market is said to be "fragmented".

M

Marketing Management

Market Coverage

Ensuring that the product is made available through appropriate intermediaries so that: (a) the potential customer can access it as easily as possible; and (b) the product is properly displayed, sold and supported within the channel of distribution.

Page 167 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Market Demand

The total volume of a given product or service bought by a specific group of customers in a specified market area, within a defined period of time.

M

Marketing Management

Market development

The process of growing sales by offering existing products (or new versions of them) to new customer groups (as opposed to simply attempting to increase the company‘s share of current markets).

M

Marketing Management

Market Economy

An economy that allocates resources primarily through the interaction of individuals (households) and private firms.

M

Marketing Management

Market entry

The launch of a new product into a new or existing market. A different strategy is required depending on whether the product is an early or late entrant to the market; the first entrant usually has an automatic advantage, while later entrants need to demonstrate that their products are better, cheaper and so on.

M

Marketing Management

Market Extension

The process of growing sales by offering existing or modified products to new market segments.

M

Marketing Management

Market follower

A firm that is happy to follow the leaders in a market place without challenging them, perhaps taking advantages of opportunities created by leaders without the need for much marketing investment of its own - see also 'market challenger' and 'market leader'.

M

Marketing Management

Market Fragmentation

A term used to describe a market which has many different clearly identifying segments.

Page 168 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Market Leader

Seller of the product or service with the largest market share in its field - see also 'market challenger' and 'market follower'

M

Marketing Management

Market Penetration

The attempt to grow one's business by obtaining a larger market share in an existing market - see 'market share' and 'market development'

M

Marketing Management

Market positioning

A marketing strategy that will position a business‘ products and services against those of its competitors in the minds of consumers.

M

Marketing Management

Market Profile

A summary of the characteristics of a market, including information of typical purchasers and competitors, and often general information on the economy and retailing patterns of an area.

M

Marketing Management

Market Reports

Provides information on markets, their size, structure, key players, their market share, trends, prices and more. These reports are published annually and are available as secondary sources.

M

Marketing Management

Market research

The systematic gathering, recording and analysing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.

M

Marketing Management

Market segment

A customer group within the market that has special characteristics which are significant to marketing strategy.

Page 169 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Market segmentation

Segmentation involves subdividing markets, channels or customers into groups with different needs, to deliver tailored propositions which meet these needs as precisely as possible.

M

Marketing Management

Market share

Market share can be defined as the percentage of all sales within a market that is held by one brand / product or company.

M

Marketing Management

Market targeting

Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment and selecting the most attractive segments to enter with a particular product or product line.

M

Marketing Management

Market Testing

The phase of new product development in which a new product and its marketing plan are tested together in a manner that simulates the eventual marketing of the product.

M

Marketing Management

Market Value Added (MVA)

Market Value Added (MVA) is the difference between the equity market valuation of a listed/quoted company and the sum of the adjusted book value of debt and equity invested in the company.

M

Marketing Management

Marketer

Traditionally, "marketing" has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers (or potential producers) of a product or service with customers, both existing and potential. This general definition fails to provide any direction to someone hoping to market his products or services effectively.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing

The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time‖.

Page 170 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Acronyms Usually, abbreviations such as YUPPIE, BUPPIE, and GLAM. See individual acronyms for a description.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing audit

A systematic examination of a business‘s marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities with a view to identifying key strategic issues, threats and opportunities.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Calendar

A tool for marketers to track a campaign along a timeline.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Channel

A set of institutions necessary to transfer the title to goods and to move goods from the point of consumption. (Vendors, publishers, library facilities.)

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Communications

All methods used by a firm to communicate with its customers and prospective customers.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing concept

The marketing concept is about matching a business‘ capabilities with customer wants.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Cost Analysis

An attempt to determine the actual costs incurred for marketing and distributing a product.

Page 171 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Ethics

The use of moral codes, values, and standards to determine whether marketing actions are right or wrong.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing firm

A business that affects the distribution and sales of goods and services from producer to consumer; including products or service development, pricing, packaging, advertising, merchandising, and distribution.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Information

Any information used or required to support marketing decisions - often drawn from a computerised 'Marketing Information System'.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing intelligence The composite of all data and ideas available within an organisation that assists in decision-making.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Management

The process of setting marketing objectives for an organization, the planning and execution of activities to meet these objectives, and measuring progress toward their achievement.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Manager

A generic title for the line executive responsible for designated marketing functions such as marketing research, product planning , pricing, distribution, and the promotion mix. This individual may also coordinate activities with other departments that p

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Metrics

Measurements that help with the quantification of marketing performance, such as market share, advertising spend, and response rates elicited by advertising and direct marketing

Page 172 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Mix

The combination of marketing inputs that affect customer motivation and behaviour. These inputs traditionally encompass four controllable variables 'the 4 Ps': product, price, promotion and place. The list has subsequently been extended to 7 Ps, the additions being people, process and 'physical evidence'.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Myopia

Lack of vision on the part of companies, particularly in failing to spot customers' desires through excessive product focus. Term derives from the title of a seminal article by Theodore Levitt published in Harvard Business Review in 1960.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Objectives

A statement setting forth the specific marketing goals to be accomplished. Objectives can be stated in such terms as products sold, the number of trial purchases, the number of repeat purchases, audience reached, and percentage of the audience made aware of the product.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Opportunity

An attractive arena of relevant marketing action in which a particular organization is likely to enjoy a superior and competitive advantage.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Orientation

A business strategy whereby customers' needs and wants, as identified by the marketing function, determine corporate direction.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing plan

A detailed statement (usually prepared annually) of how a company's marketing mix will be used to achieve its market objectives. A marketing plan is usually prepared following a marketing audit.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Planning

The selection and scheduling of activities to support the company's chosen marketing strategy or goals. See also 'marketing strategy'.

Page 173 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Research

See 'market research'

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Return on Investment (MROI)

See Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI).

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Services

An inclusive term that refers to various sets of marketing specific functions such design, public relations, tradeshow management, etc.

M

Marketing Management

Marketing Strategy

The set of objectives which an organisation allocates to its marketing function in order to support the overall corporate strategy, together with the broad methods chosen to achieve these objectives.

M

Marketing Management

Markup

The difference between the merchandise cost and the retail price.

M

Marketing Management

Maslow‘s Need Hierarchy

A popular theory of human motivation developed by Abraham Maslow, suggesting that humans satisfy their needs in a sequential order beginning with physiological needs, and ranging through safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and lastly

M

Marketing Management

Mass Markets

Markets which include a very large number of potential and actual customers - e.g. the fast moving consumer goods market.

Page 174 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Mass Media

Communication technology such as radio, television, internet, etc. that can reach mass populations.

M

Marketing Management

Master tape

The finished, edited, videotape of a program or project.

M

Marketing Management

Materialism

A desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters.

M

Marketing Management

Materiality

The FTC theoretically will not regulate a deceptive advertisement unless the deceptive claim is also material. This means, in simple terms, that the claim must be important to consumers, rather than trivial. The FTC requires that the deception be likely to affect consumers' "choice of, or conduct regarding, a product."

M

Marketing Management

Materials Handling

A term applied to the study of physical flow in a logistics system.

M

Marketing Management

Materials Management

Either an organizational component or an approach to managing the material flow process of a business.

M

Marketing Management

Matrix Organization

Any organizational structure in which a project manager shares responsibility with a functional manager for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to a project.

Page 175 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Matte shot

A camera shot made with a matte or mask in part of the frame to allow another shot to be printed in the opaque area.

M

Marketing Management

Maturity Stage of Product Life Cycle

Initial rapid growth is over and use/sales level off. microenvironment The set of forces close to an organization that have direct impact on its ability to serve its customers, including channel member organizations, competitors, user markets, publics and the capabilities of the organization.

M

Marketing Management

McKinsey Seven S's A framework for considering business strategy with reference to seven interrelated, aspects of the organisation: Systems, of Management (or 7Structure, Skills, Style, Staff, Strategy, and Shared values. S Model)

M

Marketing Management

MDSS

Marketing Decision Support System.

M

Marketing Management

Me Too Product

A similar type of product.

M

Marketing Management

Measurement

See 'marketing metrics'

M

Marketing Management

Mechanical (pasteup)

A finished layout that is photographed for offset printing.

Page 176 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Media

The forms of publication. Traditional advertising media include newspapers, magazines, billboards, radio and television. Digital interactive advertising media started with the Internet, accessed at an indoor computer, but is quickly spreading to television, cellular devices and outdoor locations.

M

Marketing Management

Media analysis

Media analysis is a term used in advertising. It refers to an investigation into the relative effectiveness and the relative costs of using the various advertising media in an advertising campaign.

M

Marketing Management

Media buyer

An individual working directly for an advertiser, or for an advertising agency, charged with the responsibility of purchasing advertising space. An interactive media buyer makes online ad space purchases, sometimes through an ad network.

M

Marketing Management

Media buying service Agency that specializes in the services of media buying.

M

Marketing Management

Media concentration theory

Technique of scheduling media that involves buying space in one medium only and developing strength through concentration.

M

Marketing Management

Media dominance theory

Technique of scheduling media that involves buying a large amount of space in one medium, and shifting to another medium after achieving optimum coverage and frequency.

M

Marketing Management

Media Kit

A package of promotional materials relating to a specific advertising media vehicle, including a rate card, audience statistics, case studies showing success stories, and related materials showing the value of the medium.

Page 177 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Media Marketing

A term coined by Suasion Resources to describe its proprietary alternative to traditional public relations, a cost-effective method that uses highly concentrated efforts to garner targeted media coverage.

M

Marketing Management

Media Mix

The specific combination of various advertising media (including network television, local television, magazines, newspapers, etc.) used by a particular advertiser and the advertising budget to be allocated to each medium.

M

Marketing Management

Media Neutral Planning

A customer focussed review of media options during communications planning based on research, analysis and insight, not habit and preference

M

Marketing Management

Media plan

A plan designed to select the proper demographics for an advertising campaign through proper media selection.

M

Marketing Management

Media planning

The process that directs advertising messages to the right people in the right place at the right time.

M

Marketing Management

Media Relations

The set of activities involved in working with the media to generate publicity for a product, service, or organization.

M

Marketing Management

Media Representatives

A person or company specializing in selling time or space in advertising vehicles to advertisers and advertising agencies.

Page 178 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Media research

A study of radio, television and print media for the purpose of reaching the optimal consumer audience.

M

Marketing Management

Media Schedule

A specific schedule that shows the media vehicles to be used during an advertising campaign including dates, positions in the publication, and size of ad space or duration of commercials.

M

Marketing Management

Media strategy

A plan of action by an advertiser for bringing advertising messages to the attention of consumers through the use of appropriate media.

M

Marketing Management

Media Weight

A measure of the amount of advertising media used in an advertising campaign. This can be expressed in terms of dollar amounts, gross rating points, circulation data, etc.

M

Marketing Management

Medium (plural, Media)

A vehicle or group of vehicles used to convey information, news, entertainment, and advertising messages to an audience. These include television, cable television, magazines, radio, billboards, etc.

M

Marketing Management

Mercantilism

An economic philosophy of the 16th and 17th centuries that international commerce should primarily serve to increase a country's financial wealth, especially of gold and foreign currency. To that end, exports are viewed as desirable and imports as undesir

M

Marketing Management

Merchandise Classification

A subdivision of a selling department; a dissection of a department's inventory, purchase, and/or sales figures for the purpose of closer control.

Page 179 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Merchandise Control The determination and direction of merchandising activities, both in terms of dollars and units.

M

Marketing Management

Merchandise Mix

The ratio of the types, styles, sizes, colors, prices, etc. to the quantities of the merchandise kept in a store to satisfy its target market.

M

Marketing Management

Merchandising the advertising

The promoting of a firm‖s advertising abilities to distributors.

M

Marketing Management

Merchant

A business unit that buys, takes title to, and resells merchandise.

M

Marketing Management

Merger/Acquisition

Merger: the formation of one company from two existing companies. Acquisition: one company acquiring control of another by purchase of a majority shareholding.

M

Marketing Management

Meta Search Engine

A search engine that displays results from multiple search engines.

M

Marketing Management

Meta Tags

HTML coding which the user does not see, used to describe various features of a Web page.

Page 180 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

An urban area with a population of at least 50,000 that is designated by the Office of Management and Budget for statistical reporting purposes and used in audience measurement studies. This is generally synonymous with the former term Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.

M

Marketing Management

Micro Environment

The immediate context of a company's operations, including such elements as suppliers, customers and competitors compare 'macro environment'

M

Marketing Management

Micro Factors

The elements of the environment within which an organisation operates for which it has a significant degree of control. E.g. its products or services, its staff.

M

Marketing Management

Micro forecasting

Micro forecasting is concerned with detailed unit sales forecasts. This is about determining a product‘s market share in a particular industry and considering what will happen to that market share in the future.

M

Marketing Management

Micromarketing

The activities a firm practices in order to react controllably to external forces, e.g., setting objectives and selecting target markets.

M

Marketing Management

Middle Class

The social class between the lower class and upper class.

M

Marketing Management

Middleman

slang description for a person who acts to bring together the parties to a transaction.

Page 181 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Milline rate

Used to determine the cost effectiveness of advertising in a newspaper; reached by multiplying the cost per agate line by one million, then dividing by the circulation. Also referred to as Milline.

M

Marketing Management

Mind-share

The share of a distributor's mind that your product or service gets. Winning the battle for the distributor's share of mind can be more important than many other marketing strategies. It requires the maintenance of high levels of motivation among distributors so that they are interested in and motivated by your products or services.

M

Marketing Management

Minimum Charge

The lowest price at which a carrier will accept a shipment for delivery.

M

Marketing Management

MIS

Marketing Information Systems should provide all the information for effective marketing decisions. This will vary from market research to reading the paper but it must be recorded and be available.

M

Marketing Management

Mission

A mission describes the organisation‘s basic function in society, in terms of the products and services it produces for its customers.

M

Marketing Management

Mission statement

A mission statement is a formal description of the mission of a business.

M

Marketing Management

Mixed Bundling

The practice of offering for sale two or more products or services at individual prices or for one price.

Page 182 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

MMS

Multimedia Message Service. Text, audio, graphic and video messages sent by mobile phones, or other compatible devices, over a wireless network.

M

Marketing Management

Mobile billboard

Wrap advertising is the practice of completely covering (wrapping) a vehicle in an advertisement or livery. Large vehicles effectively become "mobile billboards" afterward. This can be achieved by simply painting the vehicle surface, but it is becoming more common today to use large vinyl sheets used as decals.

M

Marketing Management

Model Stock List

An assortment of fashion merchandise indicating in very general terms (colors, sizes, etc.) what should be carried in a particular merchandise category.

M

Marketing Management

Models (or Marketing simulation of scenarios based on different assumptions about changes to the macro environment and micro environment. See Models) also 'macro environment' and 'micro environment'

M

Marketing Management

Modular Training

A training programme that is studied over a period of time, delivered in modules that are linked together

M

Marketing Management

Monetary Policy

A macroeconomic policy tool used to influence interest rates, inflation, and credit availability through changes in the supply of money available in the economy.

M

Marketing Management

Monopoly

A market situation where one firm markets all the goods or services available and can significantly influence price.

Graphical representations of a process designed to aid in understanding and/or forecasting. Computerised models allow the

Page 183 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Mood

An emotional state of an individual at a particular point in time.

M

Marketing Management

Mood Board

A visual illustration tool used either to represent the atmosphere or feel of an intended advertisement, or to research a consumer‘s experience of a brand or product.

M

Marketing Management

MOSAIC

Geodemographic segmentation model classifying neighbourhoods into 10 lifestyle types ie: Elite Suburbs; Average Areas; Luxury Flats.

M

Marketing Management

Motivation

The positive or negative needs, goals, desires and forces that impel an individual toward or away from certain actions, activities, objects or conditions. The inner needs and wants of an individual what affects behavior.

M

Marketing Management

Motivation research

Used to investigate the psychological reasons why individuals buy specific types of merchandise, or why they respond to specific advertising appeals, to determine the base of brand choices and product preferences.

M

Marketing Management

Mousetrapping

The use of browser tricks to keep a visitor on a website, such as disabling the back button or generating repeated pop-up windows.

M

Marketing Management

Ms – Resources

What a manager needs to do his/her job. Marketing plans must contain at least three resources - 3Ms Men, Money and Minutes. Men means men and women, money means budgets and minutes means time.

Page 184 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

MSRP

M

Marketing Management

Multi-Brand Strategy In this strategy, the company has more than one brand of product, each competing with one other, in a given market.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-channel marketing

When a business distributes its products through more than one distribution channel, this is known as multi-channel marketing. Retail chains, for example Argos, besides using the shops to distribute their products, quite often also use catalogue selling. The main purpose of multi-channel marketing is to more effectively reach different customer segments.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-Channel Network

Basically mixes different distribution channels together - some direct and others indirect. This can involve the supplier's own sales force as well as a network of intermediaries and their sales forces.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-Channel Systems

Basically mixes different distribution channels together using both direct and indirect channels. This can involve the supplier's own sales force as well as a network of intermediaries and their sales forces. See channel conflict.

M

Marketing Management

Multidimensional Scaling

A measurement approach in which people's perceptions of the similarity of objects and their preferences among the objects are measured. These relationships are then plotted in a multidimensional space to form an illustration.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-level Marketing

Network retailing; network marketing; multi-level marketing. This is where sales people recruit other salespeople so that they sell for them and so on.

An acronym for Manufacturers Suggested Retail Price.

Page 185 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-Level Selling

Selling by products and services by more than one level of Direct Sellers with elements of the sale reward being given upward to the originator(s) of the Direct Seller and not being a Pyramid Scheme as defined by the Fair Trading Act 1986.

M

Marketing Management

Multimedia presentation

A speech that uses computer software to combine several kinds of visual and/or audio aids in the same talk.

M

Marketing Management

Multinational

An organisation which operates in several countries.

M

Marketing Management

Multiple Channels

Selling and distributing to customers directly, as well as distributing through vending machines, independent retailers and mainstream retail chains. See channel conflict.

M

Marketing Management

Multiple Purpose Trip

A key concept in central place theory that argues consumers prefer to visit more than one store per trip, generating positive externalities for neighboring stores.

M

Marketing Management

Multiple-Unit Pricing

The combination of several like products, involving a slightly different markup than is obtained when the items are sold separately.

M

Marketing Management

Multi-segment strategy

A strategy by which a business directs its marketing efforts towards two or more market segments by developing a marketing mix for each.

Page 186 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

M

Marketing Management

Mutual Benefit

The outcome of an action whereby all parties involved are subsequently better off.

M

Marketing Management

Mystery Shoppers

Customer service can be measured by fake customers (mystery shoppers) who report directly back to the organisation.

N

Marketing Management

NAB

National Association of Broadcasters. An association whose membership is largely composed of radio and television stations.

N

Marketing Management

NAD

National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. This organization serves as a major self-regulatory mechanism for advertising.

N

Marketing Management

NARB

National Advertising Review Board of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. When an alleged problem arises with an advertisement, and a satisfactory solution is not obtained via the NAD, above, the NARB acts in the capacity of an appeals board. It reviews the decision of the NAD, and passes judgment on it.

N

Marketing Management

Narrowcasting

Using a broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests. For example, the "All Knitting Station" would be a narrowcast, because it appeals to an audience with a specific interest.

N

Marketing Management

National Account

A prospect or customer with locations in several sales territories that are sold, using a coordinated national strategy rather than strategies that focus on specific locations.

Page 187 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

National advertising

Advertising which is aimed at a National Market, as opposed to Local Advertising.

N

Marketing Management

National brand

A nationally distributed product brand name. May also be distributed regionally or locally.

N

Marketing Management

National Change of Address (NCOA)

Database that helps locate forwarding addresses.

N

Marketing Management

National Character

The values, beliefs, and personality characteristics that describe the people of a country in general terms.

N

Marketing Management

National Readership Survey (NRS)

A commercial organisation which provides estimates of the number and nature of the people reading UK newspapers and consumer magazines.

N

Marketing Management

Nationalism

A devotion and allegiance to a group defined by the shared characteristics of a race, language, history, or culture.

N

Marketing Management

Natural Environment

The physical forces in nature including climate, weather, and natural resources that affect a firm's market or its ability to carry out marketing activities.

Page 188 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

Navigation

Elements of a web site that facilitate movement from one page to another.

N

Marketing Management

Near Environment

The Near Environment is closer to the organisation than the Far Environment (see STEP1). Although external to the organisation the Near Environment is close to the organisation and it includes STEP2 variables: Structure of the Industry, Trends in the Market Place, Micro Economic and Power Forces shaping the industry.

N

Marketing Management

Near-pack (Near Pack Premium)

An item offered free or at a discount with the purchase of another product. The item can be positioned close to but may not touch the purchased product. A type of product promotion.

N

Marketing Management

Negative

Developed film that contains an image that has reversed shadows and light areas.

N

Marketing Management

Negative Advertising

The use of advertising messages that concentrate on pointing out undesirable aspects of competing products, services, organizations, or ideas.

N

Marketing Management

Negligence

Failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances.

N

Marketing Management

Negotiation

The process of trying to find mutually agreeable terms in an exchange. Negotiation leads either to mutually acceptable terms or a decision not to transact.

Page 189 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

Net cost

The costs associated with services rendered by an advertising agency excluding the agency commission.

N

Marketing Management

Net Operating Income

Net sales less net cost of goods sold and operating expenses.

N

Marketing Management

Net Present Value

The future stream of benefits and costs converted into equivalent values today. This is done by assigning monetary values to benefits and costs, discounting future benefits and costs using an appropriate discount rate, and subtracting the sum total of dis

N

Marketing Management

Net promoter score (NPS)

Percentage of promoters minus percentage of detractors.

N

Marketing Management

Net Terms

Terms calling for the billed amount of the invoice that do not include cash discounts.

N

Marketing Management

Net unduplicated audience

The combined cumulative audience exposed to an advertisement.

N

Marketing Management

Network

A national or regional group of affiliated broadcast stations contractually bound to distribute radio or television programs for simultaneous transmission.

Page 190 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

Network Effect

The phenomenon whereby a service becomes more valuable as more people use it, encouraging even greater numbers of adopters.

N

Marketing Management

Network option time

Programming time the network controls on each of its affiliate stations. Also referred to as network time.

N

Marketing Management

Neuromarketing

Technique to quantify how consumers will respond to brands and advertising. The brain is mapped, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), to record conscious and subconscious responses to advertising, products or brands.

N

Marketing Management

New product

A new product can be defined as a good, service or idea that is ―perceived‖ by some potential customers as new. It may have been available for some time, but many potential customers have not yet adopted the product nor decided to become a regular user of the product.

N

Marketing Management

New Product Development (NPD)

The creation of new products, from evaluation of proposals through to launch.

N

Marketing Management

News Clip

A type of film presentation in which editorial content is controlled by the sponsor and is provided to broadcast media for their use as deemed appropriate.

News release

# A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. Typically, it is mailed or faxed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, and/or television networks. Commercial newswire services are also used to distribute news releases. Sometimes news releases are sent for the purpose of announcing news conferences.

N

Marketing Management

Page 191 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

Newsletter

A periodically distributed publication focusing on a specific subject and containing articles and information that are of interest to its subscribers. Newsletters are a popular vehicle for communicating with audiences in the financial marketing arena.

N

Marketing Management

Newsprint

A soft, course wood pulp paper used in printing newspapers.

N

Marketing Management

Niche marketing

Niche marketing refers to the exploitation of comparatively small market segments by businesses that decide to concentrate their efforts. Niche segments exist in nearly all markets – for example the self-build sports car segment of the motor industry.

N

Marketing Management

Niche Strategy

A plan employed by a firm that specializes in serving particular market segments in order to avoid conflicting with the major competitors in the market.

N

Marketing Management

Nielsen rating

A measurement of the percentage of U.S. television households tuned to a network program for a minute of its telecast.

N

Marketing Management

NILKIE

No Income, Lots of Kids - a demographic grouping.

N

Marketing Management

Noframes tags

Coding used to render text visible only to non-frames-capable browsers. A typical Website visitor therefore most likely would not see the text set off by the tags- but a search engine spider would, since most spiders can't crawl frames.

Page 192 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

Nominal Scale

A measurement scale in which numbers are used to classify, name or label an individual, attribute or category.

N

Marketing Management

Noncommercial advertising

Radio and television advertising that is designed to educate and promote ideas or institutions, e.g., public service announcements.

N

Marketing Management

Nondurable Good

A product that is rather quickly consumed or worn out, or becomes dated, unfashionable, or in some other way no longer popular.

N

Marketing Management

Non-personal communication

Methods of promotion that do not generate any personal feedback. Advertising is the best example of this.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Price Competition

The competition among firms on the basis of variables other than price, such as quality, brand, assortment, or services.

N

Marketing Management

Nonprobability Sample

A sample selected without regard to the laws of mathematical probability.

N

Marketing Management

Nonprofit Marketing

The marketing of a product or service in which the offer itself is not intended to make a monetary profit for the marketer.

Page 193 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Profit Organization

An incorporated organization which exists for educational or charitable reasons, and from which its shareholders or trustees do not benefit financially.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Store Retailing

A form of retailing in which consumer contact occurs outside of a retail store, such as vending machines, online shopping, at home personal selling, and catalog buying.

N

Marketing Management

Non-Verbal Communications

The non spoken forms of expression that communicate thought and emotion including body language, space between the communicators, speech, and appearance.

N

Marketing Management

Normal goods

Normal goods have a positive income elasticity of demand so as income rise more is demand at each price level.

N

Marketing Management

Norms

Statistics or tabular data that summarize the distribution of test performance for one or more specified groups, such as participants of various ages or grades. Norms are usually designed to represent some larger population, such as participants throughou

N

Marketing Management

Northern Light

An older search engine, once very popular.

N

Marketing Management

Noscript tags

As is the case with noframe tags, coding used to render text visible only to browsers that are not using JavaScript. A typical consumer most likely would not see the text set off by the noscript tags, but a search engine spider would.

Page 194 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

O & O station

Radio and television stations owned and operated by a network.

O

Marketing Management

Objection

A concern or question raised by a prospect to a salesperson during an interaction.

O

Marketing Management

Objectives

Measurable aims of a business set for a given period (e.g. marketing objectives for the next year).

O

Marketing Management

Observation

A method of data collection in which the situation of interest is watched and the relevant facts, actions, or behaviors are recorded.

O

Marketing Management

Observation Error

A non-sampling error that arises because inaccurate information is secured from sample elements or because errors are introduced in the processing of data or in reporting the findings.

O

Marketing Management

Observation method

A research technique in which the behavior of research subjects is watched and recorded without any direct contact or interaction.

O

Marketing Management

Obsolescence

The act or process of a product's becoming out-of-date, discarded, or no longer in use.

Page 195 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Occasion segmentation

A basis of segmenting a market based on occasions when buyers get the idea to make a purchase, actually buy, or use a purchased item.

O

Marketing Management

Odd Lot

Dealing with broken lots or unbalanced assortments that have been reduced in price for quick turnover.

O

Marketing Management

Off card

Refers to advertising time sold at a rate that does not appear on the rate card.

O

Marketing Management

Offensive Marketing

A competitive marketing strategy, the purpose of which is to win market share away from other players in the market.

O

Marketing Management

Offer

The terms and conditions (price, quantity, delivery date, etc.) under which a product or service is presented for sale to potential customers in direct response advertising.

O

Marketing Management

Off-Invoice Allowance

A type of trade sales promotion in which a manufacturer offers the retailer a price reduction on a product‘s price at the time of billing, usually for a limited period of time.

O

Marketing Management

Off-Retail Percentage

A markdown as a percentage of the original price. For example, an item originally retails for $20 and is marked down to $10, the off-retail percentage would be 50%.

Page 196 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Offset lithography

A planographic printing process. A photographic image from a printing plate is transferred to a rubber blanket, which, in turn, transfers or prints the image onto the paper.

O

Marketing Management

OINK

One income, no kids - a demographic grouping.

O

Marketing Management

OLAP

Acronym for Online Analytical Processing, which allows the user to quickly analyze information that has been summarized into multidimensional views and hierarchies.

O

Marketing Management

Oligopolistic Competition

A market condition in which only a few large sellers account for a relatively large market share.

O

Marketing Management

Oligopoly

Where market availability is held by a limited number of firms.

O

Marketing Management

On Order

When a retailer has financially committed to the purchase of merchandise that is yet to be received.

O

Marketing Management

On-air tests

Tests recall among viewers of a commercial or program during a real broadcast of the tested communication.

Page 197 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

One-Price Policy

A policy that, at a given time, all customers pay the same price for a given item of merchandise.

O

Marketing Management

One-To-One Marketing

A marketing technique in which each customer has direct input into the way a company interacts with him.

O

Marketing Management

Online Learning

Course material accessed via the internet or a company intranet

O

Marketing Management

Online Marketing

Communications and marketing initiatives that employ the Internet and e-mail based tools of a marketing campaign, such as banner ads, e-mail marketing, search engine optimization, Pay-Per-Click advertising.

O

Marketing Management

On-pack (On-pack Premium)

Used to promote sales of a product. Discount coupons or gifts that are attached to or accompany the product to be purchased.

O

Marketing Management

On-Pack Offers

A sales promotion on a pack.

O

Marketing Management

OPAL

Older People with Active Lifestyles - a demographic grouping.

Page 198 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Open Account

The sale of goods on credit. The seller gives the buyer no written evidence of indebtedness.

O

Marketing Management

Open Dating

The practice of putting information on a product that reveals the date beyond which it should no longer be sold or used (applies primarily to perishable products).

O

Marketing Management

Open Directory Project

A large directory of websites run by volunteers. Their data-base is used by many website across the internet.

O

Marketing Management

Open end

(1) Time left at the end of a commercial or program which is provided for the use of local advertising or station identification. (2) A radio or television program with no specific time to end.

O

Marketing Management

Open Order

An order sent by a store to a market representative to be placed with any vendor the rep finds who can best fill it.

O

Marketing Management

Open rate

The open rate is the percentage of e-mails that are opened by your subscribers.

O

Marketing Management

Open Stock

The items kept on hand in retail stores and sold either in complete sets or in separate pieces.

Page 199 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Open-Ended Question

O

Marketing Management

Operant Conditioning The process of altering the probability of a behavior being emitted by changing the consequences of the behavior.

O

Marketing Management

Operational Definition A definition of a construct that describes the operations to be carried out in order for the construct to be measured empirically.

O

Marketing Management

Opinion

A belief or emotionally neutral thought an individual holds about some aspect or object in the environment.

O

Marketing Management

Opinion Leader

Not all individuals in a group or all consumers in a society wield equal personal influence on the attitudes, opinions, and behavior of others.

O

Marketing Management

Opportunities

Opportunities are any feature of the external environment which creates conditions that a business can exploit to its advantage. If the business is successful in exploiting opportunities, then it will be better placed to achieve its objectives.

O

Marketing Management

Opportunity Cost

The cost of passing up the next best choice when making a decision. For example, if an asset such as capital is used for one purpose, the opportunity cost is the value of the next best purpose the asset could have been used for. Opportunity cost analysis

A question characterized by the condition that respondents are free to reply in their own words rather than being limited to choosing from a set of alternatives.

Page 200 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Optical Character Recognition

An industry-wide classification system for coding information onto merchandise. It enables retailers to record information on each SKU, when it is sold, and transmit the information to a computer for collection and analysis.

O

Marketing Management

Opticals

Visual effects used to instill interest as well as portray mood and continuity to a commercial. Dissolves, Cross fades, and Montages are all opticals.

O

Marketing Management

Optimization

Fine tuning a website or webpage with the ultimate goal being to as-certain a higher position in all or a specific search engine‘s results.

O

Marketing Management

Opt-In

A program where membership is restricted to users who specifically requested to take part

O

Marketing Management

Option

A contract that allows the holder to buy or sell a specific stock at a fixed price at or before a stated maturity date.

O

Marketing Management

Opt-Out

A type of program that assumes inclusion unless stated otherwise. The term also refers to the process of removing one's name from a program.

O

Marketing Management

ORCHID

One recent child, heavily in debt – a demographic grouping.

Page 201 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Order Entry

The beginning phase of the order cycle process. Order entry refers to the process of actually entering an order into the seller's order processing system.

O

Marketing Management

Order Getter

A sales representative who likes to go after and 'get' new business. An 'order taker', on the other hand, is a sales representative who likes to service existing customers.

O

Marketing Management

Order processing

Selling, mostly at the wholesale and retail levels, that involves identifying customer needs, pointing them out to customers, and completing orders.

O

Marketing Management

Order Register

A form or computerized record of orders placed with vendors.

O

Marketing Management

Order Taker

A sales representative who likes to service existing customers. An order getter, on the other hand, is a sales representative who likes to go after and 'get' new business.

O

Marketing Management

Ordinal Scale

A measuring system in which the numbers used are monotonically related to the magnitude of the objects being measured.

O

Marketing Management

Organic A company's expansion by the growth of its activities and ploughing back of profits, rather than by mergers/acquisitions. See Growth/Development 'mergers/acquisitions'

Page 202 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Organic listings

Listings that appear on a search engine solely because of merit, applicablility, etc. In other words, listings that are not paid for; also called natural listings.

O

Marketing Management

Organisational Objectives

These are the goals of the organisation.

O

Marketing Management

Organization

The framework or structure within which people are assigned to positions and their work is completed in a coordinated manner in order to carry out plans and achieve goals.

O

Marketing Management

Organization Chart

A visual representation of an organization‘s structure. It identifies the business unit and portrays each position in relation to others.

O

Marketing Management

Organizational Behavior

The management theory and practice relating to how and why people behave as they do within organizational structures and how managers can bring about improvements in individual and group performance.

O

Marketing Management

Organized Market

A group of traders operating under recognized rules in buying and selling a single commodity or related commodities.

O

Marketing Management

OTH

Opportunities To Hear.

Page 203 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

OTR

Opportunities To Read.

O

Marketing Management

OTS

Opportunities To See is one way of measuring the size of the audience. The number of exposures or opportunities which a particular audience has to see a specific ad. An audience of seven million viewers delivers seven million OTSs.

O

Marketing Management

Out Sizes

The sizes that are either very large or very small and, if offered at all, are offered in very limited depth because of the thin market demand for them.

O

Marketing Management

Out Supplier

A firm not currently supplying the company nor currently on its approved vendor list.

O

Marketing Management

Outbound Link

Linking from our website to another website

O

Marketing Management

Outdoor advertising

Any form of advertising visible in the outdoors, such as billboards, transit cards, and even sky writing by airplanes.

O

Marketing Management

Outlet Store

A store specializing in job lots and clearance merchandise.

Page 204 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Outlier

An observation so different in magnitude from the rest of the observations that the analyst chooses to treat it as a special case.

O

Marketing Management

Out-of-home advertising

Exposure to advertising and mass media away from one's home. Included are outdoor, point-of-purchase, and radio.

O

Marketing Management

Output Evaluation Measure

An objective assessment of sales force performance including number of orders; average size of orders; number of canceled orders; and number of active, new, lost, overdue, and prospective accounts.

O

Marketing Management

Outsourcing

Acquiring inputs from outside vendors for goods and services formerly produced in-house.

O

Marketing Management

Overage

The amount by which a physical inventory exceeds book inventory figures.

O

Marketing Management

Overbought

A condition in which a buyer has become committed to purchases in excess of planned purchase allotments for a merchandising period.

O

Marketing Management

Overhead Costs

An accounting term that refers to resources covering more than one department or center in an organization.

Page 205 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

O

Marketing Management

Overlay

An image compositing method where an image is displayed over a background image.

O

Marketing Management

Overrun

Additional numbers of a print vehicle that are produced in excess of those needed for distribution. Overruns may take place to meet unexpected needs or demands.

O

Marketing Management

Overture

The most widely used pay per click search engine. Overture supplies re-sults for some of the most popular search engines and search portals, including Alta-Vista, GO, HotBot, iWon, Lycos, MSN Search and NBC.

O

Marketing Management

Ownership

The relation of an owner to the thing possessed; possession with the right to transfer possession to others.

O

Marketing Management

Own-label brand

Own-label brands are created and owned by businesses that operate in the distribution channel – often referred to as ―distributors‖. Often these distributors are retailers, but not exclusively. Sometimes the retailer‘s entire product range will be own-label. However, more often, the distributor will mix own-label and manufactures brands.

P

Marketing Management

Package

(1) A combination of programs or commercials offered by a network that is available for purchase by advertisers either singly or as a discounted package deal. (2) A merchandise enclosure or container.

P

Marketing Management

Package enclosure

Same as In-pack premium, above.

Page 206 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Package insert

Separate advertising material included in merchandise packages that advertises goods or services; also referred to as Package Stuffer.

P

Marketing Management

Packaged Good

A product that is usually sold in smaller packages, carries a low unit price, is distributed through food and drug stores, is heavily promoted and consumed frequently.

P

Marketing Management

Packaging

The activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.

P

Marketing Management

Page Rank

Part of Google's search algorithm, it measures a page's popularity and is calculated in part by analyzing the number of links to a page from other sites and factoring in the importance of those pages. The highest rank is a score of 10 out of 10. The high

P

Marketing Management

Page View

A request to load a single HTML page. Indicative of the number of times an ad was potentially seen, or ―gross impressions.‖ Page views may overstate ad impressions if users choose to turn off graphics (often done to speed browsing).

P

Marketing Management

Pagejacking

Stealing pages from other sites and using them as fodder for search engines.

P

Marketing Management

PageRank (PR)

A numerical value assigned by Google to indicate a Web page's relevance or importance. Based on a scale of 0-10, it is one of many factors that determine a Web site's placement within search engine results pages.

Page 207 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Paid Inclusion

A program that enables companies to pay for guaranteed inclusion in a search engine's organic search results.

P

Marketing Management

Paid Placement

A program that enables a company to place an online advertisement in a search engine's sponsored links section in connection with agreed upon keywords.

P

Marketing Management

Painted bulletin

A freestanding steel or wooden structure, approximately 50' wide by 15' high, with molding around the outer edges similar to a poster panel, and including a hand painted copy message. Bulletins are generally found near highways or roofs of buildings in high traffic areas.

P

Marketing Management

Pallet

A platform made out of wood or material, upon which product is stacked to provide a unit load in the transportation and distribution system.

P

Marketing Management

Panels

This includes regular and illuminated types of outdoor advertising. A regular panel is only seen during the daytime, while an illuminated panel is seen also from dusk until dawn.

P

Marketing Management

Pan-European Marketing

A marketing campaign that is aimed at the whole of Europe.

P

Marketing Management

PANSES

Politically Active and Not Seeking Employment - a demographic grouping

Page 208 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pantone Matching System (PMS)

A system that precisely characterizes a color, so that a color can be matched, even by different printers. By knowing the Pantone color specifications, a printer does not even need to see a sample of the color in order to match it.

P

Marketing Management

Parallel Importing

See 'grey marketing'

P

Marketing Management

Parallel Pricing

The practice of following the pricing practices of other organizations, particularly competitors.

P

Marketing Management

Parasite Store

A retail outlet that lives on existing traffic flow originating from circumstances other than its own promotional effort, store personality, merchandising effort, or customer service.

P

Marketing Management

Parity products

Product categories where the several brands within that category possess functionally equivalent attributes, making one brand a satisfactory substitute for most other brands in that category.

P

Marketing Management

Participation

Announcements made inside the context of a program as opposed to those shown during station breaks. (2) An announcement or amount of broadcasting time which is shared by several advertisers.

P

Marketing Management

Party Selling

A direct selling approach that involves demonstrating and selling products to a group of consumers attending a party at a neighbor's or friend's house.

Page 209 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pass Strategy

A public relations strategy designed to move past government policy makers, public interest groups, and other special interest gatekeepers in order to communicate directly with the public.

P

Marketing Management

Pass Up Method

A technique used by salespeople to respond to a prospect objections by letting the prospect talk, acknowledging that the concern was heard, and then moving on to another topic without trying to resolve the concern.

P

Marketing Management

Pass-Along Deal

A seller's offer in which an item of value such as a price reduction, gift, premium, coupon, etc., is offered to the intermediary channel member with the intent that the incentive be re-offered to others in the channel.

P

Marketing Management

Pass-along readers

A reader which becomes familiar with a publication without the purchase of a publication. These readers are taken into account when calculating the total number of readers of a publication.

P

Marketing Management

Pasteup

Preparation of type and illustrations, sometimes pasted, on flats or boards for photomechanical reproduction.

P

Marketing Management

Patent

A patent legally protects a product against being duplicated by anyone other than the patent holder for a fixed time period.

P

Marketing Management

Patronage Motives

The motives that drive an individual/user toward selection of a particular outlet, retailer, or supplier of services.

Page 210 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pay Per Click (PPC)

An online advertising payment model under which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad.

P

Marketing Management

Payback

The amount of time, usually in years, from the point of full scale market introduction of a new product until it has recovered its development and marketing costs.

P

Marketing Management

Pay-For-Inclusion

This is where a site must pay to be listed.

P

Marketing Management

Payment By Results (PBR)

Remuneration of an employee or service provider according to productivity or other measure of performance

P

Marketing Management

Payment Threshold

The minimum accumulated commission an affiliate must earn to trigger payment from an affiliate program.

P

Marketing Management

Payout planning

Approach to advertising budgeting in which the dollars spent to advertise are represented as an investment toward sales and profits.

P

Marketing Management

Pay-Per-Click

An online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying click-throughs

Page 211 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pay-Per-Sale

An online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely based on qualifying sales.

P

Marketing Management

Peer to Peer (P2P) Marketing

Technique of encouraging customers to promote your product to one another, particularly on the Internet. An example might be a web site that offers users a discount on products in return for recruiting new customers for the site. See also 'word of mouth'; 'viral marketing'.

P

Marketing Management

PEEST

Political, Economic, Environmental, Socio-cultural and Technological - a framework for viewing the macro environment. See 'macro-environment'

P

Marketing Management

Penetrated Market

Actual set of users actually consuming the product/service.

P

Marketing Management

Penetration Price Policy

A pricing policy that sets a low initial price for an item in an attempt to increase market share. The price is later revised once sufficient share is gained.

P

Marketing Management

Penetration pricing

Penetration pricing involves the setting of lower, rather than higher prices in order to achieve a large, if not dominant market share.

P

Marketing Management

Penetration strategy

A marketing strategy based on low prices and extensive advertising to increase a product's market share. For penetration strategy to be effective the market will have to be large enough for the seller to be able to sustain low profit margins.

Page 212 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Per Capita Income

The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the number of people. Per capita income is usually reported in units of currency per year.

P

Marketing Management

Per inquiry

An agreement between a media representative and an advertiser in which all advertising fees are paid based on a percentage of all money received from an advertiser's sales or inquires.

P

Marketing Management

Perceived risk

A functional or psychosocial risk a consumer feels he/she is taking when purchasing a product.

P

Marketing Management

Perceived Value Pricing

A method of pricing in which the seller attempts to set a price at the level that intended buyers value the product.

P

Marketing Management

Percentage-of-sales method

Allocating funds for promotion during a given time period based on a specified percentage of either past or forecasted sales.

P

Marketing Management

Perception

Awareness of the effects of single or multiple sensory stimuli .

P

Marketing Management

Perfect Competition

A market model that assumes pure competition, perfect knowledge, perfect freedom of movement, and perfect substitutability of production factors.

Page 213 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Performance Objectives

Specific requirements set that must be attained in order to receive some type of benefit (continued employment, monetary compensation, etc.)

P

Marketing Management

Performance Prism

A performance measurement and management framework. It addresses all of an organisation‘s stakeholders - principally investors, customers, intermediaries, employees, suppliers, regulators and communities.

P

Marketing Management

Performance Review

A session in which a manager provides an employee candid analysis of his work related performance over a given period of time.

P

Marketing Management

Permission Marketing A type of marketing that is focused on getting customer's consent to receive information from a given company or business.

P

Marketing Management

Personal Data

Data related to a living individual who can be identified from the information; includes any expression of opinion about the individual.

P

Marketing Management

Personal Influence

The affect that one individual has upon another during face-to-face interactions.

P

Marketing Management

Personal Interview

A direct, face-to-face conversation between a representative of an organization (the interviewer) and a respondent (interviewee).

Page 214 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Personal selling

Interpersonal communication, often face to face, between a sales representative and an individual or group, usually with the objective of making a sale.

P

Marketing Management

Personality

The collection of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person..

P

Marketing Management

Personalize

To add a name or other personal information about the recipient on direct mail advertising.

P

Marketing Management

Persons using television (PUT)

A percentage of all persons in a certain viewing area that are viewing television during a specific amount of time. Used by A.C. Nielson.

P

Marketing Management

Persons viewing television (PVT)

Same meaning as above, except this term is used by Arbitron.

P

Marketing Management

Persuasion

The type of speaking or writing that is intended to make its audience adopt a certain opinion or pursue an action or do both.

P

Marketing Management

Persuasion process

The process used by advertising to influence audience or prospect attitudes, especially purchase intent and product perception by appealing to reason or emotion.

Page 215 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

PEST

Political, Economic, Socio-cultural and Technological - a framework for viewing the macro environment. See also 'macroenvironment'

P

Marketing Management

Pester Power

The influence children have over purchases by adults: an influence which, controversially, advertisers may seek to stimulate

P

Marketing Management

PESTLE

Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Legal and Environmental - a framework for viewing the macro environment. See 'macro-environment'

P

Marketing Management

Phantom

An illustration showing the exterior of an object as if it were transparent, while revealing interior detailing.

P

Marketing Management

Philanthropy

Voluntary promotion of human welfare

P

Marketing Management

Photoanimation

A process of creating animation through the use of still photographs.

P

Marketing Management

Photoboards

A set of still photographs made from a television commercial, accompanied with a script, to be kept as records by an agency or client.

Page 216 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Photocomposition

A method of setting type by using negatives of the characters of film or photographic paper rather than metal type slugs, also referred to as Cold type.

P

Marketing Management

Photoengraving

(1) The process of making letterpress printing plates by photochemical means. (2) A picture printed from a plate made by this process.

P

Marketing Management

Photoplatemaking

A process which converts original art material into printing plates that are required to print ads.

P

Marketing Management

Photostat

A type of high contrast photographic negative or positive in the form of paper. Also referred to as Stat.

P

Marketing Management

Physical Distribution

A concept or approach to managing finished goods inventory that typically includes transportation, warehousing, inventory, and order processing functions.

P

Marketing Management

Physical Evidence

The elements of 'marketing mix' which customers can actually see or experience when they use a service, and which contribute to the perceived quality of the service, e.g. the physical evidence of a retail bank could include the state of the branch premises, as well as the delivery of the banking service itself.

P

Marketing Management

Physical Inventory

The determination of inventory quantity by actual count. Physical inventories can be taken on a continuous, periodic, or annual basis.

Page 217 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pica

(1) A unit of measurement for type specification and printing which measures width; 6 picas to one inch. (2) A size of type, 12 points.

P

Marketing Management

Picture window

An ad layout in which the picture is placed at the top of the page, and the copy is placed below.

P

Marketing Management

Piecemeal Processing

A cognitive process in which an individual considers each piece of information separately in order to arrive at a conclusion.

P

Marketing Management

Piggyback

(1) A direct mail offer that is included free with another offer. (2) Two commercials which are shown back-to-back by the same sponsor.

P

Marketing Management

Pilferage

The stealing of a store's merchandise.

P

Marketing Management

PIMS

Profit Impact of Marketing Strategies: a US database supplying data such as environment, strategy, competition and internal data with respect to 3000 business. This data can be used for benchmarking purposes.

P

Marketing Management

Pioneer Selling

Offering for sale a new and different product, service, or idea.

Page 218 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pioneering Stage

A nonspecific period early in the life cycle of a new type of product during which the individuals are trying to build primary demand for a product type versus particular brands.

P

Marketing Management

Pipeline

Identification of prospects who have some likelihood of converting into customers.

P

Marketing Management

Pipeline Report

Documentation of the prospects who have been engaged in sales dialogue with some opportunity of conversion to customers.

P

Marketing Management

Place

The process of getting a product from the place it was manufactured into the hands of consumers in the right location at the right time.

P

Marketing Management

Place Marketing

Marketing efforts to attract people and organizations to a particular geographic area.

P

Marketing Management

Place Utility

The increased usefulness created by making a product available at the place consumers want.

P

Marketing Management

Planned Economy

A financial system in which a governmental authority decides what, when, and how much is to be produced and distributed.

Page 219 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Planned Obsolescence

A product strategy that seeks new products that will make prior products obsolete.

P

Marketing Management

Planning

The process of anticipating future events and conditions and determining the courses of action necessary to achieve organizational objectives.

P

Marketing Management

Planogram

A visual diagram showing the physical allocation of product display space within a product grouping that is used for standardizing the presentation of merchandise.

P

Marketing Management

Plus-One Dialing

A technique used in studies employing telephone interviews in which a single randomly determined digit is added to numbers selected from the telephone directory.

P

Marketing Management

Podcast/Podcasting

Term used to define the broadcasting of multimedia files to iPods or other similar devices. Subscribers are able to view or listen to podcasts online.

P

Marketing Management

Point

(1) A small unit of measurement for type, equal to 1/72 of an inch. (2) A small unit for measuring the thickness of paper, equaling 0.001 inch.

P

Marketing Management

Point of Diminishing Return

A yield rate that after a certain point fails to increase proportionately to additional outlays of capital or investments of time and labor.

Page 220 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Point Size

P

Marketing Management

point-of-purchase (P- Signs, displays, and other techniques of attracting attention and promoting products at their location of sale. In-store advertising designed to sell more and different products to shoppers once they are in the store. O-P) advertising

P

Marketing Management

Point-of-Purchase (POP) displays

Advertising display material located at the retail store, usually placed in an area where payment is made, such as a check-out counter.

P

Marketing Management

Point-Of-Sale

The physical location at which goods are sold to customers.

P

Marketing Management

Point-Of-Sale Display Merchandising display material provided by manufacturers or distributors to retailers in order to promote particular products.

P

Marketing Management

Policy Adjustment

An exception to the usual complaint adjustment policy that is made for the purpose of retaining the customer's goodwill.

P

Marketing Management

Political Marketing

Promotional activities designed to influence target audiences to vote for a particular person, party, or proposition.

The unit of measure of printing type. Also called font size. The height of a printed character specified in points.

Page 221 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Polycentric Orientation

The unconscious bias or belief that it is necessary to adopt local culture and practices.

P

Marketing Management

Pool

A group of advertisements or commercials for a product or service that an advertiser has ready for use as part of an advertising campaign.

P

Marketing Management

Pooled Buying

The practice of independent merchants informally gathering their orders to gain preferential terms.

P

Marketing Management

Pool-Out

A commercial written in a fashion similar to an earlier commercial in an advertising campaign.

P

Marketing Management

Popularity

One of several criteria used by search engines to determine ranking in search results.

P

Marketing Management

Population

A group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed.

P

Marketing Management

Pop-under

Automatically launched internet advertisement that appears in a small window behind another webpage. See ‗Pop-up'.

Page 222 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pop-Under Ad

An online advertisement that displays in a new browser window behind the current browser window and is seen when an individual closes his/her current browser window.

P

Marketing Management

Pop-up

Automatically launched internet advertisement that appears in a small window in front of another webpage. See ‗Pop-under'.

P

Marketing Management

Pop-Up Ad

An online advertisement that displays in a new browser window without an overt action by the web site user.

P

Marketing Management

Portal

A marketing term used to describe a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a ‗Portal site‘ has a catalogue of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service

P

Marketing Management

Porter‘s Five Forces Model

An analytic model developed by Michael E. Porter. The five forces in terms of which the model analyses businesses and industries are: Buyers, Suppliers, Substitutes, New Entrants and Rivals.

P

Marketing Management

Portfolio (and Portfolio Analysis)

The set of products or services which a company decides to develop and market. Portfolio analysis is the process of comparing the contents of the portfolio to see which products or services are the most promising and deserving of further investment, and which should be discontinued.

P

Marketing Management

Portfolio planning

Portfolio planning is the process of managing groups of brands and product lines.

Page 223 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

POS - Point Of Sale

Point Of Sale (also known in the US as Point Of Purchase); whether it is a tailored display rack, dump bin, bobble card, bottle collar or something more inventive, Point Of Sale materials offer a last chance to grab a customer. Who knows what goes through a customer's mind during the last 30 seconds before a purchase? We do know it can be influenced by a clever piece of POS.

P

Marketing Management

Position Description

A written description that helps the incumbent of a position know what is expected of him or her in a given role.

P

Marketing Management

Positioning

Positioning is how a product appears in relation to other products in the market.

P

Marketing Management

Positioning strategy

A creative advertising strategy in which an advertiser implants in the consumer‘s mind a clear understanding of what the brand is and how it compares to competitive offerings.

P

Marketing Management

Positive

A photographic image which appears as the original image, as opposed to a negative which reverses the black and white.

P

Marketing Management

Possession Utility

The increased usefulness created by promotion through making it possible for a consumer to own, use, or consume a product.

P

Marketing Management

Post Buy Analysis

A comparison of the actual advertising schedule to the original expectations of the schedule as purchased, actual audience achieved as measured by audience ratings services, and conformity to standard industry practices.

Page 224 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Post Exchange

Often referred to as the PX, a retail store operated by the armed forces primarily for the convenience of military base personnel and their families.

P

Marketing Management

Post Testing

The testing of advertising effectiveness after the audience is exposed to an advertising message.

P

Marketing Management

POSTAR

Poster Audience Research - the UK Outdoor advertising industry audience measurement organisation.

P

Marketing Management

Postcards

A postcard or post card is a typically rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope and at a lower rate than a letter. It is distinguished by stamp collectors from a postal card in that the postage is preprinted on the latter, whereas a postcard requires a stamp.

P

Marketing Management

Poster panel

An outdoor billboard in which advertising is displayed on printed paper sheets rather than being painted. The most widely used form of outdoor advertising; standard size approximately 25' x 12' with the image printed on sections of 24 to 30 sheets.

P

Marketing Management

Posters

A Poster is any large piece of paper which hangs from a wall or other such surface. They are a frequent tool of advertisers, propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message, and they also see personal use by people, especially the young, who wish to decorate in a relatively low-cost manner.

P

Marketing Management

Postindustrial Society

A concept referring to the next stage in our societal evolution in which the production of knowledge will be the major activity and most employment opportunities will be in the services sector.

Page 225 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Postpone Method

A method used by salespeople to respond to prospect objections by asking permission to address the prospect's concerns at a later time.

P

Marketing Management

Postponement

This concept holds that changes in the form and identity of a product and inventory location should be moved to the latest possible point in the marketing process for purposes of reducing marketing costs.

P

Marketing Management

Posttesting

Testing the effects of an ad after it has appeared in the media.

P

Marketing Management

Potential Market

Set of users who profess some level of interest in a designed market offer.

P

Marketing Management

Potential Rating A database combining Census data, nationwide consumer surveys, and cross-country interviews with individuals into a geoIndex for Zip Markets demographic segmentation system. (PRIZM)

P

Marketing Management

Potential Value

A measure of unrealized opportunity comprised of how much of a customer's share-of-wallet is going to competitors and spending potential yet to be realized.

P

Marketing Management

Poverty Level

The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. People who have an income below the poverty line have no discretionary disposable income, by definition.

Page 226 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Pragmatic Validity

An approach measure validation based on the usefulness of the measuring instrument as a predictor of some other characteristic or behavior of an individual.

P

Marketing Management

Pre-Approach

The activities preceding a sales call which often include prospecting, collecting information, and planning the presentation.

P

Marketing Management

Predatory Pricing

The practice of selectively pricing a product below that of competition in order to take market share, while pricing the product higher in markets where competition does not exist or is less prevalent.

P

Marketing Management

Predictive Validity

Refers to empirical evidence that a scale has predictive power over the unobservable construct that it is intended to measure.

P

Marketing Management

Preemptible rate

A usually discounted rate for commercial time which is sold to an advertiser and is not guaranteed. Time may be sold to another advertiser who is willing to pay more; therefore, the advertiser buying this rate gambles to save money on the spot.

P

Marketing Management

Pre-emptive pricing

Pre-emptive pricing is a strategy involves setting low prices in order to discourage or deter potential new entrants to the suppliers market. It is especially suited to markets in which the supplier does not hold a patent, or other market privilege and entry to the market is relatively straightforward.

P

Marketing Management

Preference

The selecting of someone or something over another or others.

Page 227 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Preferential Tariff

A reduced tariff rate applied to imports from certain countries.

P

Marketing Management

Preferred position

A position in a printed publication that is thought to attract most reader attention and is sold at a higher rate; for example, the back cover of a magazine.

P

Marketing Management

Premium

An item, other than the product itself, which is offered free or at a nominal price as an incentive to purchase the advertised product or service.

P

Marketing Management

Premium Price

A higher price paid for an item of better quality or perceived value.

P

Marketing Management

Prepaid Rate

A transportation charge that is paid prior to a shipment being delivered, usually by the shipper or seller.

P

Marketing Management

Preprint

A reproduction of an advertisement which is viewed before actual publication and is created by an advertiser for special purposes, e.g., to serve as retail displays or to gain support from retailers.

P

Marketing Management

Pre-retailing

The practice of determining prices and placing them on a copy of the purchase order at the time that goods are bought.

Page 228 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Press Clipping Bureau

An organization that monitors a wide range of media sources (newspapers, magazines, television and radio talk shows and newscasts) in order to collect and log mentions of the publicist's product, service, or organization.

P

Marketing Management

Press Conference

The convening of media representatives by a person or organization to explain, announce, or expand on a particular subject.

P

Marketing Management

Press kit

A Press Kit is a packaged set of promotional materials of a person or persons represented for promotional use. The kit will usually include a cd or demo along with reviews, photos, and background information on the person, band or group and is distributed among media sources, i.e., radio stations for publicity reasons. They are often distributed to announce a release or for a news conference.

P

Marketing Management

Press release

A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. Typically, it is mailed or faxed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, and/or television networks. Commercial newswire services are also used to distribute news releases. Sometimes news releases are sent for the purpose of announcing news conferences.

P

Marketing Management

Prestige pricing

Prestige pricing refers to the practice of setting a high price for an product, throughout its entire life cycle – as opposed to the short term ‗opportunistic‘, high price of price ‗skimming‘. This is done in order to evoke perceptions of quality and prestige with the product or service.

P

Marketing Management

Pretest

The use of a questionnaire or observation form in a small pilot study to determine how well a questionnaire works.

P

Marketing Management

Pretesting

Testing an advertisement on an audience sample prior to placing the ad in the media.

Page 229 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Price

The amount of money which is required in exchange for a product/service. Product Anything capable of satisfying a want, need or desire.

P

Marketing Management

Price Awareness

The degree to which buyers are knowledgeable of the prices of alternative products and services that they may be interested in buying.

P

Marketing Management

Price Bundling

The practice of offering two or more products or services for sale at one price.

P

Marketing Management

Price Code

A symbol placed on a price ticket to indicate the price of an item.

P

Marketing Management

Price Competition

The rivalry among firms seeking to attract customers on the basis of price, rather than other marketing factors.

P

Marketing Management

Price Consciousness The degree to which buyers are sensitive to differences in price between alternative choices.

P

Marketing Management

Price Control

A legal limitation placed on market prices or price increases by a government.

Page 230 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Price Cutting

The practice of reducing the prices of established products or services.

P

Marketing Management

Price discrimination

Price discrimination occurs when a firm charges a different price to different groups of consumers for an identical good or service, for reasons not associated with costs.

P

Marketing Management

Price elasticity of demand

Price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of a change in demand for a product following a change in its own price.

P

Marketing Management

Price Fixing

The practice of two or more sellers agreeing on the price to charge for similar products or services.

P

Marketing Management

Price Guarantee

The practice of vendors offering their customers guarantees against price declines.

P

Marketing Management

Price Leader

In competitive situations, the seller who normally initiates price changes in the market, and whose pricing change is quickly followed by competitors.

P

Marketing Management

Price Lining

The offering of merchandise at a number of specific but predetermined prices.

Page 231 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Price Off

A stated reduction in the price of a product usually offered by the manufacturer and printed directly on the product package.

P

Marketing Management

Price Promotion

The advertising of a price for a product or service. Usually, the price being promoted is a reduction from a previously established price and may take the form of a lower price, a coupon to be redeemed, or rebate.

P

Marketing Management

Price sensitivity

Price sensitivity is the effect a change in price will have on customers.

P

Marketing Management

Price skimming

Price skimming involves charging a relatively high price for a short time where a new, innovative, or much-improved product is launched onto a market.

P

Marketing Management

Price Structure

A framework for the time and conditions of payment, the nature of discounts to be allowed the buyer, and where and when title is to be taken by the buyer.

P

Marketing Management

Price Thresholds

The lowest and highest prices that buyers are willing to pay for a particular good or service.

P

Marketing Management

Price Transparency

The ability of all parties involved in a transaction to see the market price of the selling item.

Page 232 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Primary Advertising

An approach to an advertising message that emphasizes the basic attributes of the product category.

P

Marketing Management

Primary data

Data collected by the researcher specifically for the research project. Data is collected directly from people and organisations via questionnaires or surveys before being analysed to reach conclusions concerning the issues covered in the questionnaire or survey.

P

Marketing Management

Primary demand

Demand for a type of product instead of a specific company's product or brand.

P

Marketing Management

Primary demand advertising

Advertising designed for the generic product category, as opposed to selective demand advertising.

P

Marketing Management

Primary Metropolitan A geography of at least one million people that includes a large urbanized county or a group of counties that have strong economic and social ties to neighboring communities. Statistical Area

P

Marketing Management

Primary research data

Primary market data is data collected specifically for the market research project and obtained directly from the relevant source.

Prime time

Prime time is the block of programming on television during the middle of the evening. In the United States, television networks broadcast their prime time programming in two blocks: One for the Eastern, Central, and Mountain time zones, and one for the Pacific, Alaskan, and Hawaiian time zones. The generally accepted times considered to be traditional prime time are 8:00pm to 11:00pm Eastern and Pacific and 7:00pm to 10:00pm Central and Mountain Monday–Saturday.

P

Marketing Management

Page 233 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Principal

A person or firm who empowers another person or firm to act as a representative or agent.

P

Marketing Management

Print media

Print media includes newspapers, magazines, and the like.

P

Marketing Management

Privacy Policy

A written document from a company that defines the intended use for customer data, including names, contact information, transactional data, etc.

P

Marketing Management

Private brand

Product brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to a manufacturer or producer, and bearing it's own company name or another name it owns exclusively. Also referred to as Private label.

P

Marketing Management

Private Sector

The private sector of a nation's economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i.e., a variety of entities such as private firms and companies, corporations, private banks, non-governmental organizations, etc.

P

Marketing Management

Proactive

An approach which seeks to anticipate events and plan accordingly.

P

Marketing Management

Proactive Pricing

The managerial practice of deliberately analyzing the factors that influence price before setting prices.

Page 234 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Probability Sample

A sample chosen in such a manner that the probabilities of including the selected units in the sample are known, and all population units have a positive probability of selection.

P

Marketing Management

Probe

A question or verbal expression made by a salesperson to elicit information from a potential customer.

P

Marketing Management

Probit Model

A probabilistic model for representing the brand choice behavior of individuals. On any choice occasion the individual is assumed to choose the item for which he or she has the highest preference.

P

Marketing Management

Problem/Need recognition

The first stage in the buying process where the potential customer recognises that a problem or a need can be met by buying a product or a service.

P

Marketing Management

Processed Materials

Manufactured materials that have been partially processed before reaching an ultimate producer.

P

Marketing Management

Procurement

The function in the material acquisition cycle from the time an item is requisitioned until it is delivered. It includes responsibility for selection of vendor, negotiation of price, and assurance of quality and delivery, transportation, receiving, inspec

P

Marketing Management

Producer Price Index

A monthly price index of about 2,800 commodities prepared by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, formerly known as the wholesale price index.

Page 235 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Product

In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. However it is much more than just a physical object. It is the complete bundle of benefits or satisfactions that buyers perceive they will obtain if they purchase the product. It is the sum of all physical, psychological, symbolic, and service attributes.

P

Marketing Management

Product Adaptation

The strategy of developing new products by modifying or improving on the product innovations of others.

P

Marketing Management

Product Adoption Process

The sequence of stages that individuals and firms go through in the process of accepting new products. The stages vary greatly in usage, but tend to include; awareness, information gathering, developing a favorable attitude, trial, experiencing satisfacti

P

Marketing Management

Product advertising

The type of advertising that promotes goods and services.

P

Marketing Management

Product Approach

A method used by salespeople in which they demonstrate product features and benefits while walking directly up to prospects.

P

Marketing Management

Product Assortment

The collection of products that comprise the offering of a given seller. Such product collections may include items, families, or lines.

P

Marketing Management

Product Attributes

The characteristics by which products are identified and differentiated, usually in the form of features, functions, benefits, and uses.

Page 236 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Product Champion

A person who takes an inordinate interest in seeing that a particular process or product is fully developed and marketed.

P

Marketing Management

Product class

Product class is a broad category of product such as cars, washing machines, newspapers.

P

Marketing Management

Product Concept

A verbal or pictorial version of a proposed new product. The concept consists of one or more benefits it will yield, its general form, and the technology used to achieve the form.

P

Marketing Management

Product Development

The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product.

P

Marketing Management

Product differentiation

Developing unique product differences with the intent to influence demand.

P

Marketing Management

Product Evolution

The gradual change in a product, as it is modified by its seller, to keep it competitive or to permit expansion into new markets.

P

Marketing Management

Product form

Within a product class, there are different forms that the product can take. For example, people carriers or two-seater sports cars are product forms within the motor cars product class.

Page 237 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Product group

A product group (or product line) is a group of brands that are closely related in terms of their functions and the benefits they provide.

P

Marketing Management

Product Innovation

The act of creating a new product or process that includes invention as well as the work required to bring an idea or concept into completed form.

P

Marketing Management

Product Introduction

The first stage of the product life cycle, during which the new item is announced to the market and offered for sale.

P

Marketing Management

Product Launch

The release of a new product or service into the market place is usually supported by a range of promotional activities.

P

Marketing Management

Product Liability

Product liability is concerned with injuries caused by products that are defectively manufactured, processed, or distributed. Liability for such injuries attaches to all members of the distributive chain from manufacturers to retailers.

P

Marketing Management

Product life cycle

A marketing theory in which products or brands follow a sequence of stages including introduction, growth, maturity, and sales decline.

P

Marketing Management

Product Line

A product line is a string of products grouped together for marketing or technical reasons. E.g. Guinness started as a single product company. Since then Guinness have extended the product line to fill market needs as they emerged.

Page 238 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Product management Assigning specific products or brands to be managed by single managers within an advertising agency.

P

Marketing Management

Product Manager

This manager is responsible for the planning, coordination, and monitoring of performance of a product in a multi-product company or division.

P

Marketing Management

Product map

A product map defines the market in terms of the way buyers perceive key characteristics of competing products.

P

Marketing Management

Product Mix

The full range of products on offer. The number of individual products produced or sold by an organization. The mix is defined by the industry and manufacturing environment, and management strategies that position the company as a specialty, niche or broad-based supplier of goods and services.

P

Marketing Management

Product placement

Product placement is a promotional tactic used by marketers in which characters in a fictional play, movie, television series, or book use a real commercial product. Typically either the product and logo is shown or favourable qualities of the product are mentioned. The product price is not mentioned nor are any negative features or comparisons to similar products.

P

Marketing Management

Product Planning

A term of many meanings, but generally it is used to designate a staff position charged with the task of managing product innovation.

P

Marketing Management

Product Positioning

A product‘s position represents how it is perceived relative to the competition on the determinant attributes desired by each segment.

Page 239 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Product quality

The ability of a product to perform its functions (―fit for purpose‖). Quality is a function of several factors including reliability and ease of use.

P

Marketing Management

Product Specification

A document that defines the precise content and format of a specific product. It may contain technical requirements, special relationships between components, and so forth.

P

Marketing Management

Product Transformation

This occurs when the same physical product ends up serving a different function than what was originally intended.

P

Marketing Management

Production

Process of physically preparing the advertising idea into a print or broadcast advertisement.

P

Marketing Management

Production Cost

The cost of producing a print ad, radio commercial, television commercial, or other advertising materials.

P

Marketing Management

Production Era

A time period in the United States during which firms emphasized manufacturing and producing products, usually at the expense of marketing strategy.

P

Marketing Management

Production Function

Specifies the maximum output that can be produced from any given amount of inputs.

Page 240 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Production Orientation

A business philosophy that emphasizes the output of products, usually at the expense of marketing strategy.

P

Marketing Management

Productivity

A measure of the economic output per unit of input of some resource.

P

Marketing Management

Product-related segmentation

A method of identifying consumers by the amount of product usage, usually categorized demographically or psychographically.

P

Marketing Management

Professional advertising

Advertising directed toward professionals such as doctors, dentists, and pharmacists, etc., who are in a position to promote products to their patients or customers.

P

Marketing Management

Professional Discount

A reduction in price for a product or service granted to people in a specified professional field, especially those who are users of products in that field.

P

Marketing Management

Professional CIM's grid of marketing competencies required to achieve business aims. CIM's new syllabus structure is mapped out against Marketing Standards each marketing level as identified in the grid.

P

Marketing Management

Professional Services

The services of individuals or companies that are accredited by professional bodies, such as accountants, lawyers and chartered marketers. See also 'Chartered Marketers'

Page 241 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Professional Services The marketing of advisory services offered by licensed or accredited individuals or organizations. Marketing

P

Marketing Management

Profit

The excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time.

P

Marketing Management

Profiteering

The taking advantage of a situation, often a dire circumstance, to charge exorbitant prices and realize excessive profits.

P

Marketing Management

Profits

The excess of total revenues over total costs in a given time period.

P

Marketing Management

Program delivery (rate)

Percentage of a sample group of people tuned in to a particular program at a particular time.

P

Marketing Management

Progressive proofs (Progs)

Set of proofs made during the four-color printing process which shows each color plate separately and in combination. Also referred to as Color proofs.

P

Marketing Management

Project

A unit of activity in the product development process that usually deals with creating and marketing a new product. A project involves a cross-functional group of people, tightly or loosely organized, dedicated to the new product assignment that created t

Page 242 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Projection

A prediction made by extrapolating from past observations. In psychology, it is a mode of coping with these perceived undesirable feelings.

P

Marketing Management

Promotion

One of the four ―P‘s‖ of the marketing mix. Promotion is all about businesses communicating with customers.

P

Marketing Management

Promotion Mix

The various communication techniques such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations, available to a marketer that are combined to achieve specific goals.

P

Marketing Management

Promotion Models

Models to estimate the effect of a promotion based on market response functions, or a combination of empirical data combined with subjective judgment.

P

Marketing Management

Promotion

The use of persuasive communication techniques such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations to enhance the visibility and marketplace acceptance of a product, service or company.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional Allowance

A stipend given by vendors to retailers to compensate for money spent in advertising a particular item in local media, or for preferred window and interior display space used for the vendor's product.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional Campaign

The combination of various advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and personal selling activities used by a marketer to achieve predetermined goals within a given timeframe.

Page 243 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional mix

The promotional mix consists of a blend of five main kinds of promotional tools: advertising; direct marketing; personal selling; sales promotion and public relations.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional Package

The collection of sales promotion materials and offers developed by a seller to influence retailers, wholesalers, or salespeople to support a particular promotional theme.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional Plan

Detailed plan describing promotional objectives and activities involved in achieving the role of promotions as laid down in the marketing plan.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional product

A product imprinted with, or otherwise carrying, a logo or promotional message. Also called an Advertising Specialty.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional Programme

The plan for all promotional activity over a certain time period. Including objectives, costs, revenues, promotional tools, evaluation etc.

P

Marketing Management

Promotional Stock

A retailer's stock of goods offered at an unusually attractive price in order to obtain some volume of trade. It generally represents special purchases from vendors.

P

Marketing Management

Proof

An impression on paper of type, an engraving or the like, for the purpose of checking the correctness and quality of the material to be printed.

Page 244 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Proof-Of-Purchase

Some element of a product or package such as the barcode, label, etc., that is used as evidence that the consumer has purchased the product.

P

Marketing Management

Propaganda

The ideas, information, or other material commonly disseminated through the media in an effort to win people over to a given point of view.

P

Marketing Management

Proprietary

The private or exclusive ownership of such things as a process, design, or patent that competitors cannot duplicate.

P

Marketing Management

Prospect

A potential qualified customer who has the willingness, financial capacity, authority, and eligibility to buy the salesperson's offering.

P

Marketing Management

Prospecting

The process of identifying and qualifying potential customers.

P

Marketing Management

Prosperity

A phase of the business cycle characterized by high-level production, increased demand for capital goods, and a tendency toward full employment.

P

Marketing Management

Protectionism

The use of legal controls to protect domestic businesses and industries from foreign competition.

Page 245 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Prototype

An original, full-scale, and usually working model of a new product or new version of an existing product.

P

Marketing Management

Pruning Decision

The act of deciding which products to delete from a given product line.

P

Marketing Management

P's

See 'marketing mix'

P

Marketing Management

PSA

Refers to public service announcement.

P

Marketing Management

Psychoanalytic Theory

A psychological theory developed by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motivation.

P

Marketing Management

Psychographic

A science of population statistics relating to psychological variables such as attitudes, beliefs, opinions etc. Used in segmentation.

P

Marketing Management

Psychographic Analysis

A technique that investigates how people live, what interests them, what they like--also called lifestlye analysis or AIO because it relies on a number of statements about a person's activities, interests and opinions.

Page 246 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Psychographic segmentation

Psychographic (or ―lifestyle‖) segmentation seeks to classify people accordingly to their values, opinions, personality characteristics and interests.

P

Marketing Management

Psychological Drives

Those drives that are not based on the basic biological needs of the individual but rather are social in origin (ex: need for self actualization, status, belongingness, etc.).

P

Marketing Management

Psychological segmentation

The separation of consumers into psychological characteristic categories on the basis of standardized tests.

P

Marketing Management

Public Affairs

A management function concerned with the relationship between the organization and its external environment, and involving the key tasks of intelligence gathering and analysis, internal communication, and external action programs directed at government, c

P

Marketing Management

Public Domain

The status of works on which copyrights have expired or do not exist, or which do not have any copyright protection.

P

Marketing Management

Public Market

A wholesale or retail market primarily for foodstuffs, supervised or administered by a municipality that rents space to vendors.

P

Marketing Management

Public Opinion

Public opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population.

Page 247 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Public Policy

A course of action pursued by the government pertaining to people as a whole on which laws rest.

P

Marketing Management

Public relations (PR)

Communication with various sectors of the public to influence their attitudes and opinions in the interest of promoting a person, product, or idea.

P

Marketing Management

Public relations advertising

Advertising by a corporation that focuses on public interest but maintains a relationship to the corporation's products or agencies.

P

Marketing Management

Public Sector

The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the government, whether national, regional or local/municipal.

P

Marketing Management

Public service advertising (PSA)

Advertising with a central focus on public welfare, and is generally sponsored by a non-profit institution, civic group, religious organization, trade association, or political group.

P

Marketing Management

Public Service A public service announcement (PSA) or community service announcement (CSA) is a non-commercial Announcement (PSA) "advertisement"—typically on radio or television, broadcast for the public good.

P

Marketing Management

Publicist

The person responsible for managing the publicity program for a product, service, or organization.

Page 248 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Publicity

Promotional activities designed to promote a business and its products by obtaining media coverage not paid for by the business.

P

Marketing Management

Publics

Groups of people with common interest in a specific area, topic, or organization.

P

Marketing Management

Puffery

A legal exaggeration of praise lavished on a product that stops just short of deception.

P

Marketing Management

Pull Promotion

Pull promotion, in contrast to Push promotion, addresses the customer directly with a view to getting them to demand the product, and hence "pull" it down through the distribution chain. It focuses on advertising and above the line activities. See also 'push promotion'

P

Marketing Management

Pull-Strategy

A strategy aimed at the end consumer of a product whereby the product is pulled through the channel by consumer demand initiated by promotional efforts.

P

Marketing Management

Pulsing

The use of advertising in regular intervals, as opposed to seasonal patterns.

P

Marketing Management

Pupilometrics

A method of advertising research in which a study is conducted on the relationship between a viewer's pupil dilation and the interest factor of visual stimuli.

Page 249 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase

The act of paying for and acquiring a product or service.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase Contract

A written agreement between a buying and supplying organization that specifies the terms of a transaction such as product specifications, price, payment schedule, delivery terms, penalties, etc.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase decision

The stage in the customer buying process when the purchase decision is actually made.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase History

A record of buying behavior for an individual or business entity.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase Intention

A decision plan to buy a particular product or brand developed through an evaluation decision process.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase Order

A document issued by a purchasing organization to a supplier requesting items in the quantities, prices, time, and other terms agreed upon.

P

Marketing Management

Purchase Requisition

An internal document issued by the user or administering department to the purchasing department, specifying goods or services required. The document authorizes the expenditure, and often includes suggested suppliers and prices.

Page 250 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Purchasing

A generic term used to describe a title, a function, or a process by which a firm acquires the goods and services.

P

Marketing Management

Purchasing Agent

A member of the purchasing department responsible for one or more categories of products purchased.

P

Marketing Management

Purchasing Department

The organizational unit responsible for learning the needs of operating units, locating and selecting suppliers, negotiating price and other pertinent terms, and following up to ensure delivery.

P

Marketing Management

Purchasing Power

A consumer's ability to buy goods and services as distinguished from the amount of money a consumer has.

P

Marketing Management

Pure Competition

A market model in which a lower price is the only element that leads buyers to prefer one seller to another. Also, the amount that each individual seller can offer constitutes such a small proportion that acting alone it is powerless to affect the price.

P

Marketing Management

Push Money

Cash or other incentives paid directly to retail salespeople by a manufacturer to encourage sales of the manufacturer's brand over competitive brands.

P

Marketing Management

Push Promotion

Push promotion relies on the next link in the distribution chain - e.g. a wholesaler or retailer - to "push" out products to the customer. It revolves around sales promotions - such as price reductions and point of sale displays - and other below the line activities. See also 'Sales Promotion'

Page 251 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

P

Marketing Management

Push Strategy

The communications and promotional activities by the marketer to persuade wholesale and retail channel members to stock and promote specific products.

Q

Marketing Management

Qualifying

The process of determining whether a suspect has the characteristics that enables the suspect to be classified as a prospect.

Q

Marketing Management

Qualitative Data

A record of thoughts, observations, opinions, or words. Qualitative data typically comes from asking open-ended questions to which the answers are not limited by a set of choices or type of scale.

Q

Marketing Management

Qualitative forecasting

Qualitative forecasting is based on experience and judgement. Examples include general surveys of customers, distributors and the sales force.

Q

Marketing Management

Qualitative Research

Research that deals with information too difficult or expensive to quantify, such as subjective opinions and value judgements, typically unearthed during interviews or discussion groups.

Q

Marketing Management

Quality

An essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone.

Q

Marketing Management

Quality Control

A function located somewhere in or close to the operations unit. Its primary purpose is to verify that the goods or services produced meet the specifications established for them.

Page 252 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Q

Marketing Management

Quality of Life

A sense of well being about a person's or society's life style, often estimated by income, wealth, safety, recreation facilities, education, health, aesthetics, and leisure time.

Q

Marketing Management

Quantitative forecasting

Quantitative forecasting is based on facts. Good examples include time-series analysis and statistical surveys of customer purchasing behaviour.

Q

Marketing Management

Quantitative Research

Market research that concentrates on statistics and other numerical data, gathered through opinion polls, customer satisfaction surveys and so on. Compare 'qualitative research'.

Q

Marketing Management

Quantity Discount

A reduction in price offered by a seller to a purchase who buys more than a certain quantity

Q

Marketing Management

Query

A search phrase submitted to search engines

Q

Marketing Management

Question marks

A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Question marks are businesses or products with low market share but which operate in higher growth markets. This suggests that they have potential, but may require substantial investment in order to grow market share at the expense of more powerful competitors.

Q

Marketing Management

Questionnaire

Base document for research purposes, providing the questions and structure for an interview or self-completion and providing space for respondents' answers.

Page 253 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Q

Marketing Management

Quick Response System

A finished product inventory management structure that times replenishment to actual daily sales. Under this system, the retailer maintains low inventory levels through frequent store deliveries of small sizes.

Q

Marketing Management

Quota

A target level of performance and/or activity that a salesperson, manufacturer, or producer is expected to achieve.

Q

Marketing Management

Quota sampling

A sampling method in which the final choice of respondents is left to the interviewers, who base their choices on two or three variables (such as age, sex and education).

Q

Marketing Management

Quotation

A promise from a potential supplier stating the supplier's willingness to supply and deliver the items required within a certain period of time at a given price.

R

Marketing Management

R&D

Research and development.

R

Marketing Management

Rack Jobber

A wholesale middleman operating principally in the food trade, supplying certain classes of merchandise that do not fit into the regular routine of food store merchandise resource contracts.

R

Marketing Management

Radio Frequency

A specific information technology application that allows the positive identification of merchandise both while in transit and during the materials handling process.

Page 254 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Radio Wrap-Around

The radio equivalent of a video news release in the form of a radio story lasting 90 seconds or less and including an announcer who introduces sound bites from one or more news sources.

R

Marketing Management

Rain-Check

A promise given to customers when merchandise is out of stock to sell them the product at a later date at the sale price.

R

Marketing Management

RAJAR

Radio Joint Audience Research

R

Marketing Management

Random Digit Dialing

A technique used in market research studies employing telephone interviews in which the numbers to be called are randomly generated.

R

Marketing Management

Random sampling

A sampling method in which all the units in a population have an equal chance of appearing in the sample.

R

Marketing Management

Randomized Response Model

An interviewing technique in which potentially embarrassing and relatively innocuous questions are paired, and the question the respondent answers is randomly determined

R

Marketing Management

Range

The maximum distance a consumer is ordinarily willing to travel for a good or service.

Page 255 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Ranking

Is the position of your websites within the search engine indexes for a particular keyword.

R

Marketing Management

RAPPIES

Retired Affluent Professionals - a demographic grouping.

R

Marketing Management

Rapport

A relation of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between two or more people.

R

Marketing Management

Rate

(1) The amount charged by a communications medium to an advertiser based on per unit of space or time purchased. The rate may vary from national to local campaigns, or may be a fixed rate. (2) To estimate a particular media‖s audience size based on a research sample.

R

Marketing Management

Rate card

Information cards, provided by both print and broadcast media, which contain information concerning advertising costs, mechanical requirements, issue dates, closing dates, cancellation dates, and circulation data, etc.

R

Marketing Management

Rate Differential

The difference between the local advertising and national advertising rates charged by a local advertising medium.

R

Marketing Management

Rate of Return Pricing

A method of determining prices by adding a markup that will produce a predetermined return on investment.

Page 256 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Rating

The percentage of the total potential audience exposed to a particular media vehicle.

R

Marketing Management

Rating point

(1) In television, one percentage of all TV households who are viewing a particular station at a given time. (2) In radio, one percentage of all listeners who are listening to a particular station at a given time. Both instances vary depending on time of day.

R

Marketing Management

Ratio Scale

An interval scale in which there is a true zero point, thus allowing statements about proportions.

R

Marketing Management

Rationalization

An ego defense in which unattainable goals are perceived to be undesirable and those that are attainable are perceived to be adequate.

R

Marketing Management

Rationing

A system of allocating goods and services that are in short supply, other than by price, to prevent prices from rising to unreasonable levels and prevent the occurrence of inequitable distribution.

R

Marketing Management

Raw Materials

Products such as lumber and minerals that are bought for use in the production of other products, either as part of a finished good or in the industrial process.

R

Marketing Management

Reach

In the application of statistics to advertising and media analysis, reach is defined as the size of the audience who listen to, read, view or otherwise access a particular work in a given time period. Reach may be stated either as an absolute number, or as a fraction of a population.

Page 257 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Reactive

A management style/approach whereby events happen and then management act to compensate for these events.

R

Marketing Management

Readership

(1) The total number of readers of a publication (includes Primary and Pass-along readers). (2) The percentage of people that can recall a particular advertisement, aided or unaided.

R

Marketing Management

Readership Test

An examination of advertising effectiveness of print media in which a sample of readers of a particular issue of a publication are asked whether they noticed and read particular ads.

R

Marketing Management

Real Cost

The price of a product or service adjusted for changes in purchasing power and taking into consideration alternative uses of funds.

R

Marketing Management

Reciprocal Link

A link from one site to another that is then reciprocated by a link from that site to the original site.

R

Marketing Management

Recognition

(1) Formal acknowledgment given by a communications medium to an advertising agency to recognize that agency as being bona fide, competent, and ethical; therefore, entitled to discounts. (2) The ability of research subjects to recall a particular ad or campaign when they see or hear it.

R

Marketing Management

Redemption Rate

The number or percentage of sales promotion offers that are acted on by consumers or retailers out of the total number possible.

Page 258 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Redlining

The arbitrary exclusion of certain classes of customers, often those from poor neighborhoods, from such economic activities as borrowing money or getting real estate mortgages.

R

Marketing Management

Reference Group

A group with which the customer identifies in some way, and whose opinions and experiences influence the customer's behaviour. For example, a sports fan might buy a brand of equipment used by a favourite team.

R

Marketing Management

Reference Price

The amount that buyers use to compare an offered price of a product or service.

R

Marketing Management

Referral

A prospective lead given to a salesperson by an existing customer.

R

Marketing Management

Referral premium

A premium offered to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or acquaintance.

R

Marketing Management

Referrer

Is the page from which a visitor came to your site.

R

Marketing Management

Refresh Tag

A tag which defines when and to where a page will refresh.

Page 259 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Refund

A full or partial return of an amount paid for a product or service.

R

Marketing Management

Refusals

A non-sampling error that arises because some designated respondents refuse to participate in the study.

R

Marketing Management

Regional Brand

A product or service name that is known on a regional only basis.

R

Marketing Management

Regional Sales Manager

An individual who manages sales personnel across a territory of numerous contiguous states.

R

Marketing Management

Register marks

Indicator symbols located in the margins of negatives to be used as guides for perfect registration.

R

Marketing Management

Regression Analysis

A mathematical technique which finds a statistical relationship between variables such as sales of ice cream and the weather.

R

Marketing Management

Regulation

A rule designed to control the conduct of those to whom it applies. Regulations are official rules, and have to be followed.

Page 260 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Reilly's law

Reilly's Law of Retail Gravitation states that larger cities will have larger trade areas than smaller ones, meaning people travel further to reach a larger city.

R

Marketing Management

Reinforcement

A term from learning theory referring to the reward available to an organism for the response that the experimenter was trying to create or encourage.

R

Marketing Management

Relationship

A voluntary exchange of information and value between the buyer and seller, with the mutual expectation of gain.

R

Marketing Management

Relationship Marketing

It is the development of good relationships and repeat purchases with customers over the long term.

R

Marketing Management

Relevancy

How well a document provides the information a user is looking for, as measured by the user.

R

Marketing Management

Relevant Differentiation

A sustainable competitive advantage that enables products and services to stand out from others in the same market category and is appropriate, meaningful and valuable to the target markets.

R

Marketing Management

Remarking

The practice of changing the marking on merchandise as a result of price changes, lost or mutilated tickets, or customer returns.

Page 261 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Remnant Space

Discounted magazine space which is sold to help fill regional editions of the publication.

R

Marketing Management

Renewal rate

The percentage of individuals that renew their print media subscriptions to extend beyond the previous expiration date.

R

Marketing Management

Rep or Representative

A person who solicits advertising space on behalf of a particular medium.

R

Marketing Management

Repeat Sale

The successive sale of a product after the initial purchase by a consumer.

R

Marketing Management

Repertory Grid Method (RGM)

A technique for representing the attitudes and perceptions of individuals; also called Personal Construct Technique. The technique can be useful in developing market research (and other) questionnaires. Also known as 'Kelly Grids'

R

Marketing Management

Repetition

The act or an instance of repeating or being repeated.

R

Marketing Management

Replenishment Cycle

A term used in inventory management that describes the process by which merchandise is re-supplied from some central location on a predetermined or as needed basis.

Page 262 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Reply Card

A pre-addressed card inserted between pages of a magazine or newspaper or part of collateral.

R

Marketing Management

Repossession

The recovery of merchandise by a seller after delivery due to a customer's failure to complete his/her payment.

R

Marketing Management

Request For Proposal

An appeal by a potential buyer desiring bids from several potential vendors for a product or service to satisfy specifications that describe a set of buyer‘s wants or needs.

R

Marketing Management

Research and Development

The function of working through various technologies and sciences to design new products involving basic and applied research.

R

Marketing Management

Research Design

A framework that guides the collection and analysis of data around a particular topic or research type.

R

Marketing Management

Reseller Market

A market composed of individuals and organizations that acquire goods for the purpose of reselling or renting them at a profit.

R

Marketing Management

Reservation Price

The highest price a buyer is willing to pay for a product or service.

Page 263 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Residential Training Courses

Intensive training courses involving evening training sessions and including overnight stay and full accommodation

R

Marketing Management

Residual Market Value

The image enhancing communication about a product or service that remains with a consumer after a sales promotion has ended.

R

Marketing Management

Residuals

A sum paid to a performer on a TV or radio commercial each time it is run, and is usually established by AFTRA (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists) or SAG (Screen Actors Guild) contract.

R

Marketing Management

Resolution

Refers to the clarity of a television image as received by a set.

R

Marketing Management

Resources

What a manager needs to do his/her job. Marketing plans must contain at least three resources - 3Ms Men, Money and Minutes.

R

Marketing Management

Respondent

A person who is asked for information using either written or verbal questioning, typically employing a questionnaire to guide the questioning.

R

Marketing Management

Response Rate

The percentage of individual actions that are taken in response to an ad, promotion, or marketing initiative. It is often calculated as the percentage of responses divided by the total number of unique marketing pieces disseminated.

Page 264 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Responsiveness

How sensitive an indicator is to a change in the system it represents.

R

Marketing Management

Restraint Of Trade

Any act that tends to prevent free competition in business.

R

Marketing Management

Restricted line

Sales items that are not legally sold in certain geographic areas, or only under special legal restrictions.

R

Marketing Management

Retail advertising

Advertising which promotes local merchandisers' goods and services. Also referred to as Local Advertising.

R

Marketing Management

Retail Audits

Measure market sales, competitor's sales, market share, prices, special offers, stock levels week by week or day by day.

R

Marketing Management

Retail Establishment

A place of business principally engaged in the performance of marketing functions, where sales are made directly to end users.

R

Marketing Management

Retail Store

A place of business in which sales are made directly to end users.

Page 265 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Retail trading zone

Defined by the Audit Bureau of Circulation as the area beyond an urban area whose residents regularly trade with retail merchants within the urban area.

R

Marketing Management

Retailers

Retailers operate outlets that trade directly with household customers.

R

Marketing Management

Retailing Mix

Variables that a retailer can combine in alternative ways to attract customers.

R

Marketing Management

Retouching

To alter photographs, artwork, or film to emphasize or introduce desired features and also to eliminate unwanted ones.

R

Marketing Management

Return on Equity (ROE)

Measures the rate of return on the ownership interest (shareholders' equity) of the common stock owners. ROE is viewed as one of the most important financial ratios.

R

Marketing Management

Return on Investment With respect to a marketing initiative, the ROI is a measurement of the returns, i.e., sales revenues, compared to the total amount expended. (ROI)

Marketing Management

Return on Investment (ROI)/Return on The value that an organisation derives from investing in a project. Capital Employed (ROCE)

R

Page 266 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI)

R

Marketing Management

Return on Sales The value an organisation derives from investing in activities that drive sales. Enablement (ROSE)

R

Marketing Management

Returns and Allowances

The sum of purchased goods returned to a store or supplier and unplanned reductions in purchase price.

R

Marketing Management

Revolving Credit

A consumer credit arrangement that combines the convenience of a continuous charge account and the privileges of installment payment plans.

R

Marketing Management

Reward

That which is given or offered in return for some service or attainment.

R

Marketing Management

Rich Media

New media that offers an enhanced experience relative to older, mainstream media formats.

R

Marketing Management

Rip-o-matic

A very rough rendition of a proposed commercial, composed of images and sounds borrowed (ripped-off) from other commercials or broadcast materials.

The value that an organisation derives from investing in marketing. See 窶由eturn on Investment (ROI).

Page 267 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Risk Analysis

A technique to identify and assess factors that may jeopardize the success of a project or achieving a goal. This technique also helps define preventive measures to reduce the probability of these factors from occurring and identify countermeasures to suc

R

Marketing Management

Rituals

A ritual is a formalized, predetermined set of symbolic actions generally performed

R

Marketing Management

Road block

A method of scheduling broadcast commercials to obtain maximum reach by simultaneously showing the identical advertisement on several different stations.

R

Marketing Management

Robot

Any browser program which follows hypertext links and accesses web pages but is not directly under human control. Examples are the search engine spiders, the ―harvesting‖ programs which extract data from web pages and various intelligent web searching pro

R

Marketing Management

Robots.txt

If you wish to control which parts of your site a search engine spider indexes, you can use a robots.txt file to prevent the spider from indexing certain parts. Not all spiders will follow it, but it can be a useful tool if parts of your site are not ready for indexing.

R

Marketing Management

Roles

Patterns of behavior expected of people in various situations.

R

Marketing Management

Romance card

Written material that accompanies an advertising specialty, providing information about the product and its background.

Page 268 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Rotogravure

A magazine supplement that is printed by a gravure process, and run on a rotary press. This process is useful for large runs of pictorial effects.

R

Marketing Management

Rotoscoping

The process of using live and animated characters within an advertisement.

R

Marketing Management

Rough

An unfinished layout of an ad which shows only a general conception to be presented for analysis, criticism, and approval.

R

Marketing Management

Rough cut

A preliminary arrangement of film or tape shots that are roughly edited together without voice-over or music to serve purpose in the early stages of editing.

R

Marketing Management

Routing

A process of directing an employee or a vehicle along some pre-determined path, usually designed to minimize cost or effort.

R

Marketing Management

Routinised Response Whenever a need is stimulated a particular brand is automatically purchased. Behaviour

R

Marketing Management

Run of Network

A buying option where advertising placements can appear on any page within an advertising network.

Page 269 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

R

Marketing Management

Run of Site

A buying option where online advertisements can appear on any web pages within an online advertising network.

R

Marketing Management

Runners

The styles or designs for which there are many repeat wholesale purchases of the same item.

R

Marketing Management

Run-of-press (ROP)

A newspaper publisher's option to place an ad anywhere in the publication that they choose, as opposed to Preferred position. Also referred to as Run-of paper.

R

Marketing Management

Run-of-schedule (ROS)

A station's option to place a commercial in any time slot that they choose.

R

Marketing Management

Rural Population

The part of the total population not classified as urban.

R

Marketing Management

Rushes

Rough, unedited prints of a commercial to be used for editing purposes. Also referred to as dallies.

S

Marketing Management

SAFELINK

An email advocacy program created by Marketing Scoop, LLC to rid the marketing world of unsolicited email. To learn more about this one-of-a-kind program, visit http://www.marketingscoop.com/safelink.aspx

Page 270 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Safety Stock

A measurement used in inventory management that is the average amount of inventory on hand when a new shipment arrives.

S

Marketing Management

Salary

Salary is a form of periodic payment from the employer to the employee, which is specified in an employment contract.

S

Marketing Management

Sale Report

A document used by management to indicate field activity including; competitive activities, reactions of customers to company policies and products.

S

Marketing Management

Saleable Sample

A regular or specially sized quantity of a product offered at a low price to induce trial.

S

Marketing Management

Sale-Leaseback

The practice of retailers building new stores and selling them to real estate investors who then lease the buildings back to the retailers on a long term basis.

S

Marketing Management

Sales

Activities designed to promote customer purchase of a product or service.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Agent

An individual responsible for managing a sales cycle, converting prospects to customers. Sales agents often represent more than one product or business and earn a commission for each closed lead.

Page 271 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Analysis

In-depth evaluation of a firm's sales.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Approach

A method used to address prospects, engaging them in the sales process.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Aptitude

One‘s ability to perform a given sales job. This may involve personal and psychological characteristics including physical factors, mental abilities, and personality characteristics.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Budget

The portion of a firm's total marketing dollars allocated for sales force training, compensation, travel, entertainment expenses, and the sales force administration costs.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Call

A meeting between a customer and a salesperson who engages in selling.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Contest

A short-term incentive program designed to motivate salespeople to accomplish very specific sales objectives.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Cycle

The sequence of phases that a typical customer goes through when deciding to buy a product or service.

Page 272 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Demonstration

An aspect of the sales presentation that provides a sensory appeal to show how a product works and what benefits it offers to the customer.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Force

The team of sales people.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Force Compensation

A financial reward or inventive program based on salesperson performance and tenure.

S

Marketing Management

Sales forecast

The sales forecast is the expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan and an assumed marketing environment.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Lead

A prospect who has entered the sales cycle.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Management

The formulation of a strategic sales program, implementation, evaluation, and control of performance.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Planning

A process to determine the sales rates the company must maintain for its product lines to meet a specified objective or strategic plan.

Page 273 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

S

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Sales Presentation

The promotional message a sales person delivers to a prospect to explain, stimulate interest in, and motivate the prospect to purchase a product or products recommended in a proposal.

S

Marketing Management

Sales promotion

Sales promotion refers to any activity designed to boost the sales of a product or service. It may include an advertising campaign, increased PR activity, a free-sample campaign, offering free gifts or trading stamps, arranging demonstrations or exhibitions, setting up competitions with attractive prizes, temporary price reductions, door-to-door calling, telephone-selling, personal letters on other methods.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Promotion

A range of techniques employed to stimulate market demand or improve product availability in a limited time period. Sales promotions can be directed at the customer, sales force or distribution channel members.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Quota

A set amount of revenue or volume a salesperson is required to generate.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Representative A generic term that describes both a direct salesperson and a sales agent.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Taxes

Tax imposed upon the sale and consumption of goods and services in the form of a general tax or as a tax on the sale of selected goods and services.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Territory

The geographic location assigned to a sales representative in which he/she is responsible for selling a company‘s products and/or services.

Page 274 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Sales Training

A formal or informal program designed to educate a sales force and convey management expectations of job responsibilities.

S

Marketing Management

Sales-response function

Refers to the effect of advertising on sales.

S

Marketing Management

Sample

A small group of items selected from a larger group to represent the characteristics of the larger group. Samples are often used in marketing research because it is not feasible to interview every member of a particular market; however, conclusions about a market drawn from a sample always contain a sampling error and must be used with caution. The larger the sample, in general, the more accurate will be the conclusions drawn.

S

Marketing Management

Sample Survey

Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. In particular, results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice.

S

Marketing Management

Sampling

The use of a statistically representative subset as a proxy for an entire population, for example in order to facilitate quantitative market research.

S

Marketing Management

Sampling Control

A term applied to studies that use questionnaires that concern the researcher's dual abilities to direct an inquiry to a designated respondent and to secure the desired cooperation from the respondent.

S

Marketing Management

Sampling Distribution

The distribution of values of a statistic calculated for each possible unique sample set that could be drawn from a parent population.

Page 275 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Sampling Error

The statistical term used to describe the effect that errors, due to change, can have on results.

S

Marketing Management

Sampling Frame

The list of units from which a sample will be drawn; the list can consist of geographic areas, institutions, individuals, or other units.

S

Marketing Management

Sampling

The use of a statistically representative subset as a proxy for an entire population, used in Quantitative Research.

S

Marketing Management

Sans-serif type

A typestyle of lettering with no serifs, or cross strokes at the end of main strokes.

S

Marketing Management

Satellite Media Tour

A publicity method that allows a celebrity or company spokesperson to participate in many interviews per day with representatives of the media. The person being interviewed sits in a television studio and is connected to remote locations via satellite hoo

S

Marketing Management

Satisfaction

The fulfillment or gratification of a desire, need, or appetite.

S

Marketing Management

Saturated Markets

A market is saturated if there is no potential for profit growth as consumer needs are adequately met.

Page 276 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Savings

An amount, if any, left after a government, firm, or household has accounted for all expenditures.

S

Marketing Management

SBU

Stands for Strategic Business Unit.

S

Marketing Management

Scamp

Preliminary design or layout of an advertisement or other promotional material. Also a UK pressure group against offensive advertising (S.C.A.M.P. - Stop Crude Advertising Material in Public).

S

Marketing Management

Scanners

An optical character recognition machine which consists of a scan head, a computer processor, and an output device. Used for interpreting documents, invoices, bar-codes, and photos for use in Color separations.

S

Marketing Management

Scene setting

The process of using realistic sounds to stimulate noise in backgrounds during radio production such as car horns, sirens, recorded laughter, etc.

S

Marketing Management

Screen

(1) A printing process in which a squeegee forces paint or ink through a screen which is decorated with stenciled designs onto the paper. (2) The surface onto which an image of a slide or television picture is shown.

S

Marketing Management

Screen Scraping

Capturing data from another company's Web pages that weren't meant to be viewed by outsiders; SEO spammers do this to determine coding patterns of competitors that they then use to try to outrank them on search engine listings.

Page 277 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Screening

The evaluation or testing of a product, and sometimes its 'marketing mix', at various stages in the 'NPD' cycle.

S

Marketing Management

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

A component of the promotional mix of a marketing plan, SEM uses a variety of tools and techniques to improve a Web sites' online visibility and deliver targeted traffic.

S

Marketing Management

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

A process of modifying the visual and back-end elements of a Web site to achieve higher placement in a search engine's results for selected keywords.

S

Marketing Management

Search Engine

A software program (or web sites using such a program) that collects and indexes Web pages according to specific criteria. search engines then return sites ranked by relevancy based on the keywords or phrases entered by Web users.

S

Marketing Management

Search Heuristics

The process beginning with a single search solution that incrementally changes to improve search results.

S

Marketing Management

Search Marketing

Promoting a company‘s website using internet search engines. Either getting a company website listed in search results (unpaid) or as a listing on the same webpage as the search results (paid).

S

Marketing Management

Search Qualities

Search qualities - tangible clues that can be evaluated before purchase. Services are low in 'search' qualities. You cannot pick them up and inspect their quality before purchase.

Page 278 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Search Term

The actual keyword or phrase entered into a search engine by a person who is performing an online search.

S

Marketing Management

Seasonal Demand

The desire to purchase a product that fluctuates at regular intervals.

S

Marketing Management

Seasonal Discount

A special reduction in price to all retailers who place orders for seasonal merchandise well in advance of the normal buying period.

S

Marketing Management

Seasonal rating adjustments

In broadcast media, rating modifications that reflect changes in the season, e.g. weather and holidays.

S

Marketing Management

Seasonality

The variation in sales for goods and services throughout the year, depending on the season, e.g. hot chocolate is advertised more in the winter, as opposed to summer months.

S

Marketing Management

Secondary Data

Statistics that are not gathered for the current study but for some other purpose.

S

Marketing Management

Secondary Research Uses research already carried out by someone else for some other purpose.

Page 279 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Secondary research data

S

Marketing Management

Secondary Shopping A cluster of stores outside the central business district that serves a large population within a section or part of a large city. District

S

Marketing Management

Security

An operating unit that is responsible for protecting merchandise and other assets from being stolen.

S

Marketing Management

Segmentation

See 'market segmentation'

S

Marketing Management

Segmentation variables or bases

The dimensions or characteristics of individuals, groups or businesses that are used for dividing a total market into segments.

S

Marketing Management

Selective demand advertising

Advertising which promotes a particular manufacturer's brand as opposed to a generic product. See Primary demand.

S

Marketing Management

Selective distribution Selective distribution involves a producer using a limited number of outlets in a geographical area to sell products.

Secondary market data is data that has already been obtained, analysed and used for other purposes or for general reference.

Page 280 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Self Actualization

The act of doing what makes one feel fulfilled. Also known as the final stage in Abraham Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs paradigm.

S

Marketing Management

Self Concept

The self-concept or self-identity is the mental and conceptual awareness and persistent regard that sentient beings hold with regard their own being.

S

Marketing Management

Self Image

How an individual perceives him or herself.

S

Marketing Management

Self Regulation

An organization‘s control of its own behaviors, independent of government supervision or laws.

S

Marketing Management

Self Selection

The method used in retailing by which an individual may choose the desired merchandise without direct assistance from store personnel.

S

Marketing Management

Self Service

The type of operation in which the customer/user is exposed to merchandise (browsing and self-selection) without assistance, unless customer/user seeks assistance.

S

Marketing Management

Self-liquidating premium

A premium offer paid by the consumer whose total cost including handling fees are paid for in the basic sales transaction.

Page 281 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Self-mailer

A direct-mail piece in which no envelope or wrapper is required for mailing.

S

Marketing Management

Sellers Market

A combination of economic conditions that favor sellers in negotiated transactions, usually because demand outstrips supply.

S

Marketing Management

Selling

The personal or impersonal process whereby a salesperson ascertains, activates, and satisfies the needs of the buyer to the mutual benefit of both buyer and seller.

S

Marketing Management

Selling Orientation

A company-centered rather than a client-centered approach to conduct of business. This orientation tends to ignore what the customer/user really wants and needs.

S

Marketing Management

SEM

Stands for Search Engine Marketing.

S

Marketing Management

Semi-liquidator

A premium offer that is partially paid by the consumer as well as the manufacturer.

S

Marketing Management

Seminars

One day training sessions involving role play and syndicate group work exercises

Page 282 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Semiotics

Refers to theories regarding symbolism and how people glean meaning from words, sounds, and pictures. Sometimes used in researching names for various products and services.

S

Marketing Management

Sensitive Data

Information relating to racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or other beliefs, trade union membership, health, sex life and criminal convictions.

S

Marketing Management

Sensitivity Coefficient The average percentage change in consumption corresponding to a one percent change in disposable personal income.

S

Marketing Management

SEO

Stands for Search Engine Optimization.

S

Marketing Management

Sequence Bias

The distortion in the answers to some questions on a questionnaire because the replies are not independently arrived at but are conditioned by responses to previous questions.

S

Marketing Management

Sequential Sample

A non-probability sample formed on the basis of a series of successive decisions.

S

Marketing Management

Serif type

Short, decorative cross lines or tails at the ends of main strokes in some typefaces, such as Roman lettering.

Page 283 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Service

In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good.

S

Marketing Management

Service Desk

A station within a store where customers take merchandise for exchange or credit and receive information or other services.

S

Marketing Management

Service Mark

A word, slogan, design, picture, or any other symbol used to identify and distinguish a service as opposed to a product.

S

Marketing Management

Sets in use (SIU)

The percent of television sets that are tuned into a particular broadcast during a specific amount of time.

S

Marketing Management

Seven Ss

See 'McKinsey's seven Ss'

S

Marketing Management

Shaping

A process of reinforcing successive approximations of behavior in order to increase the probability of a desired response.

S

Marketing Management

Share of Audience

The percentage of a given population tuned into a particular radio station, television station, or cable television channel during a given time period.

Page 284 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Share of Voice (SOV) The total percentage that you possess of the particular niche, market, or audience you are targeting.

S

Marketing Management

Shareholder Value

The worth of a company from the point of view of its shareholders. Maximising shareholder value is a common objective for business management.

S

Marketing Management

Share-of-audience

The percent of audiences that are tuned into a particular medium at a given time, e.g. the number of people watching television between the hours of 8:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.

S

Marketing Management

Shelf Life

The length of time a product can safely remain in storage between production and consumption.

S

Marketing Management

Shelf screamers (shelf talkers)

A printed advertising message which is hung over the edge of a retail store shelf, e.g. "On Special," or "Sale item."

S

Marketing Management

Shelf Stock

Refers to inventory that has been accumulated for display at the point of sale.

S

Marketing Management

Shelf Talker

A printed card or other sign used in retail stores to call attention to a product that has been shelved.

Page 285 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

This act prohibits contracts, combinations, and conspiracies that restrain interstate or foreign trade, and prohibits monopolization.

S

Marketing Management

Shipping Costs

The amount of money associated with transporting a product from one location to another or from a wholesaler or retailer to a consumer.

S

Marketing Management

Shoplifting

The stealing of a store's merchandise by customers.

S

Marketing Management

Shopping Cart

Software used to make a web site's product catalog available for online ordering, allowing visitors to select, view, add/delete, and purchase merchandise.

S

Marketing Management

Shopping Good

A good that is expensive and is purchased infrequently.

S

Marketing Management

Short Delivery

A discrepancy in the amount of goods delivered, the number being less than shown on the purchase order or invoice.

S

Marketing Management

Shotgun Approach

Implementing a series of strategies or marketing campaigns in an effort to cover a broad range of constituents with the hope of finding one or more approaches that generate considerable results.

Page 286 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Shrinkage

The difference between the recorded value of inventory and the actual retail value of actual inventory divided by retail sales during a time period.

S

Marketing Management

Shrink-Wrap

A packaging process that allows the shipper to extend a clear plastic covering over a package or set of packages.

S

Marketing Management

Signature

(1) A musical theme associated with a television program, radio show, or a particular product or service. Also referred to as a Theme song. (2) Single printing sheet which folds into 4, 8, 12, 16, and so on pages to be gathered and bound to form a part of a book, or pamphlet.

S

Marketing Management

Silk screening

A color printing method in which ink is forced through a stencil placed over a screen that blocks out areas of an image, and onto the printing surface. Also referred to as Serigraphy.

S

Marketing Management

Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB)

A syndicated service which provides audience exposure and product usage data for print and broadcast media.

S

Marketing Management

Simple Random Sample

A probability sample in which each population element has a known and equal chance of being included in the sample.

S

Marketing Management

Simulation Models

A form of scenario building that attempts to simulate interactions and stimuli through mathematical equations to predict future outcomes.

Page 287 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

SINBAD

Single Income, No Boyfriend and Absolutely Desperate - a demographic grouping.

S

Marketing Management

SINDI

Single Independent and Divorced (only applies to women) - a demographic grouping.

S

Marketing Management

Single Sourcing

Using only one vendor to supply a particular product, service, or component part.

S

Marketing Management

SITCOM

Single Income, Two Kids Outrageous Mortgage - a demographic grouping.

S

Marketing Management

Site Search

A program providing search functionality across a single web site.

S

Marketing Management

Situation Analysis

A situation Analysis is part of the cycle of marketing. the cycle of marketing also includes the marketing mix. S situation analysis is often called the three Cs, which are

S

Marketing Management

Size Lining

The selection of predetermined size points at which merchandise will be offered.

Page 288 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Skills Level Analysis Process

An online tool to assess skills of marketing professionals and to measure them against business aims and objectives

S

Marketing Management

Skimming

Setting the original price high in the early stages of the product life cycle in an attempt to get as much profit as possible before prices are driven down by increasing competition.

S

Marketing Management

Skyscraper

A type of online ad that varies from a traditional banner size (468 X 60) and is significantly taller than the 120x240 vertical banner.

S

Marketing Management

SLAP

Skills Levels Analysis Process, an online tool to assess skills of marketing professionals and to measure them against business aims and objectives

S

Marketing Management

Sleeper Effect

A controversial finding that asserts that the influence of advertising or other communications material can increase once the message is no longer broadcast or presented to the respondent.

S

Marketing Management

SLEPT

Socio-cultural, Legal, Economic, Political and Technological - a framework for viewing the 'macro environment'

S

Marketing Management

Slicks

A high-quality proof of an advertisement printed on glossy paper which is suited for reproduction.

Page 289 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Slipsheet

A materials handling device usually composed of a flat piece of cardboard or board on which product is stacked.

S

Marketing Management

Slogan

A catch phrase or small group of words that are combined in a special way to identify a product or company.

S

Marketing Management

Slotting allowances

Fees paid by a manufacturer to a retailer for the retailer's shelf space.

S

Marketing Management

Slotting Fee

The amount a manufacturer pays to a retailer in order to get distribution for a new product in a retail store.

S

Marketing Management

Slurp

The Inktomi search crawler.

S

Marketing Management

SMART

Objectives should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Related.

S

Marketing Management

SME

Small to Medium Enterprise. Variously defined: according one EU definition, it must employ under 250 people, have either a turnover of less than EUR 40 million or net balance sheet assets of less than EUR 27 million, and not be more than 25% owned by a larger company.

Page 290 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

SMS

Short Message Service. Text only messages sent by mobile phones, or other compatible devices, over a wireless network.

S

Marketing Management

Sneaky redirect

A Website directing a search engine spider to a page that is different from the page seen by site visitors. If a user clicks on a sneaky redirect page from a search engine, he will be redirected to a page different from the one described on the engine's listing results. Most engines penalize or ban sites that use sneaky redirects.

S

Marketing Management

Social Advertising

The advertising designed to education or motivate target audiences to undertake socially desirable actions.

S

Marketing Management

Social Class

People having the same social or economic status. Social class refers to the ranking of people into a hierarchy within a culture.

S

Marketing Management

Social Marketing

The branch of marketing that is concerned with the use of marketing knowledge, concepts, and techniques to enhance social ends or create awareness of social issues.

S

Marketing Management

Soft goods

Soft goods are similar to consumer durables, except that they wear out more quickly and therefore have a shorter replacement cycle. Examples include clothes and shoes.

S

Marketing Management

Soft sell

The technique of using low pressure appeals in advertisements and commercials.

Page 291 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

SOHO

Small-office/Home-office.

S

Marketing Management

Solid

An arrangement of type lines set vertically as closely as possible. Also referred to as solid set.

S

Marketing Management

Sorting

A function performed by intermediaries in order to bridge the discrepancy between the assortment of goods and services generated by a manufacturer and the assortment demanded by a consumer.

S

Marketing Management

SOSTAC 速

An acronym which helps the planning process: Situation Analysis, Objectives, Strategy, Tactics, Action and Control. www.prsmith.org

S

Marketing Management

SOSTAC 速+ 3Ms

An acronym which helps the planning process: Situation Analysis, Objectives, Strategy, Tactics, Action and Control + 3Ms these are three key resources which every plan must have = Men*, Money and Minutes. (* Men mean Men and Women) [devised by PR Smith, author, Marketing Communications- An Integrated Approach, (1993-2004) Kogan Page, London.] www.prsmith.org

S

Marketing Management

SOSTT

Situation, Objective, Strategy, Tactics and Targets

S

Marketing Management

Sound Bite

The basic element of a broadcast news story, consisting of a newsmaker speaking on camera in blocks of time. May also refer to an audio clip of a more complete verbal speech or exchange.

Page 292 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Sourcing

Another term for procurement.

S

Marketing Management

Spam

Unwanted, unsolicited e-mail, typically of a commercial nature.

S

Marketing Management

Spamming

This refers not to bulk emails for unwanted products, but rather to the process of trying to manipulate the search engines to rank your sites well.

S

Marketing Management

Span of Control

The number of people a manager can supervise before managerial effectiveness declines.

S

Marketing Management

Special Event

A sales promotion program comprising a number of sales promotion techniques built around a seasonal, cultural, sporting, musical event, or other activity.

S

Marketing Management

Specialty Advertising

The placement of advertising messages on a wide variety of items of interest to the target markets such as calendars, coffee cups, pens, hats, note paper, t-shirts, etc.

S

Marketing Management

Specialty Department A large store with a department store format that focuses primarily on apparel and soft home goods. Store

Page 293 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Specialty Good

Purchased infrequently and the consumer will go to great lengths to search for the "right" product (ie antiques, original painting, made-to-measure clothes).

S

Marketing Management

Specialty Store

A store that handles a limited variety of goods.

S

Marketing Management

Speculation

This concept holds that changes in the form and movement of goods to forward inventories should be made at the earliest possible time in the marketing process in order to reduce the costs of the marketing system.

S

Marketing Management

Speculative (spec) sample

A sample promotional product, with the prospective buyer's imprint on it, produced with the hope that the customer will purchase it.

S

Marketing Management

Spider

A program that visits and downloads specific information from a webpage.

S

Marketing Management

Spin

The attempt to manipulate the depiction of news or events in the media through artful public relations - often used with derogatory connotations.

S

Marketing Management

Splash Page

A branding page before the home page of a Web site.

Page 294 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Split run

Two or more different forms of an advertisement which are ran simultaneously in different copies of the same publication, used to test the effectiveness of one advertisement over another to appeal to regional or other specific markets.

S

Marketing Management

Sponsor

An individual or business entity that provides something of value (usually money) in support of a particular event or initiative. Sponsors often receive something of perceived value in return such as signage or speaking opportunities.

S

Marketing Management

Sponsored Link

Paid text advertisement that runs alongside natural search content on a Search Engine.

S

Marketing Management

Sponsorship

Supporting an event, activity or organisation by providing money or other resources that is of value to the sponsored event. This is usually in return for advertising space at the event or as part of the publicity for the event.

S

Marketing Management

Spot announcements Commercial or public service announcements that are placed on television or radio programs.

S

Marketing Management

Spot Broadcast

The purchasing by a national advertiser of radio and television time on a local or market-by-market basis.

S

Marketing Management

Spot Check

The intermittent checking of packages and envelopes to determine if any have been incorrectly filled.

Page 295 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Spot color

The technique of coloring for emphasis some areas of basic black-and-white advertisements, usually with a single color.

S

Marketing Management

Spot Market

The market for immediate delivery of a marketing message.

S

Marketing Management

Spot Sale

The sale or purchase of a commodity for immediate delivery, often on a cash basis.

S

Marketing Management

Spot television (or radio)

Time slots in geographic broadcast areas, purchased on a market-to-market basis rather than through a network.

S

Marketing Management

Spread

Refers to a pair of facing pages in a periodical, or an advertisement which is printed across two such pages.

S

Marketing Management

Stagflation

An economic condition characterized by a combination of slow growth and inflation.

S

Marketing Management

Staggered schedule

A schedule of advertisements in a number of periodicals which have different insertion dates.

Page 296 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Stakeholder

S

Marketing Management

Standard Advertising A set of uniform advertising procedures developed by the American Newspaper Publishers Association. Unit System (SAUS)

S

Marketing Management

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

Defined by the U.S Department of Commerce to be a classification of businesses in a numeric hierarchy.

S

Marketing Management

Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area

An integrated economic and social unit having a large population nucleus.

S

Marketing Management

Standard Rate and A commercial firm that publishes reference volumes that include up-to-date information on rates, requirements, closing dates, Data Service (SRDS) and other information necessary for ad placement in the media.

S

Marketing Management

Standards

A basis for operations that ensures consistency across individuals or groups of individuals.

S

Marketing Management

Standing Order

An arrangement with a vendor to make shipments periodically in specified quantities in which the vendor may be authorized to ship a certain quantity each month or week for a set period.

One of a group of publics with which a company must be concerned.

Page 297 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Staple Good

A convenience product such as salt or milk that is bought often and consumed routinely.

S

Marketing Management

Starch Readership Service

A research organization (Starch INRA Hooper) that provides an advertisement's rank in issue and Starch scores.

S

Marketing Management

Starch scores

A result of a method used by Daniel Starch and staff in their studies of advertising readership which include noted, or the percent of readers who viewed the tested ad, associated, or the percent of readers who associated the ad with the advertiser, and read-most, or the percent of readers who read half or more of the copy.

S

Marketing Management

Stars

A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Stars are high growth businesses or products competing in markets where they are relatively strong compared with the competition. Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. Eventually their growth will slow and, assuming they maintain their relative market share, will become cash cows.

S

Marketing Management

Statements of Marketing Practice (SOMPS)

CIM's grid of marketing competencies required to achieve business aims. CIM's new syllabus structure is mapped out against each marketing level as identified in the grid.

S

Marketing Management

Status

The positioning of an individual within a group, organization, or society.

S

Marketing Management

Step 1

The uncontrollable variables in the 'Far' Environment include Social, Technical, Economic and Political developments.

Page 298 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Step 2

Variables include the Structure of the Industry, Trends in the Market Place, Micro Economic and Power Forces shaping the industry. Competitor Analysis - involves analysing your competitors and their strengths and weaknesses and their likely strategic moves.

S

Marketing Management

Step-and-repeat

A single image printed repeatedly in a pattern on a single sheet of paper.

S

Marketing Management

Stereotype

A generalized belief about what people or events will be like, what attributes they will possess, and how they will behave, based upon group or type membership.

S

Marketing Management

Stet

A Latin term meaning "let it stand," which instructs a printer or typesetter to ignore an alteration called for in a proof.

S

Marketing Management

Stickiness

The amount of time spent at a web site, often a measure of visitor loyalty.

S

Marketing Management

Stock Keeping Unit

Often referred to as an SKU, it is the lowest level of identification for merchandise.

S

Marketing Management

Stock Piling

The situation in which consumers buy multiple units of products at one time and hoard those products for future use.

Page 299 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Stock Rotation

A term used in inventory management to describe the process of moving stock to ensure freshness and shelf life of inventory.

S

Marketing Management

Stock Shortage

All unexplained or unrecorded shrinkages in the value of merchandise available for sale.

S

Marketing Management

Stop motion

A photographic technique in which inanimate objects appear to move.

S

Marketing Management

Storage Warehouse

A warehouse that holds goods for moderate to long periods prior to shipment, usually to buffer seasonal demand.

S

Marketing Management

Store Image

The way in which a store is perceived by a shopper of consumer. It is based on the store's physical characteristics, retailing mix, and a set of psychological attributes.

S

Marketing Management

Store Layout

The interior layout of the store/library for the ease of user movement through the store to provide maximum exposure of good and attractive display.

S

Marketing Management

Store Loyalty

The degree to which a consumer consistently patronizes the same store when shopping for particular types of products.

Page 300 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Storyboard

A blueprint for a TV commercial which is drawn to portray copy, dialogue, and action, with caption notes regarding filming, audio components, and script.

S

Marketing Management

Strapline

A slogan often used in conjunction with a brand name, advertising and other promotional methods (e.g. ―Guinness is good for you‖).

S

Marketing Management

Strategic business unit (SBU)

A SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line or even individual brands - it all depends on how the company is organised.

S

Marketing Management

Strategic Intent

An ambitious organizational goal that is not proportional to current resources and capabilities, which remains stable over time.

S

Marketing Management

Strategic Market Planning

The process comprising the full range of activities, e.g., marketing segmentation, positioning, resource evaluation, needed to create and sustain effective marketing strategies.

S

Marketing Management

Strategic Planning

The process of determining an organization's primary objectives, allocating funds, and then initiating actions designed to achieve those objectives.

S

Marketing Management

Strategy

Strategy explains how objectives will be achieved and gives direction to all the subsequent tactical activities. Strategy summarises all the tactics. See corporate strategy.

Page 301 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Stratified sampling

A sampling method in which the population of interest is divided according to a common characteristic or attribute and a probability sampling is then conducted within each group.

S

Marketing Management

Stratified selection

An equally measured statistical sample which represents all the categories into which the population has been divided.

S

Marketing Management

Strengths

Strengths are a particular skill, resource or distinctive competence which the business possesses and which will enable it to achieve its stated objectives. Strengths are a source of competitive advantage. As such they should be protected and built upon.

S

Marketing Management

Strict Liability

A doctrine under which a seller is held liable for injury caused by a defective product even though the seller exercised all possible care in the preparation and sale of the product and the user had not bought the product from or entered into any contract

S

Marketing Management

Stripping

Positioning film negatives or positives of copy and illustrations for the purpose of creating a printing plate for that ad or page. Also referred to as image assembly.

S

Marketing Management

Stub Control

A perpetual inventory system of unit control in which sales information is obtained from stubs of price tickets rather than from sales checks or bar codes.

S

Marketing Management

Style

A distinctive mode of presentation or performance in any art, product, or activity.

Page 302 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Subculture

A social group within a national culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior and beliefs.

S

Marketing Management

Subhead

A part of the written component of print advertising that is designed to guide the reader's attention to specific details about the advertised item.

S

Marketing Management

Subject

A person from whom information is secured in a market research study, either by questioning or by observing him or her in some way.

S

Marketing Management

Subliminal Perception Perceptions registered below the threshold of awareness or consciousness.

S

Marketing Management

Subliminal persuasion

An advertising message presented below the threshold of consciousness. A visual or auditory message that is allegedly perceived psychologically, but not consciously. Also called Subception.

S

Marketing Management

Submission

Putting forward a site to a search engine or directory.

S

Marketing Management

Subscription-Based Pricing Model

Access to predetermined bundles of goods and services available to consumers via subscriptions renewed at monthly or annual intervals.

Page 303 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Subsidiary Company Refers to a business that is owned by another business owing greater than 50% of its assets.

S

Marketing Management

Substitute

Products that look alike and represent the same application of a product or service.

S

Marketing Management

Suggested Retail

The recommended list price submitted by a manufacturer or other vendor to a retailer.

S

Marketing Management

Super Ego

In Freudian psychology, one of the fundamental components of the personality; the super-ego develops in the child from the age of 3–5 years, emerging out of the ego as the seat of the conscience and controlling instinctive desires as a result of the learn

S

Marketing Management

Superimposition (super)

A process in TV production where an image, words, or phrases are imposed over another image.

S

Marketing Management

Supermarket

A large department-based retail establishment offering a relatively broad and complete stock of dry groceries, meat, perishable produce, and dairy products, supplemented by a variety of convenience, non-food merchandise and operated primarily on a self se

S

Marketing Management

Superstore

A very large store that is typically of supermarket character and offers an unusually wide range of the merchandise with appeal to the mass market.

Page 304 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Supervision

Management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group.

S

Marketing Management

SUPPIES

Senior Urban Professionals - a demographic grouping

S

Marketing Management

Supplementary media Non-mass media vehicles that are used to promote products, e.g., Point-of-purchase advertising.

S

Marketing Management

Supplier

S

Marketing Management

Supplier Relationship Managing relationships with suppliers often through the use of IT systems - compare 'customer relationship management' Management (SRM)

S

Marketing Management

Supply

The number of units of a product that will be put on the market over a period of time.

S

Marketing Management

Supply Chain

The network of suppliers, manufacturers and distributors involved in the production and delivery of a product.

Companies that sell goods or services to an advertising agency for their use in constructing advertisements, e.g., design studios, color houses, printers, and paper producers.

Page 305 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Supply Curve

A graph showing the hypothetical supply of a product or service that would be available at different price points.

S

Marketing Management

Supply House

A middleman selling industrial goods to manufacturers or other business or institutional users.

S

Marketing Management

Surcharge

An additional charge that would be incurred for performing a service that is assessed over and above the base rate.

S

Marketing Management

Swatch proof

A sample of the material for a promotional product, with the customer's artwork printed on it in the specified colors.

S

Marketing Management

Sweeps

Refers to a time during the months of November, March, and May, when both Nielson and Arbitron survey all local market broadcast media for the purpose of rating the stations and their programming.

S

Marketing Management

Sweepstakes

The offering of prizes to participants, where winners are selected by chance and no consideration is required.

S

Marketing Management

Switcher

A consumer who alternates purchase behavior in a product category between two or more brands.

Page 306 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

SWOT

Stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Commonly used when performing business analysis.

S

Marketing Management

SWOT Analysis

A method of analysis which examines a company's Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Often used as part of the development process for a marketing plan, or to feed the results of a marketing audit back into a revised plan.

S

Marketing Management

Symbolic Meaning

The psychological and social meanings that products have for consumers.

S

Marketing Management

Syndicate Groups

Smaller groups of delegates from a larger main group - usually separated out to work through a practical exercise, eg a role play

S

Marketing Management

Syndicated program

A television or radio program that is distributed in more than one market by an organization other than a network.

S

Marketing Management

Syndicated Research The information collected on a regular basis that is sold to interested clients.

S

Marketing Management

Synergy

2 + 2 = 5.

Page 307 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

S

Marketing Management

Systems Selling

An approach aimed at providing better service and satisfaction to customers, through the design of well integrated groups of interwoven products, together with the implementation of a system of production, inventory control, distribution, and other servic

T

Marketing Management

Tabloid

A size of newspaper that is roughly half the size of a standard newspaper. A page size is normally 14" high by 12" wide.

T

Marketing Management

Tabulation

A procedure by which the number of cases that fall into each of a number of categories are counted.

T

Marketing Management

Tachistoscope testing elements within an ad by using the different lighting and exposure techniques of a Tachistoscope - a device that projects an

T

Marketing Management

Tactics

Short-term actions undertaken to achieve implementation of a broader strategy.

T

Marketing Management

Tag line

A slogan or phrase that visually conveys the most important product attribute or benefit that the advertiser wishes to convey. Generally, a theme to a campaign.

T

Marketing Management

Tailored Training

A training programme that is customised to suit particular company/industry objectives

A method used in advertising and packaging recall tests. Used to measure a viewer's recognition and perception of various image at a fraction of a second.

Page 308 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Takeover

The process by which a firm or group of investors acquires control of a corporation via merger or a tender offer.

T

Marketing Management

Tangible Product

Beyond the intangible or non-physical core benefit, products have a tangible dimension. These are the physical aspects of the product: its features, quality level, design, packaging etc. This is the actual tangible product (the part of the product you can touch and feel).

T

Marketing Management

Target audience

A specified audience or demographic group for which an advertising message is designed

T

Marketing Management

Target Group Index (TGI)

A continuous survey of adults in which their purchasing habits in detail are related to their media exposure, thus facilitating accurate media planning.

T

Marketing Management

Target market

The group of potential customers sharing common needs and characteristics that a business decides to serve.

T

Marketing Management

Targeting

The selecting of market segments for which a product or service will be designed and marketed.

T

Marketing Management

Tariff

A tax levied upon goods transported from one customs area to another. Tariffs raise the prices of imported goods, thus making them less competitive within the market of the importing country.

Page 309 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Team Selling

The practice of involving a group of people, familiar with the view points and concerns of key decision makers of the customer‘s organization, who proactively pitch products or services to a major prospect or account.

T

Marketing Management

Tear sheets

A page cut from a magazine or newspaper that is sent to the advertiser as proof of the ad insertion. Also used to check color reproduction of advertisements.

T

Marketing Management

Teaser campaign

An advertising campaign aimed at arousing interest and curiosity for a product.

T

Marketing Management

Technology

An environmental force that consist of inventions and innovations from applied scientific and engineering research.

T

Marketing Management

Telemarketing

Telemarketing (sometimes also referred to as ―telesales‖) is a method of direct marketing in which the telephone is used to contact potential customers in order to reduce the time spent in making personal visits. Traditionally, products such as double glazing and central heating have been marketed using this technique.

T

Marketing Management

Telephone Interview

A conversation via phone between a representative of the research organization (the interviewer) and a respondent (interviewee).

T

Marketing Management

Telephone Preference Service (TPS)

A database of business and individual telecoms subscribers who have elected not to receive unsolicited direct marketing calls.

Page 310 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Telephone surveys

Surveys in which respondents' answers to a questionnaire are recorded by interviewers on the phone.

T

Marketing Management

Telesales

A team of sales people who operate by phone only. Sometimes their job is only to make appointments for other sales people. Other times the telesales team will be involved in directly selling a product, service or concept.

T

Marketing Management

Terms of Sale

The conditions in a sales contract with customers including such issues as charges for alterations, delivery, or gift wrapping, or the store's exchange policies.

T

Marketing Management

Territory Management

The development and implementation of a strategy for directing selling activities toward customers in a sales territory aimed at maintaining the lines of communications, improving sales coverage, and minimizing wasted time.

T

Marketing Management

Test Management

The trading area selected to test a company's new or modified product, service, or promotion.

T

Marketing Management

Test marketing

Test marketing occurs when a new product is tested with a sample of customers, or launched in a restricted geographical area, to judge customers' reactions. If the product is unsuccessful, the business will have minimised its costs and can either make changes before the main launch or decide to discontinue the product. Test marketing has a disadvantage in that competitors learn about the new product before its full launch.

T

Marketing Management

Theater testing

A method used in testing the viewer responses of a large, randomly selected audience after being exposed to an ad.

Page 311 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Third Party Provider

A for-hire firm that performs logistics service functions such as warehousing and transportation. The majority of these firms customize their offerings to meet individual customer needs.

T

Marketing Management

Threats

Threats are any aspect of the external environment which cause problems and which may prevent achievement of objectives. Almost by definition, what presents a threat to one business offers an opportunity to other businesses.

T

Marketing Management

Thumb Nail

A rough sketch of the layout for a piece of print advertising or collateral.

T

Marketing Management

Thumbnail

A rough, simple, often small sketch used to show the basic layout of an ad.

T

Marketing Management

Time compression

A technique used in broadcast production to delete time from television commercials.

T

Marketing Management

Time Management

A system of managing this limited resource, time.

T

Marketing Management

Time Utility

The increased satisfaction created by making products available at the time consumers want them.

Page 312 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

TINKIE

Two Incomes, Nanny and Kids - a demographic grouping

T

Marketing Management

Tip Sheet

A summary of material to be covered in a public interview or photo shoot.

T

Marketing Management

Title Tag

HTML code used to define the text in the top line of a Web browser, also used by many search engines as the title of search listings.

T

Marketing Management

Tivo

An electronic device similar to a VCR or DVD player enabling users to record television shows on a computer hard drive for playback at a later point in time.

T

Marketing Management

Token Order

The placing of a small order with the possibility of a larger one at some point in the future.

T

Marketing Management

Top Down Sales Forecasting

As opposed to bottom-up forecasting, top down does not draw on the sales force's individual forecasts but uses other forecasting systems, some of which are sophisticated computer models.

T

Marketing Management

Total Cost

The sum of total fixed cost and total variable cost for a given level of output.

Page 313 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Total Revenue

Price per unit multiplied by sales volume and summed over all products and services.

T

Marketing Management

Tracking studies

A type of research study that follows the same group of subjects over an extended period of time.

T

Marketing Management

Trade advertising

Advertising designed to increase sales specifically for retailers and wholesalers.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Allowance

A short-term special offer, made by marketers to channel members as an incentive to stock, feature, or in some way participate in the cooperative promotion of a product.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Area

A geographical area containing the customers of a particular firm or group of firms for specific goods or services.

T

Marketing Management

Trade character

People, characters, and animals that are used in advertising and are identified with the products, e.g. Jolly Green Giant and Tony the Tiger.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Discount

The reduction in price allowed to a class of customers before consideration of credit terms.

Page 314 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Dress

The total appearance and image of a product including size, texture, shape, and color.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Marketing

Marketing to the retail and distributive trades.

T

Marketing Management

Trade name

The name under which a company operates.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Premium

A prize, usually merchandise, given by to retailers for their cooperation in achieving predetermined sales levels.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Secret

Any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information, or compilation of information that is used in a submitter's business, and that gives the submitter an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it.

T

Marketing Management

Trade Show

An exhibition in which a number of manufacturers display their products.

T

Marketing Management

Trade stimulants

Sales promotions directed toward retailers and distributors that are designed to motivate them both and increase sales.

Page 315 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Trademark

Icon, symbol, or brand name used to identify a specific manufacturer, product, or service.

T

Marketing Management

Trade-off

A compromise.

T

Marketing Management

Trading Area

A district the size of which is usually determined by the boundaries within which it is economical in terms of volume and cost for a marketing unit or group to sell and/or deliver products.

T

Marketing Management

Trading-Up

A salesperson's effort to interest a customer in better quality and more expensive goods than the customer expects to buy.

T

Marketing Management

Traffic

The visitors and page views on a website.

T

Marketing Management

Traffic builder

A promotional tactic using direct mail. Designed to draw consumers to the mailer's location.

T

Marketing Management

Training Course

A course that focuses on practical application of skills to better enable delegates in their workplace.

Page 316 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Training Qualification A qualification for sales and marketing professionals that is assessed through work based projects.

T

Marketing Management

Transaction Code

The unique identifying number that defines the specific data being transmitted via an electronic data interchange transaction.

T

Marketing Management

Transactional Marketing

Short term approach to making a single sale as opposed to developing longer term relationships and winning repeat business (see relationship marketing).

T

Marketing Management

Transfer Pricing

The pricing of goods and services that are sold to controlled entities of the same organization.

T

Marketing Management

Transformational Leadership

A leadership style wherein managers use inspiration and charisma, seek to intellectually stimulate the staff, and treat each person as an individual.

T

Marketing Management

Transit advertising

Advertising that appears on public transportation or on waiting areas and bus stops.

T

Marketing Management

Transit Rate

A pricing system that allows the through shipment of goods to be interrupted for intermediate processing.

Page 317 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Transparency

A positive, color photographic image on clear film.

T

Marketing Management

Transparent ink

Ink used in four color printing process that allows for colors underneath the ink to show through.

T

Marketing Management

Transportation

A marketing function that adds time and place utility to a product by moving it from where it is made to where it is purchased and used.

T

Marketing Management

Trap

To combine different layers of colors in order to create various colors in the four color printing process.

T

Marketing Management

Trend Analysis

A quantitative sales forecasting method that estimates future sales through statistical analysis of historical sales patterns.

T

Marketing Management

Trial

Implies a sampling of a product before repurchase.

T

Marketing Management

Trial Close

An attempt made by the salesperson to close the sale.

Page 318 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Tribal Marketing

The strategy of building a subculture around a product or brand. This can often be seen with owners of products, for example, Apple computers, who gather in social groups related to the product.

T

Marketing Management

Trickle Down Theory

The belief that clothing fashions cascade down from the higher socioeconomic classes to lower classes as consumers attempt to emulate individuals with greater social status.

T

Marketing Management

Trim size

A size of a magazine or newspaper page after trimming.

T

Marketing Management

Truck Load

The shipment by truck of a full and complete load of materials or merchandise.

T

Marketing Management

Truth In Lending Act

Requires full disclosure of terms and conditions of finance charges.

T

Marketing Management

Turnkey Operation

A product or service offering which can be implemented or utilized with no additional work required by the buyer.

T

Marketing Management

Turnover

The rate of audience change for a specific program during a specific amount of time.

Page 319 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

T

Marketing Management

Tweenagers

8 to 12 year olds or 7 to 11 year olds.

T

Marketing Management

Type font

Refers to the complete alphabet for a specific typeface.

T

Marketing Management

Typeface

A designed alphabet with consistent characteristics and attributes.

T

Marketing Management

Typesetting

The process of choosing appropriate fonts, reproducing the headlines and other text in an appropriate point size, and placing the type in the proper place on the page.

T

Marketing Management

Typography

The designated setting of type for printing purposes.

U

Marketing Management

Unaided recall

A research method in which a respondent is given no assistance in answering questions regarding a specific advertisement.

U

Marketing Management

Unconditioned Stimulus

In classical conditioning, the stimulus that produces what is initially the unconditioned response.

Page 320 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

U

Marketing Management

Under Delivery

Delivery of fewer impressions, visitors, or conversions than contracted for a specified period of time.

U

Marketing Management

Undifferentiated marketing

Undifferentiated marketing is the marketing of a product aimed at the widest possible market. For example, in the holiday market, the sale of short-haul summer-sun package holidays to the Mediterranean is an undifferentiated mass-market product.

U

Marketing Management

Unduplicated Audience

The number of unique individuals exposed to a specified domain, page or ad during a specified time period.

U

Marketing Management

Unfair advertising

Advertising that is likely to harm the consumer. The FTC has the power to regulate unfair advertising that falls within a very specific legal definition.

U

Marketing Management

Unfair Competition

Commercial conduct that the law views as unjust, giving a civil claim against a person who has been injured by the conduct. Trademark infringement has long been considered to be unfair competition.

U

Marketing Management

Unfair-trade law

A state law requiring sellers to maintain minimum prices for comparable merchandise.

U

Marketing Management

Uniform Communications System

A communications standard adopted by the food industry for electronic transmission of information between buyer and seller.

Page 321 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

U

Marketing Management

Unique Selling Proposition (USP)

The unique product benefit that the competition can not claim.

U

Marketing Management

Unit Pricing

A practice required by many states, whereby retailers (mostly food stores) must express price in terms of both the total price of an item and its price per unit of measure.

U

Marketing Management

Universal Product Code

A set of bars or lines, printed on most items sold in supermarkets and other mass retailing outlets, permitting computers at checkout counters to retrieve the price of the item from its memory or data base.

U

Marketing Management

Unmentionables

Groups of products that are considered 'too delicate' to mention or to advertise. These may include sanitary towels, condoms or incontinence pads

U

Marketing Management

Unsought Good

A product that the consumer does not seek, either from lack of awareness or lack of interest in the particular attributes it has.

U

Marketing Management

UPC

Stands for Universal Product Code.

U

Marketing Management

Up-front buys

The purchasing of both broadcast and print early in the buying season.

Page 322 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

U

Marketing Management

Upmarket

The wealthier section of the market; higher income customers; prestige products/services.

U

Marketing Management

Upper-Class

A social and economic group whose members can go into a shop and buy something without first looking at the price. Usually also the ruling class.

U

Marketing Management

Urbanized Area

An area consisting of a central city with closely settled territories that have a combined total population of at least 50,000.

U

Marketing Management

URL

Uniform Resource Locator; an address that specifies the location of a file on the Internet

U

Marketing Management

Usability

The ease with which visitors are able to use a Web site.

U

Marketing Management

Usability Testing

A research step in the design and launch of a Web site where users evaluate the ease of use of a Web site's navigation, layout and other attributes.

U

Marketing Management

Usage

Describes the frequency of use and also the way a product or service is used i.e. the benefits it delivers.

Page 323 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

U

Marketing Management

User Experience

A Web design strategy that incorporates user goals and business needs into the development process.

U

Marketing Management

USP

Unique Selling Proposition - something unique about a product/service and/or its brand image which might help it to sell.

U

Marketing Management

Utility

The value a consumer receives from a product's design.

V

Marketing Management

Validity

The extent to which a measurement, test or study measures what it purports to measure.

V

Marketing Management

VALS

Values and Lifestyles: the categorisation of people according to their way of living, using groupings such as Belongers, Achievers, Emulators, I-am-me, Experiential, Socially conscious, Survivors, Sustainers and Integrators

V

Marketing Management

Value

The power of any good to command other goods in peaceful and voluntary exchange.

V

Marketing Management

Value Added Resellers

Retail intermediaries who modify equipment, integrate several components into a system solution, or provide additional services to offer customized solutions to the customer.

Page 324 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

V

Marketing Management

Value Based Pricing

A price setting process based on the perceived worth the product provides to the customer.

V

Marketing Management

Value Preposition

The set of qualities of a good or service that allows it to fulfil the customer's needs and desires, as opposed to simply benefiting the seller

V

Marketing Management

Values and lifestyles A research method which psychologically groups consumers based on certain characteristics such as their values, lifestyles, and demographics. (VALS) research

V

Marketing Management

Variable Costs

Variable Costs are costs which vary directly with the number of units produced - They can include raw materials and labour.

V

Marketing Management

Variety

The number of different classifications of goods carried in a particular merchandising unit.

V

Marketing Management

Variety Store

A retail store that handles a wide assortment of inexpensive and popularly priced goods and services, such as stationery, gift items, women's accessories, health and beauty aids, light hardware, toys, housewares, confectionery items, and shoe repair.

V

Marketing Management

VARs

Stands for value added resellers.

Page 325 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

V

Marketing Management

VAT

Value Added Tax.

V

Marketing Management

Vehicle

A specific channel or publication for carrying the advertising message to a target audience. For example, one medium would be magazines, while one vehicle would be Time magazine.

V

Marketing Management

Velox

A type of paper used for it's superior reproduction qualities.

V

Marketing Management

Vendor

Any firm from which a business obtains merchandise.

V

Marketing Management

Vendor Analysis

A review of sales, stocks, markups, markdowns, and gross margin by vendors.

V

Marketing Management

Venture

A risky new product project or business start-up.

V

Marketing Management

Vertical Banner

A banner ad measuring 120 pixels wide by 240 pixels tall.

Page 326 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

V

Marketing Management

Vertical discount

A reduced rate offered to advertisers who purchase airtime on a broadcast medium for a limited amount of time, e.g., one week.

V

Marketing Management

Vertical Integration

The expansion of a business by acquiring or developing businesses engaged in various stages of marketing a product.

V

Marketing Management

Vertical Market

A situation in which an industrial product is used by only one or a very few industry or trade groups.

V

Marketing Management

Vertical publications

Publications whose editorial content deals with the interests of a specific industry, e.g., National Petroleum Magazine and Retail Baking Today.

V

Marketing Management

Video News Release

A publicity device designed to look and sound like a real television news story. This video can be used by television stations as is or after further editing.

V

Marketing Management

Vignette

(1) An illustration that has soft edges, often produced by using cutouts or masks. (2) A photograph or halftone in which the edges, or parts of, are shaded off to a very light gray.

V

Marketing Management

Viral Marketing

Spreading a brand message using word of mouth (or electronically - 'word of mouse') from a few points of dissemination. Typical techniques include using email messages, jokes, web addresses, film clips and games that get forwarded on electronically by recipients

Page 327 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

V

Marketing Management

Vision

The long-term aims and aspirations of the company for itself.

V

Marketing Management

Visual Front

An open storefront design that has no vision barrier between the interior and exterior.

V

Marketing Management

VNR

Stands for video news release.

V

Marketing Management

Voiceover (VO)

The technique of using the voice of an unseen speaker during film, slides, or other voice material.

V

Marketing Management

Voice-pitch analysis (VOPAN)

An advertising research technique of analyzing a subject's voice during their responses, to test their feelings and attitudes about an ad.

V

Marketing Management

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol. Technology allowing voice communication to be delivered using internet protocol, an alternative to delivering voice communication over a public switched telephone network.

W

Marketing Management

Wants

The wishes, needs, demands, or desires of human beings.

Page 328 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

W

Marketing Management

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol. Specification allowing wireless devices to interact with information sources. A common application is the use of microbrowsers for wireless internet access.

W

Marketing Management

Warehouse

A physical facility used primarily for the storage of goods held in anticipation of sale or transfer within the marketing channel.

W

Marketing Management

Warehouse Retailing

The selling of certain types of merchandise, particularly groceries, drugs, hardware, home improvement, and home furnishings, in a superstore type of environment.

W

Marketing Management

Warranty

A statement or promise made to the customer that a product being offered for sale is fit for the purpose being claimed.

W

Marketing Management

Wash drawings

Tonal drawing, similar to watercolor, intended for halftone reproduction.

W

Marketing Management

Waste circulation

(1) Advertising in an area where the product or service is not available or has no sales potential. (2) Persons in an advertiser's audience who are not potential consumers.

W

Marketing Management

Wave scheduling

An advertising strategy that consists of scheduling space in the media in intermittent periods, e.g., two weeks on, two weeks off.

Page 329 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

W

Marketing Management

Way Bill

Document which accompanies goods in shipment and which details the cost and route of shipment.

W

Marketing Management

Weaknesses

Weaknesses are any aspect of the business which may prevent the business from achieving its objectives. Weaknesses are a source of competitive disadvantage. Management should seek ways to reduce or eliminate weaknesses before they are exploited further by the competition.

W

Marketing Management

Wealth

The aggregate of all possessions of economic goods owned by a person.

W

Marketing Management

Wear out

The point reached when an advertising campaign loses it's effectiveness due to repeated overplay of ads.

W

Marketing Management

Web 2.0

Concept of the World Wide Webs transformation from a collection of websites to a computing platform supporting web applications, harnessing (pooling) the intelligence of its users and allowing users to define how they interact with organisations and each other.

W

Marketing Management

Web Analytics

The process of using web metrics to extract useful business information.

W

Marketing Management

Web Browser

A software application that allows for the browsing of the World Wide Web.

Page 330 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

W

Marketing Management

Web Design

The practice of selecting and coordinating available components to create the layout and structure of a Web page.

W

Marketing Management

Web Directory

An organized, categorized listings of Web sites.

W

Marketing Management

Web Log (Blog)

An online log, or journal usually centered on a specific topic or expertise. Blogs are often created with easy-to-use, nontechnical applications.

W

Marketing Management

Web Metrics

Statistics that measure different aspects of activity that transpire on a web site.

W

Marketing Management

Web Site

A site (location) on the World Wide Web. Each Web site contains a home page, which is the first document users see when they enter the site. The site might also contain additional documents and files. Each site is owned and managed by an individual, compa

W

Marketing Management

Weblogs

An internet publishing device allowing an individual or company to express their thoughts and opinions. Businesses can use weblogs as a marketing communication channel.

W

Marketing Management

Weight

(1) An adjustment made in a survey sample to correct for demographic or geographic imbalances. (2) Number of exposures of an advertisement.

Page 331 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

W

Marketing Management

White Goods

Large electrical devices for domestic use, such as fridges, freezers and dishwashers. Used to be cased in white enamel, hence the name

W

Marketing Management

White Hat

A reference to proper SEO methods that are approved by the search engines. Using these methods for increases your chances of your site being permanently indexed in the search engines.

W

Marketing Management

White Space

Areas of any company where strategy and authority are vague, and where useful entrepreneurial activity can flourish. Compare 'black space'.

W

Marketing Management

Whois

A utility that returns ownership information about second-level domains.

W

Marketing Management

Wholesale Club

A general merchandise wholesaler and/or retailer that offers a limited merchandise assortment with little service at low prices and sells only to club member ultimate consumers and member trade people.

W

Marketing Management

Wholesaler

Often part of the distribution channel; involves the selling of goods in large quantities to be retailed by others.

W

Marketing Management

WI-FI

Wireless network connection standards allowing computers LAN (Local Area Network) access via a wireless link.

Page 332 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

W

Marketing Management

Will Call

The products ordered by customers/users in advance of the time delivery desired.

W

Marketing Management

WiMAX

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Technology to deliver wireless broadband access over distances of up to 6 miles, an alternative to broadband access via a fixed line local loop.

W

Marketing Management

Win-Win Negotiation A philosophy in which negotiators attempt to uncover bases of agreement that benefit both parties.

W

Marketing Management

Wipe

A transition of scenes in a visual production where one image appears to wipe the previous one from the screen.

W

Marketing Management

WOM

abbrev. word of mouth communication. People share information about products or promotions with friends.

W

Marketing Management

WOOF

Well Off Older Folk - a demographic grouping.

W

Marketing Management

WOOPIES

Well-Off Older People - a demographic grouping.

Page 333 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

W

Marketing Management

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Word Association

A projective technique which throw the respondent's ego off-guard and allow the inner, deeper feelings to be expressed (a qualitative research tool).

W

Marketing Management

Word of Mouth

Refers to a situation where one party learns about a product or service second hand from another party who has knowledge of it. Word of Mouth is a powerful persuader. Customers talk to each other. Dissatisfied customers tell at least two or three times more people than satisfied customers. You can see why service companies try to get their customers to tell them first about any problems or complaints.

W

Marketing Management

Word painting

A technique used in the radio broadcast industry that uses highly descriptive words to evoke images in reading material as an attempt to place the listener into the scene.

W

Marketing Management

Working Class

The group of people generally identified in Marxist theory as the proletariat. Although they are in a struggle for power with the bourgeoisie, the members of the working class must, nonetheless, sell their labor to the bourgeoisie to produce the material

W

Marketing Management

Workshops

Interactive training sessions involving role play and syndicate group work exercises

W

Marketing Management

World Trade Organization (WTO)

A 125-member organization that succeeds GATT in overseeing trade agreements, mediating disputes, and reducing trade barriers; unlike GATT provisions, WTO decisions are binding.

W

Marketing Management

World Wide Web

A portion of the Internet that consists of a network of interlinked Web pages.

Page 334 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

X

Marketing Management

XML feed

Simplified version of HTML that allows data (including product databases) to be sent to search engines in the format they request.

Y

Marketing Management

Yahoo!

The most visited site on the internet, Yahoo! operates an Internet portal, a web directory and a host of other services including the popular Yahoo! Mail service. Yahoo also operates a PPC program through its Overture subsidiary.

Y

Marketing Management

YAPPIES

Young Affluent Parents - a demographic grouping

Y

Marketing Management

Yield

The percentage return from a given marketing or sales campaign.

Y

Marketing Management

YOOFS

Young, free and single – a demographic grouping.

Y

Marketing Management

Youth Market

Young customers viewed as a marketing opportunity. Typically the term denotes those aged 16 to 24, but various age ranges are in use, from '12 to 24' to 'under 35'

Y

Marketing Management

YUPPIE

Young Urban Professional - a demographic grouping

Page 335 of 336


Encyclopedia Marketing Management (2347 Terms)

Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved.

Z

Marketing Management

Zapping

The practice of using a remote control to change television channels when an advertisement begins.

Z

Marketing Management

Zero Defects

A condition in which a production unit makes every product without defect.

Z

Marketing Management

Zero Risk

No risk - a decision or choice where the outcome is known with certainty.

Z

Marketing Management

ZIP Code

A series of numbers in mailing addresses that designate postal delivery districts in the United States.

Z

Marketing Management

Zipping

The act of fast forwarding through commercials while watching a previously recorded show on a VCR or similar recording device.

Z

Marketing Management

Zoning

A method for scheduling sales calls that divides a territory into areas or zones.

Z

Marketing Management

ZUPPIE

Zestful Upscale Person in their Prime

Page 336 of 336

Encyclopedia Marketing Management  

2347 terms and definitions on Marketing Management topics for professionals and students. Powered by http://www.drawpack.com your visual bu...